Steeple Bumpstead

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.

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'Steeple Bumpstead', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West, (London, 1916) pp. 288-295. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/essex/vol1/pp288-295 [accessed 19 April 2024]

In this section

70. STEEPLE BUMPSTEAD. (D.a.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)iv. S.E. (b)x. N.E.)

Steeple Bumpstead is a parish and village about 9 m. E. of Saffron Walden. The Church, Moyns Park, Latchleys, the School House and Coote's Farm are the principal monuments.

Roman

a (1). Roman Buildings, foundations are said to have been found long ago in Stulps Field, near Great Walton Farm, in the N.W. corner of the parish (Archæologia XIV. 70). The finds are ill-recorded; no Roman remains are now visible.

Ecclesiastical

a (2). Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin, stands on the S. side of the village. The walls are of flint rubble and red brick with dressings of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with lead and tiles. The two lower stages of the West Tower belong to a late 11th-century church. The plan of the Chancel is possibly contemporary with the tower. The South Aisle and South Porch were probably added in the 14th-century. The S. arcade of the Nave is of c. 1400, and the N. arcade, with the North Aisle, was rebuilt later in the 15th century. Early in the 16th century, the E. half of the upper part of the tower was rebuilt, the clearstorey was added and the walls of the S. aisle and S. porch were heightened, all in red brick. The church was generally restored c. 1880, when the walls of the chancel were largely re-faced and the North Vestry and Organ Chamber were added.

The roof of the S. aisle is a rich example of early 16th-century work. The 8th-century bronze boss on the chancel door is remarkable, and the scratched inscriptions of the 14th and 15th centuries are noteworthy.

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (23 ft. by 20½ ft.) has a modern E. window with old internal splays. In the N. wall, opening into the modern vestry, is an early 16th-century doorway with a four-centred arch, which has sunk spandrels and partly restored jambs. Further W. is a modern arch to the organ-chamber. In the S. wall are two windows; the eastern is modern, except the splays and two-centred rear arch, which are possibly of the 14th century; the western is a transomed window of a single light, all modern except the splays and part of the external jambs; the lower part forms a 'low side.' Between the windows is a doorway, all modern except the splays and segmental-pointed rear arch. The chancel-arch, of c. 1400, is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds have attached semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals and defaced bases; the capitals have square moulded projections or brackets on the inner face, evidently to support the former rood-beam, and the base of the arch above has been cut away for the same purpose.

The Nave (50 ft. by 23¼ ft.) has N. and S. arcades, each of four bays; the S. arcade was built c. 1400, and the N. arcade was rebuilt later in the 15th century; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have similar attached shafts. In the N.E. corner is a 15th-century doorway, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, opening into the rood-loft staircase; the upper part of the staircase is blocked. The early 16th-century clearstorey has an embattled parapet, and is of red brick; the four windows on each side are all of two plain four-centred lights under a square head.

The North Aisle (12 ft. wide) is of mid 15th-century date, and has a moulded external plinth, and an embattled parapet, partly of brick. In the E. wall is an acutely pointed window of four lights; the two middle lights are cinquefoiled, but the two outer have been mutilated. In the N. wall are three windows; the eastern is blocked internally by a monument; but the jambs and two-centred head are visible externally; the middle and western windows are each of three cinquefoiled lights under a two-centred head, but the middle window is much restored. Between the last two windows is the N. doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred head and moulded external label. In the W. wall is a modern window in an old opening.

The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a window almost entirely modern except the splays and pointed rear arch; the rake of the original pent-roof of the aisle is visible externally above the window. In the S. wall are three windows all modern except the internal splays. Between the two western windows is the S. doorway of c. 1390, with moulded jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall is an early 16th-century window of brick with three plain four-centred lights and uncusped tracery under a four-centred head.

The West Tower (13½ ft. by 13¾ ft.) is of the 11th century and of four stages with added diagonal western buttresses, and an embattled parapet, with a gargoyle in the middle of each side, in the string-course; the E. half of the two upper stages has been rebuilt in early 16th-century brick and the two square E. buttresses are carried down into the nave. The 15th or early 16th-century tower-arch is moulded and two-centred and the responds have each an attached semi-circular shaft with moulded capital and base. Further N. is a blocked early 16th-century doorway to the stair turret, with a four-centred head; access to the turret is now obtained by a modern external doorway. The N. S. and W. walls of the ground stage each have an original light with a round head; the opening of the S. window has been slightly widened. The second stage had originally in the N. S. and W. walls, respectively, a larger 11th-century window with rebated jambs and round head; all the windows are now blocked and only the jambs remain in the S. wall. The third stage has traces of blocked windows of doubtful date in the N. S. and W. walls. The bell-chamber has in each wall an early 16th-century window of two lights with plain tracery under a two-centred head; the N. window is almost entirely modern and the W. window has a brick mullion and tracery.

The South Porch is of late 14th-century date, with an early 16th-century embattled parapet of brick and stone, partly restored. The two-centred outer archway of c. 1400, much restored, is of two orders, the outer moulded and the inner hollow-chamfered and springing from semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals, much weathered, and modern bases. In the E. wall is a late 14th-century window of two cinquefoiled ogee lights with tracery under a segmental-pointed head. In the W. wall are remains of the jambs and head of a similar window; the N. half of the wall has been repaired with squared ashlar, re-used.

The Roof of the nave is of four bays with plain tiebeams and is probably of 1747, the date inscribed on the W. wall, over the tower-arch, but with old materials re-used; the tie-beams are hollow-chamfered, with curved and moulded braces resting on carved corbels, mostly grotesque; on the S. side two plain corbels are modern. The late 15th-century roof of the N. aisle is of four bays, with moulded main timbers, and tie-beams carved with running foliage; two of the principal tie-beams have added curved braces of c. 1520 with carved spandrels: each spandrel holds a shield, mostly plain, but one has a saltire and another a molet; the third principal tie-beam is of later date. The early 16th-century roof of the S. aisle is similar to, but richer than that of the N. aisle; it is flat and of four bays with moulded rafters and moulded and richly carved principal and intermediate tie-beams and ridge; the principal tie-beams have curved braces with spirally fluted roll-moulding on the edges and spandrels carved with foliage; a carved rose pendant hangs from the middle of each principal tie-beam. The roof of the S. porch has a chamfered ridge and billetted plates of 16th-century date.

Fittings—Bells: five; 1st by John Hodson, 1653. Brass: In N. aisle—on E. respond of arcade, coffin-plate to Sir Thomas Bendishe, baronet, 1672. Chest: In vestry, of oak with fluted ront, shaped bracket feet, three locks and one padlock, early 17th-century. Communion Table: Now in vestry, with turned and twisted legs, c. 1700; fixed under it a modern cupboard with a carved Jacobean front. Doors: In N. doorway, with nail-studded battens and straphinges, 16th or 17th-century, much repaired. In S. doorway, framed and boarded, frame and lock probably 16th century, boarding of later date. Font: In tower, with octagonal stem and bowl, seven faces of bowl with quatrefoil panels and plain shields, 15th-century. Glass: In N. aisle—in E. window, two shields, (a) argent a cheveron sable between three rams' heads razed sable, for Bendish, impaling checky argent and gules a cross azure; (b) Bendish impaling argent a fesse ... between six ring gules (damaged) late 15th or early 16th-century; in N. light of same window, fragments, probably part of pedestal, 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle— on N. wall (1) to Sir John Bendyshe, baronet, 1707, and Martha his wife, 1705, white marble tablet erected c. 1740; on E. respond of N. arcade, (2) to Richard Bendish, 1486, Richard Bendish, 1523, and John Bendish, 1585, stone tablet partly painted, in three bays divided by Composite half-columns supporting an entablature and cresting, three shields of arms. In churchyard—S. of chancel, (3) to Johanah, wife of Amos Swan, 1704; S. of nave, (4) to John French, 1702. Floor-slabs: In chancel, (1) to Lucia (Bough) wife of George Wale, 1678; in N. aisle, (2) to .... only child of .... Mary Beale, lower down, the name of Mary Dyke and date 1636, with shield of arms, much worn; in S. aisle, (3) to John, son of George Gent, 1684. Plate: includes two large flagons of 1639 with a quartered shield of Bendish; two cups of 1712 with a shield of Bendish impaling another coat; a stand-paten and two smaller patens of the same date and with the same arms as the cups. Poor-box: In S. aisle—iron-bound, with three locks and slot in lid, panelled octagonal pedestal with embattled top, late 15th or early 16th-century. Seating: In nave, two modern pews with old panelling at the back, S. pew inscribed "... onsel and Tomas Lond her som ded this stooles to make the yeare of our Lord A. 1568." In tower, eight popeys, made up, with modern benches; also two panelled and embattled fronts with popeys, early 16th-century material made up. In nave at W. end, desk made up with two similar popeys. In porch—two benches with shaped feet, each with one shaped arm, early 16th-century. Miscellanea: In N. aisle—at E. end, funeral helm, combed helm with vizor and wooden crest, a talbot's head coming out of a crown, late 16th-century. On S. respond of chancel-arch—scratched inscriptions, the collect of St. Erkenwald in Latin, 15th-century. On third pier of S. arcade—entry of marriage of "Joh(a)na filia (Ro)bti ..." on the feast of St. George the Martyr, 1358, and another entry with the same date, probably 15th-century. On S. door of chancel—inside, boss, of bronze, gilt, with panels of interlacing and other ornament, four small fishes in relief and sockets for eighteen jewels, probably Irish work, 8th century.

Condition—Fairly good.

Secular

Homestead Moats.

b (3). At Old Hall, 1 m. S.E. of the church; the S.E. scarp of the island is revetted with 16th-century bricks. Adjoining the moat is a long narrow fishpond.

b (4). 400 yards N.W. of Herksted Hall; the moat has a small extension towards the N.

a (5). Bower Hall, 500 yards S. of the church, was built c. 1720, probably near the site of the former house, and contains fireplaces of the first half of the 17th century, re-used: (1) in the hall, of dark marble with moulded jambs, moulded and enriched stops and a square head; the frieze is carved with military trophies in very low relief, and above it is a panel with a 17th-century painting of Audley End House; (2) in the room over the hall, a similar fireplace with a very ornate frieze, carved in low relief with a jungle scene, monkeys, lions, flying dragon, elephant, squirrels, etc.; (3–6) in other rooms on the first floor, four small marble fireplaces with moulded jambs and square heads; (7–8) in two rooms on the second floor, two similar fireplaces with a frieze of conventional foliage in low relief; in one of the rooms is some re-fixed Jacobean panelling, and on each side of the fireplace is a fluted Jacobean pilaster of wood; (9) in another room, a small fireplace like those on the first floor. Two rooms have Jacobean panelling, re-used.

In a sunk fence in the garden are a number of moulded and enriched stones, apparently of mediæval date.

Condition—Of house, good, but rebuilt.

(6). Moyns Park, house and moat, 1 m. E.S.E. of the church. The House is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are partly of red brick, and partly of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. It is of half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.E.; the S.W. wing is of plastered timber-framing, and apparently of the first half of the 16th century, but the rest of the house is of brick and was built by Thomas Gent, probably c. 1580. In the 19th century a low addition was made at the back of the main block, and both wings were extended.

Steeple Bumpstead, Moyns Park

The front is a handsome example of late 16th-century work, and the S.W. wing has good ornamental detail of the first half of the 16th century.

The N.W. Front (see Plate, p. 291) is of seven bays, of which three are occupied by projecting semi-octagonal bay windows. The bay at each end has a large gable, and between the bay windows are smaller gables; each gable has, at the apex and on each side of the base, a stone pinnacle with moulded base and capital. The middle window is above a rectangular porch with pinnacles at the angles; the outer doorway of the porch is squareheaded, moulded and stopped, and above it is a sunk panel, apparently modern, with the Moyne arms; the inner doorway, now disused, is similar to that of the porch; the entrance door is original, and has a moulded panelled wicket and original hinges. The projecting bays, which contain the windows, are only of two storeys, and are finished with horizontal copings; the windows are all of stone with moulded frames, mullions, transoms and cornices; the three faces of the bay windows have each three double-transomed lights, and the other original windows are all of three transomed lights. There are three original rain water-heads of lead with embattled cresting and embossed ornament.

The S.E. or Back Elevation of the main block has a moulded brick eaves-cornice, and the five transomed windows are each of three lights, similar to those in front. There are three chimney-stacks of c. 1580, with octagonal shafts which have moulded bases and capitals, and stand on rectangular bases with moulded cappings; the middle stack is corbelled out from the face of the wall.

The N.E. Elevation has, near the N.W. end, three cemented archways with four-centred heads; they are possibly original, but are now partly or wholly blocked. There are three original windows, one of six, the others each of three lights. At the S.W. end is a gable.

On the S.W. Elevation of the N.E. wing the upper storey is of plastered timber-framing, under-built with 18th-century brick.

On the N.E. Elevation of the S.W. wing (see Plate, p. 292) the upper storey and part of the lower storey are of exposed timber-framing; part of the lower storey is of 16th-century brick. On the S.E. half of the original part of the wing the upper storey projects. There are three gables with original carved barge-boards; two of the gables have original bressumers and carved pendants at the apices and bases. Two modern doors incorporate some original oak carving; one fragment has a head in profile. A window on the ground floor has an old brick window-frame, and a projecting window under the N.W. gable has a carved sill.

The S.W. Elevation of the S.W. wing has been much altered. The upper storey projects and is of plastered timber-framing; the ground storey is of brick, and has two old windows, one of three lights with a moulded oak frame; the other is now blocked. The middle chimney-stack has a base of old bricks.

Interior—The Hall, about 43 ft. by 25 ft., (see Plan 1) has exposed ceiling-beams; two of the doorways have moulded oak frames with ogee stops; the walls are covered to half their height with late 16th-century panelling, which has a carved frieze, and is apparently not in situ. The Drawing-room (2) has 18th-century painted panelling. The Library (3) has walls partly covered with late 16th-century panelling. The Staircase (4) is modern, but at the foot is a late 16th-century carved newel, and against the wall a similar half-newel. A Store-room in the N.E. wing has chamfered ceilingbeams and a massive wall-post with a moulded head. The Basement under the library has a chamfered ceiling-beam, and on one wall is moulded brick corbelling which supports the fireplace above it. In the S.W. wing the S.E. room has two moulded and carved ceiling-beams, and another room has exposed oists. On the first floor are two old panelled doors. The addition at the end of the N.E. wing has an old open timber roof.

The Moat is fairly complete, and is double on the S.E. and N.E. sides.

Condition—Of house, good

b (7). Latchleys Manor House, now a farmhouse, with bridge, barn and moat. The House is of two storeys with a cellar; the walls are of plastered timber-framing, and the roofs are tiled. The plan is of modified L-shape, with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The S. wing was built c. 1500, and in the 16th century the W. wing was added. Early in the 17th century a staircase wing was built in the angle between the others, and probably late in the same century an addition was made on the E. side of the S. wing. In the 18th century the W. wing was extended, and there is a modern addition on the E. side of the house.

The carved ceiling-beams are noteworthy.

On the W. side of the S. wing the upper storey originally projected, but has been under-built. The staircase wing has a moulded eaves-cornice, probably of late 17th or early 18th-century date. The W. end of the W. wing has a gable with late 16th-century carved barge-boards and a moulded pendant at the apex. The central chimney-stack is of late 16th-century date, and has grouped diagonal shafts, modern at the top.

Interior—The Tapestry Room (see Plan 1) has moulded ceiling-beams carved with running foliagedesign and bosses of foliage, and moulded joists. In the modern fireplace is a late 17th-century iron fire-back enriched with figures, etc.; above the fireplace is an old panel painted with a landscape. On the N. wall are some remains of black and white painted decoration of late 16th or early 17th-century date; it has recently been reproduced on the other three walls, which were formerly hung with tapestry; the tapestry is now preserved in the Saffron Walden Museum. There are two late 16th-century panelled doors with over-doors resting on brackets.

The S. Room (2) has chamfered ceiling-beams. The Passage between the two rooms in the S. wing has a late 17th-century panelled door.

The Sitting-room (3) in the W. wing has a panelled oak overmantel of c. 1600, of three bays divided by diminishing pilasters. On the E. wall, behind a modern partition, is some early 17th-century panelling with a moulded and dentilled cornice.

The Staircase (4) is of early 17th-century date; it has a well, square newels, large turned balusters, a heavy moulded rail and a broad string all set at intervals with bolection-moulded diamond-shaped panels. The opening to the cellar stairs has slighter balusters of the same type, and a gate. On the landing of the first floor is an early 17th-century panelled dado with a fluted frieze.

On the first floor the original wing has two cambered tie-beams, one retaining the curved braces. The roof has collar-beams with curved braces meeting in the middle, and curved wind-braces.

Steeple Bumstead, Latchleys

The Bridge, over the moat S. of the house (see Plate, p. 207), is of the 16th-century and of brick. It is of two spans with pointed arches and a cutwater pier, and has a parapet with coping.

The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of the 17th century and of five bays with aisles. The walls are timber-framed and weather-boarded, and the roof is thatched.

The Moat is complete, and of unusual width.

Condition—Of house, bridge, and barn, good.

b (8). Herksted Hall, barn and moat, about 1¾ m. S. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W., but was much altered in the 18th century, and has a modern addition on the N. side. Inside the building, the two front rooms on the ground floor contain panelling, now covered with paper.

The Barn, S.E. of the house, is probably of the 17th century; the walls are of weather-boarded timber-framing, and the roofs are thatched.

Remains of the Moat, which was formerly wedgeshaped, can be traced round the house, though only the W. side still contains water; there are indications of an outer enclosure on the N.E.

Condition—Of house and barn, good.

a (9). Little Walton's Farm, house and moat, nearly 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of plastered timberframing; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1500 on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and S. Early in the 17th century a wing was added on the N. side at the E. end, and on the same side are modern additions. On the E., S. and W. sides of the S. wing the upper storey projects and is supported by massive angle-posts with moulded heads and curved brackets; three original intermediate brackets remain. The upper storey projects also at the end of the 17th-century wing.

The Moat is very incomplete.

Condition—Of house, good.

a (10). School House, called the Moot Hall, (see Plate, p. 310) 120 yards E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of plastered timberframing and modern brick; the roofs are tiled. The school was founded in 1592, but the building was altered in the 18th century and has been extensively restored. The timber-framing is exposed and much restored. On the N.E. Front the upper storey projects and is supported by an original shaped bracket; in the middle of the front is an early 18th-century doorway with an eared architrave, bulging frieze and moulded cornice. On the N.W. Elevation is a projecting bay which formerly contained the staircase; the lower storey of the bay is of modern brick. On the S.W. Elevation the upper storey projects and is supported by shaped brackets; one of them is original; between the uprights are arches with four-centred heads. On the S.E. Elevation are two similar arches and an old chimney-stack, much restored; it has, near the base, a segmental-headed panel with a square label. The roof is hipped, and at the apex is set a mutilated stone lion holding a shield charged with the Tudor Royal Arms.

Inside the building, on the ground floor, is some early 18th-century panelling. On the first floor the roof-timbers are exposed; there are two main beams crossing each other, and the soffits of the rafters and collar-beams are matchboarded.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Monuments (11–33).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered, and have tiled or thatched roofs, and exposed ceiling-beams. Some of the buildings have wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks.

Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.

Church Field

a (11). House, now three tenements. 300 yards W.S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the W. end. The addition against the E. return wall of the cross-wing is modern.

Condition—Poor.

a (12). Cottage, now two tenements, 80 yards N.E. of (11), is of brick, and was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. On the N. side is a wing probably of the 18th century, and at the E. end is a modern addition. On the S. front is an original oak door-frame and a panelled door studded with nails; further W. is an original window of two lights with chamfered brick jambs and mullion and imitation plaster quoins. The angles of the building have similar quoins, and there are traces of the quoins of two other windows. At the E. end is a stepped gable and a 17th-century chimney-stack. At the back is an original window with chamfered jambs.

a (13). House, now three tenements. N. of (12), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W.; the addition on the N.W. side is modern. On the N.E. side of the N.W. wing in the plaster are some late 17th-century panels with round heads.

a (14). House, 60 yards W. of the church, on the S. side of the road, has a central chimney-stack of late 16th-century date, but was probably rebuilt in the 18th century. It is of half-H-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W., but has a modern addition between the wings. The central chimney-stack has an original base with a moulded capping.

a (15). House, now partly post office, 50 yards N.E. of the church, on the N. side of the road, was built in the middle of the 16th century, apparently on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E. Early in the 18th century a shop-wing was added at the S.E. end of the S.W. front, and the rest of the front, including two bay-windows was altered. At the back is a modern wing. The central chimney-stack is original; it has a rectangular base with two panels in front, and four octagonal shafts with linked moulded bases and is modern at the top.

Inside the building, in the shop-wing, are some 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams, re-used.

Condition—Poor.

a (16). Parsonage Farm, house, 60 yards S.E. of the church, was built in the 16th century on an H-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. At the S.E. end of the S.W. wing is a modern addition. On the N.W. front the upper storey projects at the end of the N.E. wing, and has a moulded bressumer. The original S.W. chimney-stack has two attached diagonal shafts. Inside the building, in the main block, is some original panelling, now painted, and in the S.W. wing is some early 17th-century panelling.

a (17). House, 130 yards N.E. of (16). The walls are weather-boarded. It was built on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The original central chimney-stack has a moulded string-course and is modern at the top.

a (18). House, N.E. of (17), was built probably late in the 16th century, with a small staircase wing at the back, but has modern additions at the N. end and at the back. At the N. end of the W. front is a gable with original ornamental bargeboards; the upper storey projects on four curved brackets. The original base of the central chimney-stack has a moulded capping. Inside the building are shaped wall-posts and two old doors, one is battened, and the other panelled.

a (19). House, 320 yards N.N.E. of the church, on the W. side of the road, was built in the second half of the 16th century on a rectangular plan, with two small wings at the back, but was much altered in the 18th century. At the N.W. end are modern additions. The original central chimney-stack has a base with two sunk panels on one side, and a moulded capping; the four octagonal shafts have linked moulded bases and a modern capping.

a (20). Cottage, 220 yards N. of the church, on the E. side of the road.

a (21). Cottage, now five tenements, 150 yards N. of (20), on the W. side of the road, was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.

Condition—Poor.

a (22). Cottage, now three tenements, 50 yards E. of (21). The original central chimney-stack has a shaft with rebated angles.

Condition—Poor.

a (23). Brickhouse Farm, house, at End Way, 700 yards N.N.E. of the church. The walls are of timber-framing, partly exposed, with original brick nogging. It was built probably in the middle of the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W., and with a small staircase wing at the back. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects, and has curved brackets with a moulded bressumer, carved with vine-pattern. In the lower storey are three original windows, now blocked, with flat moulded sills. At the back is a large original chimney-stack with the bases of three octagonal shafts rebuilt at the top. Inside the building are shaped wall-posts; in the N.E. wall of the staircase wing is an original window now blocked with two moulded mullions.

a (24). Lowerhouse Farm, house, 580 yards N.E. of (23), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N., and with a staircase projection in the angle. At the back of the W. wing is a modern addition. On the S. front the upper storey projects and is supported by four curved brackets. Inside the building are shaped wall-posts and, on the first floor, two original round-headed doorways, now covered with wallpaper.

a (25). Cottage, now two tenements, 380 yards E.N.E. of (24).

a (26). Great Walton's Farm, house and barn, 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The House was built in the 17th century on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the W. end. On the N. side are additions, probably of the 18th century, and the cross-wing has been partly re-faced with modern brick. The original central chimney-stack of the cross-wing has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, in the cross-wing, is an original fireplace with chamfered jambs and three-centred head of brick.

The Barn, N.E. of the house, has two porches and an iron roof.

a (27). Surridge's Farm, house, now three tenements, 800 yards S. of (26), has an original central chimney-stack with the remains of grouped diagonal shafts.

a (28). Broadgreen Farm, house, now two tenements, 400 yards S.W. of (27), is of T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the N.E. end. The main block is of early 17th-century date, but the cross-wing is perhaps older. On the front of the main block the timber-framing is exposed.

a (29). Blois Farm, house, ½ m. N.E. of the church, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and has modern additions at the back. The original chimney-stack has three diagonal shafts.

b (30). Coote's Farm, house, now two tenements, 1 m. S.E. of the church, was built in the second half of the 16th century on an irregular T-shaped plan, with the cross-wing at the N. end, but there are extensive modern additions on the E., W. and S. On the E. front the original cross-wing has a projecting gable with a turned pendant, and barge boards carved with a running vine-ornament; the bressumer of the gable is carved with running foliage, and has under it, a carved depressed arch; the upper storey also projects and has a moulded bressumer carved with vine-ornament. In the longer wing, at the N. end, the upper storey projects on two carved brackets. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building are shaped, wall-posts, and N. of the central chimney-stack is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

b (31). Old Park Farm, house, 1,000 yards S. of (30), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on an H-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the N.W. and S.E. ends. At the back of the S.E. wing is a modern addition. The central chimney-stack of the N.W. wing is of the 17th century, and has a square pilaster on two faces.

Condition—Poor.

b (32). Cottage, formerly Ryder's Farm, but now a storehouse, 600 yards S.E. of (31), was built late in the 16th century, and has a later addition at the W. end and a modern addition at the E. end. Inside the building is a shaped wall-post.

Condition—Poor.

b (33). Cottage, 600 yards E. of Herksted Hall (8), was built, probably c. 1700, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W.