Tower Ward

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.

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'Tower Ward', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City, (London, 1929) pp. 175-186. British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

In this section


Tower Ward includes the parishes of All Hallows Barking and St. Dunstan in the East, and parts of the parishes of St. Margaret Pattens, All Hallows Staining and St. Olave Hart Street. The principal monuments are the churches of All Hallows Barking and St. Olave Hart Street.


(1) Parish Church of All Hallows Barking (Plate 217) stands on the N. side of Great Tower Street. The walls are of ragstone and other rubble, with dressings of limestone; the tower is of brick; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The earliest parts of the present church are the Nave- arcades, which date from about the middle of the 13th century. The lower part of the E. wall may be as early, or perhaps of the 14th century, when the E. window was inserted. The recently discovered Crypt under the E. end of the S. aisle appears to be of the middle of the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Chancel-arcades were built and the E. arch of each of the nave-arcades was widened by the rebuilding of its E. respond further E. The Chapels were added or re-built at the same time and probably some of the arches of the nave-arcades were re-built, the N. aisle extended one bay further W. and perhaps also the nave with it. The clearstorey is also of the same century with the heightening of the E. wall in consequence. In 1649 the W. end was injured by an explosion and the tower (said to have stood at the W. end of the S. aisle) was taken down. A new Tower was built at the W. end of the nave in 1658–9. The East Vestry was probably added c. 1705, when the fittings of the church were renewed. Modern restorations took place in 1814, when the walls generally were lowered and the old roofs removed; in 1860–2, when a turret-stairway on the S. and a S. porch were removed, and in 1883, when a general restoration took place and the North Porch, with chambers over and beside it, was added.

The Parish Church of All Hallows, Barking

The tower is interesting as an example of the Cromwellian period. Amongst the fittings the Evyngar brass and the carved font-cover are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel 39½ ft.) by 24 ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of five trefoiled lights with a traceried two-centred head; the internal splayed jambs are ancient, but the mullions and tracery are modern restoration on the old lines. Below it to the S. is a round-headed doorway to the vestry, probably of early 18th-century date. The N. arcade is of three bays and early 15th-century work; the arches are deeply moulded, the first being two-centred and the other two four-centred; they rest on piers consisting of four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases and divided by hollows flanking a filleted roll which is continued in the arch; the responds have attached half-piers. The first arch is slightly lower than its fellows. The arches have a moulded label on the S. mitering with a string-course at the apex; the string is stepped down over the E. arch. The clearstorey has three late 15th-century windows on each side, the first of two cinque-foiled lights and the others of three, all under four-centred heads with segmental-pointed rear-arches. Externally they are all restored. The S. arcade is uniform with the N., except that the first arch is higher than the other two and the string-course is stepped up over it.

The North Chapel (19½ ft. wide) has a late 15th-century E. window of four cinque-foiled lights with a segmental-pointed head and a moulded label. In the N. wall are two windows, in the second and third bays, similar to the E. window but of three lights.

The South Chapel (20 ft. wide) has an E. window of four lights, similar to that in the N. chapel, and in the S. wall three windows of three lights all of similar character.

The Nave (57 ft. average by 24 ft.) is structurally undivided from the chancel (Plate 216) and has a N. arcade of four bays of c. 1230–1240. The arches are of two pointed and chamfered orders resting on heavy cylindrical piers. The easternmost bays are wider than the others, the E. halves having probably been re-built and altered in the 15th century; most of the other arches also have later voussoirs mixed with the small voussoirs of the 13th century and may have been re-built. The E. respond, which forms part of the 15th-century E. arcade, and the first two piers have early 17th-century moulded capitals, raised above the original springing-level; the third pier and the W. respond retain their original moulded bell-capitals. The E. respond and the W. respond of the chancel-arcade are set back to back and are of one build. Above the arches runs a 15th-century moulded string-course, and the clearstorey, above it, is pierced by four windows uniform with the chancel-clearstorey, except the westernmost which is of two lights only The S. arcade is similar to the N. and of three bays, the W. respond, which appears to be an original column adapted, is the only one retaining its original capital. The bases on both sides have been cut away. The clearstorey is similar to that on the N.

The North Aisle of the nave (19½ ft. wide) is structurally continuous with the N. chapel and has two windows in the first two bays of the N. wall, but not placed centrally. They are uniform with those in the N. wall of the N. chapel. In the third bay is a 15th-century N. doorway having a four-centred arch under a square external head, the spandrels with quatre-foiled panelling and a moulded label. In the fourth bay is a blocked window, the head of which is visible externally. In the W. wall is a window similar to the E. window of the N. chapel. This wall is canted on plan, forming a fifth bay on the line of the N. arcade; the wall here is carried on a segmental arch blocked on the S. by the wall of the tower.

The South Aisle (20 ft. wide) has two windows in the first two bays of the S. wall similar to those in the S. wall of the S. chapel. The wall of the third bay is modern and canted and contains a modern doorway. In the same bay E. of the S. doorway is a four-centred plain doorway of the 15th century which opened into the former staircase leading up to the upper storey of the S. porch. The W. wall is blank.

The West Tower (9½ ft. by 11½ ft.), built in 1659, is of brick and of four stages, marked externally by brick bands and finished with a modern parapet. The tower is not placed centrally and lines with the canted W. wall of the N. aisle, its axis making a considerable deviation to the N. from that of the nave. The ground-stage has a round-headed arch to the church on the E. and a round-headed W. doorway with an oval window above it, both included internally under a square head. Externally the doorway has plain raised impost and key-blocks, and the window is set in a plain rectangular raised frame. The circular staircase of timber is set in a semi-circular sinking in the S.W. angle of the tower walls, the outer semi-circle being protected only by an open wood framing. The second stage has a round-headed window in the W. wall with a wooden frame and two pointed and transomed lights. The third stage has a similar window in the W. wall. The bell-chamber has a round-headed louvered opening in each face with wooden frame and two transomed lights. Set on the centre of the tower is a square timber lantern or cupola, lead-covered and having two round-headed openings in each face. Above these there is a cornice on which rests a square dome with a ball and vane on the top.

The Crypt (Plate 218), under the E. end of the S. chapel (22 ft. by 12 ft.), has a semi-circular barrel-vault divided into five narrow bays by chamfered ribs of stone, the infilling being of chalk as well as the N. and S. side walls. It is probably of mid 14th-century date. In the E. wall is an 18th-century doorway, the N. jamb of which is of brick, but the S. jamb is a rebated one of older stone, possibly the remains of an earlier doorway in situ. It opens into a small brick lobby from which a stairway rises to the churchyard outside. In the S. wall, in the second bay from the E., is an original window of roughly chamfered stones with its rear-arch groined back to the main vault. In the next bay westward are the sill and lower jamb-stones of another single light, and visible from the outside of the crypt; the opening has been filled in with chalk flush with the main vault. In the W. wall at its N. end is an original doorway, the dressings of which have been removed or have perished and which is now restored in chalk. From this doorway is an original straight stairway, with muchperished steps, which led up to the interior of the church W. of the crypt. It is now closed over with paving. At the S. end of the W. wall is a 17th or 18th-century doorway opening into a small lobby of brick with a round vault also of brick, and S. of the crypt is a long narrow chamber formed by 17th-century burial-vaults of brick. This has a deep niche or recess at its E. end. From the W. end of the last chamber are modern steps leading up into the S. aisle.

The Vestry at the E. end of the chancel was probably built early in the 18th century, but has been completely altered and the walls rendered in cement. It has three modern windows in the E. wall and a modern doorway in the S. wall.

Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—(1) to [Agnes widow of William Bonde, 1552] shield-of-arms; (2) of Roger James, 1591, figure of man in civil costume, foot-inscription and shield-of-arms; (3) to Marie (Brownrigg) wife of John Burnell, 1612, inscription only; (4) to Thomas Gilbert, 1483, and to Agnes, widow of John Saunders, 1489, inscription and two roundels with symbols of SS. John and Luke; (5) of Andrew Evyngar [1533] and Ellyn his wife, rectangular plate of Flemish workmanship with figures of man and wife in civil costume with scrolls and under a Renaissance canopy of two bays with image of Our Lady of Pity, figures of one son and six daughters, shields of the arms of the Merchant Adventurers' and Salters' Companies and a merchant's mark, remains of incised inscription round slab with symbols of the Evangelists at angles. In N. chapel —(6) to John Bacon, 1437, and Joan his wife, figures of man and wife in civil costume, foot-inscription and heart with scroll; (7) to Thomas Virly, 1454, vicar of the parish, much defaced slab with incised figure of priest under canopy with defaced head and hands in one piece, and two angels flanking head in brass, brass foot-inscription. In N. aisle—(8) on E. wall to [Philip Dennys, 1556], shield-of-arms only; (9) to George Snayth, 1651, auditor to William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, inscription with shield-of-arms. In S. chapel—(10) of William Thynne, 1546 [and Anne (Bonde) his wife], figures of man in armour and wife, foot and marginal inscriptions with three symbols of the evangelists, the fourth missing; palimpsest on effigy of man, part of figure of lady with mantle and rich girdle, of c. 1530; on effigy of woman, part of figure of priest in mass-vestments holding chalice, of c. 1510; on parts of marginal inscription, portions of scroll-work and two inscriptions, one to Sir John . . .; (11) to William Tonge [1389], inscription enclosing shield-of-arms, parted palewise a fleur-de-lis counterchanged a border engrailed. In S. aisle—(12) of John Rusche, 1498, figure of man in civil dress, with foot-inscription; (13) of Christopher Rawson, 1518, and Margaret and Agnes (Buke), his wives, figures of man in civil costume and wives in pedimental head-dresses, etc., three labels and a foot-inscription; on second pier from W., (14) of William Armer, 1560, rectangular plate with kneeling figures of man in armour and wife, three sons and two daughters, label, long inscription and shield-of-arms, plate restored 1843; (15) on floor, to Margaret wife of Arthur Bassano, 1620, and to Camela their daughter, wife of Henry Whitton, 1622, inscription only. See also Monuments (2) and (7). Indents: In vestry at W. end of N. aisle—(1) of man in armour and foot-inscription; (2) of kneeling figure and inscription-plate. In tower—(3) of figure, foot-inscription and shield; (4) of figures of man and wife, foot-inscription and shield; (5) of two figures, foot-inscription and four shields. Chairs: In chancel—with turned posts to back, carved heads, turned legs and scalloped feet, probably late 17th-century. Cistern: On N. side tower—of lead with panelled and enriched sides, lion's head, and two shields with initials B. A. H. and date 1705. Clock: On W. face of tower—carved and enriched wooden clockcase with scrolls and pediment, curved bracket under supporting beam, late 17th-century. Communion Table (Plate 43): of oak, with moulded top and rails, post at each end with carved scrolls and two carved eagles on each cross-rail, given by Mr. Burdon, 1685. Communion Rails: of brass with moulded rails, symmetrically turned balusters and rectangular standards, given by Lady Anne Colleton, early 18th-century. Doors and Lobbies: to N. and S. doorways, panelled doors and inner lobbydoors, now glazed and with fanlights, doorways flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters with entablature, panelled sides, c. 1705. In doorway to former upper storey of S. porch, with feather battens and two plain strap-hinges, probably 16th-century. Font and Cover (Plates 220, 13). Font: round moulded bowl of dark grey marble, baluster-shaped stem and square moulded base. Cover: round baseboard with moulded edge and central upright crowned by a dove, from upright hang three freely carved festoons of fruit and flowers, the ends divided and spreading over the base-board, between the festoons are three figures of cherubs; enriched wrought-iron bracket for pulley; all late 17th-century. Gallery: at W. end, with later front; staircase with turned balusters, square newel, moulded rail and straight string, c. 1675. Glass: In N. chapel—in second window in N. wall, rectangular panel with achievement-of-arms of Starling and inscription recording glazing after the Great Fire of 1666. In S. chapel—in easternmost window in S. wall, a shield of the arms of St. George (? City of London), 16th-century; in second window, panel with achievement-of-arms of Edwards and the date 1666; in fourth and fifth windows, fragments including parts of a shield, etc., 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on S.E. respond, (1) to Rev. John Kettlewell, M.A., 1695, draped marble tablet with cherub-head, scrolls and urn. In N. aisle —against N. wall, (2) to [John Croke, 1477, alderman, and Margaret his wife], altar-tomb and canopy (Plate 19) of Purbeck marble, altar with moulded slab and plinth with band of quatrefoils, front and sides with large quatre-foiled and traceried panels flanked and divided by three upright panels in front, blank shield in middle of each quatrefoil; canopy supported in front on two octagonal piers with moulded bases, front of canopy with two cusped and depressed arches with panelled spandrels, above them a cornice with shields alternating with carved pateræ (foliage and roses) and the Holy Name, above again a frieze of quatrefoils and a cresting of Tudor flowers; similar decoration returned round ends of canopy, soffit with elaborate fan-tracery; in slab at back of tomb, brasses of kneeling figure of man in civil costume with seven sons on the same plate, and second plate with wife in widow's veil with five daughters, scroll from wife's mouth and shield-of-arms azure a fesse engrailed ermine between three eagles or; (3) of Jerome Banali, 1585, marble wall-monument with kneeling figure of man in civil dress, recess flanked by enriched pilasters supporting an entablature and cartouche-of-arms; (4) to Giles Lytcott, 1696, and Sarah his wife, 1713, Col. Nathaniel Long, 1714, and Sarah (Lytcott) his wife, 1731–2, white marble wall-monument consisting of enriched pedestal supporting Doric column flanked by cherubs; (5) to Baldwin Hamey, 1640, physician to the Czar, marble tablet with elliptical panel in rectangular frame with achievement and two shields-of-arms. In S. aisle, on S. wall, (6) to Francis (Appleton), wife of Francis Goldsmith, 1618, stone tablet with enriched pilasters and cartouche-of-arms; (7) altar-tomb and canopy of Purbeck marble, c. 1500, altar-tomb with moulded slab and plinth; in front, three quatre-foiled lozenge panels each with a blank shield; canopy-recess flanked by shafted piers with concave sides and having a flat shouldered arch, springing from smaller attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the arch surmounted by a frieze of quatrefoils, cornice and cresting of Tudor flowers, piers carried up as pedestals at each end and a similar pedestal in the middle of the front, richly cusped and panelled soffit; on wall at back, brass with figure-subject, the Resurrection, remains of two scrolls with prayers; (8) to John Winder, 1699, his brother Jonathan, 1717, and Samuel Winder (undated), marble wall-monument consisting of moulded shelf and bracket, supporting Ionic column with achievement-of-arms and shield supported by cherubs who stand on moulded shelf which is carried on a wide Corinthian pilaster forming a backing to the detached Ionic column; floriated consoles cover the foot of the wide Corinthian pilaster; (9) to James Hickson, 1689, large marble tablet with Corinthian side columns, scrolls, entablature, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (10) of Francis Covell, 1621. and Margery, his wife, 1643–4, marble wall-monument with kneeling figures of man and wife in civil costume under two round arches flanked by enriched pilasters supporting a broken segmental pediment containing a skull; shields-of-arms on the pilasters. Floor-slabs: In middle aisle—(1) to Charles Thornhill, late 17th-century, with defaced shield-of-arms; (2) to Joanna, widow of Admiral Sir John Kempthorne, 169–, and Captain Rupert their youngest son. 1692. stone placed by the widow of Captain John Kempthorne their eldest son who died in Barbados, 1692, with shield-of-arms; (3) to Bridget, wife of John Holden, 16—, with shield-of-arms; (4) to Hannah Gordon, 1710; (5) to Michael Darby, 1672; (6) to Anthony Death, 1679; (7) to Robert Huckell, 1694. In N. chapel—(8) to William Denham, date not filled in, and Elizabeth his wife, 1540; (9) to Roger Hatton, 1666, with shield-of-arms; (10) to William Shipman, 1681, with shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—(11) to John Pym, 1712, Elizabeth his wife, 1700, and their children, Ann, 1682, Anna, 168–, William, 1686, Humphrey, 1689, William, 1696, Robert, 169–, Francis, 1696, and Mary, 1696; (12) to Henry Hunter, 1669, and Henry his son, 16—; (13) to Elizabeth (Lannoy) wife of John Hunter, 1712, and John, her husband, 1714. Organ-case (Plate 54): On W. gallery—organ originally built by Renatus Harris, 1675, but mostly destroyed by fire in 1881; the original case encloses three towers of pipes with pierced carving and entablatures at the top and standing on brackets with cherub-heads, intermediate spaces filled with pipes in two tiers with pierced and carved scroll-work, and cornices ramped up to middle tower and supporting figures of angels with trumpets. Painting: now fixed on reredos—the Holy Family with SS. John the Baptist, Zacharias and Elizabeth. Panelling: panelled wainscoting all round church with moulded capping; also re-used panelling forming partition at W. end of N. aisle, all c. 1705 Part of the moulded capping on the N. wall under the third window is of stone. Piscina: In chancel—in S.E. respond, damaged cinque-foiled ogee head, shelf and part of round basin, 15th-century, lower part cut away. Plate: includes flagon of 1626, flagon of 1633, given 1634; cup and cover-paten of 1631, given the same year; cup and cover-paten of 1633, dated 1634; small cup of 1684, dated 1685; square bread-plate of 1633 with four feet; alms-dish of 1633, dated the same year; two small stand-patens of 1702 (recently added) and a spoon probably of 1628. Pulpit (Plate 221): of oak, hexagonal with moulded cornice and base, two carved and enriched terminal pilasters at each angle, each face with two panels, lower with drapery and upper with elaborate inset tablet having round-headed panel in middle and carved scrolled pediment at top, ogee stem with moulded ribs, on post with moulded capping. Staircase with moulded handrail on elaborate scrolled and foliated ironwork, probably of 1705. Hexagonal sounding-board with panelled soffit, including circle of bay-leaves and enriched entablature with cherub-head pendants at the angles, a panelled tablet with painted inscription in the middle of each face and a frieze carved with fruit, etc., panelled support with pierced arabesque scrolls and cherub-heads at top; pulpit [1613], sounding-board bought 1638. Recess: In N. wall, under third window, concealed by panelling but E. jamb visible, probably 15th-century. Reredos (Plate 220): of three main bays divided and flanked by fluted Corinthian columns supporting a continuous enriched entablature which breaks forward above the columns, and four draped urns; middle bay has at base a panel of carved scroll-foliage; the side bays have each a round-headed panel with paintings of Moses and Aaron respectively and, below, a carved cherub-head and swags; flanking the reredos are enriched panels with the Lord's Prayer and Creed with carved swags and festoons and finished with segmental pediments; below each panel is a panelled door, one leading into the vestry and one sham [all 1685]. Royal Arms: On N. side of gallery—Stuart arms of carved wood. Screens: N. and S. of sanctuary—panelled screens with carved and pierced frieze-panels and carved and moulded capping; at W. ends, three panelled projections like buttresses, finished with pierced and carved scrolls, c. 1705. Around font, panelled enclosure with gates formed with turned balusters, material of c. 1705. Seating: pews generally are of c. 1705 and panelled, but cut down and altered; churchwardens' enclosed pews (Plates 68, 37) at W. end of nave with pierced and carved frieze-panels to front and back, the last with richly carved panels, four containing medallions with figures in low relief of the four Evangelists; in S. pew are two seats with carved arms. Elsewhere in the church are a number of settles and forms, all late 17th or early 18th-century. Miscellanea: in bell-chamber—enriched wooden panel recording erection of tower in 1659.


(2) Parish Church of St. Olave (Plate 223) stands on the S. side of Hart Street at the W. corner of Seething Lane; the walls are faced with squared ragstone, except the top stage of the tower which is of stock brick; the dressings are of Portland and other limestone and the roofs are covered with lead, except the vestry which is covered with slates. There appears to have been a small church on the site about 1270, of which the present W. wall of the Nave and the Crypt of two bays, below it, are the remains. How far this church extended to the E. is now uncertain, and the existence of aisles is doubtful. In the 15th century, under the will of one of the family of Cely, the building was enlarged and much altered. The nave, except some 9 ft. at the W. end, was widened to the north, the nave and Chancel in one span was probably lengthened to its present limits and the North and South Aisles were added with their arcades. The presence of pre-existing buildings may have prevented the extension of the N. aisle to coincide with the W. wall of the nave, and the S. aisle was built to match it. Perhaps part of the same rebuilding, but a little later in point of date, is the South West Tower; this was provided with a N. arch showing that it was the intention to extend the nave westwards at some future date, but this work was never carried out; this extension would also have allowed an additional bay to the N. aisle and arcade. The church was restored in 1632–3, the South Vestry was added in 1661, and probably in 1693 (the date on a rainwater-head) the whole church was refaced. In 1731–2 the bell-chamber of the tower was added or re-built. The church has been extensively restored in modern times, the former galleries in the N. and S. aisles removed and the E. window re-built in a 14th-century style.

The church is chiefly interesting for its monuments.

Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (63 ft. by 18 ft.) are structurally undivided (Plate 223). The E. window of three lights and tracery is modern except for part of the splays and jambs. The N. and S. arcades are each of three bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders; the columns of Purbeck marble have each four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half-columns. The clearstorey has an internal string-course at its base and has on each side three early 16th-century windows, much restored and of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label. In the W. wall is a three-light window, perhaps of the 13th century with intersecting tracery; it is now blocked and covered with cement externally, part of it is covered by the adjoining wall of the next house.

The Parish Church of St Olave, Hart St

The Crypt (24 ft. by 14 ft.) is of two bays (Plate 219), and its W. wall coincides with that of the Nave. The bays are divided by a two-centred chamfered rib, apparently of Caen stone, and each bay has similar diagonal ribs; the web is of square chalk blocks. The side walls are of original masonry, but the N. wall of the W. bay has been lined with 18th-century brickwork. In the W. wall is a small original lancet-window rising above the level of the vaulting and with the head exposed externally. A similar window existed in the S. wall of the E. bay, but this has been partly destroyed by the enlarging of the opening. In the S. wall of the W. bay are the jambs of a former opening, possibly the original entrance. Some 17th or 18th-century steps through the E. wall lead up to a later entrance in the floor of the Nave, now covered by a gravestone. There are at present no visible remains of a paved floor.

The North Aisle (15 ft. wide) has in the E. wall a 15th-century window, with modern mullions and tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the N. wall are three much-restored early 16th-century windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label; below the westernmost window is the 15th-century N. doorway with moulded and shafted jambs and moulded two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and quatre-foiled spandrels with blank shields.

The South Aisle (13½ ft. wide) has an E. and three S. windows all similar to the corresponding windows in the N. aisle. Near the E. end of the S. wall is a restored 15th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled spandrels; below the westernmost window in the S. wall is the restored 15th-century S. doorway; it has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and cusped spandrels; between the first and second windows is a square-headed doorway, high in the wall and now blocked; it formerly communicated between an external staircase and the S. gallery.

The South West Tower (13 ft. by 12¼ ft.) is of three stages, the two lower of stone and of the 15th century, refaced at the end of the 17th century, and the top stage of brick and of the 18th century. The ground-stage has in the E. and N. walls a two-centred arch of two moulded orders divided by a casement-hollow; the responds have each three attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the W. wall is a window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and moulded rear-arch. The second stage has in each wall a small window, square-headed and of late 17th-century date externally, but with four-centred 15th-century heads internally; in the E. wall is a 15th-century doorway, to the leads of the S. aisle, with a four-centred head.

The Vestry was built in 1661, and has at the S. end a fireplace flanked by two round windows. In the W. wall are two square-headed windows, with iron bars and casements.

The Roof of the body of the church is of the 15th century. It is of four bays with a narrow bay at the E. end and is of the low-pitched tie-beam type, with moulded main timbers and curved brackets resting on corbels carved with angels holding shields on the N. and mouldings with shields on the S.; the shields on the N. have each a merchant's mark, those on the S. have a different merchant's mark in one instance and two leopards in three other instances; the soffit of each bay is cut up by moulded ribs in main and subsidiary panels with foliated bosses at the intersections. The roofs of the aisles are of similar form and date; the soffits of the main beams of the S. aisle are ornamented with small lead stars, and there are, apparently, traces of painted decoration under the varnish.

Fittings—Bells: six and clock-bell. 1st by James Bartlett, 1694, 2nd to 6th by Anthony Bartlett, 1662. Brasses: In N. aisle—under glass, (1) to Henry, son of Raphe Weldon and his wife Elizabeth, 1595, aged 7 years, inscription only; (2) to Katherine, daughter of Nicholas Bestney, 1609, inscription with shield-of-arms; both formerly in Lambe's Chapel, Monkwell Street; on E. wall, (3) to Thomas Morley, 1566, inscription on moulded and round-headed stone panel of late Gothic character. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (4) of John Orgone, 1584, and Ellyne his wife [1591], figures of man in civil costume and wife, scrolls with precepts, texts and merchant's mark on woolpack; on floor, (5) to Sir Andrew Riccard [1672], inscription and achievement-of-arms on one plate; (6) to George Shrader of Brunswick, 1605, two plates with inscription and two shields-of-arms on rectangular plates; on S. wall, (7) of Sir Richard Haddon, 1516, Lord Mayor, kneeling figures of two wives, two sons and three daughters, scrolls, and five shields-of-arms, (a) a man's leg cut off at the thigh for Haddon, (b) Staple of Calais, (c) Mercers' Company, (d) a cheveron between three lions, the two in chief facing one another, with three roundels on the cheveron, for Morland, (e) five roundels saltirewise and a chief for Byfield quartering 2. a cheveron ermined between three eagles' legs razed, 3. bendy and 4. a chief indented, figure of man, Trinity and inscription lost; at W. end of aisle, indent of rectangular plate, three shields and marginal inscription. Chairs: two with pierced and carved backs, turned legs and shaped rails, late 17th-century. Communion Rails: with carved and twisted balusters, panelled standards with festoons, cherub-heads and crouching lions at feet, deep top rail with frieze carved with swags and drapery, late 17th-century, not in situ. Doors: In N. doorway —of two panelled leaves with iron lion's-head knocker; in S. doorway—similar but without knocker and panels nail-studded, both late 17th-century. In doorway to S. vestry—of nail-studded battens with moulded frame and plain strap-hinges, probably 15th-century. Font: octagonal bowl of marble of ovolo-section, wooden baluster stem, c. 1680; cover, of oak and of ogee form with raised mouldings and ball-top, same date. Gallery: At W. end of nave—front with raised panels and divided into bays by panelled standards, moulded capping and base, on two panels the royal initials W.M.R. with crown and palms, late 17th-century. Over gallery-front, two wrought-iron hat-stands from All Hallows Staining. Monuments and Floor-slabs, Monuments: In chancel—on E. wall, (1) to Ludolph von Werder, 1628, marble tablet (Plate 27) flanked by Composite columns with entablature, segmental pediment and achievement-of-arms; (2) to Jane (Hoste) wife of Mathew Humberstone, 1694, and her husband, 1709, oval cartouche of marble, with enriched border, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms; on N.E. respond, (3) of Andrew, 1610, and Paul Bayninge, 1616, double wall-monument of painted marble facing S. and W., each part consisting of recess flanked by pilasters and containing the kneeling figure of a man in civil costume, Corinthian columns at sides, entablature and achievement-of-arms; on N. wall above (3), (4) of Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Pepys, 1669, marble wall-monument, said to be by John Bushnell, with bust of lady in oval recess, with cherub-heads at sides and reeded shelf below, apron with scroll-work and shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (5) of Anne [Benolt] wife of Sir John Radcliffe [1585], probably part of monument (9), kneeling figure of woman (Plate 21) before a prayer-desk, in round-headed recess; (6) to Jeffery Kerby, 1632, and Susan, his daughter, 1634, black marble tablet with Corinthian side-columns, entablature and six shields-of-arms; on S.E. respond, (7) to Sir John Mennes, 1670–1, convex marble tablet with Corinthian side columns, entablature and broken pediment; on S. wall, (8) of Elizabeth daughter of Sir William Gore, 1698, oval marble tablet with bust of lady, draped cartouche below and shield-of-arms. In N. aisle— on E. wall, (9) of Sir John Radcliffe, 1568, son of Robert Earl of Sussex, effigy (Plate 20) of man in armour, formerly recumbent but now placed upright in niche and legs broken off below the thighs; further N. is set an achievement-of-arms of Radcliffe; on N. wall, (10) to Christopher James Elsenhaimer, 1618, marble tablet with elliptical head flanked by Ionic columns with entablature, etc.; (11) of Sir Andrew Riccard, 1672, stone and marble pedestal with standing figure of man, set in plastered recess with four-centred arch in a square head; (12) to Alice (Walter), wife of Philipes Farewell, 1655, marble tablet with enriched and shaped border and shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (13) to Peter Cappone, 1582, marble wall-monument with kneeling figure of man in armour, full-face, hands (in prayer) now missing, in niche flanked by Corinthian columns, supporting entablature and pediment with achievement-of-arms; on W. wall, (14) to Mary (Ford) wife of Thomas Bewley, 1658–9, marble tablet (Plate 27) with rounded head, entablature, Ionic pilasters, urn and swags, below tablet a shelf with pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (15) to William Frithe, 1648, marble tablet with side pilasters, entablature and angular broken pediment with cartouche-of-arms; (16) to Jordan Tancred, [1702], chaplain to the Duke of Leeds, also William Holland, Rector of All Hallows Staining, and Elizabeth his wife, 1699, plain black marble tablet in white marble frame with apron, cornice and scrolled pediment; (17) to Emm, wife of Robert Charlton, 1622, small marble tablet (Plate 25) with side pilasters, two shields-of-arms and capping with skull and hour-glass; monuments (14–17) from All Hallows Staining. In S. aisle—in N.E. angle, (18) of Peter Turner, M.D., 1614, marble wall-monument with bust of man in round-headed niche with semi-domical vault, flanked by panelled pilasters with entablature and cornice; on E. wall, (19) to William Turner, M.D., 1568, plain inscribed tablet in moulded frame; on S. wall, (20) of Sir James Deane, 1608, large marble wall-monument (Plate 22) of three bays divided and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting entablature; in middle bay kneeling figure of man and wife; in side bays, kneeling figures of two other wives, achievement and three shields-of-arms. In tower —on N. wall, (21) to Elizabeth, wife of Henry Billingsley, 1577, tablet with Ionic side-columns, broken pediment and shield-of-arms; (22) to Mary, wife of Sir Richard Higham, 1634, tablet with bust of woman, two cherubs and two shields-of-arms; (23) to David Doeringk, 1636, tablet with ornamental border and shield-of-arms; monuments (21–23) from St. Katharine Coleman. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to John Newton, 1697, and Martha, his wife, 171–, with defaced shield-of-arms; (2) to John Beare, 1696, and Dousabell his wife, 1688, with shield-of-arms; (3) to the Rev. Daniel Mills, 1683; (4) to Henry Davy, 1672. In N. aisle—(5) to "Mr." Sansom, 1705, and his wife Ann, 1719, with shield-of-arms; (6) to John B . . ., c. 1680, common-crier; (7) slab with the arms of Cappone. In S. aisle—(8) to Frances Fairborn, 1677, with defaced shield-of-arms. Painting: In vestry—over fireplace, panel in chiaroscuro, of Faith, Hope and Charity, late 17th-century. Panelling: In chancel—on side walls and responds and adjoining walls of chapels, panelled wainscot with carved friezes and moulded capping. In vestry—plain panelling round walls with cornice, fireplace flanked by panelled pilasters supporting entablature; overmantel with painted panel flanked by panelled pilasters and surmounted by entablature, late 17th-century. Plaster-work: In vestry—ceiling with large oval panel in middle surrounded by a bay-wreath and enclosing figure of angel with book and palm, spandrel-panels each with cherub-head, late 17th-century. Plate (Plate 30): includes two cups with enriched stems and bases, probably of the second half of the 16th century; one has a bell-shaped bowl, perhaps of the 18th century, incised with eagles, etc., and ornamented with embossed lions' heads; the other bowl is similar but has had its rim repaired in modern times and the hall-marks obliterated; hexagonal paten of 1612 on baluster-stem with an enriched base; flagon of 1607, given in 1608; similar flagon of 1692, given in the same year by Sir Richard Beach, Commissioner of the Navy; dish of 1691, given in 1694; large dish with gadrooned edge and a central boss with the Royal Arms and letters C.R., late 17th-century, copper-gilt, from All Hallows Staining; spoon with half the bowl perforated, probably 17th-century. Pulpit: from St. Benet Gracechurch Street, of oak, hexagonal with enriched cornice and base, each face with enriched and inlaid panel with rich festoons at sides and cherub-head and swags above; sounding-board with moulded cornice and inlaid soffit, late 17th-century. Rainwater-head: On N. wall, with date 1693 and letters S.O.H. Royal Arms: On W. gallery—of William III, in carved oak. Seating: modern pews partly made up of old panelling, three on N. and one on the S. have carved panels, refixed; modern quire-stalls incorporate plain and carved and pierced panels; also old panels, etc., incorporated in credence, all late 17th-century.

In the churchyard facing Seething Lane is a stone gateway flanked by pilasters with moulded necking and imposts, round arch with plain key-block and sunk spandrels; outside the pilasters are heavy eared architraves and the whole is surmounted by an entablature with a segmental pediment and chevaux-de-frize; in the tympanum and flanking the pediment are skulls and on the frieze is the inscription "Christus vivere mors mihi lucrum," and apparently the remains of a date, Apr 16—.


(3) Parish Church of St. Dunstan in the East stands between Idol Lane and St. Dunstan's Hill. The tower is faced with Portland stone. The old church was partly destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, and repaired or re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1670–71 partly in the Gothic style at a cost of £1,075 18s. 2d.; the tower was re-built in 1698. The church, except the tower, was entirely re-built in 1817–18.

The tower is a remarkable example of Wren's conception of Gothic and is modelled on the tower of St. Nicholas, Newcastle.

Architectural Description— The West Tower (Plate 146) is of four stages surmounted by a stone spire. The ground-stage has in the E. and N. walls a doorway with a two-centred head enclosing a segmental arch and vertical blind tracery; there are similar doorways, with open tracery, in the S. and W. walls with moulded labels and crockets. This stage is round internally (13¼ ft. diam.) and has a plaster dome springing from a moulded cornice; the dome has enriched panels and a round bell-way in the middle. Between the ground and second stages, externally, is a broad band moulded above and below and with a blank tablet in the middle of the S. side. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a window of three lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The short third stage is marked by string-courses and has in the N. and S. faces a square clock-panel with a moulded frame, the sill of which has small scrolled brackets; the similar panels in the E. and W. faces contain octofoiled circular windows. The bell-chamber has a semi-octagonal projection at each angle, resting on the diagonal buttresses of the stages below; in each wall of the stage is a tall window of three trefoiled lights with cusped tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The tower is finished with a moulded cornice and an embattled parapet with blind tracery and gabled merlons and tall panelled turrets and pinnacles at the angles; there is a small square pinnacle with crockets in the middle of each side. The stone spire rests on four open arches springing from the base of the four turrets and meeting in the middle; over each junction is a carved and crocketed enrichment; the spire itself is octagonal and has in each face an opening of two transomed lights with a gabled and crocketed label.

Fittings—Bells: eight; 3rd, 4th, 5th and 8th by Abraham Rudhall, 1700. Doors: In S. and W. doorways of tower, double doors, with bolection-moulded panels, foliage carving in top panels, concave heads with iron spikes. In N. and E. (inner) doorways similar but plainer doors with round heads. Inscription: On E. reveal of doorway to turret-staircase of tower—name and date, P. P. Clark, 1695. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—On S. wall, (1) to Bernard Hyde, 1630, Anna (Walcot) his wife, 1640, also to Bernard Hyde, 1655, and Hester (Trott) his wife, 1649, and Bernard their son, 1674, black marble tablet with white frame, scrolls, broken pediment, cartouche and two shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on S. wall, (2) to Susanna, wife of Edward Gourney, 1675–6, Edward Gourney, 1703, Susanna their daughter, three grandchildren and to Ann Rickards another daughter, 1714, oval white marble tablet with wreath and cartouche-of-arms, with cherub-head below; on E. wall, (3) to William Paggen, 1689–90, white marble tablet with twisted Composite columns on carved consoles, scrolls, entablature with cherub-head, broken segmental pediment, cartouche-of-arms, framed inscription with two skulls above it; on N. wall, (4) to Sir John Moore, former Lord Mayor, 1702, white marble monument (Plate 25), flanked by twisted Composite columns and cherub-heads, entablature and segmental pediment with weeping cherubs and achievement-of-arms; enclosure of wrought-iron strikes with enriched rail; (5) to Mary, wife of Sir John Moore, 1690, black and white marble tablet flanked by black Composite columns supporting entablature, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms, cherub-heads on apron and at head of inscription; (6) to Robert Russell, 1662, Lady Elizabeth his wife, afterwards wife of Sir Richard Waterman, 1675, and Kenrick their son, 1670, black marble tablet flanked by black Corinthian columns on brackets carved with lions' masks and supporting white marble entablature, broken pediment and cherubs, two cartouches-of-arms; (7) to Richard Hale, 1620, late 17th-century black and white marble tablet, flanked by Corinthian columns, cornice with key-block having carved pediment above, and cherub-head below cartouche and apron with lozenge-of-arms; (8) to John Garett, 1683, doctor of medicine, convex white marble tablet flanked by twisted Composite columns supporting entablature on which is winged cherub-head and with broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms, carved base-mould with cherub-head. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (9) to Richard Meynell, 1683, white marble tablet with scrolls and palm-leaves at sides, segmental pediment and cartouche-of-arms; on N. wall, E. of respond, (10) to James Burkin, 1677, and Jane (Lethieullier) his wife, 1675, white marble draped and curved tablet, flanked by small male figures of soldiers and surmounted by a cornice, broken pediment with swag, two small figures of Death and a woman embracing on pedestal above pediment, flanked by cherubs holding a swag; on apron a cartouche-of-arms and military trophies in base; on S. wall, (11) to Sir Peter Parravicin, 1696–7, and his daughter Mary, 1725, large marble oval cartouche with scrolls, palms, flowers, drapery, etc., cartouche of-arms; on apron, blank shield and cherubs; (12) of Sir William Russell, 1705, and Susanna (Palmer) his first wife, 1683, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 20), designed by Caius Cibber, panelled white marble altar-tomb with reclining effigy in full wig, standing cherub at head and feet of figure, draped black marble back-piece with three cherub-heads in clouds at head of piece, cornice on which are two skulls and achievement-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Francis March, 1697, with shield of-arms; (2) to Richard Bail, 1617, also . . . wife, 1654, with shield-of-arms; (3) to Alice . . . 1678, also Richard . . ., with shield-of-arms; (4) to Abraham Beake, 1710; (5) to James Young, 1638, Anne (Bail) his wife, 1666, and his eldest son, James, 1710, with shield-of-arms; (6) to William Pitts, 1676, Alice his daughter, 1686, and Stephen his brother, 1688. In nave—(7) to Elizabeth, wife of Peter Joye, 1681, Peter their son, 1680, and Peter Joye, 1720, with shield-of-arms; (8) to Martha, wife of Richard Nicoll, 1684, and Richard Nicoll, 1718, with shield-of-arms; (9) to Densie Alleyne, 1712–3, and others later; (10) to Mary wife of Samuel Oldham, 1714, and others later; (11) to Mary (Belitha) wife of Edward Colman, 1693–4, with shield-of-arms; (12) to Charles Platt, 1711, and others later. In N. aisle—(13) to Mary Evans, 1710. In S. aisle—(14) to Thomas 1698, Thomas, 1699, and Martha and Margaretta, 1706, all infant children of Thomas and Elizabeth Hammond, and Charles Hammond, M.A., their uncle, 1700–1, with shield-of-arms; (15) to Sir Peter Parravicin, 1696, and Mary his daughter, 1725. Plate: includes two flagons of 1628, dated the same year, and alms-dish, silver gilt, of 1627, given 1628. Miscellanea: In vestry—carved arms of Archbishop Tenison (1695–1715). An organ by Father Schmidt, formerly in this church, is now in St. Alban's Cathedral.

Condition—Of tower, good.

(4) Crypt formerly under Lambe's Chapel, Monkwell Street, and now reconstructed under S. side of the churchyard of All Hallows Staining. The crypt is of mid 12th-century date and is said to have formed part of the buildings of the Hermitage of St. James on the Wall; it now consists only of two bays (20½ ft. by 11 ft.) but was formerly larger. The moulded ribs of the vault are enriched with cheveron-ornament and spring from low responds, most of which are modern, but one capital with a square abacus and one base appear to be original.

Condition—Fairly good.


(5) Clothworkers' Hall (parish of St. Dunstan in the East) stands on the E. side of Mincing Lane and was entirely re-built in 1860. It contains the following fittings from the old hall: In the Hall— two wooden figures (Plate 46) of James I and Charles I, gilt, 1679. In the Vestibule—carved and gilt wooden figure (Plate 47) of a ram from the Company's barge, also a sword-rest (Plate 44) of 1677 of carved wood, bearing the royal Stuart arms within a Garter, at the head, and the Company's arms and crest at the base and the City arms and the shield of Sir Francis Chaplin at the sides. In the annexe to the Court Parlour—seven shields in glass with the following arms (Plate 224) —Sir Joseph Williamson Kt., 1676, Sir Francis Chaplin, 1668, Michail Davison, 1669, Samuel Pepys, 1677, Sir John Robinson, Lord Mayor, 1663, Sir William Peake Kt., sheriff, 1659, and Sir Dennis Gawden Kt., Lord Mayor and master of the company, 1667; carved cartouche, with modern royal arms, late 17th-century.

(6) House (No. 34) on S. side of Great Tower Street, 50 yards S.W. of All Hallows Barking, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1670. The house stands back from the street and on the S. side of a small courtyard. The N. front (Plate 151) is symmetrically arranged with brick bands between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice; the windows have flush frames and flat arches, but the sashes are not original. In the roof are three dormer-windows. The ground-floor has pilasters and framing, probably of the 18th-century. Interior—The rooms on the first floor are lined with original panelling and finished with a cornice or entablature; the fireplace in the E. front room has a marble slip and is flanked by panelled pilasters carved with festoons and supporting a rich entablature with a shaped panel in the middle; the frieze has scrolled acanthus-ornament and above the pilasters are carved eagles. The front room on the second floor has panelling similar to that in the room below; the fireplace has panelled pilasters and a moulded cornice; the ceiling-beams are moulded and panelled. In one of the back rooms is a fireplace with an eared architrave, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice. The staircase (Plate 40) from the second floor to the attics is original and has moulded rail and straight string, turned and twisted balusters and square newels.


(7) House, No. 8 Hart Street, formerly the Rectory, W. of St. Olave's Church, is of three storeys and basement. The walls are of brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. It is of 17th-century or earlier date, but has been much altered. The N. front is of the 18th century, but the E. side wall is probably of the 17th century. The basement contains some early 17th-century brickwork including a niche, and in the S. wall is a blocked pointed doorway which formerly opened into the nave of the church. It is concealed by panelling in the church, but appears to be mediæval. The stairs to the basement have some re-used early 17th-century panelling. The staircase from the ground-floor to the third floor is of the well type and is of early 18th-century date. It has turned and twisted balusters and newels, moulded handrails which are carried over as cappings to the newels, cut strings with foliage-brackets and a carved string to one of the landings.


(8) House No. 33, on the W. side of Mark Lane, 70 yards N. of Great Tower Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of brick with some stone dressings; the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 18th century and is of a modified L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The E. front is divided into three bays by brick Corinthian pilasters with stone bases and capitals, supporting an enriched entablature at the level of the second floor; the southernmost pilaster is rusticated, but the corresponding pilaster at the N. end has been re-built. Above the main cornice the wall to the third floor is divided into bays corresponding to those below, by plain brick pilasters which support a moulded brick band, and the parapet above is similarly divided. The windows are symmetrically arranged and have rubbed brick arches, and the middle window on each floor has a stone key carved with an ox's or goat's head. The central doorway (Plate 158) is square-headed with a moulded architrave scrolled over the head; it is flanked by fluted Composite columns supporting entablatures and a shaped pediment on cherub-heads; the soffit of the pediment is ogee-shaped, and in the tympanum is a carved cartouche surrounded by four amorini, flowers and fruit. The back elevation of the main block is divided into bays as on the front elevation, but the principal pilasters have no caps and terminate against a deep stuccoed string-course. The doorway is square-headed and has a moulded and enriched wood architrave raised over the middle of the head against a block carved with a lion's head; it is flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters standing on panelled pedestals and supporting an entablature with carved cherub-heads on the frieze and enriched carving of fruit and flowers over the doorway. Projecting from the S. end of the front is the W. wing, which is of two storeys with attics. The N. elevation of this wing has on the first floor a range of square-headed windows with flat rubbed brick arches and a wooden modillioned eaves-cornice. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the back Hall, in the main building, is lined with panelling, surmounted by an enriched cornice. The E. wall is divided into two bays by a panelled pilaster. In the northern bay, opening into the entrance passage, is a round-headed archway with panelled soffit, moulded and enriched archivolts with a key-block carved with a man's head; the arch springs from panelled pilasters. The S. bay has a similar but smaller arch which is without a key-block. In the S. wall is a similar archway leading to the staircase-hall but springing from detached Corinthian columns. The staircase-hall at the E. end of the W. wing has in the E. wall an arched opening uniform with the archway between the back hall and entrance passage. In the corresponding position in the W. wall is a doorway with a moulded architrave curved upwards in the middle of the head and enclosing a carved enrichment of shells, pomegranates, etc., and flanked by fluted Ionic pilasters supporting an enriched entablature; the N. wall is panelled. The staircase rises to the first floor in three flights and has a moulded handrail, cut string with carved brackets under the returned nosings of the treads, turned and twisted balusters of varying design, and newels in the form of twisted Corinthian columns with enriched drums. Against the walls is a panelled dado divided at intervals by half-newels. Above the first floor the staircase is of simpler design, the brackets on the string being plain and the newels plain Doric columns. On the first floor, the room in the W. wing retains some panelling with moulded cornice, skirting and dado-rail. The fireplace is modern but is flanked by two Corinthian pilasters which are panelled and enriched with carved festoons of flowers, hops, wheat-ears, etc., suspended from bows of ribbons. There are two similar pilasters flanking a panel on the opposite or N. wall of the room. The screen-wall on the S. side of the entrance courtyard to the building is of early 18th-century brickwork and is divided into bays by pilasters with moulded caps, the mouldings of which are returned along the wall as a cornice. Above the cornice is a panelled brick parapet. Immediately below the cornice in each bay is a sunk oval panel below which is a segmental-headed recess. The former entrance-doorway to the courtyard is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.