An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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, 'Westminster', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London, (London, 1925) pp. 99-148. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/london/vol2/pp99-148 [accessed 21 May 2024].

. "Westminster", in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London, (London, 1925) 99-148. British History Online, accessed May 21, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/london/vol2/pp99-148.

. "Westminster", An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London, (London, 1925). 99-148. British History Online. Web. 21 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/london/vol2/pp99-148.

In this section


(O.S. 6 in. London, Sheet K.)

The city of Westminster comprises eight civil parishes:—St. Clement Danes; St. Mary le Strand; St. Paul Covent Garden; St. Martin in the Fields; St. Anne Soho; St. James Piccadilly; St. George Hanover Square; St. Margaret and St. John Westminster; with the liberties of the Rolls and the Savoy, and the precinct of the college of Westminster. The principal monuments, apart from Westminster Abbey (dealt with in a separate volume), are the palaces of St. Stephen, St. James and Whitehall, the churches of St. Clement Danes and St. James Piccadilly, with York Gate and the monument of Charles I.


(1). Westminster Abbey Precincts. (a) In digging the foundations of new Canons' houses in the Abbey garden in 1883, remains of a Roman "dwelling" were found at a depth of 14 ft.; they consisted of slabs of concrete flooring, roof tiles and other rubbish. Arch. Journ., XLII, 274.

(b) Similar remains to those last described are said to have been discovered also in the cloister. Arch. Journ., XLII, 274.

(c) In 1878, when digging the grave of Sir Gilbert Scott, Roman building material was found under the nave of the Abbey church, said to have been remains of the pilae of a hypocaust.

(d) A Roman sarcophagus of Oxfordshire oolite was found in 1869 on the N. side of the Abbey church; it is now in the chapter-house vestibule. It measures 7 ft. by 2 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. and has already been described and illustrated in London, Vol. I, p. 81a; Arch. Journ, XXVII, 103, 110, 119, 145, 191, 251, 257; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXVI, 61f, 76f, 166; Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., IV, 61; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2), IV, 409, 468; V, 85; Corp. Inscr. Latin. VII, 33.

(2). Strand Lane, E. side, about 80 yards S. of the Strand, plunge-bath of brick with a round N. end, 15½ ft. by 6¾ ft. This bath was formerly lined with modern marble slabs, and has only recently been stripped; the actual walls and floor, where they can be tested, are built of red bricks, 9 in. by 4¾ in. by 1¾ in. The bath is fed by a spring which now enters at the S.E. corner, and there are remains of the former feed-pipe or overflow in the middle of the S. end. The date of this bath is at present uncertain; the bricks are unlike any Roman bricks yet discovered in this country, but, on the other hand, they do not resemble in form or texture the normal bricks of the 17th century, which seems to be the alternative date.

Church of St Margaret, Westminster.

(3). Old Bond Street. In March, 1894, a stone culvert with joints of brick, set in cement, was found, running southwards. Antiquary, XXIX, 244.

(4). Howard Street, Strand. A sarcophagus was found at the corner of this street in 1741. Soc. Antiq. MS. Min., IV, 109b.

(5). St. Martin in the Fields. During the excavations for the building of this church, in 1722, "a Roman brick arch was found with several ducts, 14 ft. underground, and Sir Hans Sloane had a bellshaped glass vase that was found in a stone coffin among ashes in digging the foundations of the portico." Gough, Camden, II, 17, 93; Brayley, Beauties of Engl. and Wales, X, Pt. I, 91; Allen, Hist. of London, I, 25; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min., I, 151, 170; Arch. Rev., I, 356.

(6). Temple Bar. On the site of the new Law Courts, in 1871, part of an antefix, in the form of a lion's mask, was found. Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXVII, 522.

(7). Hyde Park. The original Ossulton Stone, said to have been a Roman "geometric stone," formerly stood near the N.E. corner of the Park on the S. side of Oxford Street; it is marked on Roque's map as "milestone." The stone was subsequently dug up and placed against the Marble Arch, but has now disappeared. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., IV, 62.


(8). Parish Church of St. Margaret, Westminster, stands on the N. side of Westminster Abbey (Plates 149, 152). The walls are of rag-stone, with Portland and other lime-stone dressings; the roofs are lead-covered. Nothing now remains of any structure earlier than the last quarter of the 15th century, when the rebuilding of the existing church began; the Nave, with its Aisles, were finished about 1504 according to the churchwardens' accounts. In 1515 the foundation-stone of the N.W. Tower was laid; the Chancel, with its Chapels, continuous with the nave, was rebuilt by Abbot Islip in 1518 and two stones with his rebus were found in the E. wall; the altars were hallowed in 1523 and the bells hung in the tower. In 1532 the rood-loft staircase was built. The church was restored in 1735–37 and the three upper stages of the tower were rebuilt either at that time or later in the same century. Sometime in the 18th century the E. wall was taken down and an apse added; in 1778 the ankar-hold and dark vestry were demolished, and the existing S. Vestry built on the site. Early in the 19th century the apse was removed and the E. wall rebuilt on the old site. The E. and W. Porches were added late in the 19th century, and in 1905 the E. wall of the chancel was again rebuilt about 6 ft. further E.

The church has been too much restored to be of much architectural interest, but amongst the fittings the 16th-century glass and the Howard monument are noteworthy.

Architectural Description.—The Chancel and Nave are without structural division (139 ft. by 23¾ ft.) and of nine bays, of which the three eastern form the ritual quire. The E. wall and window are modern. The N. wall has an arcade of eight bays with moulded four-centred arches with moulded labels on the S. side having angel-stops, all modern, from which rise three grouped shafts, supporting the roof-principals and having moulded bases and capitals; the spandrels are filled with cusped panelling; the columns have each four attached shafts divided by wave-moulding and have moulded bases and capitals. The work is very largely modern restoration, but some stones appear to be original and many are no doubt only scraped. The easternmost bay is entirely modern. The S. wall and arcade is uniform with the N., but E. of the E. respond is a rectangular opening or squint with a modern cusped head on each face. The responds have attached half-columns. The clearstorey has on each side eight pairs of coupled windows above the main arches, each window of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a four-centred and segmental-pointed head; all apparently modern; the easternmost bay has on each side a modern window. Below them is a moulded string-course mitreing with the labels of the arcade. In the W. wall is a window, apparently all modern. Below it is the modern W. doorway.

The North Aisle (18 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a blocked window with a four-centred head, modern externally but apparently old inside. Below it is a modern doorway. In the N. wall are seven windows, each of three cinquefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head, and all modern except the moulded internal jambs and rear-arches, which are partly original. The easternmost is entirely blocked, and the second is blocked on the inside. Further W. is the blocked doorway of the former stair-turret of the tower; it has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch formerly in a square head, now cut away; the eastern half is concealed or cut away by a modern buttress. Further W. is the late 15th-century N. doorway opening into the tower; it has moulded jambs with a moulded plinth and attached shafts with moulded capitals; the moulded four-centred arch is set in a square head with cusped panelled spandrels and a moulded label. In the W. wall is a window similar to those in the N. wall, but of four lights.

The South Aisle (18 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a modern three-light window, but, internally, there are traces of the jambs and head of the original window. Below it is a modern doorway. On the S. side of the E. respond are traces of the former existence of a wooden partition or screen against it. In the S. wall are eight windows all uniform with those in the N. aisle except the easternmost, which has different tracery in a two-centred head; the three easternmost windows have the lower part blocked (for the adjoining vestries) and the E. internal reveal of the third window is stepped out to avoid a blocked doorway; the similar stepping on the other side E. of the doorway is modern. Below the easternmost window is a doorway, apparently all modern. Between and below the second and third windows is a blocked doorway with a two-centred arch and a segmental-pointed rear-arch, all much restored; the lower part is concealed by a monument. It apparently opened to the rood-loft turret, and high in the wall above it is another blocked doorway with a four-centred arch and a square rear-arch; both these doorways have the rebate on the outside of the wall. Below the third window is a modern blocked doorway only visible in the vestry. In the W. wall is a window uniform with that at the W. end of the N. aisle.

The North Tower (14 ft. square) is of four stages, with octagonal projecting turrets at the angles and finished with pinnacles and an embattled parapet. The ground-stage is of early 16th-century date, but the rest of the tower was rebuilt in the 18th century. The ground-stage has, in the N. wall, a doorway all of the 18th century except the hollowchamfered splays and segmental-pointed rear-arch. In the S. wall the wall is carried on a moulded four-centred arch above the N. doorway of the church; the mouldings are turned-in in ogee form at the spring. In the E. abutment or respond of this arch is an 18th-century doorway to the turret-staircase. In the W. wall is a three-light window all 18th-century or modern except the moulded internal splays and four-centred rear-arch. Round the walls are remains of a stone bench.

Fittings.—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In S. aisle—on S. wall, of Thomas Cole, 1597, two rectangular plates, upper one representing room, with kneeling figures of man and wife at desk, one son and two daughters, with shield-of-arms. See also Monument (21). Indents: In N. aisle—under organ, (1) of inscription-plate and scroll; (2) of three figures and inscription-plate. In S. aisle— on N. wall, E. of arcade, (3) of kneeling figure, four shields and inscription-plate, early 16th-century; see also Monument (12). Fonts: In S. aisle— (1) of white veined marble with circular moulded bowl and square baluster stem, black marble moulded base, by Nicholas Stone, and c. 1630. (2) Now in vault under nave, of white marble with baluster stem, late 17th or early 18th-century. Glass: In E. window (Plate 153), said to have been given by the magistrates of Dort (Netherlands) to Henry VII. It was given by Henry VIII to Waltham Abbey, and passed thence to New Hall and afterwards to Copt Hall, Essex. It was bought by St. Margaret's parish in 1758. The composition fills the five lights and the tracery of the window. The tracery-lights contain sun, moon, Tudor rose and pomegranate and angels with the instruments of the passion. The northernmost main light has an armed figure of St. George standing in a Renaissance niche with an ogee head and putti at the top. Below it another niche with an elliptical head filled with Gothic tracery and having a vault in perspective; the side shafts are of enriched Renaissance character; in it is a crowned figure (said to be Prince Arthur) with ermine tippet and ermine-lined robe, kneeling at a prayer-desk. The southernmost light has two similar niches, and in the upper one is a crowned figure of St. Katharine with a sword and book, and having the broken wheel and the figure of the Emperor at her feet. In the lower niche is a crowned figure in rich robes and a pedimental head-dress (said to be Katharine of Aragon) kneeling at a desk. The head of this figure is modern, the original head is leaded into one of the north windows of Henry VII's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. The three middle lights are occupied by the Crucifixion; the central figure is surrounded by three angels receiving the blood from the five wounds in four chalices; at the foot of cross is a kneeling woman; and in the foreground is the Virgin, two women and St. John. In the left light is the repentant thief bound to the cross, with an angel receiving his soul; at foot is a group of soldiery, three on horseback and one thrusting his spear into the side of the central figure. In the right light is the unrepentant thief with a demon bearing away his soul; below is a group of soldiery, two on horseback, one with the hyssop-pole, and one with a banner with a crescent and stars; also below is a greyhound. The background has mountains, trees, and a walled city. The foreground has scattered bones and skulls. The whole has been much restored and repainted. Image: In S. chapel, in upper doorway of former gallery, life-size headless figure, made up of parts of two draped figures, one apparently holding object in hands, remains of colouring, 15th or early 16th-century, much damaged. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In nave— on westernmost pier of N. arcade, (1) to Emery Hill, 1677, white marble enriched cartouche with shield-of-arms; on N.W. respond, (2) to Samuel Langford, 1691, black and white marble shaped tablet with Ionic side-columns and broken voluted pediment, shield-of-arms; on S.W. respond, (3) to Laurence Womack, 1685, Bishop of St. Davids, and Anne, his only daughter, enriched cartouche with cherub-head and shield-of-arms; on W. wall, (4) of Dorothy (Stafford), widow of Sir William Stafford, 1604, tablet (Plate 151) with arched recess containing painted kneeling figure of woman at desk; below, figures of three sons and three daughters; and, above, lozenge-of-arms; (5) of Blanche Parrye, 1589–90, chief gentlewoman of the privy chamber, etc., wall-monument with arched recess containing kneeling figure of woman at desk; above, lozenge-of-arms. In N. aisle— on N. wall, (6) to Lady Elizabeth Vincent, 1685, marble tablet with oval panel and wreath; (7) to Alexander Tompkyns, 1615, tablet with pediment and shield-of-arms; (8) of Robert Peter and Edmund English, with Margaret (Tirell), wife successively of both, early 17th-century, tablet with enriched side pilasters and coloured figures of two men and woman kneeling at desk, two shields-of-arms; (9) of Sir Francis Egioke, 1622, wall-monument (Plate 151) with curtained recess with kneeling figure in armour, projecting canopy with achievement-of-arms and allegorical figure; (10) to Thomas Emmett, 1694, enriched white marble tablet; (11) of Cornelius Vandan, 1577, freestone tablet (Plate 151) with round recess containing bust in uniform of Yeoman of the Guard, strapwork ornament; (12) recess with moulded jambs and square head, inner member probably once forming arch under head, slab at base with indent of small figure, c. 1500; (13) of James Palmer, B.D., 1659–60, large tablet (Plate 151) with oval curtained recess, containing bust in skull-cap, etc., side pilasters, pediment and shield-of-arms; (14) of Robert Stewart, 1714, white marble wall-monument, with moulded base, cartouche, cherubs and medallion with head in relief; (15) of Thomas Arnwaye [1603], tablet with square recess and panelled sides with kneeling figures of man and woman at prayer-desk; (16) to John Bull, 1715, and Marlborough Tatton, 1714, his grandson, marble tablet with shield-of-arms; (17) to Margaret Scott, white marble tablet with scrolled pediment and urn; (18) to Sir Richard Corbet, 1683, marble tablet, with broken scrolled pediment and urn; (19) to Beaupré Nowers, A.M., 1690, enriched cartouche with shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (20) to Anne, wife of Gregory Butler, and Thomas her eldest son, 1668, marble tablet with segmental pediment; on W. wall, (21) to Susanna, daughter of Henry Gray, 1654, stone tablet with scrolled top, brass inscription-plate and brass lozenge-of-arms; (22) to Mrs. Joane Barnet, daughter of Michael Simnell, 1674, white marble tablet with record of bequests. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (23) of Thomas Seymour, 1600, and Esabel (Onley), 1619, his wife, marble wall-monument (Plate 152) of two bays with round arches having kneeling figures of man in armour and woman beneath, Corinthian side columns supporting entablature and enriched centre-piece with achievement-of-arms; (24) to Thomas Bond, 1616; Eilen, his wife, 1628; Thomas, their son, 1627; and Eilen Butts, their daughter, 1625; veined marble tablet with moulded cornice and cherub-heads; (25) to John Makculloch, 1622, chief physician to James I, alabaster and slate tablet with shield-of-arms; (26) to Nicholas Dering, 1688–9, and six of his children, including Jane, wife of James Tooth, 1691, white marble tablet with drapery, cherub-heads, cartouche-of-arms, etc.; (27) of Marie (Howard), wife, first of Edward Sutton, Lord Dudley, and secondly of Richard Montpesson, 1600, marble altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 150); altar-tomb with panelled front and enriched slab supporting coloured recumbent effigy of lady in fur-lined cloak, French cap, etc., lion at feet; arched recess against wall with panelled pilasters, cornice and enriched cartouche with shield-of-arms; two more shields-of-arms in spandrels; loose at the E. end of the aisle, alabaster kneeling figure of man in armour, said to have formed part of this monument and to represent Richard Montpesson; (28) to Peter Newton, 1660, Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, etc., enriched marble cartouche with cherub-head and achievement-of-arms; (29) to William Richard Wilson, 1708, and Martha, his sister, white marble tablet with scroll-work, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms; (30) to Richard Willis, 1640, and Elizabeth (Gibson), wife of Richard Willis, junior, 1629, and to various children of Richard Willis, junior, marble and slate tablet with terminal figures, cornice and cartouche-of-arms; (31) to Elizabeth, wife of Henry Taylor, 1680, white marble cartouche with bay-wreath; (32) of Hugh Haughton, 1616, and Elizabeth, his daughter, 1615, small wall-monument (Plate 151) with arched recess containing kneeling figures of man in armour, wife and two daughters, side pilasters supporting a cornice, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; below, another shield-of-arms; (33) of Mrs. Mary Brocas, 1654, tablet (Plate 151) with oval recess and bust of woman, cornice and broken pediment; (34) to Thomas Flowerdew, 1637, and William Flowerdew, 1641, marble and slate tablet with Ionic side pilasters and broken pediment; (35) to . . ., 1705, enriched marble cartouche with cherub-heads; (36) to Edward Reynolds, 1623, Clerk of the Privy Seal, etc., and to Owen, his brother, 1610, marble and slate tablet (Plate 11) with eared architrave, scroll-work, cornice and double pediment; below, scroll-work with small shield-of-arms; (37) to John Mulys, 1615, white marble tablet with shield-of-arms, erected by grandson; (38) to Thomas Hanbury, A.M., 1685, enriched cartouche with cherub-head; (39) to Owen Jones, 1634, Auditor to the Treasury, marble and slate tablet with scroll-work, etc.; on W. wall, (40) to Thomas Cremer, 1705, and Anne, his sister, 1737, oval white marble tablet. In churchyard—near tower, (41) to Alexander Davis, 1665, and Mary (Dukeson), his wife, 1717, plain table-tomb. Floor-slabs: In N. aisle—under organ, (1) to Sir Henry Pond, 1683, and Jane, his wife, 1682–3, with shield-of-arms; (2) to Mary Arnold, with shield-of-arms; (3) to John Walter, grocer, 1713, with shield-of-arms; (4) to Robert I . . . GE, 1708 (?), much worn; (5) obliterated, but c. 1700; (6) to . . . Brown (?), 1700; (7) to Elias Bayley, Yeoman of the Guard, and Elizabeth . . . . , 1712–13; (8) obliterated, but c. 1700; (9) obliterated, 1713. In S. aisle, (10) to . . . , and Mrs. Judeth Kifford . . ., c. 1700, fragment only; (11) to Ann, wife of John Langwith, 1691, also John Langwith, 1692; (12) to Thomas . . ., c. 1700, with obliterated shield; (13) to Francis . . ., early 18th-century, with white marble inlaid lozenge; (14) to John Gregorie, 1675; (15) to Thomas . . ., c. 1700; (16) to John Doubigin, 1712; (17) to . . ., widow of James Bigno[1]d, c. 1700. Plate: (Plate 4) The plate, unless otherwise described, is of silver-gilt and includes two large cups of 1551; a silver paten of 1586; two ewer-shaped flagons of 1583 inscribed and dated 1584 with a later inscription recording the gilding of the same in 1673: three inscribed cups and two inscribed patens of 1624; all the above pieces are engraved with a cartouche of the arms of the City of Westminster. Also two inscribed cups and cover-patens of 1661: a large stand-paten of 1665 with a cartouche of the arms of the City of Westminster; an alms-dish of 1691 with enriched rim and repoussé centre representing the Last Supper, within a border of bay-leaves; two stand-patens, two flagons and two alms-dishes of 1693, all inscribed with the arms of the City of Westminster and given by "Sarah late Duchess Dowager of Somerset" in 1694; an inscribed cup and cover-paten and two inscribed flagons of 1695; four inscribed patens of 1699 given in 1700; two silver rat-tail spoons of 1707 engraved with I H S in cross formy on handle; an inscribed churchwardens' loving-cup of 1710, given by Samuel Peirson, with shaped handle, and lid engraved with the figure of St. Margaret and a cartouche-of-arms. There are said to be also seven brass alms-dishes, one plain, one with inscription, shield-of-arms, and the date 1644, another with a heraldic rose, and four of German workmanship with the following representations in relief— (a) Adam and Eve, (b) the Annunciation, (c) the Return of the Spies, (d) St. Sebastian. Royal Arms: In nave—fixed on modern lobby to W. door, enriched cartouche of wood gilt, surmounted by a crown, Stuart arms encircled by the Garter. Stalls: In chancel—parts of three bench-ends of oak with moulded top edge, also one bookboard (on N.), all made up with modern stalls, 15th-century. Miscellanea: Reset in modern string-course in E. wall (internal), two lengths of moulded string-course, each with the monogram I.S. with a foliage sprig—the rebus of John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, early 16th-century. In S. aisle on S. wall at E. end, part of a plinth (?) consisting of seven square cusped panels, each containing a shield, and part of a trefoiled panel; at one end is part of the return face, also with a trefoiled panel, Purbeck-marble, 15th or early 16th-century.

Westminster. The Parish Church of St Anne.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(9). Parish Church of St. Anne, Soho, stands on the W. side of Dean Street. The parish was formed in 1678, the church being built shortly afterwards and consecrated in 1686. It is of Renaissance style and is rectangular on plan with a projecting W. tower. The walls are of brick, and, except the W. wall, are covered with cement; the quoins are of stone; the roofs are covered with lead and slates. The West Tower was rebuilt about 1802 and the steeple added in 1806. The church has been repaired at various times and was in 1866 remodelled and redecorated; the roof has been extensively repaired owing to its destruction by dry rot.

Architectural Description—The church consists of a continuous nave and chancel (82 ft. by 31 ft.) undivided structurally and terminating at the E. end in an internal apse and having a gallery at the W. end, North and South aisles (14½ ft. wide) with galleries over, and vestibules (14½ ft. by 11 ft.) at the E. end of each aisle. The E. elevation has rusticated stone quoins; the central projecting bay is surmounted by a modillioned cornice and pediment; the E. window has a semi-circular head with moulded stone architrave and sill; the wall below the sill projects and has a moulded plinth; the walls of the side bays are lower and have moulded cornices surmounted by balustrades; the doorway to each vestibule is square-headed, with a moulded architrave surmounted by a cornice and pediment carried on plain brackets; above each doorway is a round-headed window with continuous architrave and plain sill; the lower part of the window is blocked by a plain panel. The N. and S. elevations are similar to one another and each of six bays with plain plinth, moulded cornice and plain parapet continued from the E. end; at the gallery-level is a plain band and above it a range of six windows uniform with those in the E. wall; below the band, except in the westernmost bays, is a range of similar windows with semi-elliptical heads; in the westernmost bay is a round-headed doorway, with rusticated jambs and arch flanked by rusticated pilasters across which the impost mouldings are carried; the arch has a plain key-block and the doorway is surmounted by a moulded capping. The two easternmost bays of the S. wall are covered by modern school buildings and the two easternmost windows on the N. are blocked.

The W. elevations of the aisles are generally similar to the side elevations; the angles have clasping pilasters with modillions to the cornice over; there are plain blocked windows with round heads to the galleries.

Interior—The body of the church is of five bays separated from the aisles by square piers with panelled Doric pilasters of wood on each face of the piers and on the corresponding face of each respond; they support an entablature surmounted by the gallery-front which is carried with quadrant corners across the W. end of the nave on two Doric columns. Above each pier is an Ionic column with an engaged column to each respond; they stand on panelled pedestals formed by projections in the gallery-front and are surmounted by an enriched entablature with a pulvinated frieze, the whole being continued across the W. end of the church and round the apse to the E. window. The aisles have panelled Doric pilasters separating the bays and supporting panelled beams under the gallery; the wall above has plain pilasters with simple moulded caps. The doorways between the aisles and the vestibules and the nave and the tower are square-headed with moulded architraves; those between the galleries and the staircases are similar but with a cornice on the staircase side. Over the body of the church is a semi-circular barrel-vault of plaster divided into bays by bands enriched with rosette ornament; each bay has three square panels with borders of acanthus enrichment, and in the central panel of the end and middle bays is a large circular rose of modelled plaster. Over the apse is a coffered semi-dome, with enriched borders, and each panel containing gilt plaster ornament of leaves, scrolls, etc. The arch between the nave and the apse is divided into seven panels with raised mouldings and has moulded and enriched architraves and an enriched key-block on the E. vertical face; the recess of the E. window has a modelled plaster architrave and seven enriched panels on the soffit. Over each bay of the gallery is a transverse segmental vault carried on panelled beams and having a panel with an enriched border and a central flower-ornament.

Fittings—Bell: two; 2nd by James Bartlett, 1691. Chairs: in sacrarium, with richly carved backs with twisted posts, carved arms, carved front legs and modern back legs, probably early 18th-century. Communion Rails: of oak with square panelled standards, carved and twisted balusters and moulded rail and plinth, late 17th-century. Doors and Door-cases: in E. wall, to vestibules, each in two leaves with raised panels; to galleries from E. vestibules, each of two leaves with six raised and two glazed panels with moulded architraves and cornice; N. and S. external door-cases, of wood with carved scroll brackets and moulded cornice supporting flat roof; semi-circular-headed fan-light above transom with radiating and concentric sash-bars, and carved scroll-work in spandrels; doors below transom in two leaves, each with inverted segmental head with carving above of scroll-work and cherubheads; splayed jambs of inner doorway with panelled linings, early 18th-century, inner lobbies and doors modern. Font: octagonal and of white marble, moulded, fluted and reeded bowl, long octagonal baluster-shaped stem and moulded base, late 17th-century. Galleries: over N. and S. aisles and W. end of nave, with plain fronts with moulded skirting and capping continued from pedestals of columns; four stairs from vestibules and aisles with close moulded strings, square newels, twisted balusters and moulded handrails, late 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments:—On wall N. of apse, (1) of Diana, daughter of Charles Farrell, 1686, white marble tablet with carved foliage, cherub-heads and scrolls; above cornice a female bust between two flaming urns; cartouche with lozenge-of-arms on base; (2) of Grace, daughter of Henry Pierrepont, Marquis of Dorchester, 1703, white marble wall-monument with draped standing figure on convex shaped pedestal flanked by putti and twisted composite columns supporting entablature with pediment, urns and hour-glass; above figure, drapery and cherubs and on apron lozenge-of-arms; (3) of Grace, wife of Hender Maddsworth, Governor of Jamaica, 1687, white marble tablet with flanking Corinthian columns surmounted by entablatures and carved female bust between two flaming urns; carved cartouche with shield-of-arms on apron. On S. wall, (4) to Thomas Aoze [Agar], 1687, Surveyor-General of all the woods on the S. side of the Trent, white marble tablet with curved pediment, cherub-heads, etc. In nave—on first pier of N. arcade, (5) to Peter Smith, 1700, and Mary Elders, 1701, Francis Ball, 1705, and Rachel Dongworth, 1735, widow of Peter Smith, white marble and slate tablet flanked by fluted pilasters supporting cornice and broken pediment and flaming urn; in lower part, achievement-of-arms. Floor-slabs: said to be beneath mosaic pavement, in aisles, (1) to Mrs. Diana Farrell, 1686; (2) to Elizabeth, daughter of John Pyncomb, 1706. Panelling: round church in three heights to underside of gallery with simple moulded panels. In gallery, panelled dado, late 17th-century. Pulpit: square with splayed angles and raised panels with carved borders on each face, enriched capping and carved base carried by square columns with panelled sides, moulded cap and base, early 18th-century. Seating: formed from old pews cut down, backs and ends with raised panels in two heights, late 17th-century. Pews in N. and S. galleries, plain. Stalls, etc., to quire, modern but incorporating band of carving on front, late 17th-century. Prayer-desk, on N. side of sacrarium, partly made up with old material including moulded panel with cherub-heads and swags, carved and twisted balusters, etc., late 17th-century.

Westminster. The Parish Church of St Clement Danes.


(10). Parish Church of St. Clement Danes, stands in the middle of the Strand opposite the S.E. end of Aldwych. It is in the Renaissance style with a West tower; the walls are of Portland stone and the roofs are covered with lead. It was finished in 1682 from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren, who incorporated the lower stages of the 15th-century W. tower, the top of which was removed and replaced by the present spire by James Gibbs in 1719.

Architectural Description—The church consists of a chancel (17 ft. by 23 ft.) with an apsidal E. end, a nave (73 ft. by 40 ft.) with a curved E. end and galleried aisles (11½ ft. wide), and a West tower (12 ft. by 11 ft.) with N. and S. vestibules (14½ ft. square). The Elevations (Plate 156) of the main building E. of the tower and vestibules have a continuous plinth, a string at the gallery level, moulded cornice and plain parapet, except on the S., where it is panelled and with moulded capping. The windows are symmetrically spaced in two tiers, the upper lighting the galleries, the lower the aisles. The E. end of the chancel projects slightly in a square bay against which the lower members of the main cornice are returned and carried on scrolled brackets and the upper members continued round in a curved pediment. In the lower part of the bay is a large recessed panel; the plinth is moulded and at the level of the string is a moulded cornice. In the upper part of this bay is a semi-circularheaded window with moulded architrave and cherub-head keystone and in the pediment above are carved festoons and swags; above the parapet is a cartouche carved with the anchor of St. Clement, palm-leaves and cherub-head. The windows on either side of the E. window are square-headed and flanked by half pilasters with moulded bases and carved caps supporting a moulded architrave; below the sill is a raised panel and the whole is enclosed within a moulded and eared architrave with semi-circular head and keystone; the S.E. window has a carved cherub-head keystone, swags and festoons in the spandrels and laurel-wreath in the tympanum. The lower windows on either side of the central bay are segmental-headed and have moulded architraves with plain key-blocks and plain sills. The N. and S. elevations are generally similar, but on the latter, which originally faced the main thoroughfare, the detail is more elaborate. The upper windows have semi-circular heads and are similar to the S.E. window of the chancel, but the small inner pilasters with the tympanum above are omitted. The lower windows are uniform with the corresponding windows to the apse. In the westernmost bay on the S. elevation is a squareheaded doorway with moulded architrave and cornice and pulvinated frieze, and in the corresponding bay on the N. side is a round-headed doorway with moulded architrave and keystone carved with an anchor and the letters S.C.; it is flanked by projecting rusticated blocks with moulded bases and surmounted by a triangular pediment. On the N. elevation, below the easternmost window of the lower range, is a blocked doorway. The architrave of the window is carried down enclosing a recess with three-quarter Doric columns supporting an architrave. The W. vestibules stop below the level of the main cornice with a small cornice and blocking course, and are surmounted by small lead domes terminating in stone finials. The vestibules are divided into two stages by a cornice continuous with the string-course of the main walls. The lower windows in the side walls are uniform with those in the main front; and the upper windows are circular; each vestibule has on the W. front a segmental-headed doorway with eared architrave and scrolled keystone, plain frieze and moulded cornice supported on either side by plain brackets. The return W. walls of the main building have plain pilasters at the angles and are carried up in shaped half-gables to the W. tower, each containing a circular window.

The West Tower is of five stages and is surmounted by the stone steeple of later date; the walls of the mediaeval tower have been entirely recased. The western angle-buttresses are in three stages surmounted by obelisks at the level of the third stage of the tower. On the W. front, between the buttresses, is a projecting porch with a round-headed doorway having moulded architrave and archivolt, scroll keystone and plain imposts and bases; it is flanked by rusticated masonry on which are imposed Doric pilasters and is surmounted by an entablature with pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice, above which is a pedestal flanked by scroll brackets carried back as a roof over the porch; on the pedestal is the date 1820, and above a carved and fluted vase. The second stage has in the W. wall a window of semi-Gothic character and of two pointed lights under a round arch with a moulded label. The third stage has in the W. wall a circular window, and on the S. wall a sundial on a square tablet flanked by scrolls supporting a pulvinated frieze and narrow cornice with broken pediment and a cartouche carved with the anchor and initials of St. Clement; below the tablet are three scrolled consoles and carved swags. The fourth stage has in each wall a two-light window generally similar to those in the second stage, but with plain architraves terminating on the S. and E. in carved scrolls. At the level of the fifth stage is a modillioned cornice. The fifth stage has a modillioned cornice and is divided into two unequal heights by a narrower cornice. In each wall of the lower is a clock-dial on a square panel flanked by scrolls; the upper stage has in each wall a round-headed louvred opening with moulded and rusticated architrave.

Interior (Plates 154, 155)—The walls and ceilings are all plastered. Above the main window of the apse is a moulded arch with a cartouche in place of key-block; between the windows are Corinthian pilasters supporting an architrave. The two piers on the W. wall of the nave support a semi-circular arch rising to the ceiling; the soffit, tympanum, and piers above the imposts have enriched plaster panels, as have also the upper part of the walls on either side. The body of the church is in seven bays; the easternmost is occupied by the W. end of the chancel. The arcades are in two stages; the lower have square piers with a panelled Doric pilaster on each face supporting a continuous entablature and a panelled gallery-front; the upper arcade has Corinthian columns supporting square architrave-blocks from which springs the barrel-vaulted ceiling. The semi-dome over the apse is divided into diagonal panels, each with a rose ornament. Over the W. end of the chancel is a semi-circular barrel-vault with three enriched panels. The ceiling over the easternmost bay of the nave is in one panel with an enriched leaf border containing an achievement of the royal arms of the Stuarts, surrounded by roses, thistles, leaves, etc., with a draped tablet supported by cherubs, and inscribed, "Dr Gregory Hascard, Rector, Thomas Cox and William Thompson, Churchwardens, Ao. Dom. MDCLXXXI." Above the chancel-arch and the arches of the main arcade are cartouches, two with an anchor and the letters C.D.; the spaces on either side are filled with swags and festoons hanging from cherub-heads; the soffits of the arches to the main arcades have enriched guilloche ornament. The five westernmost bays of the main ceiling are each divided into five enriched panels, two filled with leaf scrolls. Each bay of the gallery over the aisles has an enriched groined vault and the bays are divided by arches with enriched soffits. Over the gallery staircases are domes with central flower-ornaments, enriched cornices and leaves and scroll-work in the spandrels. The interior of the tower is of finely faced stone ashlar work. The ground-stage has in the N., S. and E. walls a semi-circular-headed opening with attached Doric columns on the jambs supporting an inner and moulded arch with a plain keystone; the columns are without bases. The opening in the E. wall is flanked by two panelled Doric pilasters supporting a cornice, all in cement, and in the W. wall is a plain round-headed doorway. In the second stage are two doorways with four-centred heads, but they appear to be late 17th-century work. The belfry has an internal stone dome to carry the steeple.

Fittings—Altar: modern but surmounted by moulded slab of rough mottled marble of uncertain date, said to have been brought from Italy and of pre-Reformation date. Bells: ten and sanctus, 1st and 2nd modern, the 5th recast, 3rd, 4th, 6th to 10th by William and Philip Wightman, 1693; Sanctus by Robert Mot, 1588. Brasses: On wall of N. staircase, (1) to Elizabeth (Benskin), wife of Thomas Brown, 1705; (2) name and date obliterated. Chest: In N. gallery—heavily bound with iron, small hutch door in front with ornamental handle, 16th-century. Doors: In N. doorway, semi-circular-headed and in two leaves, each with four raised panels and mouldings. In S. doorway and in W. doorways of vestibules, similar to N. door, but with segmental heads and each leaf of five panels. In tower, opening into vestibules, each of three panels, upper glazed, lower raised. In galleries at W. end, each with four-panelled leaves, all late 17th-century. Fonts and Cover. Fonts: (1) of white marble, octagonal, with shallow bowl having upper part moulded and lower part reeded, baluster-shaped stem and moulded base, late 17th-century; (2) at the end of the N. aisle is another font with octagonal bowl, moulded and foliated and a square baluster-shaped stem, probably early 18th-century. Font-cover: of font (1), of oak, varnished, in two stages with fluted dome; lower stage octagonal with small pedestals supporting diminutive vases at angles, upper part circular and of cavetto section with moulded cornices, small carved consoles and small vases at base of dome, late 17th-century. Galleries: Over aisles and W. bay of nave, with bolection-moulded panelled front incorporating plinths to columns of upper arcade, and surmounting entablature of lower arcade; central projection over W. end of nave with quadrant angles supported on two Doric columns and with brass rail above book-rest and seven standards terminating in crowns; underside of gallery plastered with half-saucer domes opposite each window of aisle. The staircases up to the galleries have continuous moulded strings, moulded handrails, turned balusters and square newels. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: On wall of N. staircase, (1) to Samuel Tatham, 1691, tablet with moulded frame, segmental pediment and apron with blank shield; at head of stair, (2) to Sir Edward Leche, [1652], carved and draped tablet. In gallery—on S. wall, (3) to Richard Dukeson, D.D., 1678, and Ann (Hickman), his wife, 1670, tablet flanked by pilasters and elongated scrolls surmounted by cornice and broken pediment; apron below carved with open book, scrolls and cherub-heads, on pediment two cherubs supporting achievement-of-arms. Floorslabs: In S. aisle, (1) to John Mason, 1710–11, and others; (2) to Jane C...., date and shield-of-arms obliterated. Organ (Plate 155): Over W. gallery, by Bernard Schmidt, 1690, with modern additions and alterations; central portion in three divisions with four towers of pipes, the two middle carried on cherub-head corbels, the side on corbels of carved acanthus-leaves connected by band of carving with continuous cornice; towers surmounted by pierced carving and semi-circular entablature with flaming urns; middle towers taller than side ones; connecting panels of pipes in two heights with bands of pierced carving; upper band to side divisions ramped up to middle towers and surmounted by carved palm leaves; above middle division elliptical panel charged with an anchor and surmounted by royal monogram G. R., and crown. Modern enlargement by addition of one bay on either side with towers possibly incorporating old work. Casing to lower part of organ probably reused panelling from upper part of gallery. Panelling: Of oak, on either side of reredos, in four heights with carved scrolls abutting against reredos and flanked by Doric pilasters with entablature uniform with those supporting galleries. Behind and on either side of the quire-stalls. To walls of aisles, in three heights, the two upper and the panels in the window jambs with bolection mouldings; plain boarding below level of former seats. In gallery, to walls and window recesses, dado in three heights with raised panels and mouldings. To backs of churchwardens' pews, on W. side, in five heights. To walls of staircases, panelled dado. In second stage of tower, a few portions, all late 17th-century. Paving: In chancel, centre of nave and round font, of black and white marble squares set diagonally. Plate: includes two cups, a paten and flagon of 1652, a cup of 1656, a paten of 1657, a cup of 1669, a flagon of 1672, a paten of 1684, a large and a smaller paten and two flagons of 1685, and a small hexagonal chalice and paten of foreign character of 1694. Also a seal-top spoon of 1609, a rat-rail spoon of 1684 engraved with an anchor and initials S.C.D., a tobacco-box of elliptical shape of 1680, and two silver-mounted boxwood hammers engraved with the names of successive parish officers, faces carved with crowned Tudor rose, and anchor and the letters E.R., one dated 1577 the other 1598. Pulpit: (Plate 5) of oak, hexagonal, with richly carved and moulded capping and base, panelled pilasters at angles enriched with carved festoon and fruit swag, circular panel on each face enriched by border of foliage with cherub-heads and fruit swags above and carved wreaths and acanthus leaf below; above capping, shelf with enriched edge supported by acanthus leaves at angles; pulpit stands on six-sided post with scroll brackets connected by festoons of leaves and flowers; all carving in high relief; circular panels on sides of pulpit originally inlaid now filled with carved modern heads; stairs in one flight up to a landing of oval form with moulded string, square newels and enriched handrail and balusters, late 17th-century. Reredos: In three bays with coupled and fluted Corinthian columns to middle bay and pilasters to side bays standing on panelled pedestals and supporting enriched entablature; architrave ramped up to shouldered segmental head over middle bay and cornice, with panelled soffit. In middle bay two round-headed panels with cherub-heads in spandrels, carved pelican above; modern carving in panels; dado panelled with moulded shelf above of modern or made up work. Side bays each of three panels, upper and lower with carved swags, wreaths, wheat-ears, etc., in high relief, late 17th-century, middle originally occupied respectively with Lord's Prayer and Creed, now filled with modern stained glass. Royal Arms: see description of ceiling under Interior p. 107b. Screen: under gallery—of bolection-moulded panelling on W. side. Seating: In nave—to churchwardens' pews, four frieze panels of wrought-iron scroll-work, backs modern. Gallery pews of simple character with raised panels. Stalls: Modern, but incorporating some old work, probably from doors of old pews; in fronts of reading-stalls large pierced panel, late 17th-century. Miscellanea: Small rosewood box (20 in. by 6 in. by 6 in.) with brass plate on lid inscribed "... for all the wrightings that doe belong to the poore of the Parish of St. Clement Danes," and dated 1660. In N. gallery—stone tablet commemorating completion of church in 1684, cherubs supporting anchor at top.

Westminster. The Parish Church of St James.


(11). Parish Church of St. James (Plate 159) stands on the S. side of Piccadilly, 180 yards S.W. of Piccadilly Circus. It is in the Renaissance style with a West Tower; the walls are of brick with dressings of Portland stone; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. It was built from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren and consecrated in 1684. The principal vestry was added c. 1690 and the spire in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1856 the original staircases were removed, the N. and S. vestibules added at the W. end of the church, and the original S. doorway in the centre of the S. wall was removed and a window inserted in its place. A small additional vestry was built at the E. end in 1884.

Among the fittings the font, the organ-case and reredos, with carving by Grinling Gibbons, are exceptionally fine examples of their period.

Architectural Description—The church consists of a Chancel and Nave (87½ ft. by 36½ ft.), structurally undivided, with a gallery at the W. end, N. and S. aisles (12½ ft. wide) with galleries over, and a square West Tower (15 ft. square) with the angles cut off internally.

Elevations.—A dentilled stone cornice is carried round the top of the walls of the main structure, except in the central bay at the E. end; this bay has a plain gable, across the foot of which a plain stone string-course continues the line of the cornice. The quoins are rusticated.

E. Elevation.—The main wall is divided into three bays, of which the central bay slightly projects. In this bay is a window of three lights and of two stages divided by a heavy stone cornice, frieze and architrave which are carried by a Corinthian pilaster in each jamb and by two Corinthian columns forming mullions; the upper stage has a dentilled cornice carried by Composite pilasters and columns, but interrupted over the central light, which has a moulded semi-circular head springing from the entablature on each side. In the end wall of each of the aisles is a dummy round window.

N. Elevation—has nine windows arranged in two stages divided by a plain stone string-course; this string-course is carried entirely round the main structure and the tower. The five windows in the upper stage have moulded and eared architraves, and semi-circular heads with large keystones, all moulded except that of the central window, which is carved with a cherub-head. Beneath the four westernmost of these upper windows are the four smaller windows of the lower stage. These have moulded and eared architraves and segmental heads with large plain keystones. At the W. end, against the tower, is the modern N. vestibule and entrance. The principal vestry of c. 1690 covers the E. end below the first upper window and is returned for a short distance round the E. end of the church. On the W. side it has two windows and a doorway, all with semi-circular heads of brick; on the E. side three square-headed windows.

S. Elevation—has ten windows, five in each stage, similar to those in the corresponding stages on the N. elevation, except that the central window in the upper stage has small carved side-brackets. Below this window was the original S. entrance, which was removed in 1856 (when the vestibules were built) and was replaced by a window made to match the others in the lower stage. At the W. end is the modern S. vestibule and entrance.

The W. Tower is of four stages divided by plain stone string-courses and surmounted by a wooden balustraded parapet and a spire of later date. In the W. wall is a semi-circular-headed doorway with a deep keystone carved with a floriated and scrolled cartouche of the arms of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans. In the second stage in the W. wall is a semi-circular-headed window, partly blocked; before the modern vestibules were built, there was probably a similar window in the N. and S. walls. In the third stage in each wall is a circular window, and in the fourth stage in each wall is a round-headed opening. The spire of c. 1760 is octagonal and is carried by a small octagonal chamber upon a rectangular clock-chamber; the octagonal chamber has in each face a semi-circular-headed opening. It is built of wood and lead.

Interior: (Plate 157). The splays of the E. window are carried up to the plaster barrel-vault, thus forming a segmental-headed recess, the soffit of which is divided by mouldings into seven panels, each containing a rosette. The cornice of the entablature which divides the window into two stages is carried across the E. wall and forms the cornice of the entablature on the E. wall of each aisle.

The two aisles are each of five bays divided by rectangular piers which, together with the responds, support the gallery and carry colonnades, each of six Corinthian columns. The columns are painted to imitate marble, and the piers are painted and each have a cornice with egg-and-dart moulding. Over each column, and running back to the wall, is an entablature with egg-and-dart and other enrichments; the soffit of the entablature has moulded panels and a rosette. On the wall beneath each entablature is a decorative corbel with a cartouche or a scallop-shell of St. James set in floral and scroll ornament. From the entablature over each column spring the transverse ribs of the barrel-vault which forms the ceiling of the main body of the church. The ribs are marked by elaborate guilloche and foliage patterns, and the soffit of the vault is divided by enriched mouldings into square panels; three of these at the apex of the vault contain large and elaborate rosettes. The main barrel-vault is intersected in each bay by a small transverse barrel-vault, which, carried by the transverse entablatures, forms the ceiling of each bay of the aisles. On the soffit of the main vault above each of these intersections is a narrow panel adapted to the curve of the intersecting vault; in the centre of each of these panels is a cherub-head between swags of fruit and flowers. The small vaults have each two ornamental transverse ribs similar to those of the main vault, and a large rosette.

At the E. end of the N. aisle is a doorway opening into the returned part of the vestry, and in the N. wall of this aisle is a doorway opening into the vestry. At the W. end of each aisle is a doorway, originally external, but now opening into the modern vestibules.

The Gallery is carried round the W. end, where it is supported by two Doric columns. The front of the gallery is moulded and enriched with egg-and-dart, floral and other patterns.

The W. Tower is entered from the nave by a plain semi-circular-headed arch and has an external doorway in the W. wall. The doorways in the N. and S. walls were originally external but now open into the modern vestibules. The central bay of the original structure at the W. end projects similarly to that at the E. end; but this projection is now masked externally by the vestibules. The vestibules contain the present staircases up to the gallery; the original staircases were at the W. ends of the aisles.

The Vestry has an original moulded wood cornice, and an original fireplace with a moulded marble architrave.

Fittings—(all of late 17th-century date, unless otherwise described). Bell: one, by William and Philip Wightman, 1686. Chest: in vestry, iron-bound chest with ornamental keyhole. Communion Rails: of white marble with moulded base, rail and intermediate uprights and square piers with sunk panels filled with carved fruit and flowers; panels, between piers and uprights, of cast bronze with festoons of foliage and flowers. Communion Table: of oak, with front of three panels divided by carved and twisted Composite columns standing on an enriched chamfered base and supporting enriched entablature with carved cherub-heads and fruit and flower swags between; sides of one panel each with large carved rosette in centre; table enlarged by addition of side panels and standing on modern plinth; top modern. Font: (Plate 2) of white marble, with round bowl carved in low relief with scenes representing Baptism of our Lord, the ark floating on the waters, and the baptism of the eunuch of Candace by St. Philip; stem carved to represent a tree entwined by serpent, and, on either side, nude figures of Adam and Eve. Gallery: see Architectural Description. Monuments: In chancel—on E. wall, (1) to Theodora, wife of Richard King, 1693, oval tablet with carved drapery, laurel-wreath, cherubs and shield-of-arms; on N. wall, (2) to George, Earl of Huntingdon, 1704, tablet with fluted Corinthian columns at sides supporting entablatures, with achievement-of-arms and pediment with carved urn; at sides and base carved trophies-of-arms; (3) to Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, 1701, and Lewis [his son], 1704, white marble tablet with carved laurel, skull and drapery; on E. wall, (4) to Susanna, daughter of John, Earl of Clare, and widow of Sir John Lort, 1710, large tablet with carved cherub-heads under canopy of drapery, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting entablature with broken curved pediment containing lozenge-of-arms; (5) to Mary (Smith), wife of Archibald Hutcheson, 1698, tablet with carved drapery, palm branches and shield-of-arms; on S. wall—(6) to Henry Sidney, Earl of Romney, 1704, monument with semi-circular niche having fluted coved head and containing urn and two cherubs; niche flanked by twisted and partly fluted Corinthian columns supporting entablature, cherubs and painted achievement-of-arms; in bottom part of monument, inscription-panel and carved trophies, etc. In N. aisle—on second pier from the E., (7) to John Haines, 1691, and Mary, his widow, 1719, tablet with carved drapery, cherubs and blank shield; on third pier, (8) to Arthur Johnson, 1703, and Martha, his widow, 1721, carved tablet with drapery and cherub-heads; on fourth pier, (9) to John Combes, 1711, and Damaris, his wife, 1707, tablet with carved drapery and shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—on first pier, (10) to Elizabeth (Hodson), 1698, wife of Col. Benjamin Fletcher, "late Captain-general and Governour-incheife of his Majesties Province of New Yorke," tablet with cornice, crown and palm-branches and shield-of-arms; carved figure of angel on one side, and, on the other, a reversed torch; on second pier, (11) to Lucy (Fuller), 1710, wife of Edward Gaunt, also to Edward Gaunt, 1716, tablet surrounded by scrolls and palm branches with shield-of-arms above; on third pier, (12) to Anne, daughter of the "Rt. Hon. Anthony de Bey, Lord Barron of Batilly, Major-general to Louis 13th and 14th, Kings of France" and wife of Major-general Sir William Douglas, 1709, tablet with carved scroll-work, cherub-heads and cartouches-of-arms; on fourth pier, (13) to Mary (Caley), 1714, wife first of Sir Samuel Marow, Bart., secondly of Francis Fisher, plain tablet. Organ (Plate 157) and Organ Gallery over W. gallery—of oak, with gallery full width of nave and in three bays supported on four Tuscan columns with entablature and bolection-moulded panelling; ends of gallery convex, and middle bay projecting with concave sides and supported on curved brackets under cornice; projecting from middle of central bay, and carried on carved brackets, small quire organ, in two bays, with three projecting towers of pipes on carved corbels and surmounted by entablature connected at top by ramped cornice over intermediate panels of pipes. Main organ over middle bay of gallery and in two stages, lower cased with bolection-moulded panelling surmounted by entablature with carved frieze projecting on semi-circular carved cherub-head corbels under central and side towers of pipes dividing the upper stage into two bays; towers surmounted by carved entablatures with pierced foliage below, enclosing heads of pipes; intermediate panels of pipes open, with carved bands across middle and surmounted by segmental-shaped cornices; over side towers, standing cherubs blowing trumpets; over central tower, two kneeling cherubs supporting crown; and, over intermediate panels, winged female figures holding trumpets. Organ by Renatus Harris, 1678, for James II and intended for his chapel in Whitehall, given to St. James' church by Queen Mary, 1691; organ rebuilt but original pipes retained, 1852. Plate: includes cup of 1662 with representation of Last Supper in repoussé, four cups and patens, large stand-paten, an alms-dish, with representation of Last Supper in centre and four panels on border—(a) the Annunciation, (b) the Nativity, (c) the Crucifixion, (d) the Resurrection—all in repoussé work, and two flagons and one larger flagon; all the above, except the first, of 1683 and enriched with acanthus-leaf ornamentation, cups with cherubheads, etc.; two small cups with cover-patens of 1693, a spoon of early 18th-century date, a flagon, with representation of St. Paul in Malta, in repoussé work, 17th-century, and a small cup and cover-paten of 1683. Reredos: (Plate 158), extending full width of chancel and divided into three bays by panelled pilasters supporting enriched entablature continued from gallery-fronts and cornice carried in curved pediment over centre bay; side bays each with two raised and bolection-moulded panels; middle bay with modern picture framed in bolection-moulding, with surround of elaborate carved limewood, in high relief, pelican in her piety above, with ribbon and swags and festoons of fruit, sea-shells, wheat-ears, foliage, etc.; entablature and cornice over pediment not original, but altered to present condition in 19th century.

Condition—Good, but tower out of perpendicular.

(12). Parish Church of St. Martin in the Fields, at the N.E. corner of Trafalgar Square, was entirely rebuilt in 1721–26 from the designs of James Gibbs. It contains from the 16th-century church the following:—

Fittings—Font: in form of an urn and pedestal, moulded oval bowl of veined marble, stem of same form, enriched with acanthus and with spiral flutings above and a cornice. Cover, oval, with enriched concave top with festoons of flowers and two small doves; modern inscription recording gift in 1689. Monuments: In crypt—on S. wall, (1) to Thomas Evans [1612], inscription only, bust now on Monument (8); (2) to Margaret (Faldo), 1677, wife successively of John Berkehead and Stephen Knight, inscription only; (3) to John Throckmorton, 1664, fragment of inscription. On E. wall, (4) to Benjamin Collinge, 1700, and Catherine (Ollivers), his wife, 1719, marble tablet flanked by scrolls and finished with a cornice and cartouche; (5) to Sir Thomas Woodcock, 1679, Barbara, his wife, 1673, and three sons, Charles, 1673, Edward, 1699, and John, 1703, marble tablet with cornice, broken pediment and cartouche; (6) to Utrecia Tompson, 1691, and her husband, John, 1700, plain tablet; (7) to Utrecia, 1684, and Frances, 1686, daughters of John Tompson, headstone with lozenge-of-arms; (8) to Sir Theodore Mayerne [1655], restored monument with achievement and lozenge-of-arms at sides and surmounted by bust of T. Evans (see Monument 1). On piers, (9) to Catherine (Wingfield), wife of Francis Bacon, 1660, tablet with scrolls and defaced shield-of-arms; (10) to Frances, daughter of Arthur Jones, Viscount Ranelagh, 1672, inscription only; (11) to Nathaniel Hardy, S.T.D., 1670, (the cartouche-of-arms from this monument is separated from the inscription); (12) to John Steward, 1633, inscription only; (13) to Jane Jackson, 1670, draped tablet with cherub-head and skull; (14) to Thomas Bilson, 1652; (15) to Edith (Bettesworth), wife of [Thomas] Bilson, 1651, oval tablet with scrolls, cherubs and shield-of-arms; (16) to Elizabeth (Jolly), wife of Andrew Macdowall, 1670, cartouche with cherubs, scroll-work and head of woman at top, shield-of-arms below; (17) to Joanna (Miller), wife of Lord Henry Powlet, 1673, tablet with scrolls, swags and cartouche with blank lozenge; (18) to Robert Clayton, 1676, plain marble tablet; (19) to [Frances] (Gaudy), 1683, and John Troutbeck, her husband [1684], plain marble tablet. On N. wall, (20) to Margaret, wife of Joseph White, 1687, tablet with scrolls, skull, etc. All the above monuments were reset after the rebuilding of the church and many of them are in a fragmentary state; fixed on the walls are numerous other fragments of monuments, including a kneeling figure of a man of c. 1600, possibly part of the monument to William Cooke, 1589, whose arms appear on two other fragments, a fragment with figures of five sons and five daughters, and various other shields-of-arms of later date. Plate: (Plate 160) includes three cups of 1649; cup of 1653; cup of 1679; cup and cover-paten, the former of 1691; three cups of 1683, cover-paten of 1683, and a cover-paten, probably of the same date; paten of 1691; paten of 1682; stand-paten of 1699, from Long Acre Chapel; flagon of 1634 with base added 1726, flagon of 1700, given by Lady Mason to Trinity Chapel and with shield-of-arms, flagon of 1705, and an alms-dish of 1656.


Westminster. The Parish Church of St Mary le Strand

(13). Parish Church of St. Mary le Strand stands in the middle of the Strand, N.E. of Waterloo Bridge. The walls are faced entirely with Portland stone and the roofs are lead-covered. The church was built from the designs of James Gibbs, the foundation-stone being laid on February 25th, 1714, and the building completed on September 7th, 1717; the steeple formed no part of the original design, its oblong plan being dictated by the pre-existing structure below.

The church is a purely Renaissance structure consisting of a rectangular body with an apse flanked by vestries at the E. end, and a tower flanked by a staircase and vestry at the W. end; projecting from the W. front is a semi-circular portico. Under the church is a basement or crypt.

Elevations (Plate 161)—The whole church is divided into two storeys, the lower of the Ionic, and the upper of the Corinthian order, with their appropriate entablatures and with columns or pilasters between the bays.

The E. end has an apse of three bays; each bay of the lower storey has a round-headed window with architrave and carved keystone; the cornice of the entablature is carried over the head of each window in a curve; flanking each window are large pendants of fruit and flowers and below each window is a large rusticated panel within which is a sunk panel carved with conventional foliage, etc. The upper storey of the apse has in each bay a large rusticated panel in which is set a round-headed niche with an architrave and a pediment supported on carved consoles; below the pediment are cherub-heads and swags; higher up the wall in each bay is an apron-shaped projection, finished with a cornice. The balustraded parapet has pedestals with vases between the bays.

The bays at the E. end of the main block have each a large rusticated panel, similar to those on the upper part of the apse, and a doorway with architrave and segmental pediment resting on carved consoles; below the pediment are cherubheads with swags; above the pediment is an apron-shaped projection with a cornice. The bays of the upper storey are similar to those of the apse except that there are windows in place of niches. The N. and S. elevations are uniform with one another and are each of seven bays, the alternate bays being finished with curved pediments, each with three pedestals and vases; the pediment to the middle bay is curved, and the intermediate bays have a balustraded parapet. The lower storey has in each bay, except the two end bays, a niche similar to those in the apse and set within large rusticated panels; the end bays have each a window of similar type. In the upper storey the five middle bays have each a round-headed window with moulded archivolt and key carved with a cherub-head; flanking the window are coupled Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature which forms the impost of the arched head of the window; the spandrels above the window-head have sunk panels with foliage. The two end bays have windows similar to those of the side bays of the E. end; below each window is a sunk panel.

The W. end has, in the middle of the lower storey, a projecting semi-circular portico with four free Ionic columns and two pairs of coupled columns against the wall; the roof is a saucershaped dome finished externally with an entablature and crowned by a large flaming urn or vase, and finished internally with a coffered soffit with rosettes and a large central ornament of foliage. The W. doorway within the portico has a round head with foliated panels in the spandrels above; flanking the doorway are coupled Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature. The side bays, both of the lower and upper storey, have windows similar to those in the side bays of the E. end. The middle bay of the upper storey has a window similar to, but wider than, the middle windows in the side walls; flanking it are coupled Corinthian columns supporting a pediment above the main entablature.

The Steeple rises three stages above the parapet. The lowest stage has a high plinth surmounted by a moulded cornice; in the N. and S. sides is a circular window with moulded architrave flanked by consoles supporting a pediment, in the E. wall is a similarly treated round-headed doorway, and in the W. wall a clock-face; above the plinth are round-headed openings on the E. and W., with moulded imposts and scrolled key; flanking each opening are coupled Corinthian pilasters supporting the continuous entablature at the top of the stage. The N. and S. faces are much narrower than those on the E. and W. and have each two Corinthian columns with an opening between them; above these columns are four vases. The next stage is similar in composition to that below, but each face has a carved pierced cartouche on the plinth and there is also carving above the window opening. The top stage forms a tall lantern and cupola; the plinth has supporting consoles; the lantern has a round-headed opening in each face and a pilaster set diagonally at each angle; the cupola has curved supports at the angles and on each face a pierced cartouche; below the domed top is a moulded cornice, and the cupola is surmounted by a gilded weather-vane.

Interior: (Plate 162) The Chancel (20 ft. by 19ft.) is apsidal and has three windows divided by Corinthian pilasters, supporting entablatures and pedestals from which spring moulded ribs forming part of the semi-domed ceiling; between the ribs are moulded panels enclosing suns, clouds and cherubs; the windows have moulded and enriched architraves, splays with recessed and enriched panels and soffits with fret ornament; above each window is a cornice supported on scrolled brackets between which are cherub-heads and a Holy Dove over the middle window. The Corinthian pilasters flanking the opening to the apse support a round arch with recessed soffit and side panels enriched with palms and fruit. The W. bay of the chancel has in each wall a doorway with moulded and enriched architraves, entablature and pediment; this bay is flanked by one Corinthian pilaster on the E. and two on the W., all with enriched entablatures and panelled attics from which spring three round arches with soffits enriched with foliage and fruit; the ceiling between the arches is coffered and has enriched panels filled with rosettes.

The Nave (64 ft. by 36 ft.) has walls of two storeys, consisting of the Corinthian and Composite orders respectively. The E. wall has coupled and engaged fluted columns in each storey, flanking the chancel-arch, each standing on a pedestal and supporting entablatures which are continued round the side walls. The spandrels of the chancel-arch have foliage enrichment and above the arch is a pediment with the royal arms of George I in the tympanum. The N. and S. walls are of similar general character to the E. wall, but the bays are divided by pairs of pilasters and the entablature of the upper storey is interrupted by the windows; the lower storey has large plain panels with enriched mouldings between the pilasters. The W. wall has a round-headed doorway flanked by square fluted pilasters; above it is a gallery carried on two pairs of fluted Corinthian columns and an enriched entablature; the gallery-front has square balusters, panelled pedestals with swags and ribands and a moulded cornice; the soffit of the gallery has three coffered panels with flower-centres and the soffit of the entablature has a fret. The upper storey of the W. wall has a round-headed arch of two enriched orders with fluted pilasters to the responds. The ceiling of the nave forms a flat elliptical arch and is divided into five bays by coffered arches on the same plane as the ceiling; the spaces between are divided by diagonal ribs into enriched coffered panels; the ceiling is groined back over the windows; above each window is a cherub-head and swags of fruit and foliage.

The Crypt, beneath the nave, is divided by longitudinal walls into three parallel compartments each with a barrel-vault; the walls are of brick.

The N. and S. Vestries are each circular on plan and each has a blocked doorway in the E. wall and a window in the N. and S. walls respectively.

The W. Porch, under the tower, has a panelled barrel-vault and corridors on the N. and S. leading to the tower-staircase on the N. and a small round vestry on the S.

Fittings—All of early 18th-century date, unless otherwise described. Chair: with oval back, twisted side pieces, scrolled legs and twisted bars, late 17th-century. Chest: In nave—panelled with moulded edge to lid and moulded base. Communion Table and Rails. Table: with close moulded panels to front and sides, moulded capping and base. Rails: now enclosing quirestalls, with fluted and enriched column-shaped balusters, carved and moulded rail and moulded base and double gates. Doors: In W. doorway— panelled doors of two folds with strap-hinges, glazed fanlight to head. In doorway to N. and S. vestries, W. porch and gallery—with moulded panels. Font: (Plate 2) of white veined marble, with moulded rim, circular bowl and baluster stem. Organ Case: modern, but incorporating portions of enriched capping similar to that of panelling round walls of church and small pilasters with carved Corinthian capitals. Panelling: Round walls of chancel and nave, panelled wainscot with moulded capping and skirting. In vestries— moulded panelling to walls. In W. porch— moulded panelling with fluted Corinthian pilasters at angles and moulded cornice; similar moulded panelling and cornice in corridors. Incorporated in back of organist's seat, two panels carved with acanthus foliage, flowers and corn. Plate: (Plate 104) includes cup, probably of 1713; cup, probably of 1702; large stand-paten of 1711 or 1702; two flagons of 1708; all the above given by Edward Barker to the parish church of the Savoy; cup of 1711 with repoussé drapery; stand-paten of 1712 with long inscription; two flagons of 1711 given to St. Benet, Doctors' Commons; two alms-dishes with repoussé work of c. 1660–70 and perhaps of Hamburg manufacture; the above four items given by Elinor James; two cover-patens, probably of early 18th-century date but without marks; and alms-dish of 1681 with date 1711. Pulpit: hexagonal, with sides of ogee section, each with an enriched and shaped panel, enriched cornice with cherub-heads and acanthus leaves, richly carved and moulded base; modern stem. Reredos: slightly curved frame with moulded panel, enriched capping and base.


(14). Parish Church of St. Paul, Covent Garden, stands in the middle of the S.W. side of Covent Garden Market. The first church was begun in 1631 and consecrated in 1638, and the design is attributed to Inigo Jones. It was entirely destroyed by fire in 1795 and rebuilt on the old lines by Thomas Hardwick. It retains the following fittings:—Clock: In vestry—original movement of a Tompion floor-clock, early 18th-century. Monuments: On N. wall—(1) to Mary, wife of John Ffenn, 1648, plain stone tablet; on S. wall, (2) to John Yarwell, 1712, plain marble tablet. Painting: on canvas, of Francis, Earl of Bedford, "who dedicated this church to God, Sept. 26th, 1646," in carved wooden frame of late 17th-century character. Plate: (Plate 4) includes two large cups of 1655, both inscribed and dated 1656; two stand-patens, probably of 1655, but with almost obliterated date-letter; two large stand-patens of 1668; an inscribed flagon dated 1661, but without date-letter; a similar flagon of 1671; two large flagons of 1669 and 1670, respectively, both inscribed and dated; and a large inscribed and dated dish of 1668.

Condition—Rebuilt, present condition good.

(15). The Parish Church of St. George stands on the E. side of George Street, 100 yards S. of Hanover Square. It was built from the designs of John James; the foundation-stone was laid in 1712 and the building was completed in 1724–5. In the E. window of the chancel and N. and S. aisles is the following Flemish stained-glass (Plates 163– 165) representing a Jesse tree; it is of mid 16th-century date and was brought from a convent in Malines and adapted to fit its present position in 1841. The tree is in the form of a vine with leaves and bunches of grapes, and forms the background of each of the lights on which are represented the figures of kings. In E. window of chancel, in bottom of middle light, (a) Jesse, with head resting on left hand, seated on throne of elaborate Renaissance design with piers at sides, one with modern medallion, the other with medallion of female head in circular border inscribed "Minerve la mère de[s arts l]ibbral," throne finished with carved head; above central figure small allegorical winged figure labelled "Victorie," at sides cherubs supporting shields; tablets above inscribed respectively (1) "Le fet lout loure" (? Le fait loue l'œuvre) and (2) "Virtuti ōia parent"; at bottom of light on N. side figures with medallion inscribed, Aaron and Esaias, pedestal inscribed "J'espere" supporting cherub playing musical instrument; on S. side similar arrangement with two unnamed figures and corresponding cherub above on pedestal inscribed "Mieux"; in middle of upper part of light, large oval panel supported by cherubs and having outer border of blue clouds, inner border of cherubheads and containing large figure of the Virgin in robes and jewelled crown, holding on left arm Child with halo and orb; above, in circle, a dove, and, in head of light, two angels with drapery; robed figures on N. side of light with staves labelled Osias, Josaphat, on S. side Iechonias and Manasse, the two upper figures being seated and the two lower standing; the lower parts of all figures in bottom of light have been cut off, probably when glass was reset. On either side of main light, three smaller lights divided by Corinthian columns, middle light on N. side with figure with staff labelled Isechias and David, with harp, middle light on S. side with figure with staff and labelled Ioram and Salomon, on robe the word "Semper"; side light filled with continuation of vine. In E. windows of N. and S. aisles, set with modern border with vine background; in N. aisle, two robed figures, labelled respectively Aya and Roboam (Plate 166); in S. aisle, two similar figures, Iosyas and Achas.

(16). Parish Church of St. John the Evangelist, Smith Square, was finished in 1728. In the E. window is some stained glass, probably of mid 16th-century date and said to have come from a church in Rouen; it was presented to the church in 1818. The glass is in one main and two side panels, divided by Renaissance pilasters, partly restored; the main panel represents the Bearing of the Cross, somewhat restored, and the side panels have figures of St. John the Evangelist, much restored and with a modern head, and St. Paul; each figure has a scroll with a black-letter inscription, (a) " Sanctus Johannes Evang" and (b) a dislocated inscription including the words "Paulus Servus Christi."

(17). Christchurch, Victoria Street, was entirely rebuilt in 1843, but retains from the old church the following:

Fittings—Bell: by John Clifton, 1639. Floor-slab: In churchyard—at E. end, to John Thurston, 1713, with defaced achievement-of-arms; also other slabs, entirely defaced.


(18). Church of St. Thomas stands at the N. corner of Kingly Street and Chapel Court, Regent Street. The walls are of brick, the E. wall is rendered in cement; the roofs are tiled. It was founded as a chapel by Archbishop Tenison late in the 17th century and was then known as the Tabernacle, but this was no doubt a temporary structure. The existing church was built in 1702 and is a rectangular building with continuous Chancel and Nave (71½ ft. by 34 ft.). North and South Aisles (11½ ft. wide) with Galleries above the westernmost bays continued across the W. end of the nave, and a small West Tower; a modern front to Regent Street was built in 1823 by C. R. Cockerell, but this has now been pulled down; the S.W. porch is modern.

Church of St. Thomas, Regent Street. Plan

Architectural Description—The E. wall is rendered in cement; it has a projecting bay in the middle with a large round-headed window and is finished with a modillioned cornice and acute pediment having a round opening in the tympanum. The main roof is continued down on either side of the middle bay to meet the flat roofs of the aisles, which have a plain parapet with a band-course below it. The ends of the aisles have each a plain round-headed window. Projecting from the front on either side of the middle bay is a porch, probably added late in the 18th century. The S. side is of five bays and of two storeys divided by a band-course and with a band below the plain parapet. There are two ranges of plain windows, five in each range and all with segmental heads; the easternmost window of the lower range is blocked. Against W. wall of nave is a small brick tower with moulded wood cornice. It supports a hexagonal bell-turret also of wood surrounded by a balustrade, partly modern. Each face is pierced by a segmental-headed and shouldered opening. Above the moulded cornice is an ogee-shaped and lead-covered cupola surmounted by a ball, wrought-iron scrolls and vane with the date 1702.

Interior: The chancel and nave are five bays in length and are divided from the aisles by two ranges of superimposed orders; the lower range is of the Doric order with the columns formed out of large balks of timber with simple moulded capitals and bases; the columns support an entablature surmounted by the gallery-front which breaks forward over each column to form a plinth to the column above: these latter are of the Ionic order with moulded bases; the columns are probably of timber construction and are covered with painted plaster; they support a moulded architrave, which is carried across the E. wall and returns on to the reveals of the E. window. Against the E. and W. walls are pilasters of the same order as the responds and there are similar pilasters flanking the E. window. The E. window with its flanking pilasters is recessed back from the main wall, which, on either side, has square-headed panels with moulded architraves standing on panelled pedestals; the panels are now filled with modern mosaics. In the W. wall is a doorway, probably enlarged during the 19th century, and above, at the gallery-level, is a recess occupied by the organ with a squareheaded window on either side, probably of later date. In the E. and W. walls of the aisles are round-headed windows with splayed jambs and sills and there are windows in the side walls; the windows to the gallery, except the westernmost, have window-seats. The ceiling over the nave is segmental and rises from the architrave surmounting the upper range of columns; it is divided into bays by slightly projecting bands and each band has four long and three square panels, the latter with rosettes in the middle of each, probably of later date. The ceilings to the aisles are flat with architrave mouldings round the walls as a cornice.

Fittings—All of early 18th-century date unless otherwise described. Bell: inaccessible, said to be of same date as church. Galleries: over three westernmost bays of N. aisle and four westernmost bays of S. aisle, with panelled fronts and moulded capping; entablatures form supporting columns returned along E. end of gallery-fronts and between fourth and fifth bay of N. aisle, partly modern. Organ-gallery modern, but probably incorporating portions of old front; shafts of supporting columns apparently reused. Gallery probably originally extended full length of aisles. Painting: incorporated in reredos of side altar, in oil, of Madonna and Child and St. John the Baptist, 16th-century, Italian. Panelling: in S. gallery, portion at W. end refixed as dado, early 17th-century. In both galleries dado in two heights, but incorporating, on N. wall, length with square channels cut on rails and styles; also two raised panels. Pulpit: probably of oak, painted, with moulded cornice and base, connected to hexagonal stem by deep cavetto moulding; large panels at sides eared at top and carved with cherub-heads and hanging swags of leaves and drapery; one panel pierced and fitted with wooden cross; stairs later and door missing. Rainwater-heads: of simple rectangular form with moulded upper edge. Reredos: of polished mahogany and oak with gilt mouldings; side pilasters with moulded bases and caps supporting an entablature and curved pediment; flanking pilasters, elongated carved scrolls, and, in middle, oil painting. Seating: Pews in gallery with plain square edged panelling at backs and ends, possibly early 18th-century. Vestment: cope, of silk brocade, borders of gold thread embroidered with six figures, probably of apostles, and hood of same material embroidered with a coronation of the Virgin, of Italian character, said to be of 16th-century date.


(19). Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Charing Cross Road, 100 yards N. of Cambridge Circus, was completed in 1876 on the site of the Greek church. (see inscription below). It contains the following ancient:—

Fittings—Glass: In the three windows in the S. wall, in the tracery and mixed up with modern glass in some of the main lights is a large number of fragments of borders, crowns alternating with coloured glass, tabernacle-work and ruby roses, of the 14th and 15th centuries, together with fragments of drapery and enamel-painted tabernacle-work of 15th to 17th-century date. Inscription: (Plate 170) On the W. wall of the nave is a stone slab inscribed with an inscription in Greek to the following effect:—"In the year of Salvation 1677 this Temple was erected for the nation of the Greeks, the Most Serene Charles II being King and the Royal Prince Lord James being Commander of the Forces, the Right Reverend Lord Henry Compton being Bishop, at the expense of the above and their Bishops and Nobles, and with the concurrence of our Humility of Samos Georgeirenes from the Island of Melos."

(20). The Rolls Chapel of St. Thomas, which had been largely rebuilt in the 18th century, was demolished when the Public Record Office was extended in 1896–1900. The chancel-arch was re-erected in the court-yard of the Record Office, and the site of the chapel is now occupied by the Museum. The arch is of early 13th-century date, two-centred and of two moulded orders, and springs from tapering corbels with moulded imposts and foliated bases; the crown of the arch is missing. In the Museum are preserved the following:

Fittings—Bell: (Plate 170) with six canons and of the long waisted form, probably 14th-century or earlier. Glass: In S. windows—six achievements-of-arms as follows, (a) Henry, Prince of Wales, dated 1611, (b) Sir Thomas Egerton; (c) Sir Edward Phelips, sergeant-at-law; (d) Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury; (e) Sir Harbottle Grimston, Bart., dated 1660; (f) H. Powle, M.R., 1691, all 17th-century. Monuments: Against N. wall, (1) of Dr. John Yong, 1516, Master of the Rolls. Recessed arch in wall with architravemoulding carried round semi-circular arch (Plate 168). Under it is a moulded sarcophagus resting on a panelled base and supporting a recumbent effigy. The sarcophagus is entirely moulded, the two main hollows being fluted and having acanthus ornament at the angles. The two front angles have lions' feet, and between them is a long scroll inscribed "Dominus Firmamentum Meum." The base has a moulded cornice and plinth with a panelled pilaster at each end. These panels have each a shield—lozengy a cheveron with three rings thereon and a chief charged with a goat's head razed between two scallops—the background has carved ribbons. The middle part of the base has a raised moulding with carved ornament at the sides and enclosing a marble panel with gilt letters. The effigy (Plate 169) is vested in a red robe with a tippet of the same colour and a black hood. The hands are crossed over the breast and the head has a black baret-cap and rests on two cushions with remains of gilding. On the wall-space above the effigy are three heads— in the middle and issuing from clouds is a head of Christ, and on either side is a cherub-head with four wings. The monument is a remarkable example of pure Italian style by P. Torrigiani, the material is limestone, with the effigy, etc. of terra-cotta. (2) of Edward, Lord Bruce, 1610, alabaster altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 167), consisting of a panelled altar-base on which is a reclining effigy and in front of which are four kneeling children; at the back and above the effigy is a high 'reredos.' The effigy is bearded and reclines on the right hand; it has a wide collar and fur-lined robe and in the left hand is a roll. The base is simply panelled and before it kneel two sons, one in armour and one in civil costume, and two daughters, one with a cloak and one with a hooped skirt; between the sons and daughters is a panelled pedestal. The 'reredos' has a shallow semi-circular arch enclosing two panels with egg-and-tongue enrichment. Flanking the 'reredos' are a pair of Corinthian columns of black marble standing on enriched pedestals and supporting the main entablature, which is enriched with two cherub-heads and two roses. Above the entablature, in the middle, is an enriched panel with an achievement-of-arms and surmounted by a winged skull, hour-glass, etc. Above each column is a cartouche with a shield-of-arms. (3) of Richard Alington, 1561, and his wife, wall-monument (Plate 171) of alabaster and black marble, consisting of a plain base of grey marble and two round-headed recesses, each enclosing a kneeling figure. The figure of the woman has a long robe and holds a book, that of the man is in armour and holds a helmet. The recesses have coffered soffits and on the keystones are carved heads of fauns with their brows garlanded with vine and fruit, which is continued as festoons on either side. Between the recesses is a panelled pier with an inscription, and below it a projecting panel with kneeling figures of three daughters in front and a shield-of-arms and carving below; below the recesses is a balustrade. Flanking the monument are black marble Corinthian columns and above is an enriched entablature. (4) to Edmund Kedermister, 1607, one of the six clerks in Chancery, small tablet with cartouche-of-arms, erected by John Clapham in 1608. Plate: includes two patens, probably of 1713 and presented in 1818. Miscellanea: Loose, two fragments of a cornice carved with half-angels supporting a rose, etc., found behind Monument (1), early 16th-century.

(21). The Chapel Royal, Savoy, stands between Savoy Street and Savoy Steps. The walls are of rag-stone and other rubble with dressings of Reigate stone; the roofs are covered with slates. The Chapel was built in 1505 and formed part of the buildings of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist, Savoy, founded by Henry VII. The chapel formerly extended several feet further S. It was restored in the reign of George IV, partly destroyed by fire and restored in 1843, entirely burnt out in 1864 and finally restored in 1865; the S. wall, S. Tower and E. Vestry are modern.

The Chapel Royal, Savoy. Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (89½ ft. by 23½ ft.) are without structural division and stand N. and S. The window in the N. wall and the five windows in each side wall are entirely modern, but probably follow the lines of the old work. Partly under the northernmost window in the W. wall is the four-centred head of an original doorway.

Fittings—Brass: In chancel—to Thomas Halsey, Bishop of Leighlin, and Gavan Dowglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, 1522, inscription only. Monuments: Remains of former monuments—on S. wall, (1) of Alice, daughter of Simon Steward, 1578, small kneeling figure of woman on modern corbel with modern inscription; on N. wall, (2) said to be of Nicola (Moray), wife of Sir Robert Douglas, 1612, similar figure with modern corbel and inscription. Painting: On W. wall—painted gesso on wood, of Virgin and Child, with eight saints, including SS. Peter and Paul, a bishop, St. John the Baptist (?) and four female saints, one probably St. Margaret, gilt base, frame and gable, Italian, 14th-century. Piscina: with moulded jambs, four-centred head, moulded bracket and defaced drain, early 16th-century.


(22). Marlborough Chapel (Plate 172) stands on the E. side of Marlborough Road. The walls are of brick, cement rendered, and with dressings of Portland stone; the roofs are covered with slates. The chapel is said to have been built in 1623 by Inigo Jones, but it can hardly have advanced far as it does not appear in Hollar's view of the palace of c. 1660. It does, however, appear in a view of c. 1690, so it was, no doubt, the chapel erected or completed in 1662 for Catherine of Braganza; this drawing shows an apsidal E. end which was perhaps removed early in the 18th century when Marlborough House was built; the existing E. wall is probably of this date as well as much of the internal decoration. The buildings adjoining the chapel on the S.W. stand on the site of 17th-century structures of the same character and may incorporate some walling of that period. Partitions have been erected in recent years to form a vestry and other rooms.

Architectural Description—The Chapel (79¾ ft. by 28 ft.) has rusticated angles, a moulded stone band about 10 ft. from the ground and a heavy cornice with shaped modillions and a pediment at each end of the building. In the E. wall is a window of three lights divided and flanked externally by fluted Corinthian pilasters, which support an entablature over the side lights; the middle light has a round head with a moulded architrave; internally, this window is finished in a similar manner, and above the middle light are festoons of fruit and foliage and a cartouche of the royal Stuart arms impaling Portugal (for Catherine of Braganza) supported by two angels, all in modelled plaster. In the N. wall are two square-headed windows with external architraves and pediments supported on scrolled brackets; internally, the windows have an enriched and eared architrave; near the W. end of the wall is a similar blocked window; between the two eastern windows is a large round-headed recess with panelled reveals enriched with acanthus and other ornament in plaster. The S. wall is similarly treated, as concerning the easternmost window and the recess; the western part of the wall is covered externally by the adjoining building, and corresponding to the second window is a round-headed recess, internally, of semi-circular plan and having a square-headed and eared architrave and cherub-head with swags in the spandrel. The main W. wall is in two storeys, the lower having a square-headed doorway in the middle with eared architrave and entablature; flanking the doorway are square windows with architraves and small cornices; the upper storey has three windows, the middle window having pilasters on the jambs and a round head with an architrave; the side windows are square-headed and have eared architraves and plain entablatures.

Marlborough Chapel

Internally, the building (Plate 173) is divided into two parts by a cross-wall in two stages of which the upper formed the royal pew or gallery; the lower stage has three openings divided by wainscotted piers and the upper stage three openings with plaster decorations of late 18th-century character. The interior of the chapel is finished with an entablature having an enriched cornice from which springs the coffered ceiling of semi-elliptical form; the panels of the ceiling have enriched mouldings with plaster flowers at the intersections and in the middle of each panel. To the W. of the cross-wall the building is divided into two storeys and is cut up into rooms. In the S.W. angle and on the S. wall of the lower storey is part of the original cornice. In the N. wall of the gallery is a fireplace with shaped brackets to the shelf and a frieze enriched with acanthus ornament and a cartouche; the overmantel has a border of overlapping circles and fruit pendants on the side pilasters.

Fittings—The fittings are all of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Cistern: (Plate 91) In yard on S. side—lead cistern with three shaped and moulded panels in front each with a rose and crown, date 1709 at top, at one end a similar panel. Communion Table and Rails. Table: with moulded top rails and stretchers and turned legs, subsequently heightened. Rails: with panelled standards, coupled at each end, turned balusters and moulded upper and lower rails; date as table. Door: In S. doorway—of two panelled leaves, opening with enriched architrave. Gallery: (Plate 201) above S. doorway—front of three bays, middle bay projecting and having quadrant angles, five carved panels in all, middle one with drapery hanging from fleur-de-lis, carved panel with foliage, garters and a thistle and rose, respectively, side panels with foliage and the star of the garter over two crossed sceptres; enriched upper and lower rails. Gallery or royal pew—front with turned balusters to each opening and moulded rail. Panelling: panelled wainscot to side walls up to height of window sills and finished with enriched cornice. In recess on N. side, a dummy doorway with enriched architrave, cornice and pediment. Plate: see St. James' Palace, Chapel Royal (p. 131b.) Reredos: forming also base to organ gallery and returned across the angles with a quadrant curve; panelled lower part with enriched mouldings and cornice, round-headed doorways on projecting W. faces and similar round-headed niches in curved faces all with impost mouldings continued across reredos; above cornice, panelled attic with enriched cornice and plinth and panels filled with acanthus foliage, garlands of fruit and flowers and two busts of bearded men. Stalls: (Plate 8) enclosed with panelled fronts moulded capping and base, doors and sides with enriched panels and carved cherubheads at angles. Staircase: at S.W. angle of building—two lower flights with square newels, moulded hand-rails and turned balusters.

Westminster Palace


(23). French Protestant Huguenot Church, on N. side of Soho Square, 30 yards W. of Soho Street, is a modern building, but retains the following fittings. Painting: In room on S. of chancel, small portrait of head and shoulders of the "Revd. John de Lepine, born at Amiens in Picardy, France, 1641, died 1714." Royal Arms: in library, over fireplace, achievement of the arms of the Stuarts, of wood carved in high relief.


(24). The Palace of Westminster stands between Westminster Abbey and the river. The only ancient parts remaining since the fire of 1834 are Westminster Hall, St. Stephen's Cloister and the crypt of the chapel.

The Hall is probably the finest timber-roofed building in Europe, and the cloister and chapel, though much restored, have interesting stone vaulting with carved bosses.

Westminster Hall (Plate 175) (239½ ft. by 67½ ft.) was built under William II at the end of the 11th century. At this period the hall consisted of twelve bays and was almost certainly divided into three aisles by columns either of timber or stone. Large parts of the side walls of this building still remain. The reconstruction of the hall was begun by Richard II in 1394 and completed in 1402. The alterations consisted in raising the side walls, roofing the whole building in one span, the addition of flying buttresses to support the roof, the entire rearrangement of the baying and windows, the addition of two towers at the N. end, and various other works. No further material alterations appear to have been made till modern times. The whole of the external, and much of the internal, stonework was renewed in the various restorations of Kent, Soane, Smirke, Barry and Pearson in the 18th and 19th centuries. Under the superintendence of Barry most of the S. wall was removed and replaced by an arch and the two towers flanking the N. entrance. The roof has been repaired and rendered safe by steel reinforcement in recent years. The lantern is modern and the existing floor is about 3¾ ft. above the Norman floor-level.

The E. wall (Plate 174) has two modern doorways and a modern alcove at the N. end. The twelve windows are all of late 14th-century date but modern externally; they are each of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the splays are shafted and continued as a moulded rear-arch with a label; the label-stops are carved with (a) shield with the arms of the Confessor; (b) bearded man with falcon on wrist; (c and d) couched harts; (e) beast; (f) lion, damaged; (g and h) beast (?) and lamb; (i) bust; (j) angel playing harp; (k) shield of France ancient quartering England, partly defaced, helm with lion crest; (l) defaced; (m) chained hart and tree; (n—v) harts, some with parkpalings; the S. window is shorter than the others, three of which are blocked externally by modern buildings. During the recent repairs portions of the 11th-century windows and wall-passage (Plate 179) were uncovered; they had been cased in and built up in the late 14th-century alterations. The arrangement indicated by these remains consisted of twelve round-headed windows with splay and jamb-shafts, the shafts only half the height of the splay; at the base of the windows ran a wall-passage with a round barrel-vault and opening into the hall by a series of round arches, two between each window; these arches and the window-splays rested on piers consisting of four grouped shafts with cushion capitals and moulded abaci and bases. The inner wall of the passage had remains of red and blue colour with black line and many of the stones bore masons' marks.

The N. wall (Plate 149) has a large modern window and a doorway below it, also modern but probably reproducing the old design.

The W. wall has twelve windows similar to those in the E. wall, but all of the same size. The label-stops (Plate 177) are carved as follows—(a) angel; (b) seated female figure, headless; (c) defaced; (d) angel playing lute; (e) figure holding target; (f) angel with shield; (g) defaced; (h) man in hood; (i) man with lute; (j) figure as (h) with object on left shoulder; (k) figure of man; (l) man playing viol; (m) falcon with hare; (n) angel holding crown; (o and p) men with helm and leopard-crest; (q and r) men with objects on shoulders; (s) lion; (t) beast; (u) man with target and sword; (v) man playing zither; (w) angel praying; (x) woman, defaced. Below the windows are modern doorways. The modern buildings adjoining the outside of this wall stand on the site of earlier buildings of various dates from the 13th century downwards; parts of the original external walling of the hall have been left uncovered and some stones bear masons' marks.

The S. wall has a large modern arch, and, flanking it, six modern niches, each containing a large late 14th or early 15th-century figure of a king with sceptre, orb and crown; the relative positions of the figures were changed when the wall was rebuilt by Barry.

Westminster Hall. Reconstruction of Norman Arrangement.

The oak roof (Plates 176, 178) is of twelve bays and of the hammer-beam type. All the main timbers are moulded; the main principals are curved and form two - centred arches below the collar-beams; the hammer-beams (Plate 163) have curved braces beneath and terminate in large figures (Plate 180) of angels vested in dalmatics, rising from clouds and holding shields of the royal arms (France ancient and England quarterly); from the side posts rise subsidiary curved principals meeting at the head of the main arch; the main purlins, at the level of the collarbeams, have curved longitudinal braces springing. from embattled pilasters on the side posts. All the spandrels have pierced traceried filling, the larger spandrels being divided into lights with trefoiled ogee heads: there is similar filling above the collar-beams.

In three of the window-recesses in the E. wall are as many large stone figures of kings, bearded and crowned, and each formerly holding a sceptre and orb; they appear to be of late 14th-century date.

Nine early 12th - century carved capitals (Plate 177), said to have come from Westminster Hall, are now on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum, S. Kensington. One has a representation of Æsop's fable of the dog and the ass and a second, an assault on a castle or city.

The Chapel of St. Mary, formerly called the Free Chapel of St. Mary the Virgin and St. Stephen, adjoins the S.E. corner of Westminster Hall. The "King's New Chapel" was refounded in 1292, Michael of Canterbury being master-mason. The work was interrupted by the fire of 1298 and the lower chapel (that now surviving) was finished about 1320–27; the upper chapel was not completed till after the middle of the century. This upper chapel was destroyed by fire in 1834, but the crypt was retained for its present purpose when the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt. It was then so much restored and internally covered with paint and gilding that it is now difficult to distinguish the original work. With the exception of the vaulting and possibly some of the supporting shafts the whole of the face-work of the building is modern.

The Chapel (90 ft. by 26 ft.) is of five vaulted bays; (Plate 181) the vaulting over each bay has moulded main, subsidiary, lierne and ridge-ribs springing from grouped vaulting-shafts with carved and moulded capitals and moulded bases; the wallribs are two-centred and trefoiled and the main ribs are enriched on the underside with running fret-like patterns, which are either modern or very much restored; at the intersection of the ribs are the following carved bosses (Plates 182, 183)—first bay, (a) Martyrdom of St. Stephen with two tormentors and background of conventional foliage; (b) angel playing a rebeck, on background of flowers and foliage, in rope-like octagonal frame; (c) two of foliage, two with dragons, one with foliage and a leopard's face; second bay, (a) on background of oak foliage, St. John the Evangelist, in cauldron with fire below and figure of tormentor on either side; (b) on background of conventional foliage, in quatrefoil of ogee foils, angel playing a psaltery; (c) of foliage, two of leopards' heads, one of a beast's head, one of two lions' heads and a dragon, one of an old man and two dragons; third bay, (a) on background of foliage, St. Katherine in long robe and cloak standing on the emperor and, on either side, figure of a man, a broken wheel, rising from clouds above two angels with swords; (b) a leopard's head and foliage; (c) two of leopards' heads, the remainder of foliage; fourth bay, (a) with background of oak foliage in which are two doves, St. Margaret crowned and with nimbus, with book in left hand and crossed staff in right hand transfixing dragon, on which she stands; (b) within octagonal frame with concave sides and an outer wreath of roses, an angel playing a rebeck; (c) two of leopards' faces and foliage, two grotesque human heads and foliage, one of foliage and one of double grotesque human head; fifth bay, (a) on background of foliage, St. Laurence, lying on large gridiron with tormentor on either side, one with bellows, the other with long pole for stirring fire; on extreme left, figure of judge (?) with corbelled pedestal below, and, above the Saint, emerging from clouds, a hand in blessing; (b) foliage; (c) one of grotesque beasts, one of a grotesque human head, the remainder of foliage.

St. Stephen's Cloister (88 ft. by 75 ft.) was rebuilt shortly before the suppression by the last dean, Dr. John Chambers, c. 1526–29. It is of two storeys, but the upper one is almost, if not entirely, modern. Externally, the walls have been entirely refaced, as has also the inner walling between the vaultingshafts; the doors, windows and fireplaces are modern. The N. and S. walks are each of five, and the E. and W. walks (Plates 179, 184) each of six, bays, excluding the angle bays. Projecting into the court from the fourth bay from the N. in the W. walk is the "Oratory," and from the centre of the N. walk is a shallow 19th-century addition; both of two storeys. The elevations to the court have a continuous moulded plinth, a moulded string dividing the storeys and a moulded string at the eaves-level enriched with carved bosses and surmounted by a pierced traceried parapet, mostly modern; between the bays are panelled and canopied buttresses surmounted by crocketed finials. In the lower stage, to each bay, between the buttresses, is a large window of four cinquefoiled ogee-lights with tracery under a four-centred head. In the fourth bay from the N. in the E. walk, and the middle bay of the S. walk, is a modern doorway under an ogee-shaped crocketed and finialled label opening into the court. The windows of the upper storey on the S. side are similar to those below, but on the other three sides the windows are square-headed. On the lower floor each bay has a fan-vault (Plates 185–191) with the cones springing from triple grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The ribs are moulded and the spaces between them filled with traceried panelling; the vault over each of the angle bays is of somewhat different design from the rest, from which they are divided by continuous four-centred arched bands of traceried panelling. In the N. and S. walks the cones have an extra horizontal rib enriched with brattishing. Each bay, except at the angles, has an elaborately carved central boss and smaller subsidiary carved bosses of conventional foliage, Tudor roses, portcullises, fleurs-de-lis, pomegranates, etc.; at the ends of the transverse ribs are half-angels holding carved shields; the central bosses and charges on the shields of the angels are as follows: N. walk— first bay, central boss, (a) on background of elaborate foliage, shield-of-arms of Henry VIII with supporters of a lion and a dragon, surmounted by a crown flanked by a rose and a pomegranate sprig; (b) a crowned Tudor rose; (c) a fleur-de-lis; second bay, (a) a triple tower flanked by a rose-sprig and pomegranate-sprig; (b) a Tudor rose; (c) a triple towered castle; third bay, (a) within a wreath of interlacing foliage, a shield charged with the Five Wounds; (b) a fleur-de-lis; (c) a cross cut off at the ends; fourth bay, (a) within a wreath of foliage a shield of the arms of Edward III (the founder of the college); (b) England; (c) three crowns; fifth bay, (a) a rose set in a wreath of small roses; (b) a fleur-de-lis; (d) I.H.S. In E. walk—first bay, (a) on a ground of roses and pomegranates, a crowned I.H.S.; (b) I.H.S.; (c) a cross cut off at the ends; second bay, (a) a shield of the arms of Edward the Confessor; (b) a triple tower; (c) a rose; third bay, (a) within a wreath of foliage, a crowned shield of the arms of Henry VIII with supporters of a winged dragon and a leopard; (b) a fleur-de-lis; (c) a pomegranate; fourth bay, (a) on background of foliage, shield of the arms of Wolsey, on a cross engrailed a lion passant between four leopards' faces, in chief a rose between two Cornish choughs, surmounted by a cardinal's hat; (b) a grotesque human face or leopard's head, above a coronet; (c) a cardinal's hat; fifth bay, (a) on a wreath a shield of the arms of Edward III; (b) three crowns; (c) I.H.S.; sixth bay, (a) on a boss of foliage, a large fleur-de-lis; (b) a rose and sprig; (c) a fleur-de-lis. In S. walk—first bay, (a) on background of foliage, a crowned shield of the arms of Henry VIII, with supporters of a dragon and leopard (?) rampant; (b) and (c) I.H.S.; second bay, (a) in wreath of foliage, arms of Edward III encircled by a Garter; (b) emblems of the Passion; (c) the Five Wounds; third bay, (a) I.H.S., crowned and with background of roses and pomegranates; (b) emblems of the Passion; (c) a cross pierced with nails; fourth bay, (a) on ground of pomegranates and roses, a cross avellane with two birds on foliage below the arms of the cross; (b) a fleur-de-lis; (c) a cross cut off at the ends; fifth bay, (a) a large rose with a wreath of smaller roses; (b) a rose (?); (c) three crowns. In W. walk—first bay, (a) on ground of oak foliage, I.H.S.; (b) and (c) rose and pomegranate sprays; second bay, (a) a shield of the arms of Edward III; (b) a triple rose; (c) I.H.S.; third bay, (a) St. Stephen robed as a deacon, with man on either side in 16th-century costume holding stones; (b) and (c) as in first bay; fourth bay, (a) half figure of the Almighty with right hand raised in blessing, left hand holding orb, with irradiations above and clouds below; (b) three crowns; (c) I.H.S.; fifth bay, (a) on background of foliage, seated figure of Virgin with Child; (b) and (c) as in first bay; sixth bay, (a) on ground of foliage the pepper-sheaves and three interlaced sickles, forming a Hungerford and Hastings badge, encircled with a garter; (b) pomegranate spray; (c) fleur-de-lis.

The " Oratory " (18¼ ft. by 12 ft.) has a semi-octagonal E. end. It was greatly damaged in the fire of 1834, and with the exception of the vaulted roof to the ground floor has been practically rebuilt. The lower floor is in three bays, with a semi-hexagonal bay at the E. end and has fanvaulting similar to that over the cloister walks. The main ribs spring from attached shafts having moulded capitals and bases and the horizontal rib marking the edge of the cones is enriched with a row of carved brattishing; the soffit of the vaulting is panelled and some of the quatrefoils enclose square paterae carved with I.H.S. in black letter. Externally, the "Oratory" is of similar character to the walks, but the windows are of two lights each; the lower being pointed and the upper square-headed. The upper floor is generally similar to the floor below, but the roof is entirely modern, all the stonework has been repaired, and little of the original work remains.

Condition—Of hall, chapel and cloister, good, much restored.

(25). The Jewel House stands to the S.E. of the Abbey—immediately E. of the Farmery Chapel. It is of three storeys; the walls are of Reigate and other limestone rubble, with later stone and brick repairs; the roof is covered with lead. In 1377 the land on which it stands was conveyed by the convent of Westminster to Edward III and the building was erected shortly afterwards. It is L-shaped in plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E., and has on the N. end a projecting stair-turret; modern buildings have been erected round the ground-storey on the N. and E. sides, and the lower part of the original staircase has been removed, access to the first floor now being obtained by a modern staircase leading to the E. wing of the building.

The Jewel House

The building was much altered in the 18th century, and the parapet wall and the top of the stair-turret are of that period. On the ground-floor the room in the E. wing has a stone vault with hollowchamfered diagonal and wall-ribs springing from attached octagonal angle-shafts with moulded capitals covered with plaster; in the E. wall is a blocked doorway with a four-centred rear-arch covered with modern slates and the windows in the N. and S. walls are round-headed, mostly rebuilt and partly repaired with modern brick. The room in the main wing (Plate 192) is vaulted in two bays and has hollow-chamfered main, intermediate and ridge ribs springing from octagonal wall-shafts with moulded capitals and bases, the latter being almost entirely defaced; at the intersection of the ribs are carved bosses (Plate 193), including some of conventional foliage, some of grotesque heads, one of four grotesque faces with wide-open mouths, meeting at the base, one of three intertwined birds, and one of grotesque heads above a triple rose. The E. wall has in the N. bay a window, modern except for the segmental-pointed hollow-chamfered rear-arch and the splays. In the S. bay is a doorway with chamfered jambs and re-cut segmental head and rear-arch. In the N. wall the doorway from the stair-turret has a modern brick head and chamfered jambs and the window in the S. wall is all modern except some re-cut dressings to the splays. The N. bay of the W. wall has been almost entirely refaced with 17th-century brick. On the first floor the E. wing has a rebuilt barrel-vault; the doorway from the modern stairs has been made through an original window-opening and the windows in the N. and S. walls have been rebuilt, in the W. wall is a doorway with a chamfered two-centred head, all covered with plaster. The room in the main wing has an 18th-century stone vault in which some old material may have been incorporated; the windows have also been rebuilt; the doorway in the N. wall has hollowchamfered jambs and shouldered head and rear-arch; all the dressings are covered with paint or plaster. The top storey has in the N. wall a doorway with a shouldered head and a 17th-century door having strap-hinges. The staircase from the first floor to the top storey has walls of ashlar.


(26). The Banqueting House, Whitehall (Plate 194), now the museum of the Royal United Service Institution, on the E. side of Whitehall, 600 yards N. of the Abbey, is of two storeys; the side walls are faced with Portland stone and the end walls, where exposed, with cement; the roof is covered with lead. It is built on the site of the former Banqueting House of the old Palace of Whitehall, and is the only part of the proposed new palace designed by Inigo Jones which was ever erected. The building, which cost £14,940, was begun in 1619 and completed in 1622 and, though never consecrated, was used as a Chapel Royal from 1724 to 1890. The N. annexe for the staircase and vestibule was added or rebuilt by James Wyatt in 1798, and the exterior stonework which had fallen into decay was recased by Soane in 1829–37, when the interior was refitted and restored under the supervision of Sir Robert Smirke. Work done in 1891 included the plastering of the brick vaulting to the lower floor and the opening out of the lower windows. The ceiling to the upper room was painted by Rubens under a commission from Charles I. Sketches were made in England, but the actual painting was executed in Antwerp and completed in 1635. According to Sir Godfrey Kneller, Rubens was assisted in the work by Jordaens. It has been restored five times; in the reign of George II by Kent; in 1785 by Cipriani; in 1837 under Smirke; again later in the 19th century, and lastly in 1906–7 under H.M. Office of Works. The whole ceiling was then taken down, the canvases taken off the old frames, cleaned, repaired, remounted on laminated boarding which was refixed to the original frames after they had been carefully restored and repaired.

The building is beautifully proportioned and of peculiar interest as being the first erected in this country on purely Palladian lines. The fine painted ceiling is noteworthy.

Whitehall Palace, Banqueting House

Elevations: The elevation to Whitehall is symmetrical and in seven bays, with the three middle bays slightly projecting. The lower storey is in the form of a rusticated podium with plain plinth and blocking course and square-headed windows with rusticated arches. The upper storey is in two stages of superimposed Ionic and Composite orders with continuous entablature having enriched members and modillioned cornices. In the central projection the bays are divided by attached columns, and the two bays on either side by pilasters, the end pilasters being coupled. The windows to the lower stage are square-headed with eared architraves flanked by narrow panelled pilasters with shaped brackets supporting a cornice with alternate segmental and triangular pediments; the windows to the upper stage are of similar character but the pediments are omitted. The windows originally had solid frames but are now fitted with sashes. The general wall-face to both stages is rusticated and below the level of the sills to the lower stage is a plain dado with moulded base and capping, and turned balusters below the three middle windows. Between the capitals to the upper order is a frieze with carved masks and fruit swags; the cornice is surmounted by an open balustrade with a double plinth and turned balusters. The elevation to Whitehall Gardens is similar to the W. front, the N. end is covered by the staircase annexe and the S. end by the modern buildings of the Royal United Services Institution, but along the upper part of both ends the open balustrade is continued. At the W. end of the building is a wrought-iron weather-vane, erected under James II.

Interior: The lower room (108 ft. by 52 ft.) is divided into seven bays longitudinally and three bays across by two rows of square piers. Each bay has a groined plaster vault separated by flat ribs continued down as pilasters on the face of each pier and with corresponding wall-pilasters. In the middle bay in the N. and S. walls is a segmental-headed doorway. The upper room (108 ft. by 52½ ft.) is in seven bays (Plate 196) and divided into two stages by a continuous gallery. Between the bays are fluted Ionic half-columns supporting a continuous entablature; from the frieze project enriched brackets carrying a widely projecting cornice forming the gallery, which has a wooden balustrade with moulded plinth and handrail and symmetrically-turned balusters. The N. end is in three bays with the gallery to the middle bay projecting into the hall and supported at either end on coupled Ionic columns. In each bay is a square-headed doorway with moulded architraves flanked by panelled pilasters with shaped brackets carrying a moulded cornice; above each is a sunk rectangular panel; the middle doorway is taller than those to the side bays and has an eared architrave. The S. wall is also in three bays but there is no central projection, the brackets supporting the gallery are omitted, the frieze is pulvinated and the bed-mould to the cornice is enriched with egg-and-dart ornament. Above the gallery the bays are divided by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature with an enriched cornice; between the capitals is a frieze painted with swags. Above windows of the lower range are recessed rectangular panels; above the gallery in the S. wall is a large round-headed window, now opening into the stair case of the Royal United Service Institution; the exterior is of stone and has moulded archivolt and plain pilasters with moulded imposts and bases. The doorways in the end walls of the gallery are square-headed with moulded architraves and cornices. The ceiling is divided into nine painted panels by deep false beams round which the main cornice is returned; the middle panel is oval and the soffits and sides of the beams are enriched with gilded guilloche and scroll-ornament, and at the intersections, in the middle of the longitudinal beams and at either end of the oval panel are rosettes. The middle panel (a) represents the Apotheosis of James I (Plate 195); the King holds a sceptre and is seated in the lower end of the painting with one foot on a globe, the other on the wing of a flying eagle; above him are angels with the crown and orb, others with trumpets, wreaths, etc., and attendant figures representing Religion, Zeal, Honour and Victory. The middle N. panel (b) is an allegorical representation of James I and the birth and crowning of Prince Charles; the King is crowned and seated on a throne on the right of the painting with attendant figures and is pointing to Prince Charles, a nude boy-child supported by two female figures in drapery, with a third figure of a man in plumed helm behind; in the upper part of the picture are two cherubs holding a crowned cartouche of the Stuart arms and a garland of roses; the background is an architectural composition. The middle S. panel (c) represents the King seated on a throne within an architectural composition attended on the right by Peace and Plenty embracing Minerva, and, on the left, by Wisdom in a plumed helm with a thunderbolt in her right hand and in her left a shield driving Rebellion in a cloak, body armour, helmet and flaming torch, down into hell; at the bottom of the painting is Mercury in winged helm and holding his caduceus, laying the figures to sleep. The side panels from N. to S. represent on the E. side, (d) oval painting of Heroic Virtue as Hercules with club upraised and foot on Envy and a female figure with snakes in hair and serpent round arm; (e) oblong panel representing the Peace and Plenty of the reign of James I, with procession of cherubs carrying a cornucopia filled with fruit, Bacchus as a child riding on the back of a ram harnessed to a chariot laden with fruit drawn also by a monster; in front, cherub riding a tiger; (f) oval painting representing Royal Bounty—a seated male figure with halo and flowing hair pouring largess from a cornucopia, at feet of figure Avarice; (g) oval painting representing Government as seated figure with bridle in hands and nude male figure of Rebellion at her feet; (h) oblong panel representing Harmony and Happiness with chariot laden with cornucopia of fruit and seated children and drawn by lion with cherub tickling his ear and another drawing his tooth; in front are sporting cherubs with a thick rope of fruit; (i) oval panel of Heroic Charity as Minerva in plumed helm and armour destroying with a spear Lust, a nude female figure; above Minerva is an owl holding a wreath.


(27). Malmesbury House, remains of York or Whitehall Palace, etc., 50 yards E. of (26). The 18th-century house incorporates a vaulted undercroft of early 16th-century date. The walls are of brick with stone dressings and the exterior of the building is modern.

Whitehall Palace, Malmesbury House Undercroft.

The Undercroft, formerly the Beer Cellar (Plate 197) is two bays in width; the original length is uncertain, but there are four complete bays and remains of a fifth. Each bay has a quadripartite vault of brick with chamfered ribs springing from moulded corbels against the walls and octagonal piers with moulded capitals in the middle. The vault was plastered, but a portion of the plaster has been removed to show the brick web. The original floor-level is said to have been 5 ft. 4 in. below the present level. In the E. wall of the W. bay is a stone doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the spandrels have much weathered carving of foliage and shields, one apparently bearing the ancient arms of the See of York impaling Wolsey. The vaulting cuts into the splay-mouldings of the arch in a way that implies that the vault is a later addition, probably of the time of Henry VIII. In the S. bay of the E. wall is a shallow recess with chamfered jambs and four-centred head.

A short distance E. of the N. end of the undercroft is a length of rag-stone rubble walling, part of the old palace, and still further E. again is a small water-gate or boat-house, probably of early 17th-century date. The E. front is of stone repaired with cement and divided into three bays by Doric columns with heavy rustications. The plain frieze and moulded cornice support a rather steep-pitched pediment with a blocked lunette in the tympanum.


(28). The Treasury, on the W. side of Whitehall, has been refaced and very largely rebuilt, but incorporates parts of a building erected by Cardinal Wolsey or Henry VIII, early in the 16th century. The rest of the block is of various dates, and is chiefly the work of W. Kent, 1733, Sir J. Soane 1824–28 and Sir Charles Barry 1846–7. The surviving old work forms a two-storeyed corridor running E. and W. in the middle of the building; the walls are of brick with stone dressings, much cut about and altered. The N. side has at the basement-level an original opening with a three-centred head and in the upper storey a window of three four-centred and transomed lights in a square head. In the S. wall is a similar window of two lights without a transom and now covered with cement. At the basement-level is an original doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The corridor is 10 ft. wide and is probably that shown on the old plans of Whitehall, leading to the Cock-pit.

Condition—Good, much altered.

(29). St. James' Palace (Plates 198, 199) stands on the N. side of the Mall. The walls are of brick, with some stone dressings, and the roofs are covered with lead, slates and tiles. The original house was built by Henry VIII on the site of the Hospital of St. James, dissolved in 1532. The house then consisted of ranges of building surrounding four courts (Colour Court, Ambassadors' Court, Friary Court and another court W. of the last named) and probably subsidiary buildings in addition. During the second half of the 17th century extensive alterations were made, a new range, including the present Throne Room fronting the park, added, the range containing the Banquet Room and that containing the State Kitchen built, and a block built W. of the kitchen. The stables on the N. side of Stable Yard were built in 1661. Early in the 18th century the Banquet Room range was largely rebuilt and extended. In 1809 a fire destroyed the whole of the S.E. part of the house, including the E. and S. ranges of the Friary Court; in the subsequent repairs the garden wing was extended further E. There are numerous other modern alterations and additions which are indicated on the plan and which it will be unnecessary to particularise.

The buildings include the much altered remains of a large Tudor house, of which the ceiling of the chapel and the gatehouse are the most interesting features.

The buildings are grouped round four courts called Colour, Friary, Engine and Ambassadors' Court, respectively. The main entrance is by the Clock Tower, or great gatehouse, which stands on the N. side of Colour Court. The tower (Plate 200) is of four storeys, with octagonal turrets at the angles and an embattled and modern crow-stepped parapet to the front and back. The two front turrets are splayed out on to a square base which contains a small doorway with splayed jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and foliated spandrels with a Tudor rose and the initials H.A. and a crown; at the angles of the base are much-restored octagonal shafts. The main archway has a four-centred head which has been raised. It contains the original doors of two folds each, with moulded styles and rails and nine linen-fold panels. The three storeys have each a much restored window of three four-centred lights in a square head. The windows of the turrets were originally of one four-centred light, but have mostly been altered. The back elevation of the gatehouse is generally similar to the front, but the turrets do not rise so high and the windows in them are mostly original; the S.E. turret has a doorway similar to those in the outer turrets and with a crowned H. and crowned portcullis in the spandrels; the doorway to the S.W. turret has chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the bell-turret, over the gatehouse, are three bells, the largest by Samuell Owen, 1600.

The N. and E. wings of the Colour Court (Plate 202) are part of the original structure, but have been largely refaced and have later embattled parapets. On the S. side of the N. wing are two rainwater-heads with the crowned initials of William and Mary. The old part of the E. wing terminates in two octagonal turrets; that on the inside has black brick diapering; the windows, where original, are similar to those in the turrets of the clock-tower; the outer turret has a modern passage-way pierced at the base. The E. range has two rainwater-heads, similar to those above described, but with the date 1696 in place of the crown. The S. side of the Colour Court is modern. On the W. side is the chapel-royal, an original building, much altered and restored externally. Against its E. side is an open colonnade, with stone columns of the Doric order and a plain wooden entablature, all probably of late 17th-century date. The chapel-royal has on each side a projecting bay or transept with octagonal shafts or pilasters at the angles; in each upper storey of the transept ends are two much restored windows, each of three four-centred and transomed lights; between each pair of windows is a projecting stack, that on the E. having black brick diapering; in the base of the E. stack is a late 17th-century doorway of stone, with segmental head, eared architrave and small scrolls under the ears; below the southern window in the W. transept is a third window of three lights in a square head. The N. end of the chapel has been largely refaced; it contains a large restored window of five four-centred lights in a square head and with a transom; the window has been continued down below a second transom in modern times and is flanked by two entirely modern windows. The range S. of the chapel has been much altered and has a late 17th-century or later addition on the E. side; at the four angles were octagonal turrets of which three still remain; they are similar to those on the E. wing of the Colour Court. Passing through this range is a corridor with an original arch (Plate 201) at each end, both with splayed jambs and four-centred heads; the opening to the colonnade in Colour Court is flanked by late 17th-century pilasters. In 1925, under Colour Court, portions of the foundations of the N. wall of a building were found, with some mediaeval slip-tiles in situ. From the presence of burials both inside and outside the building it would appear that it was the chapel of the Hospital.

St. James' Palace, Plan of Ground Floor

St. James' Palace, Plan of State Apartments (1st floor)

The Ambassadors' Court (Plate 203) lies to the W. of the Colour Court. The range on the N. side has some original brick work on both the N. and S. faces, but has been almost entirely altered, and the entrance-archway is modern; on the N. face are three original windows, two of three lights and one of a single light, all with four-centred heads. York House, which forms the continuation of this range is in part an original building, but has been entirely refaced and now has no ancient features. The range on the S. side includes the Banquet Room, but the side facing the court is probably an addition to the late 17th-century range, which appears to have been of less width.

The state kitchen, standing W. of the Banquet House, is probably a late 17th-century building and has a deep band-course, above which the walls seem to have been refaced, probably in 1772, when the roof was rebuilt. On the W. side of the court is another 17th-century building, much altered.

The Friary Court lies to the N. of the Colour Court. The eastern part was burnt and not rebuilt in 1809. Parts of the W. and N. sides are original and the old brickwork remains with a later embattled parapet and a modern loggia against the W. wall. Under the loggia are three original windows; one of a single light and complete with its four-centred head and the other two formerly of three lights but now lacking their mullions and cut square at the head. On the N. wall is a 17th-century rainwater-head with the crowned initials C.R.

The State apartments form a long range fronting on the S. (Plate 204) towards the garden and St. James' Park and on the N. chiefly towards the Engine Court. The range is of three storeys and of stock brick and was built late in the 17th century, except a part at the E. end containing Queen Anne's Room, which is modern. There are moulded band-courses, on the S. front, between the ground and first and above the second floor; above the second band is an attic with an embattled parapet and a range of blind window-panels. There are similar panels to the second floor, pierced for windows towards the western end only. The first floor has a range of tall square-headed windows, and the ground-floor a range of much smaller windows; there are five lead rainwater-heads, with lions' heads, on this side. On the N. front there are three ranges of window-panels of which only those to the ground-floor are pierced for windows, and two plain chimney-stacks with original tabled offsets of stone; there are also three rainwaterheads similar to those on the S. front.

Interior: The gate-hall of the Clock Tower has in the E. wall a wide recess with splayed jambs and four-centred arch of stone and a brick relieving arch; in the narrow apartment to the E. of it are two original doorways, with chamfered jambs and four-centred and straight-sided heads respectively. In the S.W. turret is a newel staircase with original steps of oak at the top. The turrets on the E. side of the Colour Court and in the S.E. angle of the Ambassadors' Court also have original stairs.

The Chapel Royal (70 ft. by 23 ft. and 50 ft. across the transepts) follows the normal form of a college-chapel, consisting of a rectangular presbytery and an ante-chapel in the form of a transept across the W. end (Plate 205). The fittings and arrangements are all modern except the original ceiling, said to be painted by Holbein, and the plate. The ceiling, put up in 1540, has been repaired and most of the panels have been touched up and partly repainted from time to time. The ceiling is flat, with a cove at each side, and round the walls is a moulded cornice enriched with roses, fleurs-de-lis, leaves and conventional scrolled ornament; the main area is divided up by moulded ribs, with similar conventional ornament, into a series of octagonal, cross-shaped and lozenge panels with larger panels in the coves; all these panels are painted with shields, devices, mottoes, etc., with conventional enrichments. The main panels in the coves from the N. end contain the following— E. side, (a) crowned initials H.R. and date 1540; (b) shield of France and England quarterly with lion and dragon supporters; (c) a quartered shield of Cleves; (d) Tudor rose; (e) fleur-de-lis; (f) sunburst; (g) shield of France and England quarterly impaling the same lion and dragon supporters and motto "Dieu et mon droit"; (h) portcullis with inscription "vivat rex"; (i) as (g), but with motto of the Garter; (j) Tudor rose; (k) shield of France and England quarterly with motto as (g); (l) initials H.R. and inscription "H.R. Aetatis 50 A.D. 1540"; (m) as (g). W. side, (a) shield of France and England quarterly impaling the quartered augmentation granted to Anne Boleyn; (b) France and England quarterly with the Garter; (c) quartered shield of Cleves; (d) Tudor rose; (e) fleur-de-lis; (f) a sun-burst with the inscription "Henricus Rex"; (g) crowned shield of France and England quarterly; (h) Tudor rose; (i) shield of France and England quarterly quartered with the same and the motto "Dieu et mon droit"; (j) Tudor rose; (k) as (g); (l) fleur-de-lis; (m) as (i). The octagonal and cross-shaped panels bear the royal arms and badges, etc. —fleur-de-lis, harp, dagger, rose, sun-burst, crowned hart, Prince-of-Wales' feathers, portcullis, a ram, initials, etc.; the small lozenge panels mostly bear inscriptions, including the royal mottoes, "Stet diu felix," the date 1540, initials of Henry and Anne of Cleves, etc. Fittings—Plate (Plate 203): includes the following pieces of gold—cup with baluster stem and hexagonal foot, bowl with arms of William and Mary; cup similar to above, but with the name Jesus in Greek capitals on the knot of the stem; two patens with the same arms encircled by the garter; paten with a sexfoiled sinking enclosing the arms of William and Mary; all these are apparently of late 17th-century date. The silver-gilt plate includes—cup with pierced overlay of repoussé flowers, enriched baluster stem and hexagonal stem with cherub-heads at the points, Stuart arms with garter on bowl, temp. Charles II; cup of 1664 with Stuart arms and garter and initials A.R., cover with a crown and the same initials; two late 17th-century cups with the arms and initials of William and Mary, enriched baluster stems and scalloped base; cup with Stuart arms, garter and initials D.L., baluster stem and hexagonal base with cherub-heads at points, temp. Charles II; two cover-patens with Stuart arms and garter, same period as last; two patens with rich border of repoussé flowers, in middle arms and initials of William and Mary; two cover-patens, with spiral design of repoussé flowers and acanthus edging, crowned initials of William and Mary; stand-paten of 1714, with arms and initials of George I; pair of candlesticks of 1661, with repoussé cherubs and festoons of fruit and flowers, stem chased with acanthus, triangular base with Stuart arms, royal crest and garter and D.L. monogram; pair of candlesticks of repoussé work with richly moulded stem and triangular base, temp. Charles II; alms-dish (Plate 207) of 1660, with repoussé subject in middle, of Last Supper, with a small shield of the Stuart arms, rim with scrolled repoussé ornament and four panels with the following subjects—(a) Christ washing the disciples' feet; (b) the meeting on the way to Emmaus; (c) Christ appearing to the disciples after the Resurrection; (d) the Pentecost; alms-dish of 1660, with repoussé foliage and flowers, and a horse, stag, boar and cow, in middle a rose and crown with the initials A.R. altered from C.R.; two alms-dishes of repoussé work, with rose and crown in a wreath and four cherubheads on rim, late 17th-century; verger's staff, a tapering rod probably of early 18th-century date; two flagons of pitcher-shape with feather enrichment and a crowned rose on front; two flagons, of 1660, of ordinary straight-sided form and decoration similar to last pair; two flagons of same form, but with repoussé ornament of foliage and flowers, both with a crowned rose and one with initials C.R. in addition, temp. Charles II; plain flagon of 1660 with an incorrect shield of the arms of William III and the initials A.R.; two flagons with incised ornament on bases and with Stuart arms and garter and initials D.L., temp. Charles II; an urn-shaped pitcher of 1692 with lid, spout and handle, conventional foliage and the arms and initials of William III; the first silver cup and two of the flagons have stamped leather cases, probably of late 17th-century date. There are also the following pieces of plate used at Marlborough Chapel—a paten of 1698 with the arms and initials of William III; a paten with the Stuart arms, garter and the monogram D.L., temp. Charles II and an alms-dish with the same arms, etc., as the second paten. The Panelling of the lower part of the E., S. and W. walls of the chapel is probably of c. 1700, but is thickly painted; the S. door is of two folds and has applied ribs and tracery; the upper angles have the initials W.R.; above this doorway are the royal Tudor arms with lion and dragon supporters holding standards with the rose and portcullis badges. Royal Arms: over S. doorway—Tudor arms and supporters.

The sub-dean's Vestry, between the chapel and the clock-tower, has an original fireplace with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with spandrels carved with foliage and a fleur-de-lis. The room above (the Marshalman's Room) has two original doorways with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads.

The Guard Room in the N. range of the Friary Court has, in the N. wall, an original but restored fireplace, with stop-moulded jambs and straight-sided four-centred arch in a square head, with a frieze of quatrefoiled panels above.

The Armoury Room in the W. range of the same court has a similar fireplace, now thickly painted; the moulded cornice round the room is possibly of late 17th-century date. The Tapestry Room adjoins the Armoury Room on the S. and has a similar, fireplace, but the quatrefoils of the frieze have the following carved badges, etc.—H.A. with a true lovers' knot, Tudor rose, fleur-de-lis, portcullis, and the crowned initial H.; the spandrels are carved with foliage and a beast's head. The walls are hung with a series of seven early 17th-century panels or parts of panels of Mortlake tapestry (Plate 208), depicting the amours of Venus and Mars; each panel, where complete, has a border with the monogram of two C's with a crown, a cartouche with the Prince of Wales' feathers, figures of Ceres, Plenty, etc., and heads of Pan; the main subjects represented are as follows—(a) Cupid and Neptune, with the horses of the latter in the background; (b) Venus and Cupid standing by a chariot drawn by swans; (c) Mars with attendant, Cupid shooting from tree; (d) Venus sleeping in a forest, Cupid creeping round tree; (e) Vulcan, assisted by "Jalosie" and another woman, spreading the net on a bed; (f) part of panel showing Vulcan's forge and another fragment with the head of Pan; (g) meeting of Mars and Venus in Vulcan's house. In the modern Picture Gallery, adjoining this range, is a stone fireplace, formerly in the palace of Westminster, and with moulded and enriched architrave, having small scrolls at the angles and a richly carved frieze with fauns, foliage, the royal Tudor arms, crowned rose and initials E.R.; in the fireplace is an iron fire-back with the Tudor arms, lion and greyhound supporters, the initials E.R., and the inscription "Made in Sussex by John Harvy" (?).

The range containing the State Apartments has a basement with two late 17th-century barrel-vaults, and under the W. end are four rooms with groined vaults of the same date. The State Rooms have Renaissance decorations which may be partly of late 17th-century date, but the whole has been so altered and repaired that now it is not possible to distinguish the old from the new.

In the E. wing of the Colour Court is a room lined with late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling; the fireplace has a moulded marble architrave of the same date, and above it is a painted panel of the arms of William III, and, still higher up, a carved panel with swags.

The Banquet House range, the state kitchen and the block to the W. of the kitchen have all late 17th or early 18th-century groined vaults in the basement. In the ground-floor of the S. part of the Banquet House range is a late 17th-century fireplace-opening with rounded angles, flat arch and key-block. The state kitchen has three wide fireplace-openings, two of which are now blocked. In the upper part of the W. end are three tall round-headed windows; the coved cornice is pierced by fifteen round windows; in the middle of the roof is a skylight-opening with a deep moulded curb.

The Stables, on the N. side of the stable yard, are said to have been built in 1661. The ground-floor has a loggia with brick piers and round arches, all refaced in the 18th century. The upper storey was added in the 19th century.


(30). Marlborough House (Plates 209, 210) stands on the N. side of the Mall, and is of four storeys with a basement. The walls are of red brick with Portland-stone dressings and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The house was designed by Sir Christopher Wren for the first Duke of Marlborough, the foundation stone being laid by the Duchess in 1709.

The house, as originally built, consisted of a rectangular main block of two storeys only, with wings at the E. and W. ends slightly projecting to the N. and S. On the N. side was a courtyard flanked by lower two-storeyed wings on the E. and W. The southern half of both these wings had an open loggia towards the courtyard. The blank wall closing the courtyard on the N. has an ornamental alcove or recess in the middle and gateways at each side. Sometime, probably in the 18th century, an attic storey was added to the main block. In the 19th century the house was further altered, the main block again raised and a new block added covering the S. side of the courtyard and destroying the loggias of the side wings; the side wings were also raised.

Malborough House, Plan of Ground Floor

Though much altered the house is a good example of its period and the historical paintings and original staircase are noteworthy.

The S. Elevation is in rubbed brick with rusticated stone quoins and plinth. The windows have roll-moulded angles and flat arches; in the side wings are round-headed niches with semi-domes of carefully rubbed brick. The two top storeys are modern, and the original part of the house is finished with a heavy stone cornice. The old parts of the N. Elevation are covered by a modern addition. The E. and W. Elevations continue the main lines of the S. Elevation and are each divided up into three bays by rusticated pilasters. The lower wings flanking the courtyard are original to the top of the second storey, round which a stone cornice is carried. Several original rainwaterheads remain with the date 1709. The former loggias connecting these wings with the main block have been entirely removed.

Interior—The interior has been so extensively altered and redecorated that it is difficult to distinguish the old work. The painted battlescenes (Plates 213–224) in the saloon and on the two staircases are the work of Laguerre, executed soon after the completion of the house.

The Saloon (Plates 211, 212) is of the full height of the original house and has a large cupola in the roof. The S., E. and W. walls at the gallery-level are covered with large paintings forming a continuous subject—the battle of Blenheim; the main picture, on the S. wall, represents the Duke of Marlborough surrounded by his staff and about to receive the surrender of Marshal Tallard; the subsidiary figures include a troop of horse, wounded soldiers, etc., and fighting still going on in the background; the subjects on the side walls represent incidents of the battle, the principal figure on the W. being probably intended for Prince Eugene. On the N. wall, between the windows, are painted trophies-of-arms, etc. On the lower walls of the saloon are hung four panels of Gobelin tapestry representing scenes from the history of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. The main cornice, dividing the room into two storeys, is probably original, and has a frieze of oak leaves.

The Main Staircase, in the W. wing, is original and has black marble steps, ornamental wrought-iron balusters (Plate 109) and a mahogany handrail; the panelled framing under the staircase has oval openings. The pavement forms a chequer-work of black and white marble and the panelled dado is also original. The paintings on the E. and W. walls are said to represent the battle of Ramillies; the Duke and his staff, and probably Marshal Overkirk, appear on the W. wall; the actual fighting is represented on the E. wall and in a panel on the S. wall. There are also several separate subjects including views of two large towns, probably Brussels and Antwerp; a third town; a bridge over a river, with a large round tower and a town in the background; there are also monochrome figures of Mars, Hercules, Peace (?) and History, trophies-of-arms and an achievement of the arms of Marlborough as a Prince of the Empire, the shield being set on an imperial eagle.

The Visitors' Staircase, in the E. wing, is original and has wrought-iron balusters (Plate 109) and mahogany hand-rail; the steps are of stone but the pavement is similar to that of the main staircase. The paintings on the E., N. and W. walls are said to represent the battle of Malplaquet; the Duke is shown on the N. wall and the battle on the E. and W. walls; there are also two separate subjects, a landscape with a castle and a landscape with two mounted men fighting; in the S. wall of the ground-floor is a landscape with troops, etc., and a town (? Mons) in the background.

The other main rooms of the house have been much altered and remodelled; the early plans of the building showing partition walls across both the existing drawing-room and dining-room.

In the basement at the N.E. angle of the main block is the original foundation-stone inscribed " Laid by Her Grace the Duchess of Marlborough May ye 24th June ye 4th 1709."

The Courtyard in front of the house is bounded by an ornamental enclosure-wall divided into bays by rusticated pilasters with a continuous cornice and an attic and balustraded parapet. The original openings have segmental rusticated arches and plain pediments, and these are repeated over the three recesses in the alcove on the N. side of the courtyard. (Plate 225).


(31). Buckingham Palace stands at the W. end of St. James' Park, with the E. or main front facing the Mall. Built originally for Lord Goring, in the reign of James I, it was subsequently bought by the Earl of Arlington and called Arlington House. It was rebuilt by the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 with the main block on the site of what are now the State apartments in the centre of the W. front. In the reigns of George IV and William IV the house was rebuilt on the old foundations. In recent years a part of the existing ashlar front to the N. side was removed, showing some dressings of rubbed brick, so that some parts of the early 18th-century walling above ground appear to have been incorporated in this rebuilding. A part of the early basement exists below the main W. block and has quadripartite vaulting of brick, carried on square brick piers with capping and base of projecting brick courses. The doorway leading to this part of the basement has the original frame and door with moulded panels.


(32). Schomberg House (the old War Office), on S. side of Pall Mall, 160 yards E. of St. James's Street, is of four storeys and a basement. The walls are of brick, with plastered stone dressings, and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The house is now a rough T-shape on plan with the cross-wing at the W. end; a corresponding E. wing was pulled down in 1850. A house appears to have been built on the site about the middle of the 17th century, and the S. end of the W. wing is probably of that date; the remainder of the house was rebuilt at the end of the same century, c. 1698, by the third Duke of Schomberg; shortly after 1765 the house was divided into three and the central porch added.

The N. Elevation (Plate 159) has a slight projection making a central feature to the main block; the angles to both this and the W. wing have rusticated quoins of plastered stone and the walls are finished with a coved cornice enriched with acanthus-leaf brackets. The central feature is in three bays, with the middle one slightly projecting, and the cornice is carried up in a pediment with a plastered tympanum; the entrance-porch is of the 18th century, and the window on the E. of it is modern; the other windows are square-headed with rubbed brick arches and plain keystones. The W. wing has a square-headed doorway flanked by Ionic columns supporting an entablature with a modillioned cornice, the whole entablature being carried round the N. return wall. Between the central feature and the W. wing are two modern windows on the ground-floor, but all the upper windows are original and similar to those described above, except the three on the return N. wall of the W. wing, which are blocked. One lead rainwaterhead is dated 1698 and a door to the basement has moulded panels. The S. front to the main block has square-headed windows with rubbed brick dressings and quoins of the same material. The wall is finished with a modillioned cornice and cornice and pediment, in the tympanum of which is a circular window. The projecting S. end of the W. wing is of three storeys and a basement, and is of brick with Portland-stone dressings; the E. wall has to each floor a semi-circular niche with keystone, moulded sill and panelled apron; that on the first floor has had a window inserted; the basement has a semi-circular headed doorway. In the S. wall is a segmental-headed window to the ground-floor with moulded architrave and moulded segmental pediment, the first and second floors have similar windows, but the former has a carved keystone and triangular pediment and the latter is without a pediment. In the angle made by this wing and the main block is a rainwater-head dated 1698. The interior of the house has been greatly altered and contains little original work. The S.W. wing retains on the ground and first floors some original moulded cornices and above the middle of the building is a lead-covered cupola which probably marks the site of the original staircase.

Condition—Structurally sound but, internally, much dilapidated.

(33). Norfolk House stands at the S. end of the E. side of St. James' Square. The present house was built 1742–56 and stands to the W. of the former building, from which it is separated by a large courtyard. The remaining block of old Norfolk House is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slate. It was built in the latter half of the 17th century and the old remains are part of the front block of the original building. The old house appears to have been greatly altered in the middle of the 18th century, probably when the new house was built; it was partly demolished and the front wall was entirely refaced and remodelled; the moulded wood cornice, however, was probably retained and refixed; the interior was again altered at subsequent dates and little original work remains. Inside the building on the first floor at the S. end of the house was one large room, two storeys in height; at the N. end later partitions have been inserted and the N. wall has been removed, but the whole of the ceiling, which was coved above the cornice, remains; the cornice is enriched and has dentils, and the ceiling, which is divided by enriched plaster-work of French character, was painted by Sir James Thornhill; S. of the inserted partition most of this painting remains, though in a dilapidated condition, and along the partition the old cornice from the original N. wall has been refixed. The subjects of the paintings are scenes from the life of Hercules; the central depicts his apotheosis, with Jupiter, crowned with a wreath, in the middle and the other Olympians grouped round; other panels include (a) Hercules wrestling with Death for the body of Alcestis; (b) the fight with the Nemean lion; (c) the capture of the Cretan bull, and in one of the smaller panels the infant Hercules is represented strangling the serpents. In the N. room on the first floor is a square fireplace-opening with a bolection-moulded marble surround; three doorways on this floor have enriched architraves and six-panelled doors; all probably of early 18th-century date, but two have been refixed.

Condition—Externally and structurally good, but painted ceiling in a poor state of preservation.

(34). Burlington House, on the N. side of Piccadilly, 200 yards W.N.W. of St. James' church, was built by Sir John Denham in 1665. It was, however, rearranged internally and refronted by Lord Burlington about 1716, and again much altered in 1817–20 by Lord George Cavendish. The original block is that on the N. side of the quadrangle; it retains its original general form of a main block with cross-wings at the E. and W. ends; the core of the main walls is probably original, but all the details now visible are of 18th-century or modern date.


(35). Harrington House, on E. side of Craig's Court, 50 yards E. of Charing Cross, is of three storeys with a basement and two-storeyed modern attics. The walls are of brick with painted stone dressings; the roofs are modern. The house was built c. 1702; slight alterations were made later in the same century and within recent years two upper storeys have been added in place of the original attics, additions built on the back, and certain internal alterations made and partitions inserted.

The front or W. elevation has a slightly projecting central block; the angles of this and the S.W. corner have rusticated stone quoins, and there are projecting stone bands at the first and second-floor levels and a heavy modillioned cornice at the original eaves-level; this cornice is surmounted by a stone balustrade now cut into by the modern brick piers of the two top storeys. The porch and the window above form a feature in the middle of the front; the former has flanking Ionic columns, with pilasters behind, and entablatures, the architrave and frieze of which return on to the main wall; the upper part of the cornice is carried across as a roof to the porch and is surmounted by a balustrade forming a balcony; the doorway is round-headed and was altered later in the century. The window above is square-headed and has a moulded stone architrave, flanked by Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature. The remaining original windows to the middle block, one to each floor on either side of the central feature and three on the second floor, are all square-headed and have moulded stone architraves. There are three windows on each floor of the N. wing and two on each floor of the S. wing, all square-headed and with rubbed brick jambs and arches. The S. elevation is covered with cement and the N. and E. fronts have been built against. Inside, the building has been considerably altered. The entrance hall in the front of the middle block contains the main staircase; it is two storeys in height and is lined with original panelling up to the dado on the first floor and above with later panelling surmounted by an original plaster cornice. The staircase, perhaps inserted after the building of the house, rises in three flights up to the first floor and has a moulded handrail, carved scroll-brackets at the end of each step, newels in the form of fluted Corinthian columns and alternating fluted and twisted balusters. In the W. end of both the N. and S. walls is a round-headed opening with moulded archivolt carried on panelled pilasters with moulded caps and bases. Some of the ground-floor rooms have original plaster cornices and the front room of the S. wing has a panelled dado and original fireplace with white marble bolection-moulded surround. On the first floor the large S.E. room is lined with original panelling, now partly covered, and has an original plaster cornice enriched with acanthus leaf. The northernmost room is also lined with original panelling and has an original fireplace with square head and bolection-moulded surround. The adjoining room has a panelled dado and a similar fireplace to the one just described with some old Dutch tiles reset round a modern grate; the doorway between the two rooms has a bolection-moulded architrave. Portions of the original panelling are retained on other parts of the first floor and on the second floor the northernmost room is lined throughout with plain panelling and has an original cornice and fireplace. One other room has an original fireplace and some of the rooms retain portions of panelling. One flight of the secondary staircase is original and has a moulded handrail and turned balusters.


(36). York Gate, formerly the water-gate of York House, stands 260 yards E. of St. Martin in the Fields and at the S. end of Buckingham Street. The building is of Portland stone and was executed by Nicholas Stone from the designs of Inigo Jones in 1626, for George, 1st Duke of Buckingham.

York Gate

The S. front (Plate 229) is in three bays divided by attached Doric columns with heavy rustications and supporting an entablature; the middle bay rises higher than the others and has a segmental pediment capped with a scallop-shell and enclosing a carved cartouche of the Villiers arms with garter and coronet; the side bays are each surmounted by a seated lion holding a shield with an anchor. Each bay of the front contains a round-headed, rusticated arch with plain key-stone and moulded imposts; the middle opening is carried down to the ground, but the side openings are stopped at the level of the platform behind. The side elevations have columns and opening similar to the side bays of the front. The N. or back elevation has Tuscan pilasters between the bays supporting a continuous entablature surmounted by four pedestals with balls; on the frieze is the motto "Fidei coticula crux." The three arches are round-headed, but the masonry is not rusticated and the key-stones have each a cartouche—the middle with the arms of Villiers impaling Manners, and the side ones the anchor of Buckingham's admiralship.

The interior of the gate is divided into three bays by two cross arcades each of two round-headed arches resting on one free and two engaged columns; between the columns is a wooden balustrade with turned balusters. The middle bay contains a flight of seven steps.


(37). Greycoat Hospital, S.E. side of Greycoat Place, Westminster, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of brick and the entrance doorway of stone; the roofs are tiled. The hospital was founded in 1698, and moved to its present position in 1701, the site having previously been occupied by a workhouse erected under the Elizabethan Poor Law. Though there is no record of this, the old part of the present structure would appear to have been rebuilt either immediately before or after it was taken over by the Hospital. It is built on a half H-shaped plan with the cross-wings projecting towards the N.W. and a small slightly projecting bay in the middle of the main block. A new cupola was built and the original clock fixed therein in 1735. Later additions have been made to both ends of the building, and the two crosswings connected on the front by a modern corridor a few feet in front of the main block.

The entrance-front is of brick with a plain projecting band at the first-floor level and a heavily moulded eaves-cornice, which breaks round the wings. The roofs are hipped and have flat dormer-windows. The central bay is of painted cement and has a pointed pediment above the cornice. The entrance-doorway has Doric pilasters supporting an entablature with triglyphs and pointed pediment, and above, on the first floor, is an achievement of the arms of Queen Anne (after the union) flanked by two niches, the left containing the carved figure of a boy, the right that of a girl, both in the costume of greycoat children of the period. The windows have square frames with sashes. Inside, the building follows a practically symmetrical plan. On the ground-floor the S.E. room has an original flat stone surround to the fireplace and the N.E. room an original panelled door. Each of the projecting wings has an original staircase with moulded handrail and string, turned balusters and square newel-posts. That in the easternmost wing is the larger and has ball-finials and moulded pendants to the newel-posts. On the first floor the N. room in the E. wing has a square framed dado. The S. room in this wing is the Board Room and is panelled from floor to ceiling with original panelling with bolection mouldings and heavy cornice. On seven of the upper panels are canvases painted by Richard Van Bluck with portraits of people connected with the hospital. The fireplace has a bolection-moulded stone surround with key-block. The Assembly Hall occupies the whole of the middle block and extends to the roof; at each end is a modern gallery. Supporting a beam at the E. end are two pilasters of the Composite order and on the N.E. wall are four panels with allegorical paintings representing Faith, Hope, Charity and Justice. The hall appears to have originally had a flat ceiling. There are two fireplaces with bolection-moulded surrounds of stone. The furniture belonging to the hospital includes fourteen Queen Anne chairs and a large gate-legged table.


(38). Bluecoat School, (Plate 225) on the S. side of Caxton Street, Westminster, 100 yards W. of Christ Church, is of one storey with cellars. The walls are of red and yellow bricks with rubbed brick and stone dressings; the roof is hipped and covered with slates. Founded in 1688 and built in 1709, the school consists of one large room or hall (42 ft. by 30 ft.) entered by a short flight of steps from the N. front and having a basement below; a small modern addition has been built on the S. end of the E. front and a modern screen now divides the hall into two compartments.

Bluecoat School. Plan.

The building is an interesting example of the work of its period, the well-proportioned hall and the brickwork of the elevations being noteworthy.

The Elevations have Doric pilasters at the angles, which rise, without bases, off the plinth and support an entablature, the cornice of which is continued round the building and is surmounted by a parapet with a plain stone coping. Each front is divided into three bays, the middle one on each front projecting. The windows in the side bays, three in the height, have flat brick arches, with stone keys and sills to the upper ones; between the two upper windows is a sunk panel with a stone sill and between the plinth and the sill of the middle window a raised panel or apron. The middle bay of the N. Front has a painted wood doorway with fluted Doric pilasters imposed on rusticated pilasters of the same order supporting an entablature with triglyphs in the frieze and a dentilled cornice. The doors are in two leaves, each with four raised and moulded panels. Between the doorway and the main cornice, standing on a plinth with a moulded base and capping and flanked by pilasters with continuous stone imposts, is a round-headed, semi-circular niche containing a carved stone figure of a "Bluecoat boy" in the costume of the period. The niche has a mask keystone, and the arch has panelled spandrels. Below the niche is a raised stone panel inscribed "This Blewcoat School was built 1709." Upper members are added to the main cornice of the middle bay, which is carried up as an attic with a brick panel surmounted by a stone cornice and broken carved pediment. In the panel is a clock-dial on a wooden frame, and on either side are carved stone brackets rising from the adjoining parapets. On the S. Front the middle bay has slightly projecting rusticated brick quoins. The main cornice, which breaks round the quoins, is similar to that on the N. front, and above is treated in a similar manner, but the pediment is unbroken and surmounted by an octagonal chimney-shaft with moulded stone capping and base; in place of the clock-dial is a plain recessed panel inscribed "This school was founded in 1688." In the middle of the bay is a shallow recess with concave jambs and semi-circular arch, moulded stone imposts and plain keystone. It stands on a secondary plinth with moulded base and capping, and is flanked on either side by coupled Doric pilasters supporting an entablature. The recess is plastered, and on it is a much faded painted figure of a "Bluecoat boy" in early 18th-century costume. Between the entablature and the main cornice is a range of three recessed and plastered panels with flat brick arches, stone sills and projecting aprons. On the E. Front the middle bay, though of slight projection, is similar to the side ones, but on the W. Front it has a central doorway (with a window above) flanked on either side by coupled Doric pilasters standing on plinths and supporting an entablature. The entablature is surmounted by two small pedestals connected by a ramped moulding to a central brick panel above which is a square-headed window. The steps up to the doorway have been removed and a flight formed leading down to the basement, one of the windows of which has been converted into a doorway. On each of the side elevations are two lead rainwater-pipes with shaped heads bearing the date 1709.

Interior: A wooden entablature with modillioned and dentilled cornice runs round the hall at about two-thirds its height, above which is a plastered cove, pierced by the upper windows, and a flat ceiling. The walls to a height of 7½ ft. are panelled, the panelling having a moulded capping and projecting dado-rail, both of which return on to the plain wooden architraves of the windows. The lower windows are double hung, the upper of square form; the lower windows have panelled linings and seats with panelled fronts. Standing free, about 4 ft. from the middle of the N. wall, are four fluted and cabled wooden columns of the Corinthian order round which the entablature breaks and which support a gallery-front with capping and plinth, panelled pedestals and bolection-moulded panels; the middle portion is brought forward with concave curves flanked by narrow pilasters. Behind the columns are corresponding wall-pilasters. In the two side bays thus formed are round-headed semi-circular niches with moulded imposts, panelled pedestals below and bolection-moulded panels above; there is a similar panel above the central doorway. This doorway is below the level of the floor and is reached by a few steps leading down from between the centre columns and having on either side short balustrades with turned balusters and moulded handrail. The middle portion of the S. wall projects slightly and has a central fireplace with simple moulded architrave and shelf, on either side of which are semi-circular niches with round heads; the archivolts spring off the capping of the wall-panelling. Above the capping over the fireplace are two round-headed panels inscribed with the Decalogue. They are flanked by panelled Doric pilasters which break through the main architrave and support an entablature the cornice of which is continued over the panels.

Condition—Fairly good.

(39). Queen Anne's Gate (Plate 228), which consists of terraces of houses on N. and S. sides and at W. end of street, is situated between St. James' Park and Tothill Street, 400 yards W.N.W. of the Abbey. Originally known as Queen Square, it was laid out in the early years of the 18th century, the date 1704 being on one of the existing lead rainwater-heads. The houses were originally of three storeys with attics and basements, and were built of red brick with some stone dressings, and the roofs were tiled. The street was designed as a whole and formerly included a chapel of St. Peter, which stood immediately S. of No. 46; this chapel was pulled down in the second half of the 19th century, but part of the carved oak reredos (Plate 100) from it is still preserved in a modern house, No. 18, Queen Anne's Gate. The elevations of the houses are generally similar, but the individual houses vary somewhat in size and consequently slightly in plan. Where original, the elevations to the streets have projecting bands of stone marking the floor-levels, and the windows are square-headed with rubbed-brick jambs and arches; those to the ground and first floors have keystones carved with grotesque masks; at the eaves-level is a wooden modillioned cornice, and the attics have gabled dormers with moulded cornices and pediments; between each house, in line and corresponding with the windows, are long and shallow recesses. The entrance doorways are squareheaded with moulded architraves flanked by richly carved Doric pilasters, standing on pedestals with moulded caps and bases and surmounted by richly carved hoods of square projection. The sides and front of each hood are in the form of an entablature with carved and pulvinated frieze and enriched mouldings; below the architrave on the front are two elliptical arches, with a similar arch on each return side, all richly carved and terminating in a carved pendant. The windows are of the sash type with the frames set almost flush with the outer walls, but practically all these have been renewed. Inside the buildings the rooms are panelled, the panelling being in two heights with a moulded dado-rail and cornice. The staircases have moulded strings and handrails, square newels and turned balusters.

With the exception of Nos. 15, 17 and 19 on the S. side and the houses at the W. end of the street, all the original houses remaining have had the original attics removed, have been raised by an additional storey, and, except in No. 32, have had new attics added. Most of the houses on the N. side of the street have been extended northwards and most of those on the S. side have been added to at the back.

Though, through later alterations, its original appearance has been somewhat impaired, the street yet remains an interesting example of the period, and the hooded doorways are particularly noteworthy.

N. side

No. 26, on the N. side, has its original hooded doorway with a door of six raised panels surmounted by a fanlight. Inside the building the large entrance-hall rises to the first floor and has an elaborate staircase (Plate 230), which was probably inserted after the house was built; it has a moulded handrail, carved trusses at the outer end of each step, turned and twisted balusters and newels formed of four of these balusters grouped together; below the balustrade at the first-floor landing is an entablature with an elaborately carved frieze with a grotesque mask in the middle and below the newels are carved pendants. The hall is panelled throughout, has raised mouldings to the panelling, moulded dado-rail and coved cornice. On the ground-floor in the N. wall is a semi-circular opening, and in the E. wall an elliptical-headed opening, each with a moulded archivolt, plain key-block, panelled soffit, and panelled pilasters with moulded caps and bases. The front room retains its original cornice and a six-panelled door, and both back-rooms are panelled and also have old doors; in the easternmost of these two rooms the panelling is moulded and in the westernmost it is plain with a bolection-moulded panel above the 18th-century marble mantelpiece. On the first floor the rooms have been considerably altered, but on the second floor they are lined with plain original panelling with moulded dadorails and cornices, bolection-moulded panels over the fireplaces and plain two-panelled doors. The back staircase (Plate 230) is original and is lined with plain panelling.

No. 28, adjoining No. 26 on the W., has lost its hooded doorway. An original rainwater-head at the back is dated 1704. Inside the building are two staircases similar to those in No. 26, and some original doors remain, but most of the internal decoration and fittings are modern.

No. 30, adjoining No. 28 on the W., retains its original hooded doorway (Plate 99) and door. Inside the building are two staircases similar to those in No. 26, and some of the original panelling remains. The house was, however, completely restored in 1913, when many of the rooms from which the old panelling had been removed were relined with panelling similar to the original work.

No. 32, adjoining No. 30 on the W., has lost its original hooded doorway. Inside the building the room on the right of the front doorway has its original panelling and cornice; the main staircase is modern, but the second staircase is original and similar to those previously described.

S. side

No. 15 (Plate 226) is the easternmost on this side of the original houses and is L-shaped on plan with the E. wing extending northwards beyond the general building line of the remaining houses adjoining on the W. In the N. wall of the projecting wing are, on each floor, two shallow recesses, corresponding with and similar to the windows; set between the two recesses to the ground-floor and standing on a pedestal, is a stone statue of Queen Anne (Plate 226), not in its original position; she wears a brocaded skirt and bodice and an open cloak, holds in her right hand a sceptre, and in her left an orb, and wears upon her head a small crown. The house retains its original eaves-cornice, but the entrance-doorway is round-headed and has lost its original hood, side pilasters, etc., though the old knocker, modelled in the form of a mermaid, remains on the door. Inside the building, dividing the entrance-hall from the staircase, is a moulded arch springing off panelled pilasters with moulded caps and bases. The hall and many of the rooms are lined with original panelling, but some has been renewed, and modern alterations include the taking down of various partition walls to make large rooms where smaller rooms previously existed. The original staircase remains.

No. 17, adjoining No. 15 on the W., has its original hooded doorway and retains its original eaves-cornice and two original dormers lighting the front attics. Much of the back elevation is original and is of similar character to the front, but the windows are segmental-headed without keystones and the band between the storeys is of brick. Two windows have been enlarged and the staircasewindow between the ground and first floors retains its old frame; in the roof are two gabled dormers. Inside, the building has been much altered; none of the original panelling remains, and the staircase is modern.

No. 19, adjoining No. 17 on the W., has its original eaves-cornice and hooded doorway and the old front-door knocker; the roof has been altered. The back elevation is mostly original and has two original dormers in the roof, but the westernmost one has been added to. Inside the building slight alterations have been made, but most of the rooms are lined with original panelling; between the entrance hall and staircase is a semi-circular arched opening, similar to those already described, and the staircase is original. In the basement is an old dresser with moulded cornice and shaped sides.

No. 21, adjoining No. 19 on the W., has modern alterations on the back and has been completely altered internally. The original doorway and hood are now in South Kensington Museum. Inside the building parts of the original staircase remain.

No. 23, adjoining No. 21 on the W., has its original hooded doorway. Inside, the building has been much altered, but the entrance-hall is lined with original panelling and the old staircase remains. The front room on the left hand of the entrance-hall has in the E. wall an original cupboard with a round-headed panelled door in two leaves.

No. 25, adjoining No. 23 on the W., and at S.E. corner of the street, has its original front door, knocker and hooded doorway. Inside the building some of the rooms are lined with original panelling, and their old doors and most of the original cornices remain. One room on the first floor has an original fireplace with plain stone surround, moulded round the outer edge, without any shelf and having a bolection-moulded panel in the wood panelling above. The staircase is original.

W. end

No. 40, on S. side of W. extension of Queen Anne's Gate, has the external walls plastered to the level of the first floor; a modern porch has been built in place of the original doorway and the original eaves-cornice has been taken down and the walls raised to form a parapet; the windows on the N. front W. of the porch are all blocked. Inside, the building has been much altered, only a little of the original panelling in the room on the left of the entrance-hall remaining. The staircase is original and in the basement are two lengths of reused 16th-century panelling.

No. 42, adjoining No. 40 on the E. and standing at S.W. corner of road running W. from the approach to the Park, has been externally covered with plaster; the original cornice has been taken down and the walls raised to form a low parapet. The house was originally entered from the N. front, but a modern bay-window has been substituted for the original doorway and a modern round-headed entrance has been made in the middle of the E. front and retains the old grotesque keystone from the window which it replaces. Inside the building alterations include the removal of the partition from the E. side of the old entrance-hall and the forming of a small entrance-hall on the E. side of the ground-floor, and, on the first floor, the removal of the cross partitions to form one large L-shaped room on the two sides of the staircase. Most of the rooms retain their original panelling and cornices, though patched and repaired with modern work. The staircase is original and, on the ground-floor, in the S. wall is the semi-elliptical arched opening which originally divided the staircase from the hall.

No. 44, adjoining No. 42 on the S., has a coved hood with a moulded cornice above the doorway supported on panelled pilasters; a low brick parapet has been built in place of the original eaves-cornice. Inside the building much of the original panelling remains, and across the entrance-hall is the original semi-circular arched opening; the original staircase remains.

No. 46, adjoining No. 44 on the S., has the front wall plastered externally but retains its original eaves-cornice; the entrance doorway is similar to and has a coved hood continuous with that to No. 44; a modern bay-window has been built to the ground-floor and additions made at the back; one window on the E. front has its original frame and sashes. The back elevation is mainly original and has rubbed brick quoins and flat arches to the windows with plain keystones; a small projecting wing at the back has a modillioned eaves-cornice; inside the building, except on the ground-floor where the rooms and entrance-hall have been altered, most of the work is original. On the first floor one room has an original fireplace with moulded surround surmounted by an acanthus-leaf frieze and moulded cornice; some of the mouldings of both architrave and frieze are enriched. The front room on the second floor has panelled closets on either side of the chimney, both with moulded cornices. The staircase is original.

The house adjoining No. 46 on the S., on the site of the former chapel, is modern, but the hood over the entrance-doorway is similar to that to No. 44 and 46.

Condition—Of most of the houses good, but the roofs of Nos. 17 and 19 are sagging in places and there is a slight bulge in part of the back wall.

Strand. S. side

(40). House and shop (No. 230), 110 yards E. of St. Clement Danes' church, is of four storeys with basement and attics. The walls are of brick; the roofs are covered with tiles. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but has been much altered; a projecting bay has been added on the street front from the first to the fourth floor. Inside the building the first-floor rooms have old cornices, and there are some original panelled partitions of a simple character. The upper staircase has a continuous moulded string and turned balusters.

Condition—Fairly good.

(41). House and shop (No. 229), adjoining (40) on the W., is of four storeys with basement. The front and back walls are of plastered timberframing; the roof is covered with lead. It was built in the first half of the 17th century, but has been altered and renewed at subsequent periods and the ground-floor converted into a modern shop. On the elevation to the Strand the building projects both on the first and second-floor levels, the whole of the width on each floor being occupied by sash-windows divided by boxing; those on the second floor retain their old sashes; below the first-floor windows is a panel with raised mouldings. The back elevation projects in stages and has windows similar to those in the front. Inside the building one original panelled door remains and a narrow cornice in one of the second-floor rooms is possibly of 17th-century date.

Condition—Fairly good.

(42). House and restaurant (No. 165), 190 yards W. of S. Clement Danes' church, is of four storeys with basement and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are partly tiled and partly covered with lead and zinc. It was built late in the 17th century, but internally has been much altered. On the street-front the upper storeys originally projected, but have been under-built with a modern front. The upper part is in three bays with sash-windows separated by panels and having continuous moulded sills, entablatures at the floor-levels and a modillioned eaves-cornice. The middle windows on the first and second floor slightly project, and over them the cornices are returned and surmounted by curved pediments; that over the former is broken and has scrolled ends.

Condition—Fairly good.

(43). House and shop, (No. 164a) adjoining (42) on the W., is of four storeys with attics and basement. The walls are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are covered with slates. It is of the latter part of the 17th century and is generally similar to (42), but there is no pediment above the middle window on the first floor, and the cornice at the third-floor level is enriched with carving.

Condition—Fairly good.

(44). Essex Street (E. side, Nos. 26 to 32 and 34; S. end, archway and Nos. 23 and 24; W. side, Nos. 12 to 15 and 17 to 19), houses, now offices, are of late 17th-century date and of three storeys with basements and attics; the walls are of brick; the dressings to the archway are of stone; the roofs are covered with slates or tiles. The elevations are symmetrically designed, and many of the houses have projecting bands at the floor-levels; the windows have flat or segmental rubbed-brick arches and a few retain their original sashes. Nos. 14 and 32 have round-headed doorways flanked by engaged Doric columns with entablatures and pediments, and Nos. 28 and 29 have flat-headed doorways with Corinthian pilasters supporting entablatures and curved pediments. The gateway at the S. end of the street has a square-headed opening supported on responds with enriched imposts, and, above, is a semi-circular arch with moulded architrave, plain key-block and brick tympanum. Over the arch are two circular brick windows. The gateway, which formerly opened on to the river, is flanked by two tall Corinthian pilasters with a portion of architrave over each connected over the arch by a small projecting stone band. In place of a cornice is a band of coupled dentils; the parapet is surmounted by a flat stone capping. On the W. side, No. 18 has been refronted. Inside, most of the buildings have been much altered, but some retain their original panelled rooms and old doors and bolection-moulded architraves, etc. A few original fireplaces remain and have bolection-moulded surrounds with moulded shelves over. Some of the buildings have their original staircases with straight strings and handrails, twisted balusters and square newel-posts.


(45). The Devereux Dining Rooms, formerly known as the Grecian Coffee House, public house, on corner of Devereux Court, 20 yards E. of Essex Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellar; the walls are of brick covered with painted plaster and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century, but has been greatly altered and added to. The elevations have no original features, but built out from the E. front is an original ogee-shaped bracket inscribed "This is Deveraux Courte 1676," and supporting a bust of a man in mid 17th-century costume with curled locks, moustache and Vandyke beard. Inside the building little old work remains; on the ground-floor is one old two-panelled door and one room on the second floor is lined with plain panelling and has a moulded cornice; the stairs from the first floor upwards have moulded strings and handrail, turned balusters and column-shaped newels.


(46). House, No. 22 Devereux Court, adjoining No. 45 on the W. is of four storeys and cellar; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century, but the top storey is a later addition and a modern shop-front has been built to the ground-floor. The front to the Court has a projecting painted band at the second-floor level and square-headed windows to the first and second floors with moulded brick arches and painted key-blocks; the windows have flush frames and those to the second floor retain their old sashes divided into panes by thick bars. Inside the building the first room on the first floor is lined with old panelling with moulded dado-rail, architrave and cornice and retains a twopanelled door; the stairs are original and have moulded strings and handrail, turned balusters and square newels with ball terminals.

Condition—Fairly good.

(47). The old Cheshire Cheese, inn, at S. corner of Little Essex Street and Milford Lane, is of three storeys with attics and cellar. The walls are of brick, covered with painted cement, and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century but has been greatly altered both inside and out. Both fronts have plain parapets and projecting bands at the second-floor level; behind the parapet to the W. front are two weather-boarded gables. Inside the building some of the rooms have cased ceiling-beams and one room has a plain panelled dado, moulded cornice and fireplace with a simple moulded and eared architrave.

Condition—Good, much altered.

Buckingham Street. S.W. side

(48). Houses, Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, are all of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick, plastered on the front, and the roofs are covered with tiles or slates. No. 8 is 80 yards S.E. of the Strand. All the houses were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The fronts have brick bands between the storeys; windows of No. 9 have plain key-blocks and those of No. 11 have key-blocks carved with male, female, and lions' heads.

No. 8 has an entrance-passage lined with bolection-moulded panelling with a dado-rail; one of the rooms on the first floor has some similar panelling and a doorway on the second floor has an original architrave. The staircase (Plate 7) is mostly original, but the flights vary in detail, three different types of balusters being used; the lower flights have cut strings, perhaps of later date, and the upper flights straight strings and square newels with turned pendants.

No. 9 has an entrance-doorway surmounted by a flat hood with carved brackets. The back room in the basement has bolection-moulded panelling and a ceiling with plaster panelling. The top flight of the staircase is original, and has twisted balusters, straight string and square newels with turned pendants.

No. 10 has a modern bay projecting in front. The front doorway is flanked by rusticated pilasters and a moulded hood, panelled on the soffit. The back room on the ground-floor has an original architrave, with egg-and-tongue ornament round the fireplace. In the entrance-hall and front room is some original panelling and there is a fluted Corinthian column, now incorporated in a partition. The staircase to the basement is partly original with close string and turned balusters, but, above, the staircase is of later date and has cut strings, carved brackets, turned balusters and carved and moulded rails.

No. 11 contains some original bolection-moulded panelling.

No. 12 has bolection-moulded panelling and a dentilled cornice to the hall and staircase. The staircase has close strings, twisted balusters and square panelled newels.

Condition—Of all houses, good.

(49). House and shop, No. 34, Villiers Street, on the E. side of the street, 30 yards S.E. of the Strand, is of five storeys; the walls are of brick. It was built probably early in the 18th century but has been very much altered. The front has brick bands between the storeys. Inside the building the staircase is original and has turned balusters, close string and square newels with turned pendants.


Lincoln's Inn Fields. S. side

(50). House, No. 44, 160 yards W.S.W. of Serle Street, is of four storeys and a basement. The walls are of brick and roofs are covered with slates. It was built c. 1700, but the original attics were at a later date converted into the present top storey and the front wall was raised above the cornice. The front elevation has painted raised bands at the floor-levels, similarly treated quoins, and a wooden modillioned cornice at the third-floor level; the windows have flat rubbed-brick arches, and the doorway has a moulded and eared architrave with console-brackets carrying a moulded cornice and segmental pediment. Inside the building the panelling and staircase are of 18th-century date.


(51). House, No. 46, 12 yards W.S.W. of (50), is of similar design, construction and date to that monument, though the front wall has been raised above the modern cornice, and a later porch has been added to the front door. The decoration and arrangement of the interior indicates alterations of mid 18th-century date, but the back-stair leading to the basement is original and has moulded string, turned balusters and square newels.


(52). House, No. 48, 12 yards W.S.W. of (51), is of four storeys and a basement. The walls are of brick, with the front wall covered with plaster; the roofs are covered with slates. It was built in the second half of the 17th century, but has been much altered. Later alterations include the raising of the front wall one storey, the removing of all mouldings and ornament from the N. front and the rendering of the wall in plaster. The front elevation was originally in one design with the adjoining house on the W. and has projecting bands at the first and third-floor levels between which it is divided into three bays with pilasters from which the capitals and bases have been removed. The interior has no original features.


(53). "The Old Curiosity Shop," shop and house, No. 6, Portsmouth Street, on N. side of road, 20 yards S.E. of Lincoln's Inn Fields, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered, and with a tiled roof. It is of 17th-century date and was probably part of a larger house, but has been much altered. The upper storey projects on the street-front and has a moulded cornice below the eaves; the roof is hipped. Inside the building nothing of interest remains.


(54). House, No. 11, Clement's Inn Passage, 25 yards S.E. of Houghton Street, is of three storeys with an attic. The front walls are of brick and the back wall of weather-boarded timber-framing. It was built c. 1700 and has a modern addition at the back and a later shop-front has been added to the ground-storey. The front is gabled and has plain projecting bands at the floor-levels and segmental-headed windows. Inside the building the ceiling to the ground-floor has some chamfered ceiling-beams, and some of the rooms are lined with plain panelling of early 18th-century date.


(55). The Piazza, on the N.W. side of Covent Garden. The piazza was designed and built by Inigo Jones, c. 1631, and originally extended along the whole of the N.W. and N.E. sides of the square. The S.W. half of the N.W. side was rebuilt about 1880 and the N.E. half of the same side is the only part now remaining. It forms an open arcaded loggia of eight bays with as many round-headed and rusticated arches on the face and one on the S.W. return; the arches have rusticated piers and plain imposts and key-blocks. The loggia is covered by groined vaults, one to each bay, and divided by plain cross-arches. The Tavistock Hotel, built over the loggia, is of 18th-century date.


(56). The Bird in the Hand, public-house and shop, Nos. 17 and 18, Long Acre, on the S.E. side of the street, 34 yards N.W. of Rose Street. The house is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and the windows at the back are original.


(57). House, No. 12, Maiden Lane, on S. side of street, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 18th century, but has been altered at later dates, and the ground-floor is now almost entirely taken up by a modern carriageway. The front elevation has projecting brick bands between the storeys and a modern parapet; the back is gabled and has some original windowframes. Inside the building the staircase from the first floor to the others is original and has a moulded string and handrail, turned balusters and square newels.

(58). House and shop, No. 4, New Street, is of four storeys; the walls are of brick. It was built probably late in the 17th century, but the ground-floor is now entirely taken up with a modern shop; a modern parapet has been added to the front wall, and the interior has been much altered. The front has projecting brick bands between the storeys, and the upper windows have segmental-heads and many retain their old frames. Inside the building the top three flights of the staircase are original and have moulded strings and handrail, symmetrically turned balusters and square newel with turned pendant.


(59). Houses, now shops, Nos. 14, 16, 18, Whitcomb Street, on E. side of street, 50 yards N. of Pall Mall, are of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. A stone in the front wall of No. 14 inscribed "I.A. 1692," no doubt gives the date of their erection, but modern shop-fronts have been inserted in the ground-floor, the parapet is modern and the front of No. 18 has been plastered; internally the buildings have been much altered. The front elevation has a projecting brick band at the second-floor level and each house has, on each of the upper floors, two segmental-headed windows, most of which retain their original frames; in line with and between the windows of each house are narrow segmental-headed panels. Most of the windows in the back elevation are original. Inside the building the only original feature is the upper part of one staircase; it has moulded string and handrail, turned balusters and square newels.


(60). House, No. 5, on the N. side of Great Newport Street, 15 yards W. of Upper St. Martin's Lane, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 17th century, but the front has been refaced. Inside the building the original staircase has close strings, symmetrically-turned balusters and square newels with half balusters against them and turned pendants.


(61). Row of Houses and shops, Nos. 21 to 24, Newport Court, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 18th century, and possibly extended further westwards. The front has brick quoins at the E. angle and at the second-floor level is a projecting brick band; the windows to the first and second floors have segmental heads with narrow brick key-blocks to the first floor; many of the windows retain their old frames; nothing of interest remains inside the buildings.


(62). House, No. 41, on the S. side of Gerrard Street, 55 yards W. of Newport Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built probably early in the 18th century, but the front has been largely refaced; in the roof are two dormer-windows with segmental pediments. Inside the building the staircase to the basement and the top flights are original and have close strings, turned balusters and square newels with moulded pendants. Most of the rooms have original cornices.


(63). House, formerly the Rectory, on the W. side of Dean Street, N.E. of St. Anne's church, is of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick rendered in cement. It was built probably early in the 18th century but the parapet is later. The entrance has a cornice supported on one original scrolled bracket. Inside the building the staircase is original except for the flight to the first floor, the original parts have twisted or turned balusters, fluted or square newels; the top flight has a close string, but the lower flights have cut strings with simple brackets.


(64). House, No. 14, on the E. side of Greek Street, 75 yards N. of Little Compton Street, is of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1700, but the upper part of the front was rebuilt in the 18th century and the parapet added. Inside the building is some original panelling and the staircase has close strings, turned balusters and square newels.


(65). House, No. 10 and 10a, Soho Square, on N. side of Square adjoining (23) on the E., is of three storeys with attics and basement; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century, but the internal fittings appear to have been almost entirely removed in the middle of the following century, and the house has since been considerably altered and adapted to the use of modern business premises. The front elevation has been renewed and has projecting bands at the second and attic-floor levels; the parapet is probably of 18th-century date, but a moulded rainwater-head remains and is probably original. The back elevation has projecting bands at the floor-levels and a moulded eaves-cornice of wood; the windows have segmental arches and are fitted with flush frames, probably renewals; the main roof is intersected by three hipped gables. Inside the building later alterations include the extension of the ground-floor over the original garden and the sub-dividing of some of the rooms by the insertion of later partitions. Some of the rooms have original moulded cornices and one room is lined with original panelling in two heights with a moulded dado-rail and has a bolection-moulded surround to the fireplace with a bolection-moulded panel above; there is a similar panel above the fireplace in one other room. The staircase, except to the lowest part, which has been renewed, is original and has moulded string and handrail, square newels and turned balusters.


(66). House, No. 15, on the N. side of Soho Square, 25 yards E. of Soho Street, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century. The front has been much altered but retains the moulded bands between the storeys. Inside the building there are several original panelled doors and some original panelling. The staircase (Plate 6) is original and has close strings, turned balusters and square newels with moulded pendants. The passage has a round arch resting on panelled pilasters. A fireplace on the second floor has a heavy moulded surround and a raised panel above.


(67). House, No. 60, Frith Street, on W. side of street, 60 yards S.S.E. of Soho Square, is of four storeys and a basement; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century and altered late in the following century when the front wall was raised to enclose the former attics and the house practically refitted internally with panelling, etc. The front elevation has been coated in cement up to the level of the first floor and has a cement band at the second-floor-level; the windows have flat arches and those on the first floor have cement key-blocks. The back elevation has brick bands at the floor-levels and the windows have segmental arches; the gable has been rebuilt. Inside the building most of the rooms have original moulded cornices, and some of the original doors remain; on the first floor the three rooms have original panelled dados with moulded dado rails, the smallest room is also lined with plain panelling above and the middle room has a moulded shelf and surround to the fireplace. On the second floor the panelling is plain with large bolection-moulded panels over the fireplaces; the fireplace in the back room has a stone surround. The staircase up to the second floor is panelled in two heights with moulded panels and dado-rail; from the basement to the ground-floor it has a moulded string and capping, square newels and turned balusters; from the ground-floor to the second floor the balusters and handrail are of late 18th-century date, but from the second to the third floor the lower flight is similar to that from the basement, but with alternately turned and twisted balusters, and the upper flight is similar, but with twisted balusters only.


(68). House, No. 67, Frith Street, on W. side of road, 40 yards N. of 67, is of three storeys with basement and attics; the walls are of brick and the roof is tiled. It was probably built in the 17th century, but the front was apparently rebuilt during the following century, and the internal fittings were renewed. A moulded lead rainwaterhead on the front is possibly original.

(69). Carlisle House, at the W. end of Carlisle Street, Soho Square, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built c. 1700. The front is of stock brick with rubbed-brick arches to the windows and stone bands between the storeys; the front is finished with a modillioned cornice and pediment with a round window in the tympanum.

Inside the building the hall is lined with original panelling with dado-rail and cornice. The opening to the staircase has a round arch and moulded imposts. The room S. of the hall has original panelling, and the two doors have enriched architraves and over-doors. The fireplace has a moulded surround of white marble. The room at the back has an original cornice. The main staircase is original and has close strings, twisted balusters, square panelled newels and a panelled dado against the walls; the upper flight has a panelled plaster soffit. The staircase terminates at the first floor, and the walls have panelling and scroll-work and are finished with an enriched cornice; the ceiling has modelled plaster enrichment of early 18th-century date. The back stairs are also original and have close strings, twisted balusters, and square newels with turned pendants; lighting the lower flight is an original window with solid frame and transom. The upper floors have some original doors, dadoes and cornices. The S.E. room on the first floor has an elaborate early 18th-century plaster ceiling with an oval panel in the middle and flowing scroll-work design.


(70). House, at the N. corner of Wardour Street and Edward Street, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably c. 1686, but the upper part has been subsequently rebuilt. The E. front has a tablet inscribed "Wardour Street 1686," and the S. front a similar tablet inscribed "Edward Street 1686."

Condition—Good, much altered.

(71). William and Mary Yard, houses and stables, on the N.W. side of Little Pulteney Street. The buildings are generally of two storeys and the walls are of brick. They were built probably late in the 17th century, but have been very much altered and partly rebuilt. Under the S.W. range is a large barrel-vaulted cellar with other vaults at right angles to it.


(72). House, No. 4 on the E. side of Golden Square, 20 yards from the N.E. angle, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 18th century, but has been much altered and a parapet added. Inside the building the staircase from the first floor upwards is original and has turned balusters, close strings and square newels with moulded pendants; the lower flights have cut strings with carved brackets and fluted newels. On the first-floor half-landing is a window with an original carved architrave, panelled soffit and shutters. There are similar architraves to two doorways on the ground floor.

Condition—Fairly good.

(73). House, No. 5, Great Marlborough Street, on N. side of road, about 270 yards E. of Regent Street, is of three storeys with attics and basement. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century, but the elevations have since been altered and rendered in cement and a small addition built on the back. The elevations present no original features. Inside the building some of the rooms are lined with original panelling; that to the rooms on the ground and first floors is simply moulded, and that to the rooms on the second floor is plain. The walls to the entrance passage and lower staircase are lined with panelling, and across the passage is a semi-circular arch with moulded archivolt, plain key-block and panelled pilasters with moulded bases and cappings. The staircase is original and has a moulded string and handrail, twisted balusters and large twisted newels; the stairs to the basement are similar in character but have turned balusters.


(74). House, No. 8, Great Marlborough Street, on N. side of road, about 15 yards W. of (73), is of three storeys with attics and basement. The walls are of brick covered with cement and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built c. 1714, but has since been added to and much altered, the main rooms on the ground floor having been converted into a modern showroom and the elevations rendered in cement. Inside the building the walls of the entrance-hall and staircase are panelled; the wall of the landing on the first floor is also panelled and from the first floor upwards the stairs have a panelled dado. The staircase from the ground to the second floor has a carved bracket at the end of each step, moulded handrail, twisted balusters and newels in the form of small fluted Corinthian columns, but from the second floor to the attics the staircase is of an earlier type and similar to that in (73), and has a continuous moulded string.


(75). Houses, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, Pickering Place, on the E. side of St. James' Street and on the W. side of the Place, are of four storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. They were built probably early in the 18th century and have a brick band at the first-floor level. The doorways of Nos. 3 and 4 have plain moulded hoods with carved and scrolled brackets. Nos. 2, 3 and 4 have original staircases with close strings and turned balusters.


(76). Duke of Albemarle, public house, at the corner of Dover Street and Stafford Street, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 17th century, but has been much altered. The two fronts have plain brick bands between the storeys. Preserved inside the building is the stone sign for Stafford Street; it bears the Stafford arms and knots and the inscription "This is Stafford Stret 1686."


Albemarle Street. W. side:—

(77). House and shop, No. 37, about 140 yards N. of Piccadilly, is of four storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick. It was built probably early in the 18th century and has a string-course at the second-floor level. Inside the building the upper and lower flights of the staircase are original and have close strings and turned balusters.


(78). Houses, Nos. 48, 50a, and 50, 25 yards N. of Piccadilly, are of four storeys, with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. The houses were built c. 1710–20, but the middle house has been entirely altered. The fronts have band-courses between the storeys and a bracketed cornice at the top; the windows have plain key-blocks. The entrance-doorway of No. 50 has an original flat hood with carved and scrolled brackets. The staircases of Nos. 48 and 50 are similar and have cut strings with carved brackets, turned and twisted balusters and newels in the form of Corinthian columns; the upper flights have close strings. Both houses have some original panelling, and No. 50 has an enriched plaster ceiling and a rich marble fireplace, both of rather later date.


(79). No. 6, North Street, house standing back from the E. side of the road, 50 yards N. of St. John's Church, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. It is of an irregular L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W., and the middle portion of the W. wing projecting on the S. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century, but has been considerably altered at later dates. Some of the windows are original and retain their hung sashes divided into panes by thick bars. Inside the building the northernmost room has a fine plaster ceiling of Georgian design, and the architraves to one door and the windows are moulded and enriched. The room above on the first floor has a moulded cornice and dado-rail, and some of the doors on both the ground and first floor are original. There is old flag-stone paving to the yards.


(80). House, No. 9, Grosvenor Road, 70 yards S. of Lambeth Bridge, is of two storeys with basement and attics. The walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. It is rectangular on plan and was built in the early part of the 18th century, but the front part of the attics has been raised and various alterations have been made at a later date. The front elevation is symmetrically designed but has been covered with cement and the windows and door have been renewed. The doorway has a semi-circular 'shell-hood' supported on two carved brackets which flank a long panel ornamented with swags and two cherub-heads; the tympanum of the hood is enriched with carved drapery and fruit and flowers. The back elevation has been refaced with modern brick. Inside the building the walls of the four rooms on the ground-floor and also the entrance and inner halls are lined with original panelling and have moulded cornices and dado rails. The doors are modern, but one room has an old chimney-piece with eared architraves, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice as a shelf; the panelling to the two N. rooms is bolection-moulded; between the entrance and inner halls is an elliptical-headed opening with moulded arches springing from panelled pilasters with moulded cappings; the front arch is modern. On the first floor the two back rooms have panelling similar to that to the corresponding rooms below, but with the mouldings slightly varied; the six-panelled doors to these rooms are probably original. In the attics are two plain, two-panelled doors. The main staircase (Plate 6) has a cut string with a simple shaped scrolls at the ends of each step, a moulded handrail, square panelled newels and twisted and enriched balusters. The secondary staircase has had the upper part removed and has been floored over on the first floor; the lower part has a moulded string and handrail, turned balusters and square newels.

Condition—Structurally good, but neglected.

(81). Conduit House, in Hyde Park, on N. side of Knightsbridge, about 250 yards W.S.W. of Hyde Park Corner, is a small brick building, square on plan, with rusticated cement quoins and a dome-shaped roof of stone. It is of early 18th-century date and, inside, has a round-headed recess in each wall, the southern one of which is pierced for a doorway. The building now contains a modern tank.


(82). Alcove, now standing in the N.E. corner of Kensington Gardens, opposite the N. end of the Serpentine, is of Portland stone and brick; the roof is covered with slates. It was built early in the 18th century and originally stood at the S. end of the formal gardens to the S. of Kensington Palace. The S. front (Plate 125) is of Portland stone, and consists of a round-headed semi-circular recess flanked by pairs of fluted composite columns supporting entablatures and a pointed pediment; the arch springs from plain imposts; the keystone is a carved cartouche with the royal monogram of Queen Anne surmounted by a crown. The recess is lined up to the springing of the arch with moulded wood panelling in four heights, surmounted by a capping; below the panelling is a wooden seat on turned baluster-shaped legs, and, above, is a plastered half-dome. Between the two columns on each side of the alcove are round-headed niches, with panelled pilasters and a moulded archivolt; the impost mouldings are continued round the niche and the semi-dome is of shell-form; the niches have moulded sills with square panels below, and above the heads are carved festoons and swags of flowers. The E. and W. walls are of brick and are finished with the main entablature, which is continued round the building.

(83). Statue of Charles I (Plate 195) stands in Trafalgar Square, on the site of Charing Cross. The statue is of bronze and the pedestal of Portland stone. The statue, by Hubert le Sueur, was cast in 1633, but was not erected until 1674, when it was placed upon its present pedestal; the latter is said to have been the design of Grinling Gibbons, but was actually carved by Joshua Marshall.

The statue represents the king in armour and bare-headed on horseback; on the hoof of the near fore-leg of the horse is the inscription "Huber(t) Leseur (fe)cit 1633."

The upper part of the pedestal has rounded ends and a heavy moulded and carved cornice; on each side is a recessed panel, and at each end, on the rounded surface, is a shield of the royal Stuart arms, that at the N. end with heraldic supporters and that at the S. supported by putti; the shields are hung on drapery, and at the base are trophies-of-arms. The pedestal has a moulded plinth and stands on a plain rectangular base.

Condition—Good, but carving of pedestal much weathered.

(84). Statue of James II (Plate 227) stands in St. James' Park, on the W. side of the new Admiralty buildings. It was first set up in Whitehall Gardens in 1686. The figure, by Grinling Gibbons, is cast in bronze and is in Roman military costume; the pedestal is modern.


(85). The Admiralty, woodwork in the Board Room. The existing building fronting Whitehall was erected in 1720, but the Board Room contains a late 17th or early 18th-century overmantel. Above and flanking the central panel are festoons of nautical instruments, cherubs riding on dolphins, fishes, &c., carved in high relief. On the panel is a large wind-dial painted with a map of Western Europe, each country having a small shield of arms; the arms on England are those of Queen Anne after the Union. This dial is not in its original position. At the back of the fireplace is a cast-iron fire-back with the arms of Charles II. The room is lined with panelling, probably of c. 1720.

(86). Street-name Tablets. On house at corner of Foubert's Place and Great Marlborough Street, of stone and inscribed "MARLBOROUGH STREET 1704." On house No. 4, Orange Street, on S. side of the road, refixed ornamental cartouche of stone, inscribed "JAMES STREET 1673." On house at corner of Marsham Street and Great Peter Street, of stone, inscribed "THIS IS MARSHAM STREET 1688." See also Monuments (70) and (76).