An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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54 MARDEN (B.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXVI, N.E., (b)XXVI, S.E., (c)XXVII, N.W., (d)XXVII, S.W.)
Marden is a large parish, on the left bank of the Lugg, 5 m. N. of Hereford. The church, with its apsidal chancel and bell-cote, Amberley Chapel, Laystone Bridge, Amberley Court, which is a singularly complete instance of 14th-century planning and timber construction, and Wisteston Court, are the principal monuments.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Mary (Plates 10, 166) stands in the S.W. part of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with ashlar and dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The N. arcade and aisle were built c. 1220–30, followed by the S. arcade and aisle immediately after; the varied detail of the renewed E. responds and the skewed line of the chancel-arch may indicate that this wall is of earlier date than the rebuilding of the nave-arcades. The Chancel was re-built at the beginning of the 14th century, and c. 1340 the N.W. Tower and spire were added. A N. porch was added in the angle between the tower and N. aisle, probably in the 15th century, but has now been destroyed. The Nave and Aisles were re-built, largely with the old materials, in 1860.
The church is remarkable for its apsidal chancel and sanctus bell-cote.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (41¼ ft. by 20 ft.) is of the early years of the 14th century and has a three-sided apse, each face with a window of two trefoiled lights with a cinque-foiled and sub-cusped circle in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In both the N. and S. walls, W. of the apse, are two similar windows; between those in the N. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head, perhaps of rather later date than the rest of the wall. The two-centred chancel-arch is of two continuous chamfered orders; the springing-stones are notched for a former beam and lower down there are two more notches for other beams; flanking the arch are two 14th-century squints with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads. On the gable is a reconstructed sanctus bell-cote with a pointed opening and a gabled head of the 14th century.
The Nave (14½ ft. by 19¾ ft.) has a reconstructed N. arcade of four bays of c. 1220–30, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders and chamfered labels; the cylindrical columns have moulded capitals and bases and the W. respond has an attached half-column; the E. respond, though modern, is of a different and earlier type than the rest of the arcade. The reconstructed S. arcade is of c. 1230–40, and generally similar to the N. arcade but with rather later details; the E. respond is modern and similar to the E. respond on the N. In the W. wall is a modern window, and above it is a modern window in the gable. The clearstorey has three modern windows on each side.
The North Aisle (7½ ft. wide) has no ancient features.
The South Aisle (7½ ft. wide) has modern windows, but re-set in the S. wall is a 13th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two moulded orders and a moulded label, all much retooled and renewed.
The North-West Tower (11 ft. wide) is of c. 1340 and of three stages, ashlar-faced and finished with a plain parapet, pinnacles and a stone spire. Internally it was divided into five storeys. The ground storey has, in the E. wall, a doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders with a moulded label; the N. and W. walls have each a loop-light. On the E. face are marks of the roof of the former porch and the lower stones of the moulded W. jamb of the 15th-century outer entrance. The second storey has, in the E. wall, a single-light window with a trefoiled ogee head and seats in the embrasure. The third storey has a single trefoiled ogee light in the N. wall. There is a similar window in the E. wall of the fourth storey, which retains only the corbels of its former floor. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; beside the E. window is a panel with a shield-of-arms, a bend. The octagonal ashlar-faced spire rises from within the parapet and rests on stone squinches; the upper part has two ranges of crockets.
The Roof of the chancel is probably of the 17th century and has three trusses, with tie-beams, collars and king-posts.
Fittings—Bells: six; 2nd, 3rd and 6th, 1622, founder uncertain. In the Hereford Museum—Small bell of early or Celtic form (15 in. high) found in a pond at Marden about 1860. Brasses: In chancel— on S. wall, (1) of Margaret (Welford), wife of Sir George Chute, 1614, and Anne and Francis, 1614, their daughters, figures of woman and daughters on plates, inscription and shield-of-arms; (2) to Henry Wall, 1579, inscription only. Door: In E. doorway of tower—of nail-studded battens, 17th-century. Font: twelve-sided bowl with trefoil-headed panel in each face, moulded under side, plain stem and moulded base, late 13th or early 14th-century, stem modern or re-cut. Monuments: In chancel—on S. wall, (1) to Philibert Burghill, 1653, and Jane (Garnens), his wife, 1661, white marble tablet with cornice, cherub-head, urns and cartouche-of-arms. In churchyard— head-stones, E. of chancel, (2) to Anne [?], wife of . . ., and Anne, wife of Edw[ard ?] . . ., c. 1700, twin head-stone; (3) to John Greene, c. 1700; (4) to Ann, daughter of William . . ., 1708. Panelling: In chancel—cupboard incorporating 17th-century panels and brackets. Piscina: In chancel—recess with trefoiled head and rough drain, early 14th-century. Plate: includes cup without marks, cover-paten, stand-paten and flagon, all of 1707. Scratchings: On tower— various scratched crosses and other marks. Miscellanea: On N. face of tower, traces of red line said to have been made for the game of fives. In chancel—in side walls, chace and two iron staples, probably connected with the lenten-veil.
In the nave, near the W. wall, is a well, traditionally connected with St. Ethelbert, who is said to have been first buried here.
d(2). Amberley Chapel (dedication unknown) stands in the E. part of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. Some details remain of a late 12th-century building and parts of the existing structure may be of this period. The chapel, in general, however, was reconstructed early in the 14th century and consists of Chancel, Nave and South Porch. It was restored in 1865.
Architectural Description—The details, unless otherwise described, are of early 14th-century date. The Chancel (18 ft. by 17¼ ft.) has an E. window of three plain pointed lights in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is a restored window of two plain pointed lights in a two-centred head; farther W. are traces of a former doorway. In the S. wall is a window uniform with that in the N. wall, and farther W. a window of one trefoiled light. There is no chancel-arch, but a straight joint on the internal face of the S. wall and a break in the build in the N. wall indicate a difference in date between the chancel and the nave.
The Nave (23¾ ft. by 17¼ ft.) has, in the N. wall, a window all modern except parts of the splays, jambs and sill. In the S. wall is a window of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the S. doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall is a partly restored window uniform with that in the S. wall of the nave. On the gable is a gabled stone bell-cote with two openings having trefoiled ogee heads on the W. face and flat lintels on the E. face.
The South Porch has an outer archway, perhaps of late 12th-century date, re-set; it has roll-moulded jambs, rounded arch and moulded label. The side-walls have each a window of one trefoiled ogee light.
Fittings—Bells: two; uninscribed and probably modern. Brackets: In chancel—on E. wall, stone with rounded top member on tapering corbel, the latter probably modern; farther S. corbel-capital (Plate 11) with square abacus, concave scallops and tapering shaft, late 12th-century. Font: In garden of Amberley Court—plain tapering cylindrical bowl, 12th or 13th-century. Piscina: In chancel—recess with trefoiled head and square drain, early 14th-century. Plate: includes cup, cover-paten and stand-paten of 1704. Recess: In E. wall—N. of window, rectangular with moulded stone framing and embattled top, segmental sub-head, 15th-century.
b(3). Laystone Bridge (Plate 167), crossing the river Lugg between the parishes of Marden and Wellington, is of stone and of four spans. Its predecessor was probably the bridge referred to by Leland under the name of Wisterton Bridge. The existing structure dates from not later than the 17th century, to which period belong the two original side arches and the piers between them and the main arch. The main arch, formerly central, has been heightened and the brick arch is modern. The W. arch is an addition of the 18th century. The parapets are modern. The two original arches are plain and semi-circular, and the original piers have cut-waters on both the up and the down sides. The bridge is approached, on the W. side, by a road with a stone revetment towards the river.
d(4). Amberley Court (Plate 94), house and outbuildings, 2 m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with stone slates and tiles. It was built probably in the first half of the 14th century and is of modified H-shaped plan with a central Hall and cross-wings at the S.E. and N.W. ends. The Hall was divided into two storeys, probably in the 16th century. The side-walls of the Hall and other parts have been re-faced in stone, probably in the 18th century.
The building is a remarkably complete example of a 14th-century house.
The external timber-framing, where exposed, is in large squares; the ends of the wings have cambered beams at the base of the gables, with curved struts from the angle-posts. Inside the building the Hall, formerly of one storey, has an original roof (Plate 169) of two bays, with a narrow screens-bay at the N.W. end. The main trusses have wall-posts and collars with curved braces forming four-centred arches; above the collars are struts cut, with the collars and principals, to form three foiled openings. The bays are sub-divided by subsidiary trusses with higher collars and curved braces below them; above, the collars and principals are cut to a trefoiled form, and below the braces, the principals have a scalloped edge of shallow foils. The screens-truss has two posts under the collar, carried down as speres; from them spring curved braces under the collar forming a two-centred arch; above the collar are three foiled openings as in the main trusses. The spere-posts are moulded and have cross-beams carried back to the side-walls; below these were foiled braces, and above them is a foiled opening. Cut on one of the posts is the inscription "Tuder [?] 1452." The mouldings of the spere-posts are returned at the springing of the main braces as though for a beam across the main span, but now cut back. Between the purlins are two ranges of foiled wind-braces. The N.W. wall of the Hall has some of its original framing. The inserted floor in the Hall has chamfered ceiling-beams. The N.W. or Buttery-wing has an original roof (Plate 168) of three main bays; some of the trusses have been altered; the main trusses had tie-beams with curved braces below and sloping struts above, forming foiled openings with the principals; each bay has a subsidiary truss with a collar and a foiled opening above it. There is a single range of foiled wind-braces on each side. The lower part of the wing retains some original framing and joists. The S.E. or Solar wing has a roof similar to that in the Buttery wing, but much concealed by partitions.
The Outbuildings, N.W. of the house, include two timber-framed barns of 16th or early 17th-century date and each of five bays, also a cowhouse of three bays and of similar date and construction.
a(5). Wisteston Court, house and outbuildings, about 1 m. N.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys partly timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are covered with slates, stone-slates and tiles. The block on the W. side of the courtyard is probably of 15th-century date and perhaps included a singlestorey Hall subsequently divided into two storeys. The adjoining block on the S. of the courtyard was added early in the 17th century and subsequently extended to form the main block of the house not earlier than late in the 18th century. The 17th-century buildings on the N. side of the courtyard include a rectangular structure incorporating work of 1715. The original block has been largely re-faced in brick and stone, but some of the timber-framing is exposed at the N. end and in the projecting N.E. wing. The rectangular building N. of the courtyard is mainly of stone and has a doorway with rusticated jambs and a panel inscribed "Ostium clausum, Lingua libera, 1715"; the nail-studded door has ornamental strap-hinges. Inside the building the original block has some exposed ceiling-beams. In the S. block is some early 17th-century panelling, including a dado with a fluted frieze; in the hall is some late 16th-century heraldic glass, probably from Wisteston Chapel; it includes a shield with the Arden arms.
The Outbuildings N.W. of the house, is a 17th-century timber-framed building of four bays. E. of the house is a 17th-century building (Plate 34) of stone. The windows have moulded oak frames and mullions. The outbuilding S.W. of the house is timber-framed and mostly weather-boarded; it dates from the 17th century. The front entrance (Plate 37) to the courtyard has early 18th-century stone piers with plinths and cornices, and surmounted by carved stone vases. The gateway (Plate 37) in the S. wall of the garden has similar stone piers with enriched mouldings and gadrooned vases. At the S.W. angle of the garden is a re-set stone pinnacle.
Condition—Of house, poor.
c(6). The Vauld Farm (Plate 23), house and outbuildings, 2 m. N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and with slate-covered roofs. It was built early in the 16th century with a central block and cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. The timber-framing is mostly exposed; the upper storey projects at the N.W. ends of the cross-wings, the projection of the S.W. wing has an original moulded bressummer. An external stone staircase gives access to a granary on the first floor. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams.
The Barn, N.N.E. of the house, is of the 17th century, timber-framed and of three bays. The stable and cowhouse, N.W. of. the house, is timber-framed and of c. 1700, but much re-built. Immediately N. of it is a second timber-framed barn of the 17th century and of three bays.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and with tile or slate-covered roofs. Most of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
c(7). Little Vauld, house, 300 yards S.E. of (6), has been extended at both ends.
c(8). Red Barn Farm, house, 250 yards N. of (6), has a roof of corrugated iron.
c(9). Cottage, on the S. side of the road at Monmarsh, nearly 2 m. N.E. of the church, has a thatched roof.
c(10). Litmarsh Farm, house, 400 yards N. of (10). A barn, N.W. of the house, has been re-built except the W. end.
c(11). Ash Grove, house and barn, 2¼ m. N.E. of the church. The House was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but has been largely re-faced with brick and stone. The Barn, S.E. of the house, has been largely re-built.
a(12). Cottage, at Kitten Gate, 2 m. N.N.E. of the church, has a thatched roof.
a(13). Kingsfield Cot, cottage, 300 yards N.W. of (12), has been largely re-faced.
a(14). Kingsfield Villa, house, 370 yards W. of (12), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and has been partly re-faced in brick.
a(15). Cottage, on the N. edge of the parish, ¼ m. N.N.W. of (13).
a(16). The Gratton, cottage, on the E. side of the railway, 2 m. N. of the church.
a(17). Burling Gate, house, 1½ m. N.N.E. of the church, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and has a later extension on the N. The chimney-stack has two stone shafts set diagonally.
a(18). Cottage, at the W. end of the hamlet, over 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the church, has been practically re-built.
a(19). House and barn, 60 yards E. of (18). The House has a later extension on the S. The N. gable has diagonal framing. The Barn, N. of the house, is of four bays.
a(20). Cottage, 50 yards N.E. of (19).
a(21). Cottage, 150 yards E. of (20), has a corrugated iron roof.
a(22). Cottage, E. of (21).
a(23). Cottage, 40 yards N.E. of (22), was built c. 1700.
a(24). Cottage, E. of (23).
a(25). House, 140 yards N.E. of (20) and 1½ m. N.N.E. of the church, was built early in the 18th century and has a thatched roof.
b(26). Brick House, 1 m. N.N.E. of the church, was built in the 16th or 17th century, but was largely reconstructed late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. Inside the building are some 17th-century turned balusters.
b(27). Outbuilding, at Upper Wisteston, 100 yards S.E. of (26), forms a range consisting of a granary and a barn of three bays with a third building S.E. of it.
b(28). Brook Farm, house, on the E. side of the road, 1,400 yards N.E. of the church, was built c. 1600 and is of irregular plan. The S.W. block seems to be a slightly later addition and the E. end of the house was re-built early in the 18th century. There are modern additions on the N. side. An original central wing projected to the N. and had a projecting upper storey with a moulded bressummer and now covered by a modern addition. Some of the timber-framing is close-set. In the ceiling of a cellar is a re-used moulded beam with the initials and date STP. 1683. The ground-floor room in the N. wing has original moulded ceiling-beams.
b(29). Cottage and post-office, 200 yards S.S.E. of (28), has a thatched roof.
b(30). Volunteer Inn, 70 yards S. of (29), has been much altered and largely re-built in brick.
b(31). Cottage, S. of (30), and at the N. angle of the road to Stony Cross, has a thatched roof.
b(32). Cottage, two tenements, at the S. angle of the road to Stony Cross, has a heightened roof.
b(33). Cottage, two tenements, on the N. side of the road, 50 yards E. of (31).
b(34). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 70 yards E. of (32), has been re-built, except the E. end.
b(35). Cottage, 30 yards E. of (34), was built late in the 17th century, or early in the 18th century.
b(36). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 180 yards N.W. of Stony Cross, has a thatched roof.
b(37). Cottage, on the N.E. side of the road at Stony Cross, was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but has been heightened and much altered.
b(38). Cottage, on the S.W. side of the road, nearly opposite (37).
b(39). Cottage, on the N. side of the road at Paradise Green, ¾ m. N.E. of the church, was built probably c. 1600.
b(40). Upper Paradise Farm, house and outbuilding, on the W. of the road, 950 yards N.E. of the church. The House has a modern extension at the S. end. Inside the building one room has a ceiling with plaster panels decorated with rosettes, leaves, masks, etc.
The Outbuilding, W. of the house, has been partly re-built in brick.
b(41). Lower Paradise Farm, house and barn, 260 yards S.W. of (40). The House has been much altered and re-faced in brick. The Barn, N.E. of the house, is partly of stone and partly weather-boarded.
b(42). Stoneypool Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of the road, ¼ m. E. of the church, has a corrugated iron roof.
b(43). Church House (Plate 30), 300 yards E. of the church, has an outbuilding adjoining its N.E. angle.
b(44). Marden Court, house, 250 yards E. of the church, is largely modern, but incorporates parts of a small 17th-century house at the N.E. angle. Inside the building the kitchen has some late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, and on the first floor are three doors of the same type of work.
b(45). Outbuildings, on the N. side of the road, 100 yards N.W. of (44), consist of various 16th and 17th-century buildings on three sides of a yard.
b(46). Old School House, on the W. side of the road, 5 70 yards S.E. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(47). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 2,000 yards N.E. of the church, has an early 18th-century extension on the W.
d(48). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, 650 yards E.N.E. of (47), has a thatched roof.
d(49). Pikestye Farm, house, 280 yards E. of (48), has been partly re-faced in brick.
d(50). Cottage, 50 yards N.W. of (49), has a thatched roof.
d(51). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 1¾ m. E.N.E. of the church, has been partly heightened in the 18th century.
d(52). New Inn, on the W. side of the road, 600 yards S.S.E. of (51), has diagonal framing in the two gables.
d(53). Lower Holback, house, on the E. edge of the parish, 600 yards E. of Amberley Chapel, was built in the 16th century, but has been much altered and re-faced. The E. end of the building forms a barn.
d(54). Cottage, on the W. side of the road at Tumpy Lakes, 750 yards S.S.E. of Amberley Chapel, has a thatched roof.
d(55). Cottage, 20 yards E. of (54), has a corrugated iron roof.
d(56). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, just over 2 m. E. of the church.
d(57). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, nearly opposite (56), has a thatched roof and a diagonal chimney-shaft.
d(58). Cottage, 50 yards W. of (57), has a thatched roof and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N.
d(59). Cottage, 20 yards W. of (58), has a thatched roof.
d(60). Cottage, 30 yards W. of (59), has a corrugated iron roof.
d(61). Cottage, to the N. of the road and 320 yards W.N.W. of (56), has corrugated iron roofs.
d(62). Cottage, at the S. angle of the road-fork leading to Sutton Lakes and 100 yards S.W. of (61), has a thatched roof.
d(63). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, nearly opposite (62), has a thatched roof.
d(64). Cottage, 20 yards S. of (63), has a corrugated iron roof.
d(65). Cottage, on the E. side of the road at the Wymm, nearly 1¾ m. E. of the church, has a thatched roof.
d(66). Cottage, at the N. angle of the road-fork, 720 yards S.S.W. of (65).
d(67). Cottage, 20 yards W. of (66), has a corrugated iron roof. The cider-house was added early in the 18th century and contains a cider-press probably of that date.
d(68). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, opposite (66), has a roof of thatch and corrugated iron.
d(69). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 60 yards S. of (66), has been re-faced in brick; the W. gable has diagonal framing.
d(70). Lane End, cottage on the S. edge of the parish, over 1½ m. S.E. of the church, has been largely re-faced in stone.
d(71). Cottage, on the S.W. side of the road at Burmarsh, 1¼ m. E. of the church.
d(72). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 240 yards N. of (71), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. It has a thatched roof.
d(73). Fromington House, on the E. side of the road, 1¼ m. E.N.E. of the church, has a thatched roof. There is a modern range on the N.
d(74). Cottage, 60 yards N.N.E. of (73), has a thatched roof.
d(75). Cottage, on the W. side of the road, 120 yards N. of (74), has a thatched roof.
d(76). Hawkers land Farm, house and barn, over 1¼ m. N.E. of the church. The House was built probably in the 16th century and is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N. end; the cross-wing was added c. 1600. The roof of the S. wing has been raised.
The Barn, N.E. of the house, has been largely re-built.