An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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85 WALFORD-ON-WYE (C.f.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)LI, S.E., (b)LIV, N.E.)
Walford is a parish on the left bank of the Wye, 2 m. S. of Ross. The church, Hill Court, and Upper and Lower Wythall are the principal monuments.
b(1). At Bishop's Wood, 50 yards N. of the modern church and 1 m. E. of Kerne Bridge railway station, a hoard of nearly 18,000 coins contained in 3 urns was found in 1895 while a new road was being made, "amongst a heap of stones about 9 ins. below the surface level . . . enclosed by a low rough wall" built up against the hillside. The hoard consisted almost entirely of 3rd and 4th brass of the house of Constantine and may be dated to about 350–60 A.D. (Woolhope Club Trans. 1896, appendix 4). "Since the discovery of the coins, Mr. McCalmont's workmen, who were employed in clearing the 'Lodge Grove' Wood, came upon part of the fosse and vallum of a camp which, from its rectangular form, was probably Roman, and a quantity of coarse Roman pottery was found within it. The surrounding bank was roughly built with small stones and covered with earth, but unfortunately it was at once levelled. . . . But the configuration of the ground still shews where it was placed" (Brist. & Glouc. Arch. Soc. Trans., XIX, 1894–5, 400).
a(2). Parish Church of St. Michael and All Angels (Plate 4) stands on the W. side of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble and ashlar and the roofs are covered with stone slates. There are worked stones of the 12th century, re-used in the building, and parts of the thick E., S. and W. walls of the Nave may be of this date. About 1230–40 the N. arcade was built and the North Aisle added; the Chancel was re-built and the North Chapel added c. 1260– 70. Late in the 13th century the North Tower was built, and in the 14th century the top stage and spire were added. The North Porch was built late in the 14th century. The E. wall of the chancel was re-built in the 15th century. In the same century the rood-loft staircase was built and the South Porch added. The staircase and corridor were inserted between the tower and the N. chapel early in the 16th century. The spire was destroyed by lightning in 1813 and the church was restored in 1887 and again in more recent years.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (31 ft. by 21½ ft.) has a 15th-century E. window of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. arcade is of c. 1260–70 and of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the cylindrical columns have moulded capital and bases and the responds have attached half-columns. In the S. wall are three late 14th-century windows, each of a single cinque-foiled ogee light. The early to mid 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases.
The North Chapel (about 10 ft. wide) has a 15th-century E. window of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is a 13th-century window of a single lancet-light; farther W. is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch. In the W. wall is a 13th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders, springing from moulded corbels; in the S.W. angle of the chapel is the 15th-century rood-loft staircase, entered by a doorway with a square head; the upper doorway, towards the nave, has rebated jambs and square head.
The Nave (43 ft. by 24½ ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1230–40 and of four bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the cylindrical columns and semi-cylindrical responds have moulded capitals and bases; two of the capitals and the E. respond have carved foliage; the third column has a late development of the scalloped capital. In the S. wall are two 13th-century windows each of a single lancet-light; the 14th-century S. doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall is a much restored 13th-century window of two pointed lights with a trefoil in a two-centred head; below it the wall has an internal offset and is perhaps of 12th-century date.
The North Aisle (7¾ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, a modern window; the early 16th-century N. doorway has stop-moulded jambs and four-centred head. In the W. wall is a 13th-century lancet-window.
The North Tower (8¾ ft. square) is of three stages, the two lower of late 13th-century date, and the top stage probably of the 14th century with a modern embattled parapet. The ground-stage only is connected with the N. wall of the church, the structure rising free above this stage; the connecting portion has been filled in early in the 16th century by masonry, leaving a central corridor with a staircase to the W. of it; in the E. wall of the tower is a 14th-century looplight and in the W. wall is a similar light of the 16th century; in the N. wall is a late 13th-century doorway, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The second stage has small square-headed windows in the E. and W. walls. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of one pointed light; across the angles are squinch-arches which supported the former spire.
The North Porch is of late 14th-century date and has an outer archway with moulded jambs, two-centred head and label with head-stops.
The South Porch is of the 15th century and has an outer archway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. In the E. wall is a window of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head.
The Roof of the chancel is of scissor-braced type and perhaps of the 14th century; the roof of the nave is similar but with a tie below the junction of the braces. The N. aisle has a plain pent-roof. The late 15th and early 16th-century roofs of the S. and N. porches have curved braces to the collar-beams and moulded and embattled wall-plates.
Fittings—Brackets: In nave—on E. wall, three shaped corbels, mediæval. Communion Rails: with turned balusters and moulded rails, early 18th-century, gate re-used as return at N. end. Font (Plate 55): octagonal bowl with moulded top edge, panelled sides each with a quatrefoil or grouped trefoils, chamfered lower edge with carved pateræ, stem with trefoil-headed panel in each face, and moulded and carved base, 15th-century. Funeral Helm: In nave—on E. wall, probably late 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on E. wall, (1) to William Adams, vicar, erected 1681, tablet with moulded frame, scrolled sides and apron, entablature with broken pediment, frieze formed of books, reclining cherubs and cartouche-of-arms; (2) to Edmund Yeme, 1707, and the Yeme family, tablet with moulded frame, flanked by female figures, apron with cherub-head and swag, cornice and broken pediment with urn and cherubs; on S. wall, (3) to Ferdinand, John and Robert Stratford, Rachel daughter of Robert, Martha his wife, 1709, and Hester his second daughter, 1707, tablet (Plate 60) with Composite side-columns and cherubs, entablature supporting achievement-of-arms and two urns and apron with cherub-heads. In churchyard—head-stones, E. of tower, (4) to Thomas Williams, 1699; (5) to William Penn, sen., 1708; E. of chancel, (6) to Sarah (Yerrow) wife of John Ruston, 1707; (7) to Thomas Roberts, late 17th century; (8) to G . . ., wife of Thomas Roberts, late 17th century; N.W. of N. aisle, (9) to William Goose, 1700; (10) to Henery Lewes, 1713; W. of nave, (11) to JohnBennet, 1704; (12) to William Seymore, 1690; (13) to Robert Sutton, 1681; (14) to Henery Seymore, 1688; S.W. of nave, (15) to William Vaughan, 1709; (16) to . . ., 1708; (17) to . . ., 1714; S.W. of S. porch, (18) to Anne Poolen, 1703; (19) to John Whellor, 1690. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Edmund Yeme, 1688, with shield-of-arms; (2) to Thomas Yeme, 1667–8, and Edmund his grandson, with shield-of-arms; (3) to William Adams, A.M., 1681, and Margaret his wife, 1707; (4) to Susanna (Jones), wife of Edmund Yeme, 1692; (5) to Hannah, daughter of William Adams, 1683; (6) to . . ., 1693; (7) to Ann (Philpots), wife of Richard Bond, 1692; (8) to Edmund Bond, 1710. In vestry—(9) to Robert Kyrle, 1669, with two shields-of-arms; (10) to Richard son of Richard Clarke, 170–, and to Alice wife of Richard Clarke, 1689, and Mary his second wife; (11) to Richard Clarke, 1651, and Thomas his son, 1711, with shield-of-arms. Piscinæ: In N. chapel—in S. wall, recess with chamfered jambs and two-centred head, square projecting drain carved with two disks, 13th-century. In nave—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, 13th-century, drain modern. Plate: includes cup of 1692. Recess: In chancel—in N. wall, with hoilow-chamfered and rebated jambs and trefoiled head, early 14th-century, sill modern. Scratchings: In tower—on squinch-arches, masons' marks. Stoup: In nave—E. of S. doorway, projecting semi-octagonal bowl with chamfered under edge, mediæval. Sundial: Loose in S. porch—square stone block with moulded stem and dial on each face, late 17th-century. Miscellanea: Incorporated in S. wall of nave—12th-century capital of jamb-shaft and part of a string-course with cheveron-ornament and pellets.
a(3). Hill Court, house and dove-cote, about 1 m. N.W. of the parish church. The House is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built on a rectangular plan between the years 1698 and 1700. In 1723 wings were added to the N. and S. and the top storey of the main building was added or re-built about the middle of the 18th century. The E. Front (Plate 86) has a central projecting bay and rusticated angles. The windows are symmetrically arranged, with moulded jambs to the basement and double-hung sashes to the floors above. The central bay has a pediment with an achievement of the arms of Clarke in the tympanum. The W. Front is generally similar to that just described but has no pediment. It retains its original central doorway (Plate 38) with moulded architrave, carved frieze and broken scrolled pediment with the Clarke crest.
Interior. The Entrance Hall is lined with original bolection-moulded panelling with a cornice and dado-rail; the pavement has a geometrical design in black and white stone; the fireplace has a moulded surround. On the W. side is an opening fitted with an original dog-gate; it has open panels and a curved and scrolled top rail. The staircase-hall has panelling similar to that in the Hall; the early 18th-century staircase has twisted balusters, carved brackets under the ends of the treads and panelled casing; the landings have geometrical inlays. Other rooms have original panelling, similar to that already described. Re-set over the fireplace in the S.W. room is a stone said to have come from Monmouth, with an inscription relating to the sons and daughters of persons unnamed. The ceiling of the staircase (Plate 152) has a wreath of fruit and foliage and panels with scrolled foliage in the angles. The basement has brick vaulting of elliptical form.
The Dovecote, S. of the house, is of c. 1700 and of brick. It is of octagonal plan with a pyramidal roof terminating in a small cupola or lantern. The garden wall, S. of the house, is of the same date; the S. gateway (Plate 37) has stone piers with large vases and wrought-iron gates with scrolled overthrow and a shield-of-arms of Clarke.
a(4) Old Hill Court, nearly ½ m. E. of (3), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are partly timber-framed and partly of stone and the roofs are slate-covered. It is said to have been built c. 1530, but may incorporate work of an earlier date. The house is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end and modern additions on the N. and N.E. Much of the timber-framing is exposed, showing rectangular panels above and close-set framing below, forming a sort of dado. In the W. gable of the cross-wing is an original window of four lights. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams and timber-framing. A fireplace in the main block has original moulded jambs and there is some 17th-century panelling in the same room. On the E. wall of the main block is some 16th-century painted decoration consisting of an interlacing-line design enclosing rosettes. The roofs are of queen-post type.
a(5). Upper Wythall (Plate 182), house and outbuildings, about ¾ m. E.N.E. of the parish church. The House is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. The W. part of the house was built early in the 16th century on an H-shaped plan with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. Late in the same century a large E. wing was added with a projecting bay on the N. side of it. Early in the 17th century an addition was made on the E. side of the W. wing and a square block, probably a porch, added on the S. side of the main block. The W. wing was extended to the S. c. 1700, and some of the walls were faced with stone. The timber-framing is exposed on nearly all of the N. front; it is generally in square panels but is set closer in the projecting bay of the late 16th-century wing; this wing has four irregular gables. The modern porch incorporates some early 17th-century material, including two pairs of coupled wooden columns. The 17th-century additions to the W. wing has some two-light windows of that date and the N. window in the wing itself has diamond-shaped mullions. The W. front has some exposed timber-framing in square panels and two original windows of ten and five lights respectively, with diamond-shaped mullions. On the S. front, the original entrance to the porch, now blocked, has an early 17th-century moulded head; the E. wing has two windows of c. 1700, each of two transomed lights and connected by a small single light between the windows.
Interior. Some of the rooms have exposed ceiling-beams. On the ground floor, the E. room is lined with panelling of c. 1700 and has a fireplace of the same date; the 17th-century ceiling is divided into panels by enriched trabeations and the panels have fleur-de-lis enrichments. The W. room of the E. wing is lined with early 17th-century panelling, with carved and fluted frieze and moulded ceiling-beams; the fireplace is of c. 1700. The passage, to the N. of this room, is lined with early 17th-century panelling. The staircase has a round oak newel. The E. wing of the original house has 17th-century doorways in the E. wall, with moulded heads and a short flight of steps with late 17th-century turned balusters. The room is lined with early 17th-century and modern panelling; the overmantel has eight arcaded panels with guilloche-ornament. The passage leading to the kitchen is lined with early 17th-century panelling. On the first floor, the E. room has a ceiling, similar to that in the room below, but with an enriched frieze; the early 17th-century overmantel (Plate 65) is of two enriched and arcaded bays, divided and flanked by terminal figures supporting a carved frieze. The room in the original E. wing has 17th-century panelling and doors. The main staircase has, at the attic level, a chamfered newel with a shaped top, moulded rail and posts. The roof of the added E. wing is of queen-post type.
The Buildings N. of the house, called the Chapel, is of early or mid 17th-century date, with stone walls. Both floors have original windows. The Barns, N.E. and E. of the house, are of the 17th century, timber-framed and with tiled roofs.
a(6). Lower Wythall, house, 150 yards N.W. of (5), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are timber-framed and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built c. 1600 on an H-shaped plan with the crosswings at the N. and S. ends. There is a small 18th-century addition at the S.E. angle and a modern extension of the N. wing. The timber-framing, generally in square panels, is exposed on both sides of the house. In the N. wall of the N. wing is a two-light transomed window and above it is a four-light window of similar type. The basement has square-headed two-light windows of stone. Inside the building, much of the timber-framing is exposed. The staircase in the S. wing has turned balusters and moulded string, of c. 1700. On the first floor, the S.E. room has early 17th-century painted decoration on plaster; it consists of conventional flowers and lozenges alternately, with a cable-border, all executed in black and green.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are tile or slate-covered. Some of the buildings have original chimneystacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
a(7). Cottage, opposite Spring Herne and 1,100 yards E. of the parish church, is partly timber-framed.
a(8). Cottage, on the S. side of the road at Coughton and nearly 1 m. N.E. of the parish church, is partly timber-framed.
a(9). House, 200 yards E. of (8), has been re-built except for the W. wing.
a(10). Cottage, opposite the Spread Eagle Inn and ¼ m. S.S.E. of the parish church.
a(11). Warryfield Farm, house, 700 yards N.W. of the parish church, is partly timber-framed. The W. part was built c. 1600 and was extended towards the E. c. 1700. Some timber-framing is exposed on the N. side and there is an original window of four lights, with diamond-shaped mullions.
a(12). Callow Farm, house and outbuilding, 1,000 yards W. of (11). The House has modern additions on the E. and N. The S. doorway has an original frame and a door of moulded battens.
The Outbuilding, S. of the house, incorporates a late 16th or early 17th-century stable, with two segmental-headed doorways and two two-light windows all original. The roof is of queen-post type.
a(13). Great Howle Camp (Plan, p. xxvi), on the top of Howle Hill and about 1½ m. E. of the parish church, consists of a roughly rectangular enclosure with rounded angles and a rampart with openings, perhaps modern, at the N.W. and S.E. ends. The area including the defences is about a third of an acre. The level of the enclosure is from 3 to 6½ ft. above that of the ground without; the rampart rises in places to 11½ ft. above the ground outside and there are slight traces of a ditch at the S.E. end and at the W. angle.
a(14). Lynchets, on the N. bank of the stream at Castle Brook Farm, about 1½ m. N.E. of the parish church, consist of five terraces, extending for about 220 yards.