An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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86 WELLINGTON (B.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXXVI, N.E., (b)XXXVI, S.E.)
Wellington is a parish and village 6 m. N. of Hereford. The church, with a good late 12th-century tower, mediæval bells, and a remarkable roof to its S. Porch, and Bridge Farm are the principal monuments.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Margaret (Plate 183), formerly St. Mary, stands in the middle of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings and ashlar of the same material; the roofs are covered with stone slates and tiles. The Nave and the West Tower were built c. 1200. The Chancel was re-built at two dates in the 13th century and the South Porch added in the middle of the 14th century. The top stage was added to the tower c. 1400. The N. arcade was built and the North Aisle and Transept were added late in the 15th or early in the 16th century and the nave walls raised at the same time. There was formerly a vestry in the angle between the transept and chancel, of which traces of the former roof and W. wall remain in the E. wall of the transept. The church was restored in 1887 and the tower in 1912–3, and the E. half of the S. wall of the nave appears to have been re-built.
The W. tower (Plate 184) is an interesting example of its period, and the roof of the S. porch is remarkable. Among the fittings the three mediæval bells and the pulpit are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft. by 20¾ ft.) has an E. window, modern except the 15th-century splays; in the gable is a round-headed light, perhaps of the 12th century, re-set. In the N. wall is an early 13th-century lancet-window and farther W. is a blocked doorway with square jambs and flat triangular head. In the S. wall are four windows, the easternmost of late 14th-century date and of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the other windows are of late 13th-century date and each of one trefoiled light; between the two westernmost windows is a doorway of the same date with rounded jambs and triangular head. The chancel-arch of c. 1200 is of distorted semi-circular form and of two orders, the inner chamfered and the outer rounded on the W. face and with a chamfered label; the outer order on the E. is square and of tufa; the responds have an outer order, cut rounded at a later date, and an attached semi-octagonal shaft with moulded base and shaped capital with a chamfered abacus continued round the respond.
The Nave (57¼ ft. by 27¾ ft.) has a late 15th or early 16th-century N. arcade of four bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the columns are octagonal with crude moulded capitals and chamfered bases; the responds have attached half-columns; the E. arch is wider than the others and is struck from below the springing; E. of the arcade is a doorway at the level of the former rood-loft; it has a triangular head. In the S. wall are three 14th-century windows, each of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the two easternmost have been much restored; the S. doorway, of c. 1200, has jambs and round arch of two rounded orders with moulded imposts and a hollow-chamfered label with defaced stops; E. of the doorway and set high in the wall are the splays and rear-arch of a window of the same date and of one round-headed light.
The North Transept (23¾ ft. by 20½ ft.) is of late 15th or early 16th-century date and has an E. window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head; farther S. is a recess with a curved back for the former staircase to the rood-loft; in the upper part is a small looplight. On the exterior of the wall near this point can be seen the quoins of the N.E. angle of the nave of c. 1200. In the N. wall is a much restored window of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the E. wall; farther S. is a half arch similar in detail to the nave-arcade; the inner order springs off a moulded corbel.
The North Aisle (10¾ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two two-light windows similar to those in the transept; the re-set N. doorway, of c. 1200, has rounded jambs and semi-circular arch with moulded imposts and a chamfered label. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the N. wall.
The West Tower (15¾ ft. square) is of four stages with a high battered plinth and an embattled parapet. Except the top stage, it is of c. 1200, the ground stage having ashlar-faced clasping and intermediate buttresses rising from the plinth and the third stage being ashlar-faced; the rest of the walling is of rubble. The distorted tower-arch is two-centred and of two orders, later cut to the existing form, the inner being now hollow-chamfered and the outer rounded and with a label enriched with dog-tooth ornament; the responds have each an attached semi-octagonal shaft with a capital and abacus, similar to those of the chancel-arch, and a moulded base. The buttresses have angle-shafts with foliated or scalloped capitals; the shafts at the angles of the building are carried down to moulded bases above the plinth, but the other shafts rest on corbels at half the height; the intermediate buttresses are each pierced by a round-headed window with a moulded label continued from the abaci of the shafts and the string-course round the tower. In the S. wall is a doorway, probably of 18th-century date. The second stage has, in the N., S. and W. walls, a round-headed window; above the S. window is a second window of similar form, now blocked; above the W. window is a square-headed light. The third stage is capped by a corbel-table with a short wallshaft below the middle corbel on each face; in each wall are two large round-headed windows. The added top stage has no openings.
The South Porch is of mid 14th-century date and has an outer archway with jambs and two-centred arch of two hollow-chamfered orders with a moulded label and imposts with pateræ. The side-walls have each a window of one trefoiled ogee light in a square head.
The Roof of the nave (Plate 185) is of the 15th century, partly restored; it is of trussed-rafter type, with moulded and embattled wall-plates, curved braces alternately plain and moulded, moulded purlins and square carved bosses at the main intersections; there are moulded and embattled tie-beams at intervals. The roof of the transept is of similar date and construction, with moulded wall-plates, purlins and principal rafters and carved foliage-bosses at the main intersections. The partly restored 15th-century pent-roof of the N. aisle (Plate 185) is of six bays with curved braces to the principals terminating in heads, and cusped braces, forming quatrefoils, between the purlins and having carved cusp-points. The mid 14th-century roof (Plate 19) of the porch is of two bays with moulded main timbers, tie-beams cusped on the under-sides, central posts and struts forming cusped openings above the beams, cusped struts to the ridge and cusped wind-braces.
Fittings—Bells: six and sanctus; 2nd by Abraham Rudhall, 1693; 3rd, 5th, and 6th, probably early 15th-century, from the Worcester foundry and inscribed respectively "Sancte Nicholae ora pro nobis Nicholaus," "Prece Marie dulce sonet et amene," "Jesus Nazarenus rex Judeorum Fili Dei miserere mei"; sanctus by John Finch, 1639, now dismounted. Churchyard Cross: S. of chancel—square to octagonal stone base with most of octagonal shaft, four octagonal steps, probably 14th-century. Communion Table: with turned legs, moulded and panelled top-rail, shaped brackets and moulded stretchers, early 17th-century. Font: octagonal bowl with moulded under edge, plain stem and moulded base, late 14th-century; cover of oak, flat and panelled, with post and ball in middle, c. 1700. Glass: In chancel—in tracery of E. window, quarries with flowers, 15th-century; in S.E. window, quarries with roses, a crown, nimbed head of an abbot holding crozier, fragment of inscription—" [ec]clesie qū . . . propi[etur]" etc., 15th-century. Locker: In transept —in N. wall, rectangular recess with rebated reveals, 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel—on E. wall, (1) to Sir Herbert Perrot, 1683, freestone and slate tablet (Plate 61) with twisted Ionic side-columns, entablature, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; in N. wall, (2) tomb-recess with hollow-chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed arch with moulded label, foliage-stops and finial, early 14th-century. Floor-slab: In chancel— to Elizabeth, wife of Henry Rogers, 1663. Niche: In nave—in E. respond of arcade, with moulded and trefoiled head, 15th-century. Painting: In chancel— on rear-arch of S. doorway, remains of rosettes and lines in red. Panelling: In nave and aisle—against walls, re-used panelling of early and late 17th-century date; in front of pew in aisle, three panels with conventional ornament, early 17th-century. Piscina: In chancel—in E. wall, plain recess with rounded head, projecting moulded bowl on foliated bracket, round drain, 13th-century. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1702. Pulpit (Plate 70): of semi-octagonal form with moulded lower panels, arcaded and enriched upper panels, half-baluster ornaments on angles, enriched frieze and bracketed cornice, early 17th-century. Recess: In chancel—in S. wall, fitted with a re-used traceried head of oak, perhaps from a 15th-century screen. Miscellanea: Incorporated in S.E. angle of second stage of tower, moulded jamb-stones of c. 1200. Incorporated in coping of churchyard wall on S.E. side, parts of moulded stone slab.
b(2). Bridge Farm, house, 120 yards E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of timber-framing and rubble and the roofs are covered with slates and tiles. It was built early in the 17th century on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. Various alterations were made in the 18th century. The lower storey is of rubble and the upper of timber-framing, mostly exposed. Inside the building several rooms have exposed ceiling-beams. The ground floor of the N.E. wing was originally two equal rooms and each has its original plaster ceiling with moulded ribs forming an elaborate geometrical design, enriched with fleurs-de-lis. In the same wing is some original panelling.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and with tile or slate-covered roofs. Many of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
b(3). Church House Farm, house, on the N. side of the road, 60 yards E. of the church, has been much altered late in the 18th or early in the 19th century. Inside the building is a re-used moulded ceiling-beam and on the first-floor one room has a 17th-century plaster moulding round the ceiling.
b(4). Cottage, on the N. side of the churchyard, was built probably early in the 18th century.
b(5). Old Parsonage, house, 55 yards W. of the church, has an early 18th-century extension on the N. The doorway on the W. side has an original moulded frame. Inside the building the original staircase has turned balusters, moulded 'grip' handrail, and a newel with a shaped pendant.
b(6). East Cottage, 110 yards W. of (5), was built early in the 18th century and is now roofed with corrugated iron.
b(7). Cottage, 40 yards W. of (6), has an original chimney-stack with diagonal nibs on the faces.
b(8). Cottage, 120 yards W. of (7), has a cross-wing at the E. end.
b(9). House, on the S. side of the road, 30 yards S.W. of the church, was built probably early in the 18th century and has later additions at the S. end and on the W. side.
b(10). Farm Building and dovecote, 50 yards W. of (9). The Farm Building (Plate 35) was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century and consists of a barn of three bays and of one storey with a cross-wing of two storeys at the N. end. To the W. is another building probably of the same date. The Dovecote (Plate 36), adjoining the road, is an octagonal brick building of early 18th-century date, with a pyramidal roof and lantern.
Condition—Roof of dovecote, derelict.
b(11). Barn, 60 yards W. of (10), is of one storey and of five bays.
b(12). The Old Vicarage, house, 100 yards W. of (11), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The E. front has a tall gabled dormer with simple carved enrichment on the barge-boards; on a beam below are the initials and date, R.T. 1636. Inside the building are two original fireplaces with stone jambs and oak lintels.
b(13). Cottage, on the E. corner of the road-junction, 310 yards W. of the church, has a corrugated iron roof.
b(14). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 50 yards S. of (13), has a blocked doorway, on the W. side, with a segmental head.
b(15). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 500 yards W. of the church, has a thatched roof. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century and has a barn at the W. end. Inside the building is an original fireplace with an iron crane.
b(16). Cottage, 160 yards W. of (15), was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century and has a thatched roof now covered with corrugated iron.
b(17). Cottage, 120 yards W. of (16), has various later additions. A barn, to the W. of it, is probably of early 18th-century date.
b(18). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, nearly ½ m. W. of the church, has an original fireplace with an iron crane.
b(19). Wellington House and barn, 100 yards E. of (18). The House is of irregular plan with some small modern additions. The Barn, W. of the house, is of three bays and perhaps of early 18th-century date.
b(20). Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of the lane, 500 yards W. of the church, was built probably early in the 18th century. The roof has been raised but the diagonal framing of the original gables remains.
b(21). Cottage, 30 yards N.W. of (20), is of about the same date. The roof has been raised.
b(22). Cottage, two tenements, on the E. side of the lane, 20 yards E. of (21), is probably of early 18th-century date and has a thatched roof and diagonal framing in the gable.
b(23). Cottage, 120 yards N. of (22), is of similar date and type to the above and has a thatched roof.
b(24). Cottage, 20 yards N. of (23), is probably of early 18th-century date.
b(25). Cottage, 10 yards N. of (24), is of the same date. The roof has been raised.
b(26). Cottage, two tenements, on the W. side of Wellington Marsh, 1,020 yards S. of the church, was built probably early in the 18th century.
a(27). Wootton Farm, house, 1,130 yards W.N.W. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with a large cross-wing at the N. end. There are later additions on the N. side and at the W. end. The house has been largely re-faced in brick.
a(28). Burghope, house and outbuilding, nearly 1½ m. N. of the church. The House was extended and largely re-built early in the 18th century. It is now of irregular L-shaped plan. Inside the building the S.W. room has a dado of original panelling and the N.E. room is lined with panelling of the same date; the early 18th-century fireplace in this room has a moulded marble surround. There are some early 18th-century panelled doors.
The Outbuilding, N. of the house, is probably of the 17th century. The original Burghope House stood about 100 yards S. of the existing house, on a site marked by foundation-mounds and a stone gate-pier with a moulded capping and ball-terminal.
a(29). Kipperknoll, house, about 1¾ m. N.N.W. of the church, has an 18th-century addition on the N. side. The upper storey projects, on shaped brackets, at the end of a short wing on the W. side. Inside the building is some original panelling and the S. room is lined with early to mid 18th-century panelling.