St. John's College

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.

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'St. John's College', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge( London, 1959), British History Online [accessed 23 July 2024].

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"St. John's College". An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. (London, 1959), , British History Online. Web. 23 July 2024.

St. John's College

St. John's College Arms

(37) St. John's College (see plan at end of book) (Plate 231) stands W. of St. John's Street, between Bridge Street and Trinity College. It was founded by Margaret (Beaufort), Countess of Richmond and Derby, but during the initial arrangements the Foundress died (1509) and the charter of foundation was obtained by her executor, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, in 1511. The buildings of First Court were begun at this date and opened in 1516. The brickmaker was a certain Reculver of Greenwich and the clerk-of-works Oliver Scales; Richard Wright of Bury St. Edmunds, glazier, contracted for windows in the Chapel, Hall and Master's Lodge in 1513, to be completed in 1514. Though partly in use, the buildings were evidently not finished by 1516 for in the same year Thomas Loveday of Sudbury, carpenter, contracted for work that included flooring the chambers.

St John's College

plan from end of book

The site had been occupied by the Hospital of St. John the Evangelist and of this foundation the chapel and an earlier building to the N., called the Infirmary and no doubt the first Hospital and chapel, were retained. The latter was built early in the 13th century, and surviving details of the later chapel (now destroyed) indicate that it was at least as old as the end of the same century. This later chapel was altered to serve as the College Chapel, the E. arch of the crossing being removed and the part to the W. divided between the Ante-chapel and the then Master's Lodge at the N.W. corner of the Court. Before the Reformation four chantry-chapels were added, of Hugh Assheton, built probably on his death in 1522, and Bishop St. John Fisher, under construction 1525 to 1533, on the N., of Dr. John Keyton, built probably soon after 1533, and Dr. Thomas Thompson, before 1525, on the S.

First Court has the main Gatehouse in the E. range and the Hall with the Butteries and Kitchen to the S. in the W. range. The original Library, on the first floor, S. of the Gatehouse, was converted into chambers in 1616, when the books were placed temporarily in a room over the Kitchen. A small court to the S.W., in the position indicated on the plan, was added under Dr. Nicholas Metcalfe, Master (1518–38). It was begun in 1528 and so placed that the N. range lay S. of the approach to the Hall-screens and the S. range projected beyond the S. range of First Court. Under Dr. William Whitaker, Master (1586–95), or shortly before, the 'Infirmary' was fitted up as rooms.

Second Court was begun in 1598 under Dr. Richard Clayton, Master (1595–1612); the contractors were Ralph Symons of Westminster and Gilbert Wigge of Cambridge, freemasons, and the contract, with plans and elevations, is preserved in the College Library. The cost was partly borne by Mary (Cavendish) wife of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. The small court mentioned above was destroyed to make way for this new larger Court. The work was finished in 1602 and the paths paved in 1603. The W. range contains the Gatehouse now called the Shrewsbury Tower. The N. range provided new accommodation on the first floor for the Master, consisting mainly of a Gallery extending nearly 50 yards with a plaster ceiling executed in 1600 by one Cobbe and panelling set up in 1603–4. About twenty-five years later some 45 ft. at the W. end of the Gallery were absorbed in the vestibule and staircase to the new Library. Certain work was carried out on windows in the buildings of First Court when Second Court was built, and the level of the court lowered.

The new Library on the N. side of Third Court was built in 1623–5, though the staircase was not finished until 1628, at the cost of John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. The design was perhaps due to Henry Man, carpenter, who with the Bursar bought timber and bricks and who drew the 'plots for the Librarie'; but towards the end of the work a payment was made to Grumbold, freemason, presumably Thomas. The bricks were 14s. and 15s. a thousand; clunch came from Barrington, freestone from Peterborough and lead from Derbyshire; the deals were shipped from Lynn. The total cost was about £3,000. Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, writing to the Master in June 1624, having heard that the workmen for the main frame of the building had 'performed their part well', recommended for the fittings, if it was not too late, one Mathewes 'that hath wrought all my wainscot work at Audley End' (College Archives; 'Eagle' (St. John's College, House Magazine) XXVII, 328). The books were installed in 1628.

The other two ranges of Third Court were begun in 1669 and finished in four years at a cost of £5,256. The S. range exhibits discrepancies between the windows of the N. and S. sides and a curious placing of the chimneystacks, just S. of the roof-ridge, that suggest a change of design in the course of building, from a range of one room in thickness to a range of two rooms in thickness; but this is disproved by the arrangement of ceiling-beams inside and the positions of the stops to their chamfers. Thus it is the earliest range in the University planned in double thickness ab initio. The same range incorporates in the W. end a late 16th-century building, which also projects as a S. wing, retaining original features; the building is shown in Hamond's map of Cambridge of 1592.

The S. side of First Court was refaced in ashlar and the windows sashed in 1772–6 under the supervision of James Essex, architect. To the N. of the same Court, the new Chapel was built from the design of Gilbert Scott in 1863–9; this entailed the demolition of the old Chapel and the 'Infirmary' at the same time. The Hall was then lengthened towards the N. destroying the old Combination Room; thereupon the latter accommodation was provided in the Gallery of the old Master's Lodge, the present Master's Lodge having been built in 1863. The E. range also was extended N. as lecture-rooms in 1869.

The old Bridge over the river, to the S.W. of Third Court, with the adjoining gate-piers, was built between 1709 and 1712; expenditure in connection with it between 1696 and 1698 appears to have been for preliminary work and materials. Wren and Hawksmoor were concerned in the matter to some extent and their letters to Dr. Gower, Master, indicate that the site for the bridge was still undecided in June 1698. Both recommended a position in continuation of the E. to W. axis of the three Courts; among the Wren drawings at All Souls College, Oxford (Vol. IV, No. 76), is a ground plan demonstrating this layout (Wren Soc. V, pl. xxix), and a drawing in the British Museum (King's Lib. VIII, 57a), thought to be by Hawksmoor, shows the W. range of Third Court. Robert Grumbold was the freemason; John Longland, a London master-carpenter, 'and others', advised 'about a modell for the bridge', and Francis Woodward executed the carving on bridge and gate-piers (Wren Soc. XIX, 103–7, pl. lx). The total cost was £1,353. In the College Library are preserved alternative designs, both unsigned, one with a number of features occurring in the present structure.

On the W. side of the river, New Court was built in 1826–31 from the designs of Thomas Rickman and Henry Hutchinson; the covered Bridge over the river designed by the latter was built in 1831. The Gates at the entrance to the College from Queens' Road were erected c. 1822 when the cast iron Bridge carrying the High Walk over the Bin Brook was built.

In 1885 an annexe was added at the N. side of Second Court, from the design of F. C. Penrose, which involved alterations to the Library staircase. The new buildings of Chapel Court were completed in 1942.

At St. John's College the main Gatehouse and the unaltered ranges of First Court, 1511–6, and Second Court with the Shrewsbury Tower, 1598–1602, are important brick buildings of their periods. The Library, 1623–5, is of architectural interest for the premeditated use of revived Gothic forms in the reign of James I.

The W. and S. ranges of Third Court, 1669–73, are of elaborate but unsophisticated design, presumably by an East Anglian builder, and contain much interesting original panelling of similar character. The S. range is the first built in the University of two rooms in thickness throughout. The Hall, the Combination Room, formerly the Master's Gallery, and the old Bridge, 1696–1712, are all notable, the last with carvings remarkably Roman in character. New Court, 1826– 31, and the covered Bridge, 1831, are important examples of the decorative use of the Gothic idiom; they equate closely to a stage-setting when seen from the S.

Architectural Description (See plan at end of book)—First Court (about 136 ft. by 192 ft.) is entered by the main Gatehouse (Plate 232) in the early 16th-century E. range. The Gatehouse (Plate 90) is of three storeys and of red brick with dressings of freestone and clunch; both fronts were restored in 1934–5, when the E. turrets and the upper part of the N.W. turret were entirely reconstructed and the parapets replaced in old brick. The building has an embattled parapet and octagonal angle-turrets also embattled. On the E. front, the archway has splayed jambs and moulded four-centred arch (p. 394) enriched with paterae; the ogee label is similarly enriched and has crockets, finials, and head-stops supporting side-standards with pinnacles; the paterae are carved with germanders, daisies, Lancastrian roses, ostrich feathers and portcullises and the spandrel contains a Lancastrian rose. On the label and flanking it is the coroneted shield-of-arms of the Foundress with two yale supporters; beyond the yales are a royally crowned Lancastrian rose and a coroneted portcullis, the royal crown being an 18th-century restoration. The background of the heraldic composition is carved with a rough field strewn with daisy plants and germander speedwell, rabbits and a fox with a goose; above it is a frieze of daisyplants and a string-course carved with running vine-ornament, portcullises and Lancastrian roses (Plate 93). The carved work was repainted and regilded in 1934–5 under Professor Tristram's directions. The oak doors are in two folds with four tiers of linenfold panels, moulded styles and rails, lattice-framing behind, strap-hinges and locking-bar; the N. leaf contains a wicket. The doors would appear to be largely the work of Thomas Loveday, c. 1516, in spite of the record of a payment to John Adams in 1665–6 for the new great gate. The second storey has two windows, both of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label; between them is a niche with a corbelled base and buttressed standards supporting a three-sided canopy with pinnacles and a domical ogee capping. The niche contains a figure of St. John the Evangelist (Plate 242) carved by George Woodroff for £11 in 1662–3. Flanking the canopy are a portcullis and a rose both royally crowned; the crown over the first may be of the 17th century, that over the rose is a replacement of 1934. (Sir Charles Peers in 'Eagle' XLIX, 1.) The top storey has two windows similar to those below and surrounded by network diaper in the brickwork.

On the W. front of the Gatehouse, the archway has splayed jambs and a moulded four-centred arch (p. 394) with a horizontal string-course above enriched with paterae, a double rose, ostrich feather plumes and daisy-flowers; in the spandrels are a rose and a portcullis. The two upper storeys have each a window of two lights similar to those on the E. front, and their brickwork retains traces of a network diaper. The turrets have each a doorway with stop-chamfered jambs, moulded four-centred arch and label.

The Gatehall (19½ ft. by 16 ft.) has a doorway in the N. wall with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with sunk spandrels; the early 17th-century oak door is nail-studded and has six panels with moulded ribs. The fan-vault is in two bays and springs from foliated corbels; the cells of the vault are in two tiers, the lower with cinque-foiled and the upper with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, carved cusp-points and foliated spandrels; between the tiers is carved brattishing and in the middle of each bay is a carved boss, one with a rose and one with portcullis and daisies. The vault has modern painting and gilding. On the first floor, the ceiling has chamfered beams and exposed joists, all much restored. The Treasury on the second floor has a flat-pitched open timber roof with central and side purlins and exposed rafters. On the E. and W. walls is a dado of reused early 16th-century and later linenfold panels. The doorway has chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head and is hung with a battened door with moulded ribs forming four panels. In the E. angles are doorways to the turrets; they have chamfered jambs and four-centred heads and retain original plank doors on strap hinges. In the room are two late 17th or early 18th-century bookcases with shaped panelled ends. The two chests from here are now in Lecture Room 5: (1) (Plate 46) is of oak, with elaborate carved tracery-panelled front with foliage and swans, 14th-century, remainder modern, (2) of oak, front in four panels with initials IR, square panelled ends, moulded top, early 17th-century. In the S.W. turret is a bell with the initial letters and date W.L. 1624, crowns, Royal arms, and inscription, probably by William Land.

The E. Range, N. of the Gatehouse, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of diapered red brick with an embattled parapet. On the E. front the string-course below the parapet is carved with paterae and monsters' heads and pierced for rain-water pipes; much weathered lengths have been replaced in modern times with lengths of a similar and contemporary string preserved from the old Chapel ('Eagle', XLIX, 3). The windows on both floors are of one or two four-centred lights in square heads with labels, all more or less restored. The dormer-windows are modern. On the W. front, the central doorway has chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred arch with a label; the windows are similar to those on the E. front and almost entirely restored; the upper part of the wall, on this side, appears to have been rebuilt and the brickwork is of yellower colour. Inside the range, the staircase has timber-framed walls. The Porter's Lodge, N. of the Gatehouse, has exposed ceiling-beams and joists; in the N. wall is an oak doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with foliated spandrels; the doorway into the N.E. turret of the gatehouse has a moulded four-centred head. On the first floor in the S. main room is a 16th-century clunch fireplace with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred opening with sunk spandrels in a square head. In the N. wall of the adjoining bedroom is an oak doorway similar to that on the floor below, giving access across over the stairs. The remains of an original stair to the garret said to be behind the cupboard in the adjoining gyproom are concealed, but raking bearers appear in the ceiling below. The attics retain parts of the wind-braces and part of a collar-brace of the original roof. The modern lecture-room, at the N. end of the range, has a ceiling incorporating 16th-century moulded timbers, curved braces, and a beam with conventional foliage-enrichment; it also contains a dome-topped iron-bound chest, late 16th-century.

The E. Range, S. of the Gatehouse, is generally similar to that N. of the same feature. On the E. front, the windows on the ground floor are of one, two and three lights and similar to those in the N. range but some of them have been enlarged and all more or less renewed. On the first floor are six much-restored windows each of two four-centred lights in a four-centred head with a label; they were formerly cinque-foiled and the foils remain internally in one window. They lighted the original Library and one further window seems to have been removed, though this must have been done before Loggan's engraving of the College was made. In the gabled end of the range are windows similar to those on the floor below. The dormers to the attics are comparatively modern. On the W. front the windows are similar to those on the E. front, including six lighting the old Library; they, in common with most of the windows throughout the range, have conspicuous relieving-arches, and all have brick rear-arches. Inside the building, most of the ground floor now forms the Junior Combination Room and has exposed ceiling-beams and two original clunch fireplaces with much worn chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; in the N.E. corner is an original clunch doorway with moulded four-centred head and damaged jambs. Set in the N. wall is an early 16th-century graffito interlacement. Further S. is a set of rooms, of which the N.E. room is lined with panelling partly of c. 1600 and partly of the 18th century; the S. room has panelling of c. 1600 on the E., N. and S. walls with reeded frieze-panels. On the first floor, the former Library is now divided up into rooms and the present ceiling was inserted in or about 1616; one of the windows in the E. wall retains its panelled shutters of c. 1600. The inserted ceiling cuts across the original roof, of which the truss against the wall survives with parts of the three trusses further S.; they had moulded principals and collar-beams with curved braces forming two-centred, nearly semicircular, arches with traceried spandrels and, above the collars, shaped 'scissors' struts; the moulded wall-plates and lower purlins were linked by a frieze of panels with four-centred heads and foliated spandrels. Stretches of four and eight of these panels remain on the E. wall. The Hall roof has similar arcading.

St. John's College

Roof over original Library, now largely concealed

The N. side of First Court was formerly occupied by the old Chapel (121½ ft. by 25 ft.) of which the foundations are marked out on the grass. The only architectural features surviving are the bases of the responds of the W. crossing-arch, which have three attached shafts, dating from the end of the 13th century. At the back of the N. respond are remains of a turret-staircase. When serving the Hospital, the chapel was divided by two cross-arches, presumably once supporting a tower; the arches were some 10 ft. apart and the tower was presumably set centrally above them after the manner of the steeples of the friars' churches. The arched opening into the Fisher Chapel to the N.E., the monument to Hugh Assheton N. of the Antechapel, and some of the stalls, etc. have been re-erected in the new Chapel.

The new Chapel, built in 1863–9, stands partly on the site of the old 'Infirmary' and contains the following pre-1850 Fittings, mostly from the old Chapel—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In organ-chamber—on S. wall, (1) of [Eudo de la Zouche, 1414, Canon of Sarum, Chancellor of the University, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, and Master of St. John's Hospital], figure of priest in academic costume, head missing, triple canopy with buttressed side-standards, roundel and shield-of-arms of Zouche, much worn and marginal inscription missing (see Indents); (2) figure of priest in mass vestments, c. 1430, much worn (see Indents). On N.E. tower-pier, (3) of Christopher Jackson, 1528, Fellow, inscription-plate only; on S.E. tower-pier, (4) of Nicholas Medcalf, 1537, Master, inscription-plate only, deliberately defaced. See also Monument (1). Indents: On site of old Chapel, (1) of Brass (1); (2) of Brass (2); (3) of figure and inscription-plate, much weathered. Chair: In choir—modern but incorporating early 17th-century arms and part of back, given in 1921. Chest: of oak, with moulded lid, base and necking, c. 1700, on later feet. Glass: In tower—in W. side of lantern, in the two lights and the cinquefoil of the middle window and in the cinquefoils of the side windows, mosaic of fragments, mainly tabernacle-work, with pieces of coloured glass, mostly 15th-century, from the old Chapel. Lectern (Plate 10): of brass, with naturalistic eagle on domical cap to tall pedestal buttressed by pinnacled and crocketed side-pieces pierced with window-tracery, all on moulded base, cap with memorial inscription, given 1840, founder Sidey, London, pedestal copied from that of lectern in Ramsey church, Huntingdon (Ecclesiologist, IX (1842), 143; R.C.H.M. Hunts. pl. 32).

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Ante-chapel—on N. side, (1) of Hugh Assheton, 1522, Archdeacon of York, altar-tomb, effigies and canopy (Plates 31, 243); altar-tomb of freestone with moulded plinth, three rounded open arches in sides with trefoiled spandrels, trefoil-headed panels on endstandards, and moulded marble slab with brass fillet-inscription; cadaver under slab in loose shroud; effigy on slab, painted, in surplice, hood and under-vestment with tails at sides, head on two cushions, hands, feet and probably face restored; canopy of freestone or clunch with moulded and shafted supports to moulded four-centred arch in a square head, with panelled octagonal attached shafts on face of supports, carved leaves in hollow-moulding of responds and head, and traceried spandrels enclosing carved and painted rebuses of an ash-tree and a tun; the whole finished with a continuous cornice carved with running foliage and a cresting; on S. side only, attached shafts finished with crocketed pinnacles above cornice and similar finial over curve of arch; ends with trefoiled ogee-headed panels and quatrefoils enclosing rebuses; soffit of canopy with similar panels and rebuses; grate of wrought-iron, with buttressed standards at each end and in the middle terminating in twisted pinnacles with restored rebuses at the tops, broad band below pinnacles containing inscription and foliated panels, intermediate uprights set diagonally and finished with spikes; all with modern recolouring. On W. side, (2) of William Wilberforce, free seated figure rather larger than life on pedestal dated 1838, plaster cast of the monument in Westminster Abbey by Samuel Joseph; S. of foregoing, (3) of James Wood, S.T.P., 1839, Master, Dean of Ely, white marble free seated figure (Plate 20), larger than life, on marble pedestal, in academic dress, holding papers on right knee, signed by E. H. Baily, R.A., 1843. On E. wall, (4) of John Smith, S.T.P., 1715, [Treasurer of Durham Cathedral], white marble wall-monument (Plate 18) with cornice and achievement-of-arms of Smith, recoloured. On N. wall, (5) of G[eorge] D[owning] Whittington, 1807, white marble neoGreek wall-tablet on grey marble backing; (6) of Robert Worsley, 1714–5, white marble tablet (Plates 16, 18) with drapery, cherub-heads and a cartouche-of-arms of Worsley quartering Worsley with modern recolouring. On S. wall, (7) of William Wilson, S.T.B., 1800, Fellow, white marble tablet with moulded pedimental frame; (8) of Sir Isaac Pennington, M.D., 1817, white marble wall-tablet with pediment; (9) of Thomas Catton, S.T.B., 1838, white marble wall-tablet on black marble, by White, London; (10) of William Pakenham Spencer, M.A., 1845, white marble pedimented wall-tablet on black marble, by Tomson; (11) of George Langshaw, S.T.B., 1843, white marble wall-tablet. On W. wall, (12) of Charles Fox Townshend, 1817, white marble portrait bust on rectangular wall-tablet, with semi-circular backing of black marble, signed 'Chantrey'; (13) of Dr. [William] Whitaker, [1595], Master, black marble walltablet with alabaster side-pilasters, entablature, apron and painted clunch cresting; (14) from All Saints' church, of Henry Kirke White, 1806, poet, white marble neo-Greek tablet with profile portrait head by Chantrey, inscription by Prof. W. Smyth, bequest of F. Boott, Boston, U.S.A. Floor-slabs: On site of old Chapel—(1) probably of Humphrey Gower, 1711, Master, with achievement-of-arms, partly covered; (2) Robert Worsley, 1714–5, with indent; (3) John Newcome, S.T.P., 1765, Dean of Rochester and Master; (4) William Samuel Powell, S.T.P., 1775, Archdeacon of Colchester and Master; (5) John Chevallier, S.T.P. 1789, Master, letters inlaid in lead; (6) William Craven, S.T.P., 1815, Master; (7) James Wood, S.T.P., 1839, Master, Dean of Ely; (8) Thomas Baker, S.T.B., 1740, Fellow, with shield-of-arms of Baker (in 1782 Cole left £10 for a monument to Baker); (9) William Tatham, S.T.B., 1834, Fellow, and Ralph Tatham, S.T.P., 1857, Master; (10) John Palmer, 1840, Fellow, Professor of Arabic; (11) [Gawen] Brathwaite, S.T.B., 1814, Fellow; (12) William Jones, S.T.B., 1834, Fellow; (13) Joseph Taylor, S.T.B., 1836, Fellow; (14) George Langshaw, S.T.B., 1843, Fellow.

Paintings: In Ante-chapel—framed painting of the Virgin with the dead Christ, said to be a copy by Anthony Raphael Mengs, 1777, of an original by Van Dyck; presented by the Hon. Robert Henry Clive, and in 1841 hung over the altar in the old Chapel. On S. wall, fragment of painted plaster showing the right hand of Christ, 15th-century, found inside the S. wall of the Hall in 1927. Piscina: In S. wall of choir— reset recess of two bays with central and side-shafts of freestone with clunch caps and bases and moulded half-round intersecting arches with the mouldings crossing one another, early 13th-century, formerly in S. wall of the 'Infirmary'. (Rood-screen: for which Thomas Loveday, carpenter, contracted in 1516, has been re-erected in part in the S. transept of Whissendine church, Rutlandshire.) Stalls: In choir—the twenty-two eastern stalls on both sides, with backs, desks and sub-desks, are from the old Chapel; the backs, of late 19th-century panelling incorporating old material and with a modern cornice, have two panels to each stall with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, foliated spandrels and carved cusp-points; stalls, with shaped and moulded divisions with shafted fronts and elbow-rests with moulded trefoiled ends and capping incorporating a carved band of running foliage. Misericordes (Plate 242), mostly carved with foliated brackets and foliage and flowers at sides; on the N., the 9th has bouched shields charged with pomegranates at the sides; the 14th has a crowned Tudor rose in the middle and the 15th shields at the sides; on the S., the 1st has an eagle and scroll in the middle, the 2nd a mask and foliage in the middle, the 9th a shield and foliage in the middle and dimidiated roses and pomegranates, for Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon, at the sides, the 14th bouched shields charged with pomegranates at the sides, the 15th a shield charged with a rose in the middle, the 16th a fleur-de-lis and foliage in the middle and Tudor roses at the sides, one charged with a fleur-de-lis, the 19th human heads at the sides, the 20th foliage and a bat in the middle. The upper and lower desks have standards with shaped tops, carved poppy-heads and attached shafts in front; the caps support seated figures many of which seem to have been renewed perhaps in the 17th century and some subsequently; they include St. John the Divine, St. Paul and various figures with books, arks and other objects; fronts much renewed but with panels similar to those at the backs. The stalls were copied from those formerly in Jesus College Chapel, 'or better in every point', and the work of Thomas Loveday, carpenter, in 1516; made up with later work as described.

Miscellanea: The entrance into Bishop Fisher's Chantry (Plate 31) in the old Chapel has been re-erected in the S. wall of the Ante-chapel; the blind middle arch, partly restored, has moulded and shafted jambs and moulded four-centred head with traceried spandrels and shields, one defaced, one with the arms of the See of Rochester, beneath a square label supported by the outer jamb-shafts; the reveals and soffit have tiers of cinque-foiled ogee-headed panels, with bands of quatrefoils enclosing leaves, flowers, paterae, a mitre, a man's head and half-angels holding shields; the blind flanking arches are similar though narrower, but both have been renewed; their spandrels contain shields-of-arms of the See of Rochester and of Fisher quartering Fisher. The Chantry-chapel was built by Bishop Fisher between 1525 and 1533; the master-mason of Ely was paid for a draft of the tomb and for 'his avyse of the chapell'; one Lee, freemason, was paid for making and setting up the tomb; this last does not survive but a drawing of it by Essex, showing a stone chest with Classical ornament, is preserved (B.M. Add. MSS. 6768, f. 226).

The West Range (Plate 232) of First Court has walls of diapered red brick with embattled parapets restored in 1935. The N. part forming the Hall, extended N. in 1863–5, is of one storey; the rest of the range is of two storeys with attics and forms the Kitchen, offices and rooms. On the E. front, the parapet-string has carved paterae and beast-heads as gargoyles. The central doorway to the Hall-screens has chamfered jambs, moulded four-centred arch and ogee label (p. 393) with crockets, paterae and finial, and a rose in the spandrel; the label-stops are carved as angels, which support standards and finials, the spaces so framed on either side of the label containing panels with a rose and a portcullis. The early 16th-century nail-studded door has ribs, forming panels, and a wicket. Above the doorway and rising above the parapet is a restored late 17th-century niche with side-pilasters and scrolls and a cornice with broken curved pediment framing a lozenge of the Lady Margaret's arms with a coronet and yale supporters, much weathered; in the round-headed recess is a carved stone coroneted figure of the Foundress made in London and set up in 1674 (Plate 245). The Hall is divided into bays by two-stage buttresses, and the two bays next the screens have each a much restored window of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label. In the next bay to the N. is the original three-sided oriel-window with three transomed lights on the face and two on each return; the lights have four-centred heads and the transoms are enriched with foliated paterae. The main parapet is carried round the oriel. The window and the second oriel to the N. are of 1863–5, with brickwork refaced in 1935 ('Eagle', XLIX, 78). The rest of the front has two-light windows similar to those in the E. range, all considerably restored, and a doorway with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred arch and label. The dormer-windows in the roof are modern.

On the roof of the Hall is a hexagonal timber louvre erected in 1703 by Abraham Silk, carpenter, with carving by Francis Woodward; the lower part is lead-covered but the main stage has angle pilaster-strips and an entablature with enriched frieze and cornice; in each face is a rectangular glazed opening under a semicircular head with moulded archivolt, carved mask key-block and pierced tympanum. The small dome is lead-covered, with lofty finial and wrought-iron weather-vane (Plate 238).

The W. front is similar in materials to the E. front, but the modern extension of the Hall does not show on the elevation; the whole has been raised by the addition of seven gabled dormer-windows contemporary with Second Court. At each end of the front is a semi-octagonal stair-turret carried up above the range and embattled. The buttresses and windows of the Hall are similar to those on the E. front but less restored, and with an additional window in place of the oriel on the other side and another above the doorway. The restored doorway to the screens has chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head and label; the nail-studded door has moulded ribs forming twelve panels, and a wicket. The windows in the S. part of the front are similar to those on the E. front but of three lights. The walling to the fifth and sixth bays from the N. has been considerably patched, where the small court, added in 1528, has been removed; the windows here and to the S. are no doubt of the date of Second Court. The gabled dormers, also of the date of Second Court, have finials and steps at the base; they each have a window of three four-centred lights in a square head but those over the Hall are not functional; between the dormers are gargoyle-masks and 17th-century lead rainwater-heads. Behind the middle dormer is a bell-cupola of timber, with two round-headed openings in each face and an ogee-shaped capping with a tall finial; there is some evidence that it was erected or re-erected in 1714. A cupola is shown in this position by Loggan. The bell, which is inaccessible, may be that cast by Richard Holdfeld in 1610 (J. J. Raven in Camb. Ant. Soc. (1882), p. 186, says it is of 1816).

The N. octagonal stair-turret has a rectangular projecting bay on the S. and is known as the Master's Tower; it gave access to the original Master's Lodge. The top storey has been refaced or rebuilt. The S. entrance-doorway is a late 17th-century insertion and has a bolection-moulded surround, a high, shaped frieze with a carved crowned portcullis and a cornice and curved pediment above. The passage on the ground floor has a semi-elliptical barrel-vault of brick and two blocked doorways on the E., formerly opening into the Hall and the old Combination Room; the N. doorway has chamfered jambs and a moulded four-centred head, the S., also with four-centred head, is rebated to the W. The room over the passage, called the Silver Room and entered through a doorway with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head, has an early 16th-century panelled ceiling with moulded beams; the E. and W. walls have original recesses with oak shelves. The S. stair-turret was rebuilt or refaced in the 18th century and the top storey has been subsequently again refaced. The top storeys of both turrets were presumably additions of the date of Second Court.

Inside the range, the Hall (Plate 239) (29½ ft. by 108 ft., originally 68 ft.) was formerly of five but is now of eight bays. The original roof may perhaps be attributed to Loveday; it has hammer-beam trusses with upper and lower collars: the main timbers are moulded and rise from wooden corbels carved with half-figures holding shields. The shields are charged with the badges of the Foundress and a cross on a mount. The hammer-beams have curved braces below and shields at the ends bearing roses and portcullises alternately, both crowned. Below the lower collar-beams are curved braces interrupted by the hammer-posts, but continued down to the corbels in the form of four-centred arches. Between the lower and upper collars are queen-posts from which spring flat four-centred arched collar-braces; the roof is ceiled at the level of the upper collars. The spandrels of the main timbers have traceried fillings. Between the trusses, the bays are divided into six main heights and sub-divided by the moulded rafters; between the deeply moulded wall-plate and the lowest purlin on each side is an arcading of small panels with four-centred heads (see also the roof of the original Library, p. 190). The 19th-century N. bays match the foregoing. In the third bay from the S. of the original roof is the hexagonal opening to the louvre.

The opening to the original oriel has a four-centred timber arch springing from corbels carved with half-angels holding shields charged with a Lancastrian rose and a portcullis; the spandrels have pierced tracery. The walls of the Hall are lined to sill-level with linenfold panelling in two heights finished with a modern entablature. In the old part of the Hall the panelling seems to be largely of 1528–39; a donation towards the wainscot was made in 1528 and one Lambert was paid for 'selyng the hall' in the later year; part of that in the original oriel is surmounted by late 16th-century arabesque panels. Against the N. wall is the reset panelling from the earlier N. wall, which is carried up to the level of the roof-corbels; above the plinth-panels, of 1863, are six tiers of linenfold panels divided into four bays by elaborately enriched Ionic pilasters carved with monster-heads and portcullises. The pilasters support an enriched architrave, a panelled frieze with scrolls and heads and a coved cornice; the fascia of the last is carved with two bands of monsters supporting roses, portcullises and vases, and divided into twelve short lengths by small posts with acorn finials and painted shields-of-arms of Ormesby, Cecil, Vere, Pollard, Langley (?) and Jackson. The arrangement of this panelling would seem to be of late 16th-century date, of the cove etc. of 1863. Above the panelling is a carved achievement of the Stuart Royal arms, with the motto 'Exurgat Deus dissipentur inimici', set in a panel with terminal side-pilasters and small figures supporting the entablature, the last with a carved frieze, strapwork cresting and pierced obelisks.

The Screen, at the S. end of the Hall, is original but extensively restored. It is of five bays with doorways in the second and fourth bays; these have moulded jambs and four-centred heads with portcullises and Lancastrian roses in the spandrels; the doors are of the late 19th century. The other bays have each three tiers of linenfold panels with moulded rails and styles and are finished with a moulded and carved cornice and modern brattishing. The Screens-passage has a partly restored open timber ceiling in eight panels with enriched and moulded beams (p. 396); the panelling on the S. wall is mostly modern but incorporates some linenfold panels seemingly of the 16th century in the lower parts; the three doorways have chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred heads and are fitted with nail-studded doors with moulded ribs forming panels, the side doors being divided horizontally into two leaves. On the S. wall above the Screens is a repainted achievement of the arms of the Foundress in an ornamental border.

The windows contain mediaeval and later glass. The main tracery-lights of the side-windows are filled with a jumble of fragments from the old Chapel, mostly of the 15th century. In the middle upper light of the original oriel is a figure of St. John under a canopy (Plate 242), probably of the 18th century and formerly in the cathedral of Regensburg; in the lower part of the light are two 17th-century shields-of-arms, of the Foundress (repaired) and of the See of Lincoln impaling Williams. Much of the rest of the heraldic glass was made for the old Chapel in 1842; it includes, in the 19th-century oriel, the arms of (a) the See of Worcester impaling Stillingfleet, (b) Durham impaling Morton, (c) St. Asaph impaling Beveridge; (d) Norwich impaling Overall; (e) St. Davids impaling Watson; (f) Edward James Herbert, Earl of Powis; (g) Chichester impaling Lake; (h) Mary, Countess of Shrewsbury, Talbot impaling Cavendish, (i) Lincoln impaling Williams; (j) Norwich impaling Lloyd; (k) Rochester impaling Fisher; (l) Peterborough impaling White, (m) the Foundress; (n) Ely impaling Turner; (o) Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, Seymour with the Royal augmentation impaling Alston, (p) Catherine (Willoughby), Duchess of Suffolk, Brandon impaling Willoughby of Eresby; (q) York impaling Sandys; (r) Canterbury impaling Morton, (s) Ely impaling Gunning; (t) Durham impaling Pilkington, (u) William Cecil, Lord Burghley, (v) Mildred, Lady Burghley; in window next S. of original oriel, (a) Thomas Linacre, (b) John Dowman; (c) Henry Hebblethwaite, (d) Roger Lupton; (e) Sir Ralph Hare, (f) Sir Marmaduke Constable; in next window S., (a) James Wood, Dean of Ely, (b) Humphrey Gower, Master; (c) Regius Professorship of Divinity impaling William Whitaker, (d) Deanery of Rochester impaling John Newcome; (e) William Craven, Master, (f) Alan Percy, Master, Percy quartering Lucy; W. wall, in second window, (a) Richard Bentley, (b) Sir John Cheke; (c) Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, (d) Lucius Cary, Viscount Falkland, Cary quartering Spencer, Beaufort; (e) Roger Ascham, (f) Thomas Baker; in third window, (a) Peterborough impaling Marsh, (b) Peterborough impaling Dee; (c) Lichfield impaling Ryder, (d) Bath and Wells impaling Beadon; (e) Lichfield impaling Butler, (f) Salisbury impaling Fisher; in fourth window, (a) William Platt, (b) John Hulse, Hulse quartering Hinton; (c) Sir Isaac Pennington; (d) Thomas Sutton, Founder of the Charterhouse, (e) Robert Johnson, Archdeacon of Leicester. The remainder of the shields-of-arms are after 1850, mainly of 1863.

The rest of the W. range, to the S., is occupied by the Butteries and Kitchen on the ground floor; both have exposed ceiling-beams and the W. wall of the central passage has exposed timber-framing. The Kitchen (29½ ft. by 83 ft. including the Butteries) has been considerably altered; the floor over the S. part was at one period removed except for the central cross and longitudinal beams, but it has now been replaced with a modern floor and the Wordsworth Room formed above. In the N. wall of this last the timber-framing over the middle beam is exposed and incorporates, at the E. end, a small king-post truss with the date 1754, presumably a stiffening then inserted; in the S. wall of the same room is an original fireplace; it has moulded jambs and four-centred head. On the first floor of the N. part of the range, some rooms are lined with 18th-century panelling.

The South Range (Plate 232) is of the early 16th-century, but was raised one storey and the whole N. front refaced in ashlar in 1772–6 from the designs of James Essex; the roof is slate-covered. The N. front is symmetrically designed, with a band between the lower storeys, a dentilled cornice and a plain parapet. The sash-windows have architraves; the four doorways also have architraves, two of them with side-pilasters and console-brackets supporting cornices and pediments. Under the lintel of the doorway to staircase 'G' is inscribed 'Stag, Novr. 15 1777'. The three 18th-century stone chimney-stacks have coped tops.

The S. front has also been heightened. The main wall is of the 16th century and of red brick with restored stone dressings including a plinth refaced in the 18th century; the top storey is an 18th-century addition in yellow brick. The windows of the original part are symmetrically arranged and of one or two four-centred lights in a square head with a label; a doorway at the W. end has been remodelled in the 18th century. The 18th-century top storey has square-headed windows with cornices above. The lead rainwater pipes are of the same date.

Inside the S. range, the arrangements have been much altered in the 18th century, but some timber framing is exposed in the partitions and there are some exposed ceiling-beams. In a room on the first floor behind the easternmost staircase is an original oak doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with leaves in the spandrels; the original door, hung on strap-hinges, has mouldings planted on to form four panels. A similar doorway remains at the W. end of the same floor.

Adjoining the S.E. angle of the building is a re-set early 16th-century gateway, formerly, and until 1855, standing further to the E. It has jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, and the rebuilt wall containing it has a crow-stepped gable.

Second Court (about 165½ ft. by 138 ft.) was begun in 1598 by contract with Ralph Symons and Gilbert Wigge and the original drawings are preserved in the College archives. The walls are of red and yellow mottled brick with Northamptonshire stone dressings, and the roofs are covered with green slates. The diapering of the Court fronts so conspicuous in the drawings scarcely appears in fact, and the entry in the accounts for 'painting' the brickwork is perhaps significant in this context. The ranges are of two storeys with attics. The North Range (Plate 234) is of ten bays on the S. front, each bay with a gabled dormer; these last are similar to those on the W. front of the Hall-range but the western four have been rebuilt in the 19th century. The four doorways have chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred heads and labels. The windows, generally, are of three four-centred lights in square heads with labels; the parapet-string is returned as the label over the dormer-windows and enriched with paterae and gargoyle-heads. The fifth bay has on the first floor a three-sided oriel-window of stone on four shaped brackets; it has three four-centred lights on the face, one on each return, and is finished with pierced strapwork cresting; the panelled apronwall is enriched with strapwork reliefs. The lead rainwater pipes have shaped heads, two of which are inscribed, one "Anōdō.", the other "1599".

The N. front of the N. range is of three storeys with a plain parapet and a series of small gables rising above it. The chimneystacks have rebuilt diagonal shafts. The windows are of two four-centred lights in square heads with labels. The small projecting bay in the middle is largely of the late 19th century except for part of the upper western half and the reset early 16th-century N. doorway, heavily restored, which was formerly the S. doorway to the old Chapel. The early 18th-century rainwater-pipes have shaped heads.

Inside the N. range, in the rooms on the ground-floor are some exposed ceiling-beams; the central passage has exposed timber-framing. The rooms to the W. and a room on the E. contain 18th-century panelling. On the first floor is the Combination Room, originally the Gallery in the former Master's Lodge and now partitioned; the W. end has been transformed into the staircase to the Library. The modern staircase at the E. end of the range has 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams and the walls of the upper part are lined with panelling of c. 1600 with an enriched frieze; refixed above the ground-floor doorway in the N. wall is a carved wood achievement-of-arms of the Foundress with yale supporters and flanked by terminal pilasters supporting putti (Plate 52). The first-floor passage to the W. of the same staircase is lined with panelling, similar to that just described, and the doorway at the W. end has a late 17th-century moulded surround and an entablature with friezepanel.

The Combination Room (Plate 225) (93 ft. by 19 ft.) has a plaster ceiling of c. 1600, executed by Cobbe, and divided into geometrical panels by moulded ribs with running vine-enrichment; the middle panel of each of the ten bays or repeats has a small boss; the plaster ceiling of the oriel-window is panelled. The walls are lined with wood panelling of the same age, six panels high, with enriched frieze-panels; at the angles of the window-splays are fluted and enriched Doric pilasters on pedestals and surmounted by lion-masks, with many renewed. Similar pilasters flank the W. doorway, which has a panelled door on the E. side and a later panelled door on the W. side. The two fireplaces in the N. wall have entirely restored or modern stone jambs and heads. The E. fireplace (Plate 225) is flanked by enriched Doric pilasters of oak, of c. 1600, supporting an enriched and bracketed entablature; the overmantel is of three bays divided and flanked by terminal pilasters supporting an enriched entablature; each bay has a central and four subsidiary shaped panels. The restored W. fireplace (Plate 48) has woodwork formerly in No. 3 Sussum's Yard and part of the old Red Lion Inn and moved here in 1919; flanking the opening are fluted Doric pilasters with a frieze and an entablature with carved brackets on both the friezes; these last are enriched and the upper has shields carved with the initials and date 'I.V.' and 'E.V. 1594', said to be for Vintner, and a device of three fishes. The overmantel is of three bays divided and flanked by coupled and fluted Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature; each bay contains an intarsia panel depicting an architectural composition in perspective with water and swans in the foreground. In the oriel-window is a glass roundel with the portrait-head of Henrietta Maria against a yellow background, in enamel and grisaille, possibly by Richard Greenbury, c. 1630 (R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits etc. Oxford, II, xxi, 218). Fixed to the walls are thirteen silver candle-sconces (Plate 45) each with two branches and a shield-of-arms surmounted by the College badge; two are of 1790 and made probably by John Scofield, with the arms party dexter the College sinister the See of Lincoln impaling Green, and two of 1839 by Joseph Taylor, with the College arms alone. The remaining nine, of 1868 and 1875, match the latter; another four of the same design, of 1815, by Benjamin Smith, are in the Master's Lodge. In 1790 Messrs. Rundell and Bridge were paid £88 for silver sconces. The smaller room (22¾ ft. by 19¾ ft.), to the W., originally formed part of the Gallery and has a continuation of the main ceiling of c. 1600; the walls are lined with mid 18th-century panelling with dado, dado-rail and slight cornice.

The staircase to the W. (Plate 237) was inserted in c. 1628 when the Library was built; it cuts through part of the Gallery, the ceiling of which remains, except the N.E. quarter; along the N. and part of the S. wall is a plaster frieze of running vineornament. The arrangement of the lower part of the staircase has been altered in modern times by the transfer of the two lower flights to the N. It has symmetrically turned balusters, moulded grip-handrail and square newels with turned finials; the double newel between the second and third flights has an elaborate finial in three stages with scrolls and a pierced pyramidal top (Plate 42). On the E. side of the top flight is a partition and between it and the foregoing newel is an elaborate carved and pierced scroll with a stag's head cut in relief; above is a moulded half-round arch of wood supported on consolebrackets and with a pierced pendant in the middle; a similar arch on the ground floor spans the entrance-passage and frames a semi-dome. On the ground floor the doorway in the W. wall has a semicircular moulded arch with a pierced pendant in the middle and a dentilled cornice above. The doorway above, on the first floor, opens into the vestibule of the Library and is of c. 1628; it has tapering Ionic side-pilasters on pedestals, all enriched with arabesques, with entablatures under scrolled brackets supporting a deep crowning entablature; these frame the half-round arch of the doorway, with a rose and a fleur-delis on the archivolt and cherub-heads in the spandrels. The door has moulded panels with arabesque enrichment and with the Ionic entablature carried across below the springing of the arch; the tympanum is carved with an oval convex shield-of-arms, of the See of Lincoln impaling Williams, in elaborate strapwork framing. Both the vestibule and the room to the N. originally formed part of the Gallery and retain the plaster ceiling similar to that in the Combination Room. The walls of the vestibule are lined with early 17th-century panelling with arabesque frieze-panels. The doorway into the Library is of stone and has moulded jambs with attached shafts and a half-round arch, of the same section, in a square head with pierced spandrels. The small room to the N. has a fireplace with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head; above it are two tiers of arched and enriched oak panels and an enriched frieze; the rest of the wall has panelling with an enriched frieze; against the S. wall is a large press with panelled doors, having enriched frieze and top rail; all of c. 1600. The staircase to the attics is of the late 18th century.

The attics have part of the main roof-timbers exposed. The easternmost room is lined with panelling, much of which is of c. 1600; the other rooms have 18th-century panelling, and the westernmost room has a threee-sided recess which may represent a former oriel-window in the W. wall. The interior of the Master's Tower is described with the W. range of First Court.

The South Range is of red brick and of two storeys with attics; it has a series of refaced gables on the N. similar to those on the opposite range. The windows and doorways on this front are generally similar to those opposite and there are lead rainwater-pipes with shaped heads. The S. front is of similar materials to the N. front and retains the quoins at the S.W. angle; it has a plain parapet-wall with small gables over most of the top-floor windows and a series of chimney-stacks. The windows, of one and two lights, are similar to those on the N. front; the third ground-floor window from the E. end has lately been cut down to form a doorway. On the second floor, towards the W. end, one window retains an original wrought-iron frame with casement and leaded quarries, and most of the windows retain original wrought-iron grilles. Some of the rainwater pipes and heads are of the 18th century, others are perhaps original.

The interior of the S. range is occupied by sets of rooms, except at the E. end where are kitchen-offices. The rooms have some exposed ceiling-beams. Staircase 'M' is of the mid 18th century, with turned balusters and newels in the form of Doric columns; it incorporates the central octagonal newel of the earlier staircase and the upper part has exposed timber framing. The ground-floor room W. of the same staircase has a panelled dado of c. 1600; the next room, approached from doorway 'L', has also a panelled dado of c. 1600. On the first floor, the principal room on Staircase 'O' has a late 16th-century fireplace with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head; the upper part of the E. wall is painted to represent timber-framing and on part of the W. wall real framing is exposed. The main E. room on Staircase 'M' has a panelled dado of c. 1600; the inner S.E. room is lined with panelling which incorporates work of c. 1600; the room W. of the same staircase is lined with 18th-century panelling with dado and cornice, and the small room to the N.W. has a cupboard with panelled doors with frieze-panels and 'cock's-head' hinges of c. 1600; above the cupboard is reused panelling of the same date, with enriched arches and frieze. The first-floor main room E. of Staircase 'K' is lined with panelling of c. 1600, with arabesque frieze and moulded cornice; the fireplace is flanked by enriched Ionic pilasters supporting an enriched shelf, and the overmantel is of three bays divided and flanked by pilasters supporting an enriched entablature; in each bay is an enriched arched panel; all the woodwork was adapted to the room probably towards the middle of the 18th century; there are 18th-century panelled pilasters under the ends of the cased ceiling-beam. The main first-floor room W. of the same staircase is lined with 18th-century panelling and has a semicircular recess with doors in the W. wall. The small room to the S.E. has an original moulded timber door-frame with the head cut through; the upper parts of the N. and S. walls have painted decoration on the plaster, probably of c. 1600. On the N. wall are two panels one with a landscape and church, the other with trees and a chained monkey with a basket of fruit (Plate 58); the long panel on the W. wall shows a landscape with fields and beasts, including a stag with a fiddle, pipes and a drum ('Eagle', XLIV (1926), 1). In the attics some of the roof-timbers are exposed, and a room towards the E. end has an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head. Another room, towards the W., is lined with re-used panelling, which includes some linenfold panels.

The West Range (Plate 234) is generally similar in design and materials to the N. and S. ranges but has a central Gatehouse, now called the Shrewsbury Tower (Plate 233). This is of three storeys with semi-octagonal angle-turrets carried above the embattled parapet and themselves with restored embattling. The E. front has an archway with splayed jambs and moulded four-centred arch with carved masks and paterae in the main hollow-moulding; the spandrels are carved with strapwork, shields and conventional foliage, the string-course above with heads and paterae. On the first floor are three panels of 1671, the middle one enclosing a lozenge-of-arms, with talbot and stag supporters, of Mary, Countess of Shrewsbury, Talbot impaling Cavendish, and the side-panels a double rose and portcullis; above them are two windows each of two tall four-centred lights in a square head. The windows flank a central round-headed niche containing a statue of the Countess (Plate 255) carved by Thomas Burman in 1671 at the cost of her nephew William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, and brought from London; returned over these three features as a label is an enriched string in continuation of the parapet-string of the flanking ranges. The second floor has a window of four four-centred lights in a square head. The turrets have single-light windows with four-centred openings in square heads and doorways with restored stop-chamfered jambs and four-centred moulded heads, all with labels. On the W. front of the Gatehouse (Plate 234) the general arrangement is similar to that on the E. front. The archway has splayed jambs and moulded four-centred arch with a label; above it is a panel carved with the arms of the College in a cartouche. The second storey has a window of three four-centred lights in a square head with a continuous string-course above. On the third storey is a similar window with a label. The Observatory added on the top of the Gatehouse in 1765 was removed in 1859.

The Gatehall (18½ ft. by 16 ft.) has a panelled stone vault in two bays with ribs springing from moulded corbels, pendants in the middle of each bay and a carved rose on the central crossrib. The staircases in the E. turrets have been extensively renewed; but the original octagonal newel of oak survives in the N.E. stair. The room on the first floor, entered through a stone doorway with original oak door, is lined with early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling with dado-rail and cornice; in the W. angles of the room are original stone doorways with four-centred heads to the turrets, now concealed behind the panelling. The room on the second floor is lined with plain 18th-century panelling with a dado-rail.

The sections of the W. range flanking the Gatehouse (Plate 234) are symmetrically designed and generally similar in character, materials and detail to the N. and S. ranges of Second Court. The gables on the E. side have been refaced or rebuilt; here the lead rainwater pipes with shaped heads are original. On the W. side, the enriched parapet-string is omitted; the windows are much restored and the chimney-stacks rebuilt; the two buttresses are additions made in 1691 by Robert Grumbold, and the lead rainwater pipes with moulded heads are of the 18th century. Inside the W. range some ceiling-beams and timber-framing are exposed. In the N. section, the S. room approached from doorway 'F' is lined with late 18th-century panelling. On the first floor, the N. room has a dado incorporating some panelling of c. 1600; a bedroom S.W. of this room contains an original stone fireplace with chamfered jambs and four-centred moulded head, all cut back, The room at the same level adjoining the Gatehouse is lined with mid 18th-century panelling with a bolection-moulded panel over the fireplace. In the S. section, the N. main room has some panelling of c. 1600 in the window-recess and an original doorway to the S.W. Gatehouse-turret with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The S. room is lined with late 18th-century panelling, with a semicircular-headed recess in the S.W. corner. On the first floor, one room has a dado incorporating panelling of c. 1600 and an internal lobby and door of panelling of the same period. Some roof timbers are exposed in the attics.

Third Court (80 ft. average by 121½ ft.) has the Library range on the N. side and rather later ranges on the W. and S. The North Range, built between 1623 and 1625 at the cost of John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, is of two storeys with the main Library on the first floor; the walls are mottled red and yellow brick faced with clunch on the inside; the dressings are of freestone. The first scheme, rejected by Bishop Williams, was for a Library built upon pillars extending W. from the Shrewsbury Tower. The Gothic form of the existing windows is evidently due to representations made to him by Bishop Cary of Exeter that 'the old fashion of church window' was 'most meet for such a building' (College Archives: Letter, Valentine Cary to Owen Gwyn, Master, 19 Nov. 1623).

The S. front (Plate 235) is of ten bays but the western two extend beyond the line of the W. range of the Court. The wall has a refaced plinth and continuous stone entablatures over the ground-floor and upper windows; the parapet-wall is embattled, with a wide merlon in the middle of each bay with a central ogee feature rising above it, and all with a moulded stone capping. The ground-floor has two much restored doorways with chamfered jambs, moulded four-centred heads and labels (p. 393). The windows in the other free bays are each of two four-centred lights in a square head with moulded reveals; the continuous entablature is broken forward over them to suggest individual crowning entablatures. The first floor has, in each bay, a window of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with Gothic curvilinear tracery in a two-centred head; the windows are set in slight projections of the brickwork extending below the sills, as aprons, to the entablature over the lower windows, and above the heads, where they have a narrow stone framing, to the upper entablature; this last breaks forward over each projection. The N. wall is divided into five double bays by buttresses and has a plain rebuilt parapet. Each bay has two windows similar to those on the S. but the lower ones have no cornices and entirely restored heads and the upper ones have labels, more or less restored jambs, and are flush with the wallface. The lead rainwater pipes have shaped heads and are probably of the late 17th century.

The W. end (Plate 236) rising from the river has a stepped plinth of stone and diagonal buttresses finished with crocketed pinnacles. In the middle is a three-sided bay-window of two storeys finished with a stepped and shaped parapet-wall with moulded capping and pierced finials of stone over each face; on the face of the parapet are stone embellishments, on the front, two shields, of Griffith and of the See of Lincoln, and the initials I.L.C.S. (Johannes Lincolniensis Custos Sigilli), and on the S.W. return the date 1624. The windows in the lower storey of the bay are of three four-centred lights on the front and two on each return; above them is an entablature continued across the wall between the buttresses. The front window of the storey above is of three cinque-foiled and transomed lights with curvilinear tracery in a two-centred head; the side windows are similar but of two lights; above them is a second entablature again continued across from buttress to buttress. The wall is finished with ramps against the bay and with a large cresting of pierced wave-ornament.

St. John's College Library, design of typical bay

Inside the N. range, the ground floor originally contained sets of rooms, but the space was taken for extensions to the Library, in 1858, 1874–5, and later; it has no ancient features except, in the bay-window at the W. end, glass shields-of-arms of Thomas Baker, Fellow, died 1740, and the Deanery of Ely, impaling Wood, for James Wood, Master, Dean of Ely, died 1839, both 19th-century, the second with older glass in the border. On the first floor the Library (106 ft. by 27¼ ft.) has a roof of ten bays with arch-braced collar-beam trusses on acanthus brackets, with carved pendants at the arch apices; along the side-walls runs a panelled and bracketed entablature and the whole is ceiled below the collars and rafters with large rectangular wood panels, twelve in a bay. The roof was restored in 1783 by James Essex and later reconstructed, largely with steel and concrete, though the original form and visible timbers were so far as possible retained, by Professor Beresford Pite in 1927 and 1928. On the E. wall, above the entrance, is a large shield-of-arms tierced in pale of the See of Lincoln, Williams quartering Griffith, and the Deanery of Westminster, with a mitre and croziers and all in a strapwork frame (Plate 237). Between the side-windows are projecting bookcases (Plate 40) which have been reconstructed and in part altered; the ends are in two main stages, the lower with a panelled plinth and two enriched arched panels above, and the upper with enriched side-pilasters supporting an entablature with a bracketed frieze and Jacobean cresting enclosing shields; between the pilasters are two ranges of grouped panels divided by small hinged panels closing the shelf-lists (Plate 230). The shields on the cresting bear the arms of the following persons, the dates being those of their deaths: N. side, E. to W., (a) Thomas Gisborne, 1806; (b) William Lloyd, Bishop of Norwich, 1709; (c) Thomas Morton, Bishop of Durham, 1659; (d) Sir Isaac Pennington, 1817; (e) Thomas Baker, 1740; (f) Sir Soulden Lawrence, 1814; (g) Edward Bendlowes, 1676; (h) Mildred (Cooke), Lady Burghley, 1589; (i) John Cary, 2nd Viscount Rochford, Cary with a crescent gules for difference in chief quartering Spencer, Beaufort, Boleyn, Rochford, Morgan, over all a label gules, 1677; (j) Thomas Whytehead, 1843; (k) Richard Duffield, 1863; S. side, (a) Humphrey Gower, Master, 1714; (b) James Wood, Master, Dean of Ely, 1839; (c) John Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield, 1670; (d) Sir Ralph Hare, K.B., 1624; (e) John Newcome, 1765; (f) Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely, 1709; (g) Henry Wriothesley, K.G., 3rd Earl of Southampton, Wriothesley quartering Dunstaville, Lushill and Drayton, 1624; (h) Matthew Prior, 1721; (i) Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, Percy quartering Percy ancient, 1847; (j) Lord William Howard of Naworth, Howard quartering Brotherton, Warren and Mowbray, 1640; (k) Robert Metcalf, 1652. The sides of the cases were formerly divided into two bays, but the pilasters now remain only at each end; the base and entablature, as described above, are continued along the sides. The cases against the E. wall have been extended at some period, but the original arrangement of two bays has been retained. A lower case (Plate 42) stands in the middle of each bay; the tops are gabled and designed for reading desks, but all except the two easternmost have been heightened about 1 ft. They are of similar character to the main cases; those unaltered have the ends in two stages, the lower with enriched arched panels and the upper with enriched pilasters and grouped panels, a carved frieze, cherub-heads and scrolls in the gabled ends and enrichments in the form of crockets, including fleurs-de-lys, on the slopes; each side has pilasters and a cornice. The heightened cases have an additional plinth. Against the sidewalls are cases of c. 1800 and behind them is 17th-century panelling. Opening into the bay-window at the W. end is an arch with chamfered responds and four-centred head. In the window is heraldic glass set up after 1850, except perhaps the shield-of-arms tierced in pale of the See of Lincoln, Williams quartering Griffith and Westminster Deanery with a strapwork surround surmounted by a mitre and the initials I.W. with a crozier. The 19th-century accounts regarding the latter are ambiguous; if of the 17th century, it has been much restored.

The West Range was built in 1669–73 and is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of red brick with stone dressings and the roofs are covered with green slates. The E. front (Plates 229, 235) has a projecting centrepiece flanked by an open arcaded walk of six bays on either side extending to a seventh bay on the extremities, that on the N. with a repetition of the arcading framing a 19th-century doorway and perhaps of that date, that on the S. of plain brickwork containing a window. On the floors above the seven bays to the S. of the centrepiece are maintained, but to the N. the building terminates beyond the fifth bay, in order to leave access for light to the Library, the front alone being linked to the Library range by a lofty open arch.

The centrepiece is in three main stages, coinciding with the height of the storeys in the range, with an attic consisting of a deep frieze and broken curved pediment. Most of the lowest stage and all the pediment are of ashlar, the upper stages and frieze of brick with ashlar quoins and dressings. It contains a semicircular-headed archway in the ground stage with imposts, archivolt and scrolled keystone, flanked by attached Tuscan columns supporting an entablature. Above this last, rising into the second stage, is a cartouche carved with the arms of the College, surmounted by a demi-eagle and flanked by swags of fruit and flowers. In the second stage is a two-light transomed window with eared architrave, side-scrolls, and apron, flanked by pilaster-strips on pedestals and with oval panels superimposed on the shafts; the pilasters support a cornice pedimented over the window. In the third stage is a two-light window with architrave and apron flanked by pilasters similar to those below, but with a portcullis and a Lancastrian rose respectively on the shafts, and supporting an entablature. On this last, against the attic frieze, is a large carved lozenge-of-arms of the Foundress with yale supporters and flanked by draped urns. The pediment contains a central pedestal supporting a ball-finial and weather-vane.

The arcading flanking the centrepiece is of ashlar; each bay contains an open semicircular-headed arch, similar to that already described, and the bays are divided by Tuscan pilasters; the pilasters support an entablature returned from, and in continuation of, that to the ground stage of the centrepiece. Each floor above contains a window in each bay, the windows being linked vertically by brick aprons. All the windows are of two lights, those on the first floor transomed, with moulded architraves and sills, friezes and cornices; the friezes over those on the second floor are of inverted scroll form in profile. The upper entablatures align with the entablature to the third stage of the centrepiece, and are returned and continued to form a parapet-string. The parapet is similar to that of the Library range but smaller in scale and with three-quarter-circular extensions of the merlons. The dormer-windows have been rebuilt. The stone arch at the N. end, forming an open screen linking the N. and W. ranges, has a four-centred head with scrolled imposts and keystone and sunk spandrels below an entablature and parapet-wall in continuation of those of the W. range. The arch was altered to its present form by James Essex in 1777, who evidently retained and reused as imposts the 17th-century keystones indicated in the view of the earlier oval opening shown here in Loggan's engraving of the College from the E.

The W. front (Plates 236, 244), on the river, is divided into five main bays by chimney-projections, which rise from the stone plinth; it has brick plat-bands between the storeys, a moulded parapet-string, and an embattled parapet similar to that on the E. front. At the N. end is a deep diagonal-buttress added in the 18th century. The windows are of one or two square-headed lights, those on the ground and first floors transomed and with flat brick arches; all have stone architraves. Projecting from the middle bay to the height of two storeys is the Gothic bridge of 1831, and close S. of it on the ground floor is a Gothic window of the same date. Concealing the lower part of the northern bays is a grey brick annexe built and extended in the 19th century standing on the 17th-century quay, or 'Foot-wharf', and with the lower part of that date. In 1777 and 1841 the main foundations were strengthened, and in the latter year the front was restored and the chimney-stacks rebuilt. The roof has rebuilt square-topped dormer-windows. Two of the rainwater pipes have heads dated 1672 and two 1799.

The N. and S. ends of the W. range are finished with shaped gables surmounted by finials; the S. wall, rising from a skewed plinth with broad water-tabling, has plat-bands returned from the W. front and a third plat-band below the gable, a two-light window, as before, on each floor, and a round window with stone architrave in the gable.

Inside the W. range, the ground floor is occupied by the arcaded walk, store-rooms etc. and the approach to the 19th-century Bridge, the approach being described below with the last. The two staircases are largely original, though the lower flights of that to the N. are much altered; they have turned balusters, plain strings, grip handrails and rectangular newels, the lowest panelled, the inner continuous and the outer with ball-terminals and turned pendants; some of the terminals and pendants are missing. On the first floor, the main room N. of staircase 'C' is lined with original panelling with three flat-topped projecting doorcases; the doors are original. The main room S. of the same stair is lined with original oak panelling with dado and cornice etc.; the projecting doorcases are rather more elaborate than the foregoing, but the doors are modern; the overmantel has a bolection-moulded panel and side-pilasters. The main rooms N. and S. of staircase 'D' are lined with original panelling with dado-rail and cornice; it has been much restored in the former, which contains an early 19th-century stone fireplace. On the second floor, the main room S. of staircase 'C' has original panelling, rather plainer than that below; that in the N. room was completely renewed in a similar style in 1955 when the date 1673 and initials W.B. were found cut in the brickwork behind. The moulded stone fireplaces, with rectangular openings, are original. The main rooms N. and S. of stair 'D' are lined with panelling similar to the foregoing, that in the S. room with three projecting doorcases with central frieze-panels; the N. fireplace has a heavy bolection-moulded stone surround, probably original; the S. fireplace may be later. Many of the oak outer doors to the sets are contemporary with the building; they have long wrought-iron strap-hinges with fleur-de-lys terminals.

The South Range of Third Court, of three storeys with attics, is of the same date, except where otherwise described, and general character as the W. range; the walls are of red brick with stone dressings. It incorporates an older building in the western end, which, remodelled, projects as a S. wing; thus the whole plan is L-shaped. The N. side towards the Court, is of eight bays with a plat-band at first-floor level and a continuous entablature and parapet-wall similar to those of the W. range. In the third bay from the E. on the ground floor is a doorway with an eared architrave, triple keystone, slender flanking pilaster-strips and slim console-brackets supporting a cornice. In the sixth bay is the archway to the passage through the range; it has a semicircular head with moulded imposts and is flanked by Tuscan pilasters supporting an entablature. The other bays on this level and all the bays on the two floors above have each a two-light window similar to those at the same levels in the W. range and set in similar articulations of the wall-face, the aprons extending downwards only to the platband. At the E. end is a rainwater pipe with head dated 1671. In the roof are flat-topped dormer-windows.

The S. side of the main block is of five bays and similar in character to the S. front of the S. range of Second Court but with a continuous parapet-wall and no gablets. In the W. bay is an archway with chamfered jambs and semicircular head with a label and containing an original oak door of nine panels. The windows on all floors are of two four-centred lights in a square head and the parapet-string acts as a label to those on the second floor; all have been restored. The form of these windows may perhaps be explained by a desire for uniformity in the College frontage to the adjoining lane and, presumably, the presence of such features available for re-use from the older building on the W. evidently remodelled, not 'plucked down' as recorded in the Prizing Books, in 1670. The four lead rainwater pipes and heads are old. The square-topped dormer-windows have been rebuilt. The W. end of the range, towards the river, has plat-bands, windows, and a shaped gable similar to those of the adjoining S. end of the W. range, but the gable is larger, spanning three bays, and contains a carved stone cartouche with the College arms and the date 1671 flanking the round window. The shaped head of the lead rainwater pipe is dated 1762 (sic). The W. side of the S. wing continues flush with the wall-face of the foregoing and is uniform with it, but the height of the two upper storeys is less, one plat-band is stepped down, and a parapet-string replaces the uppermost, at a lower level. The parapet-wall is similar to that of the W. range. The windows are similar to those at the same levels further N.; in the roof are two rebuilt square-topped dormer-windows. The head of the lead rainwater pipe is dated 1800. The S. end of the S. wing has a shaped gable with finials similar to that at the S. end of the W. range; the whole wall is blind and the lower part has been refaced. The E. side of the wing is generally similar in character to the adjoining S. side of the main block of the S. range but with relieving-arches to the ground-floor windows only.

Inside the main block, the central staircase 'F' is similar to those in the W. range of the Court. Some of the rooms have exposed stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. The main room W. of the staircase on the ground floor is lined with original panelling with dado-rail and entablature and pilaster-strips in the centre of the E. and W. walls. The fireplace is flanked by panelled pilaster-strips supporting an entablature with panelled frieze; superimposed strips flank a bolection-moulded panel in the overmantel and support an upper entablature with central frieze-panel. The room E. of the stair has similar panelling etc., but with a bolection-moulded frieze over the fireplace. On the first floor, the main room W. of the stair is lined with panelling as before but with a later or modern fireplace-surround. The E. room retains only part of the original panelling. On the second floor, one room is lined with similar panelling with dado-rail and cornice; the S.E. room of the same set has an early 19th-century white marble reeded fireplace-surround with carved paterae at the angles. The S. wing fronting the river is entered through the stone doorway to staircase 'E', which has chamfered jambs and semicircular head. The staircase is similar to that in the main block. Much readjustment of the plan and the floor-levels has occurred where the N. part of the older building intrudes into the main block. In the less altered S. wing some 16th-century ceiling-beams are exposed. One room on the first floor has a 16th-century fireplace of clunch with chamfered jambs, a four-centred head with sunk spandrels, and a timber overmantel of 1672. A room on the second floor has a similar fireplace. Further N., the second-floor room at the W. end of the main block also contains a 16th-century clunch fireplace; it is probably reset; the width of the older building is indicated by a diagonal ceiling-beam inserted presumably when the old external wall at this point was demolished in the remodelling of 1670.

The Old Bridge (Plate 247), S.W. of Third Court was built between 1709 and 1712 (see above). It is of Weldon stone and of three spans, with a semi-elliptical central arch and semi-circular side arches all rusticated and with triple keystones; they spring from cut-water piers and plain abutments and are surmounted by a cornice, which breaks forward over the piers and keystones, and a balustraded parapet with panelled pedestals over the same (Plate 244); the balustrade is returned a short distance along the W. bank. The panels above the central arch are carved with achievements-of-arms of the Foundress and those over the side arches with a Tudor rose and a portcullis. The panels above the piers have groups of Neptune and young tritons, and Father Cam with the bridge and College in the background; the N. panel over the E. abutment has seahorses. The Gateway (Plate 56) at the E. end of the bridge has panelled stone gate-piers with cornices surmounted by carved yales holding shields charged with eagles; the W. panels have carvings of the Tudor rose and portcullis. The gatechecks have moulded cappings and small scrolled brackets. One staple survives for the original timber gates; these were replaced by the existing 18th-century wrought-iron gates, which have side-standards with ornamental cresting and an elaborate overthrow with a monogram of the letters S.J.C. (St. John's College). A second Gateway, further E., was erected in 1711–2; the panelled stone piers have cornices surmounted by eagles carved by Nicholas Bigée and John Woodward; Robert Grumbold was the mason. The piers are hung with heavy timber gates, possibly of 1766.

The Master's Lodge of 1863 stands away to the N. of Third Court and contains a considerable amount of timber and panelling removed from the first Master's Lodge, when the Hall was extended, and from elsewhere. The vestibule has an early 16th-century open timber ceiling in six panels with moulded beams and plates, and the walls are lined with panelling including some linenfold panels, some 18th-century fielded panelling, and some work of c. 1600, probably part of a former overmantel; this last includes enriched arcaded panels. Over the vestibule door is a fragment of lead guttering of the early 16th century. The Hall has an early 16th-century open timber ceiling in ten panels with moulded beams, plates and joists, and the walls are lined with restored panelling of the late 16th or early 17th century. The early 17th-century overmantel in the Hall came from the old Combination Room and is said to have been brought from Audley End between 1669 and 1701; it is of four bays divided and flanked by paired tapering and fluted Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature with carved enrichment including fleurs-de-lys and portcullises; the bays have enriched panels; it stands on an enriched and partly restored entablature; later cresting was removed in 1952. The former Ante-room has a 16th-century fireplace of clunch with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with foliage and shields in the spandrels; one shield has a merchant's mark and the initials H.S. and the other the looped initials I.I.; the top is embattled and inscribed "Anno D. 1560". The same room has a 16th-century open timber ceiling. In the Drawing-room and Dining-room are eight angel-corbels with bouched shields charged with the letter M; they are of uncertain date, possibly early 16th-century and from the old Chapel. The open timber ceiling in eight panels over the staircase-hall has a moulded and enriched centre beam and moulded subsidiary beams and joists.

On the first floor, the Oak Room is said to preserve the dimensions of the Study in the old Master's Lodge. The reset oriel-window (Plate 92), restored in its upper part, formerly opened on First Court, where it is shown in Loggan's engraving of the College in a position comparable to that of the similar window surviving in situ at Christ's College. It is three-sided, rests on enriched moulded corbelling, and has a sill carved with foliated paterae and a portcullis; the apron is carved on the front with a coroneted achievement-of-arms of the Foundress with yale supporters against a thicket of germander speedwell, and on the returns with a royally crowned rose and a coroneted portcullis. The room has a 16th-century open timber ceiling similar to that over the stairs. The walls are lined with linenfold panelling with enriched frieze-panels carved with foliage, a rose, a portcullis and panels inscribed "Cocus Secundus", the initials R.L., for Richard Longworth, Master (1564–9), and the date 1567. The present Study has a restored early 16th-century open timber ceiling and is lined with early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling with a dado and moulded dado-rail. The corridor has 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams and contains an oak double door-frame of the same age with four-centred openings in square heads with foliated spandrels.

New Court (Plate 240) (229 ft. by 83 ft.), on the W. side of the river, was begun in 1826 and finished in 1831. In February 1825 the College agreed to approach Wilkins, Browne and Thomas Rickman for designs, but in March 1826 Rickman and Henry Hutchinson were the architects chosen and five months later permission was given to accept the tender of T. and J. Bennett, contractors, for the basement. Until at least February 1827 the intention was to build in red brick with stone dressings, but in June Thomas Phipps' estimate for stone facing was accepted; further, in 1829 clunch was decided upon for the vault of the cloister-walk, instead of the wood and plaster proposed. The cost of the Court was £77,878, much work and expense being involved in providing sure foundations.

The Court is built on an E plan, with the end wings connected by a cloister-walk to provide enclosure on the S.; in the centre of the walk is a Gatehouse. The ranges are of four storeys; the walls are faced with stone, except the N. elevation which is of gault brick with stone dressings. The roofs are slate-covered. The style is in the main Tudor-Gothic. The building is symmetrically designed, with a central towerstructure, connected by rather lower ranges with short S. returns to larger pavilion-like blocks. The Gatehouse in the centre of the cloister-walk linking these last is four-square, with diagonal and angle-buttresses ending in pinnacles, and low-pitched N. and S. gables. The S. archway is two-centred with an ogee label ending in a pedestal supporting an eagle above the apex of the gable; the wall-surface above the arch is enriched with stone panelling. The original painted deal door of two leaves has each leaf divided into fifty-three panels containing cast-iron paterae and Tudor badges. The two-centred N. archway is in a square head with shields-of-arms in the spandrels, of Craven and of Pennington; the face of the gableend above is panelled and frames the arms of the Deanery of Ely impaling Wood (for James Wood, Master 1815–39). The Gatehall (23½ ft. by 23½ ft.) is covered by a fan-vault springing from moulded and enriched corbels and with a large central conoid ending in an octagonal pendant. In the E. and W. walls are two-centred archways to the cloister-walk set in taller wall-arches with pierced quatrefoils in the apices.

The embattled Cloister-walk is in seven bays to each side of the Gatehouse. On the S., the bays are divided by two-stage buttresses ending in pinnacles and contain each a three-light window with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label; on the N., the dividing three-stage buttresses end at the parapet and in each bay is a two-centred archway. The walk is covered with ribbed vaulting (Plate 241).

The Ranges generally are embattled. On the N., the towerstructure (Plate 241) has turrets at the corners, octagonal on the S. and square to octagonal on the N., rising high above the main parapet-walls and with the top stage enriched with Tudor badges and the upper part with quatre-foiled panels in each face. Between the turrets, the S. front is in three bays; the middle bay projects slightly between four-stage buttresses and contains the entrance with four-centred arch and, above, an orielwindow rising through three storeys and ending in a quatre-foiled parapet. The oriel is supported on corbelling carved with shields-of-arms of (a) the See of Peterborough impaling Marsh, (c) the College, (d) the See of Rochester impaling Fisher, (e) Percy; the shield (b) is charged with Assheton's rebus of an ashtree growing from a tun. Rising above the centre of the tower-structure is a large octagonal stone clock-tower and lantern, with vertical-traceried windows in each face, diagonal and flying buttresses at the angles, all ending in pinnacles, and a crocketed flared roof of stone ending in a finial supporting a vane. The windows generally, except those with two-centred heads on the first floor of the turrets, are of one and two cinque-foiled lights in square heads with labels. The flanking ranges are for the most part symmetrically arranged, as shown on the plan; the doorways have four-centred openings and the windows are similar to those just described.

The pavilion-like blocks forming the greater part of the E. and W. wings have pinnacled diagonal buttresses and embattled parapets. The S. fronts have each four single-light windows on the ground floor, a central oriel-window rising through the first and second floors, and a central two-light window with vertical tracery in a two-centred head on the top floor; above, is a small gable with a canopied niche at the apex. Each oriel has moulded corbelling and an embattled parapet and is flanked by single two-light windows on the first floor; on the floors above are one-light windows. The inward-facing fronts have windows and doors as before, the latter in square heads with traceried spandrels.

The E. front of New Court, N. of the bridge, is symmetrically grouped from end to end. It has a battered plinth rising directly from the river. The rectangular projecting end bays are carried up above the main parapet; they and the three-sided projecting bay in the centre have oriel-windows to the second and third floors. The other windows are as elsewhere. From a doorway in the N. bay steps lead up from water-level and then down to the cellars; N. of the doorway is an arched outlet from a culvert, now blocked, that left the Bin Brook opposite the N.W. corner of the Court and served for sanitation. The two openings are flanked by mooring-rings.

The W. front is tripartite; the S. part, being the frontage of the main W. block, is broadly similar to the opposite side of the last, facing the Court, but with a central projecting bay with angle-buttresses carried up through three storeys and with four-light windows on each floor linked by wall-panelling. On the panelling between the lower windows are carved shields-of-arms of Rickman and Hutchinson. The rather lower centre part is divided into five unequal bays by buttresses. The N. part is higher than the rest of the range, being of five storeys; it has an oriel-window rising through the three middle floors.

The brick N. side is symmetrically grouped; the taller centre and end blocks have embattled parapets; the ranges between have plain parapets. All the windows are of a single light; the heads are either two-centred or four-centred. The chimney-stacks generally have grouped octagonal shafts, rectangular bases and moulded cappings.

The Interior is divided into sets of rooms mostly following the normal plan of a main room, entered from the stair, looking into the court and with two small rooms opening off it. This plan is modified in the E. and W. blocks and also in the towerstructure where is a central circular stone staircase lit by the lantern. Some of the rooms entered from this stair have ribbed plaster ceilings of Tudor-Gothic character, with geometrical and shaped panels containing Tudor badges. The stone and plaster roof of the lantern is similarly treated. All the doorways have four-centred heads and moulded timber architraves. Most of the original fireplaces remain; those in the rooms formerly Fellows' rooms are of white, grey or black marble, those in Undergraduates' rooms of freestone. At the S. end of the E. block, on the ground floor, is a passage with depressed four-centred ribbed vault in three bays that links the cloisterwalk with the covered bridge.

The covered New Bridge, known as the 'Bridge of Sighs' (Plate 236), between the W. range of Third Court and the S.E. corner of New Court, is of stone ashlar and consists of a single segmental span with traceried spandrels on the S. side carved with a portcullis and a fleur-de-lys. It was designed by Henry Hutchinson in 1827 and presumably finished, with New Court, by 1831. The two sides of the superstructure are similar in arrangement. At each end are plain abutments; the length between is in three unequal bays divided and flanked externally by shallow buttresses ending in crocketed pinnacles above the embattled parapet; the S. parapet-string is carved with paterae. In the centre bay is one and in the flanking bays are two unglazed windows containing wrought-iron lattices; each window is of three cinque-foiled lights, the centre one ogee, with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a continuous label; the tracery is original, the mullions were renewed in 1952; the spandrels between the label and parapet-string on the S. side contain tracerypanelling. The interior has at each end a doorway, that at the E. end with moulded four-centred head and an elevated rear-arch with panelled soffit, that at the W. end with a moulded two-centred head; in the wall above each is a niche with a cinque-foiled ogee head under a crocketed label and a shaped corbel supporting a tall pedestal. The plain plaster ceiling is divided into seven bays by four-centred plastered metal arches with pierced spandrels.

Physical approach to the bridge and the architectural requirement of centralising the entrance to an off-centre feature involved some remodelling of the interior of the W. range of Third Court. A centred internal arcade of three bays was inserted, opening on a landing. In the W. wall of the latter, the entrance to the bridge is balanced by the three-light window with a four-centred head already described; centrally placed in the wall between them is a niche with cinque-foiled ogee head and crocketed label. The landing is covered by a plaster ribbed vault. All the foregoing are contemporary with the bridge.

The Bridge carrying the High Walk from the old Bridge to Queens' Road over the Bin Brook is of cast-iron; the entry in the College Conclusion Book agreeing to the material is dated July 1822. It has ashlar abutments and is in one segmental span, with pierced tracery spandrels, enrichments of portcullises and a frieze of roses. The railing consists of a diagonal iron latticework divided into three unequal bays by slender round standards with knob finials.

The 'Field' Gate to Queens' Road consists of an ornamental wrought-iron gate hung between stone piers; the College agreed that it should be built in 1822 (Conclusion Book 4 July) though the style of the piers is of c. 1700. If the stonework is not reused, then the style of Grumbold's gateway futher E. must have been copied. The gate is in two leaves, the northern with a wicket, with side-standards and an overthrow incorporating an embossed and painted shield-of-arms of the College. The panelled piers have crowned portcullises carved on the dies, enriched cornices and gadrooned pedestals supporting eagles. Flanking the piers are stone dwarf-walls, ogee-shaped on plan, surmounted by railings and ending in smaller panelled piers; the last are carved with roses and have ball-finials. The high red brick wall to the S. is contemporary with the foregoing.

S.E. of the 'Wilderness' is a wrought-iron Gate to Trinity Piece. It is in two leaves hung between scroll-work piers with spire-like finials linked by an elaborate overthrow incorporating the College badge of a rising demi-eagle; lengths of railing to each side extend to smaller flanking piers. It was probably in the Horseheath Hall sale of 1777. Set up in 1780, it was removed some 80 yds. S. to the present position in 1822 (C.A.S. Procs. XLV, 28).