An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 4, South east. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
41. HORNCHURCH. (A.d.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)lxvii. S.W. (b)lxxiv. N.E. (c)lxxiv. S.E. (d)lxxv. N.W.)
Hornchurch is a parish and village about 2 m. S.E. of Romford. The principal monuments are the church and Nelmes.
d(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew (Plate, p. 70) stands on the E. side of the village. The walls are of septaria and ragstone-rubble, with some brick; the dressings are of limestone; the roofs are covered with lead. The Chancel and Nave, with N. and S. aisles, were built about the middle of the 13th century. Early in the 15th century the North and S. Aisles were re-built; later in the same century the North and S. Chapels, the West Tower and the North Porch were added; the clearstorey of the nave was built about the same time. The church has been restored in modern times, the South Chapel and Aisle being re-built in brick.
The tower is a fairly good example of its period, and among the fittings are some interesting brasses and monuments.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (40¼ ft. by 16½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is a window, all modern except the 15th-century splays and rear-arch; further W. is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch; the 15th-century N. arcade is of two bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders; the column is octagonal, with moulded capital and base, and the responds have attached half columns; above the arcade is an early 16th-century clearstorey window of three trefoiled lights in a square head and now partly blocked. The S. wall has windows and arcade uniform with those in the N. wall; the clearstorey window is entirely blocked. In the back of the westernmost bay of the sedilia (see Fittings) is a squint from the S. chapel. The chancel-arch is modern except for the N. respond, which is of mid 13th-century date and has three attached shafts divided by small rolls.
The North Chapel (31 ft. by 13¼ ft.) is of late 15th-century date and has an E. and two N. windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the W. wall is an early 16th-century archway, four-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The South Chapel has been almost entirely re-built and has, re-set in the E. wall, a late 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head. In the S. wall are two re-set windows of late 15th-century date and each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a segmental-pointed head, patched with cement.
The Nave (53½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has mid 13th-century N. and S. arcades, each of four bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the cylindrical columns have moulded capitals and bases and the responds have attached half columns; the S.E. respond and the capital of the N.E. respond are modern; above the third column on the N. is a round panel enclosing a quatrefoil and five carved flowers. The 15th-century clearstorey has on each side four much restored windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head.
The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) has in the N. wall three windows similar to those in the N. chapel; between the two western is the 15th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label; the spandrels have defaced carving. In the W. wall is a window uniform with those in the N. wall.
The South Aisle has been re-built, but re-set in the S. wall are three windows uniform with the S. windows in the S. chapel. In the W. wall is a re-set window uniform with the E. window of the S. chapel.
The West Tower (16 ft. square) is of late 15th-century date and of three stages with an embattled parapet and embattled turrets rising above each angle; on the tower is a short copper-covered spire. The two-centred tower-arch is of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The W. window, restored externally, is of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the W. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and plain shields in the spandrels, all restored in cement; above the window is a stone carved with the letter M or a reversed W in relief. The ground stage is divided into two storeys by a ringing gallery. The second stage has in each wall a window of one trefoiled light in a square head, all partly restored; the N. window is covered by a clock-face and the S. and W. windows have moulded labels. The bell-chamber has in each wall a partly restored window of three trefoiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label. The W. face of the parapet has a stone with the initials R F carved in relief. On the stair-turret is a niche and figure, see Niche under Fittings.
The North Porch is of the 15th century and has a two-centred outer archway of two moulded orders with double chamfered jambs. The side walls have each a window, all modern except the splays and rear-arches.
The Roof of the chancel is flat-pitched and of early 16th-century date; it is of three bays with moulded main timbers and stunted king-posts; one tie-beam is modern. The 15th-century roof of the N. chapel is of two bays with moulded main timbers and curved braces to the tie-beams, forming four-centred arches. The N. aisle has a similar roof of four bays. The roof of the nave is similar to that of the chancel, but the tie-beams are carved with grotesque faces. The 15th-century roof of the N. porch is similar to that of the N. chapel and has moulded rafters and hollow-chamfered braces and wall-posts. The modern roof of the S. chapel and aisle incorporate some old timbers and one or two old stone corbels.
Fittings—Bell: clock-bell said to be by Anthony Bartlet, 1674. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—(1) to George Reede, LL.B., vicar of the parish, 1530, inscription and scroll with indents of figure and four roundels; (2) to James Pollexfen, B.C.L., Fellow, etc., of St. Mary's College, Oxford, 1587, inscription only; (3) in same slab, of two wives of [William Drywode, 1602], figures of two women in hats, etc., rest of brass lost; (4) to Homphry Drywood, 1595, inscription only, on same slab; (5) group of five boys, c. 1500, on same slab; (6) a shield of c. 1500, on a cheveron three hawk's heads razed (?), on same slab; (7) to Peerce Pennaunte, 1590, inscription with achievement-of-arms re-set in another slab; (8) probably to Thomas Scargile, 1475, and Elizabeth, his wife, shield-of-arms a saltire charged with a fleur-de-lis and a border for Scargile, indents of figure of man in armour, wife, inscription-plate and three shields; (9) to [Katherine (Powlet), wife of William Fermor, 1510], all lost except two shields re-set in indents of (8), (a) a fess between three lions' heads with three anchors on the fess for Fermor impaling a quartered shield of Powlet as (b), (b) Powlet quartering Ereby, Delamore and Skelton; (10) of Thomas Drywood, 1591, and Anne, his wife, with figures of man and wife and groups of eight sons and three daughters, original indent of this brass with fragment of marginal inscription partly covered by organ; (11) to Sire Boneface de Hart, canon of 'Oste' (? Aosta), late 13th or early 14th-century, indents of foliated cross, half figures of two ecclesiastics, three shields and marginal inscription in separate capitals, two letters (N and F) only remain. In N. chapel—on N. wall, (12) of Thomas Hone, 1604, with groups of six sons and six daughters, figures of man and wife re-set in slab in chancel with earlier indents, shield-of-arms belonging to this brass, in another slab in chancel (see Indent (5)). Indents: In chancel—(1) of two figures and inscription-plate, early 16th-century; (2) of figure of woman and inscription-plate, c. 1520; (3) to (?) Philip de Dovre, early 14th-century, marginal inscription in separate capitals; (4) of figures of man and wife, two groups of children, and inscription-plate, 16th-century; (5) of figures of man and wife, inscription-plate, and two shields, c. 1480; (6) of figure of man, inscription-plate and two shields, probably 15th-century; (7) of inscription-plate and shield-of-arms; (8) of figures of man and wife, two groups of children and inscription-plate, late 15th-century. In W. tower—(9) of inscription-plate; (10) of figures of man and wife, two groups of children, inscription-plate and one shield, mid 16th-century; (11 and 12) defaced indents. Coffin-lids: On N. of tower, with foliated cross on stepped base, 13th-century; on S. of tower, fragment with part of stem of cross. Doors: In N. doorway—of two folds, each with four vertical panels with traceried heads, moulded rail at springing level of arch and plain panels above, early 15th-century. In W. doorway—of two folds each with vertical panels, moulded rail at springing of arch; early 16th-century. In doorway to turret-staircase of tower, with vertical chamfered fillets and strap-hinges, early 16th-century. Glass: In N. chapel—in E. window, a fragmentary Crucifixion (with later female head) and Christ enthroned, and parts of two shields-of-arms (a) probably argent billetty sable a fesse dancetty sable for Deyncourt, (b) Deyncourt impaling a cheveron between three wheatsheaves, numerous fragments of a border of leopards' heads and coloured glass, tabernacle work, portions of figures, white roses, and quarries with conventional designs, 15th and 16th-century. Image: see Niche. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—under N. arcade, (1) to [William Ayloffe, 1517, and Audrey (Shaa), his wife], altar-tomb with moulded slab and base, sides and end with quatre-foiled and sub-cusped panels, each enclosing a shield—(a) a collared lion between three crosses formy, for Ayloffe, (b) Ayloffe impaling a cheveron ermine between three lozenges ermine, for Shaa, (c) a cross charged with a leopard's head a crescent for difference for Bruges or Bridges impaling Ayloffe, (d) Ayloffe, (e) Ayloffe impaling Shaa, (f) Shaa impaling a fesse engrailed between three cinquefoils for Darcy, sinking for brass fillet round slab. In S. chapel—on E. wall, (2) of Humfrey Pye, 1625, alabaster and marble wall-monument with kneeling figure in civil costume at prayer-desk, carved side-pilasters, cornice and two shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (3) of Richard Blakstone or Blaston, 1638, alabaster and marble wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and wife in recess with draped and curtained canopy flanked by headless female figures, achievement and two shields-of-arms. In S. chapel—on S. wall (4) to Sir Francis Prujean, 1666, marble tablet with Ionic side columns, entablature and broken pediment, achievement and two shields-of-arms. In tower—on N. wall (5) to Thomas Withring, 1651, chief Postmaster of Great Britain, marble tablet with side pilasters and obelisks, round arch and segmental pediment, achievement and two shields-of-arms, below tablet two small recumbent skeletons; (6) to Charles Pratt, 1624, marble tablet with Corinthian side columns and broken pediment; on S. wall (7) of Francis Rame, 1617, and Helen, his wife, 1613, marble wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and wife in recess with side pilasters and entablature, on base figures in relief of nine sons and a daughter; (8) to Charles Ryves (Ryvius) S.T.P., vicar of the parish, 1610, marble tablet with carved frame. In churchyard—W. of tower (9) name illegible, but of 1698, head-stone with fluted pilasters. Floor-slabs; In chancel—(1) to Sir Edward Jackman, 1650; (2) to Sir John Sudbury, Bart., 1691, and Bridget (Exton), his wife, also to Ann, their daughter, 1691, with achievement-of-arms. In N. chapel—(3) probably to (Richard Bl)akeston, 1638; (4) with name hidden, c. 1650, with lozenge-of-arms. In tower—(5) to George Thorowgood, 1648, with shield-of-arms. In churchyard—E. of chancel (6) to Francis Shaw, vicar of the parish, 1696, also to Jane, 1697, Edward 1697, and Elizabeth, 1697, his children. Niche: On W. tower—on W. face of stair-turret, with square head and carved seated figure of bishop in mass vestments, much weathered, 15th-century. Piscina: In chancel— modern, but incorporating W. side of cinque-foiled arch in a square head, spandrel carved with rose and foliage, 15th-century. Plate (Plate, p. xliv): includes cup and cover-paten of 1563, with bands of engraved ornament, and flagon of 1699, given in 1700, with locking-lid and whistle. Paintings: In nave—on S. respond of tower-arch, outline of shield, 16th or 17th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—of three bays divided by shafts with moulded capitals and bases, jambs with attached shafts, cinque-foiled heads, c. 1270, but very much restored. Stoup: On tower—S. of W. doorway, with stone jambs and segmental brick head, now filled in, 15th-century, repaired in the 16th century.
Condition—Structurally good, but some dressings perished and roof not altogether weather-proof.
c(2). Homestead Moat, at Dovers, 3 m. S.S.W. of the church.
a(3). Nelmes, house, outbuildings and moat, about 1 m. N. of the church. The House is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. The S.E. wing was built in the 16th century on a half H-shaped plan, with wings extending towards the S., and has a 17th-century addition on the N. At the same time the E. kitchen-wing was built. Subsequent alterations include the demolition of the kitchen-wing and a modern addition between the wings of the original house.
The main staircase is a rich example of an unusual type.
The S. front was refaced c. 1720. The W. elevation has a moulded string on the S. block and the 17th-century addition has rusticated angles. The N. elevation is of rusticated brickwork and has a brick eaves-cornice. The lower part of the N. wall of the kitchen-wing remains; it is of similar rusticated brickwork and has a moulded brick plinth. Inside the building the back staircase is of early 17th-century date and has moulded handrail and strings, turned balusters and square newels with moulded knobs and pendants. In the adjoining passage is some late 16th-century panelling and there are some doors of the same date. The main staircase (Plates, pp. 71, 75) to the first floor is of late 17th-century date. It has panelled and carved newel posts, with moulded tops surmounted by spherical knobs carved with acanthus leaf, heavy moulded hand-rail and carved moulded string, and in place of balusters are large moulded panels with elaborate pierced carving of conventional foliage and flowers. The staircase is partly supported by an Ionic column standing on a shaped pedestal. In the hall is a doorway with a round moulded head, a tympanum with radial flutings and a panelled door. At the top of the stairs are some turned and twisted balusters, which are said to have been taken from the church.
The Outbuilding, about 100 yards S.W. of the house, is now a dwelling known as Capel Nelmes, and is said to have been the stables. It is of brick and of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 16th century and has in the N. wall two original two-light windows and one of four lights, each light having a four-centred head; in the attic is an original square-headed window of two lights. The 17th-century staircase was removed here from Nelmes in recent years and has moulded hand-rail, string and newels and heavy turned balusters.
The Moat is fragmentary.
Condition—Of house and outbuilding, good.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good, or fairly good.
High Street, N. side
d(4). Dury Falls, house, 300 yards E. of the church, was built in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E.; the S.E. wing was extended in the 18th century and there are large modern additions. The 17th-century main chimney-stack has six grouped diagonal shafts on a rectangular base and that at the N.E. end of the original block has two diagonal shafts on a moulded base.
d(5). The Vicarage, N. of the church, has modern additions on the N., E. and W., and has otherwise been much altered.
d(6). The Hall, 120 yards N. of the church, was built in the 16th century and has a large modern addition on the S. front. One 17th-century chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts on a rectangular buttressed base. Inside the building the dairy has a red brick floor divided into patterns by lines of bones. Another room has its floor lined with stone slabs, the centre of each slab being cut out and filled with a square of small bricks. One room has some original panelling. There is some 17th-century brick walling in the garden N. of the house.
d(7). The King's Head Inn, 300 yards W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The original building was on an L-shaped plan, but has been added to and much modernized.
d(8). Plough House, shop and tenement, 500 yards N.W. of the church, was built early in the 16th-century and has modern additions on the E. and S.
The upper storey projected on the S. and W. fronts, but on the W. has been under-built and on the S. incorporated in the modern extension. There is a 16th-century doorway, with a four-centred head, to the shop. Inside the building is a similar doorway.
d(9). House, now tenements, and shop, 30 yards S.W. of (8), is of two storeys with attics; it is partly faced with brick. It was built in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and N.; the N. wing was extended N. in the 17th century. A projecting chimney-stack on the E. front is partly of stone.
d(10). The Bull Inn, 100 yards W. of (9), was built probably in the 16th century and has an 18th-century block on the S. front. A 17th-century chimney-stack on the N. side has three diagonal shafts on a buttressed base.
d(11). Pennant's Almshouses, 50 yards W. of (10), were built probably c. 1597, but have been almost entirely re-built in the 18th century.
b(12). House, now three tenements, 100 yards W. of (11), was built probably in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the E. and S. A 17th-century chimney-stack on the S. side has two diagonal shafts.
d(13). House, now three tenements, 60 yards E. of (12), was built in the 16th century and has an 18th-century extension on the E. The upper storey projects in front and has a piece of a 17th or 18th-century carved fascia on the bressummer.
d(14). House, now two tenements and cartway, opposite (9), was built in the 15th century and was probably an inn. The upper storey of the gateway and E. wing projects on both sides; the gateway forms a gabled cross-wing and retains. at the back, its original curved braces.
d(15). House, now two tenements, opposite (9), was built possibly in the 16th century. The upper storey at the N.E. end of the house originally projected at the back, but has now been under-built.
d(16). House, 60 yards S.E. of No. 15, is of two storeys with attics. It is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W.; the S.W. wing was built probably in the 15th century and the S.E. in the 16th century. Below the eaves in the N.W. wall of the original building is a blocked four-light window. The 17th-century chimney-stack of the S.E. wing has three diagonal shafts.
d(17). Cottage, 650 yards N.W. of the church.
d(18). White House, on E. side of North Street, 50 yards N. of (17), is of two storeys with attics and has modern additions on the E. The original central chimney-stack is of a cross-shaped plan, set diagonally on a square moulded base. On the E. side of the central stack is a gabled stair-turret with a central newel.
d(19). Hacton Farm, house and barn, about 1,100 yards S. of the church. The House is of T-shaped plan, with the cross-wings at the N. end, and was built late in the 16th century and extended S. in the 17th century. The original central chimney-stack is of four grouped shafts set diagonally, and there is a blocked attic window, with moulded head, jambs and mullion in the S. wall of the 16th-century building.
The Barn, N. of the house, is a large building of brick, with chimney projections on the N. side, and was originally the wing of a 16th-century house. There are several original windows, now blocked, and three original fireplaces, one with a four-centred head and one blocked.
c(20). Brittons, house and barns, 2 m. S.W. of the church. The House, though practically re-built in the 18th century, incorporates some fragments of mediaeval coursed limestone and septaria-masonry, and some 16th and 17th-century brickwork in its walls, indicating a former building of considerable size. In the attics is some 16th and 17th-century linen-fold and moulded panelling with a carved figure; there is a re-set staircase to the third storey of c. 1700, with a moulded handrail and string and carved and twisted balusters.
The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of brick. The N. wall has a moulded plinth and is of 16th-century date, but the rest of the building is modern, though some old timbers have been re-used in the roof. Running E. from the barn is an old wall, the lower part of which is of flint-rubble, the upper of 16th-century brickwork and re-used ashlar. The top is modern. The Barn S. of the above is of 16th-century brick with a moulded plinth, the E. and W. walls are gabled and have weathered copings and stepped terminals, and the N. wall is divided into nine bays by weathered buttresses. In the E. wall are the remains of an original doorway and window, with a four-centred head, above which runs a moulded string-course. The middle entrance in the N. wall is modern, but on either side are four narrow square-headed lights with wide internal splays and there are corresponding original lights in the wall opposite. In the centre of the S. wall is a blocked doorway, with a wide four-centred head and towards the W. end of the wall is a rough heart-shaped diaper in black headers. The roof is divided into nine bays by queen-post trusses having cambered tie-beams supported by curved braces which spring off stepped brick corbels. The roof has been very much repaired.
S. of the barn is a 16th-century garden-wall enclosing a square garden. In the centre of the N. wall is a doorway with a four-centred head, to the E. of which is a V in black headers. W. of the doorway are five niches with four centred heads and there are also five niches in the W. wall. Part of the W. wall retains its original plaster.
b(21). Wyebridge Farm, house, about 1¾ m. W.S.W. of the church, was built in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with wings extending towards the S.E. and N.E. A 17th-century chimney-stack and modern extensions have been built on the N.E. side. The upper storey of the N.E. wing projects on the S.W. front, and on the N.W. front the timber-framing is exposed. An original chimney-stack in the centre of this wall is of three diagonal shafts and the two shafts of the 17th-century stack are similar; there are two original windows with moulded frames, now blocked.
b(22). Crown Inn, about 1½ m. W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; although it incorporates some old timbers, possibly of 17th-century date, it has been almost entirely re-built in modern brick. On the W. side is a modern plaster panel with the date A.D. 1433.
b(23). Bush Elms, house, nearly 1¼ m. N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The E. cross-wing was built in the 15th century, but the Hall and the W. cross-wing were re-built in the 17th century. There are modern additions on the N. and S.W. The upper storey projects at the S. end of the original wing. The 17th-century central chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts. Inside the building the screen dividing the original wing from the former Hall remains and has two four-centred doorways, one of which is blocked. In the roof is a king-post truss with central purlin and four-way struts.
There are some fragments of worked masonry in the garden, including a piece of a 15th-century semi-octagonal respond with its moulded capital and base, and in the greenhouse are a few 13th-century glazed tiles.
d(24). Burnt Houses, cottage, about 1 m. N.N.W. of the church.
d(25). House, now four tenements, on E. side of North Street, about 1,200 yards N.N.W. of the church, was originally of T-shaped plan; it has been considerably added to. The original chimney-stack has two diagonal shafts.
d(26). Lillyputs, house, about 1 m. N.E. of the church is built partly of brick. The original house was extended S. late in the 17th century and has a modern addition on the N.
d(27). Fairkytes, house, 800 yards N.W. of the church, was built c. 1700, but has been much altered. Inside the building is an early 18th-century staircase, with turned balusters and cut string.
Horndon, see Horndon-on-the-Hill, East Horndon and West Horndon.