Miscellaneous Secular Buildings

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 4, Outside the City Walls East of the Ouse. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1975.

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'Miscellaneous Secular Buildings', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 4, Outside the City Walls East of the Ouse, (London, 1975) pp. 44-54. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/york/vol4/pp44-54 [accessed 24 April 2024]

Miscellaneous Secular Buildings

(12) The Yorkshire Museum (Plate 83) was built in 1827–9 for the Yorkshire Philosophical Society to the designs of William Wilkins R.A. with interior details by R. H. Sharp and J. P. Pritchett (VCH, York, 535; J. Mayhill, Annals of Yorkshire, 1 (1878), 332). It covers the site of parts of the E. and S. buildings round the cloister of St. Mary's Abbey. The Tempest Anderson Hall was added on the N.W. side of the Museum in 1912, covering the remains of the vestibule to the Chapter House which are preserved in situ in a basement below.

The Museum is in the Greek Doric style with a portico of four fluted columns in the middle of the S.W. front. The entablature returns along the front and sides and there are pilasters at the corners. The plan comprises a central space designed as a lecture room with balconies on three sides, and four ranges of display galleries. On the S.W. side the gallery is raised to the first floor over the entrance hall, curator's room, and library; on the other three sides the galleries are on the ground floor with small balconies forming an upper level. All the galleries and the central space are top lit, the roof to the latter being supported by six Corinthian columns, and beams enriched with guilloche on the soffit. Basements extend under the whole building, which is faced throughout with ashlar.

Fig. 39. (12) The Yorkshire Museum. The Observatory.

Fig. 40.

An early drawing of the museum, unsigned and undated, is shown in Plate 82 (YM, mh f. 82v). It differs in plan from the actual building in the partitions in the front range and in the columns in the original lecture room.

Mediaeval sculpture in the Museum is described on pp. xliv– xlvii and 22–24.

Curator's House, immediately S.E. of the Museum, was designed by J. B. and W. Atkinson in 1844, the original drawings being preserved by Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby and Keighley (Fig. 40). It is in Tudor style and has been little altered. The walls are of magnesian limestone mostly reused from St. Mary's Abbey.

Observatory, in the Museum Gardens, was built in 1832–3 to house the instruments offered to the YPS by Dr. Pearson, rector of South Kilworth, Leics., at the British Association meeting of 1831 (E. W. Taylor in YPS Annual Report 1970, 29–32). It is of stone with a lead-covered roof, and octagonal on plan. A basement contains two massive stone mountings for telescopes at ground-floor level for which there were two straight openings in the roof. In the middle of the ground floor a small stairway leads up to a central platform with telescope-mounting within a smaller octagonal upper storey surmounted by a revolving pyramidal lead-covered roof with one opening side. This roof was also given by Dr. Pearson; it was said to have been designed by the engineer John Smeaton and had served to roof a summer-house in Dr. Pearson's garden.

(13) City Art Gallery. The origins of the art gallery go back to the Fine Art and Industrial Exhibition of 1866, held on a site in Bootham Park. This was very successful, and a proposal to hold a second was approved in 1876. A site was acquired within St. Mary's Abbey precinct near the King's Manor, known as Bearpark's Garden. E. Taylor of York, who had designed the 1866 Exhibition building, was appointed architect and W. Atkinson hon. consulting architect. Work began in January 1878, and the building was opened the following year. In addition to the building which still exists there was a further wooden structure behind, to the N.W., which contained a great hall 200 ft. by 90 ft., with galleries around three sides. This part was declared unsafe and closed in 1909, but not demolished until 1941. The School of Art occupied some rooms in 1890, and the whole building was acquired by York Corporation in 1891. The permanent building was damaged in World War II, and restored and reopened in stages between 1948 and 1952. (VCH, York, 537; John Ingamells, 'The Evolution of York City Art Gallery' in York Times, 1, no. 1, Summer 1961; Report on 2nd Yorkshire Fine Arts and Industrial Exhibition (1879).)

The building faces S.E. towards Exhibition Square. The front, of yellow sandstone, is of two nearly equal storeys. At either end is a pavilion, in the French manner, though of very slight projection. At ground-floor level the pavilions have round-arched doorways flanked by coupled Corinthian columns, between decorated panels; the whole of the centre part is screened by a vaulted loggia of quattrocento character of five bays with a similar return bay at each end; the spandrels between the arches contain portrait medallions. On the first floor each pavilion has a wide central bay divided by pairs of Corinthian pilasters from two narrower side bays. Between the pavilions are five bays of the wider type, the three middle bays being slightly advanced to carry the central pediment. The wider bays are filled with blind arcading containing, in the pavilions only, coloured pictorial panels; the narrower bays contain niches and other ornaments. Each of the pavilions is surmounted by a decorative attic.

The gallery contains an important collection of topographical prints and drawings referred to in the Sectional Preface (p. xlix). There are also two important stained glass panels by William Peckitt (1731–95) (Plate opp. p. xlix): (1) a Self Portrait of c. 1770 bequeathed to the gallery in 1952 by his direct descendant Miss M. M. Rowntree; (2) Justice in a Triumphal Car beneath the Arms of the City, 1753, presented in that year by Peckitt to the Corporation of York in return for his freedom to practice his art within the City; it was first installed in the Guildhall (now Committee Room 1) but was transferred to the gallery in 1951. (YAYAS, Annual Report 1953–4, xiv, 99, 104, Fig. 21; the panel was not destroyed as there stated.)

(14) Cavalry Barracks, Fulford Road, dated 1796, are of two storeys and have brick walls with ashlar dressings and roofs covered with Welsh slates. They comprise three ranges set around three sides of a square. The buildings were designed by James Johnson and John Sanders, official architects to the Barrack Department of the War Office, as part of the barrack building programme initiated by William Pitt in 1792; considerable additions were made in 1861–5 (VCH, York, 541).

The officers' quarters to the E. (Plate 80) have a simple brick front in 15 bays with a pediment over the central part enclosing an achievement of Royal Arms modelled in Coade stone (Plate 81) with the maker's name and date COADE 1796. The N. and S. buildings have stables below and men's quarters above, reached by galleries carried on cast-iron columns; a second tier of columns carries the roofs above. Demolished

Fig. 41. (14) Cavalry Barracks, Fulford Road. Officers' Quarters.

(15) Militia Stores Depot, Lowther Street, is probably contemporary with the development of Lowther Street in 1830–8. It consists of three detached buildings ranged round an open courtyard, all of two storeys with brick walls and slated roofs with widely overhanging eaves. The buildings are of plain design. The central doorway has a timber pilastered door-case similar to those on contemporary houses; the windows have hung sashes under segmental or semicircular arches. Original iron gates and railings enclose the front of the site. To N., E. and W. there is an enclosing brick wall.

(16) Castle Mills Bridge carrying Tower Street over the river Foss consisted of a single semicircular stone arch built c. 1800 by the Foss Navigation Company to replace an earlier bridge (VCH, York, 519–20). It was widened in 1836 when it had become 'wholly inadequate to the traffic upon it' (YG 16/1/1836; 14/5/1836; YCL, Evelyn Coll. plans 28, 30; Council Minute Book, vol. 1, p. 49); the work was carried out by Messrs. Craven (YG 27/8/1836). In 1848 G. T. Andrews reported that the bridge was in a poor state of repair (YG 20/5/1848). Part of the bridge was repaired in 1851 (YG 17/7/1852) and further repairs were carried out in the next few years (VCH, York, 520; Sheahan & Whellan, 1, 367). Demolished 1955.

(17) Layerthorpe Bridge. There was a bridge over the river Foss here in 1309 and one was broken down by the defenders of the city in the siege of 1644 and restored twelve years later (VCH, York, 519). The present bridge was constructed in 1829 by H. Craven & Sons to a design by Peter Atkinson junior (YCA, B.50, 68, 134; K.64; and M.17a), the rebuilding necessitating the removal of Layerthorpe Postern. The single arch, spanning 35 ft., is now only visible from underneath, between later concrete additions.

(18) Monk Bridge carrying the road over the river Foss at the W. end of Heworth Green was built in 1794 to a design by Peter Atkinson senior (YCA, K. 63; YC 12/6/1794). It has a single round arch of coarse yellow ashlar with large plain voussoirs, spanning 18–20 ft. An earlier bridge was broken down in 1644 (Torre, 108) and its successor was in such a bad state of repair in 1791 that an indictment was brought against the Corporation by the Crown (YCA, K.63). The Corporation bore the cost of the new bridge, aided by a contribution of £100 from the Foss Navigation Company on the understanding that the bridge should be 'fully sufficient for the purposes of the Navigation with a towing path or paths under the same'. The work was carried out by Joseph Lister, Christopher Dalton and (?) King (YCA, K.63; c.75, f. 20v). A second footpath on the E. side of the bridge was added and the approach to the bridge improved in 1844 (YCA, Council Minute Book, vol. 3, 1842–50, 103, 108). Between 1924 and 1926 the bridge was widened and the upper parts rebuilt (YG 18/9/1926),

(19) Yearsley Lock, Foss Navigation (608536). In 1793 an Act of Parliament (33 Geo. III c.99) was passed 'for making and maintaining a navigable communication from the junction of the Foss and Ouse to Stillington Mill', 10 miles N. of York. In August of the same year J. Moon was appointed to superintend the works and by November 1794 navigation was opened up to Monk Bridge. John Rennie reported on the work in 1795 by which time four locks had been built. Two further locks were subsequently built and the canal completed to Sheriff Hutton but it was never extended to Stillington. Of the two locks within the City that at Castle Mills was rebuilt in 1859, but most of Yearsley Lock remains; the gates have been removed and a concrete weir built in place of the upper gates. The lock has sides built of brick with gritstone dressings and is 18 ft. wide.

The construction of the Foss Navigation made possible the draining and reclamation of the area of marsh which represented the fishpond formed by the damming of the Foss at Castle Mills by William I c. 1086, to protect the more important of his two castles.

(20) Gasworks at junction of Monkgate and Fossbank stand on part of Piper Lane Close acquired by the York Gas Light Company from William Oldfield and Ann Tamar in 1823 (YCA, E.91, f. 175). None of the original gasworks buildings survives but the entrance to the site is flanked by a pair of lodges of the second quarter of the 19th century. The W. lodge was a house probably for the Manager; the E. lodge was offices.

The lodges are of two storeys with white brick walls and slated roofs; the principal parts of the street elevations each consist of one bay flanked by pilasters; between the pilasters each ground-floor window is or was round-headed and recessed, and small niches are recessed into the pilasters. Between the lodges are ashlar gate-piers.

(21) Bootham Park Hospital was one of the first lunatic asylums to be established in Britain. The main building (Plate 77) was completed to the designs of John Carr in 1777 (YAJ, iv (1877), 205). Behind this a small building containing a kitchen and sitting-room for female patients was added and in 1795 an 'extensive wing' was built. This was probably the 'detached wing' which was burnt down in 1814 with the loss of the lives of several patients; it was replaced by 1817 when the present N.E. range was opened for the reception of female patients (Sheahan and Whellan, i, 609, 610), making use of fireproof floors. By 1850 two further buildings had been added to the N.W.: the first contained a wash-house, brew-house, etc. and later was converted to a recreation hall; the second contained wards for refractory patients (OS 1852). In 1886 the first three buildings were joined together to form on plan a letter I and the main staircase was moved out of the front block and a new staircase formed in a new structure immediately behind it. During the next twenty years the hospital was completely refitted internally except for the Committee Room, and recessed loggias in the back of the Female Patients range to N.E. were enclosed. Further buildings have extended the hospital to N.W. and the restrictive walls which enclosed the patients' airing yards have been removed.

Fig. 42. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Development plan.

Fig. 43. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Plan of original block as in 1850. From OS map.

The main block is of three storeys, built of red brick with stone dressings, and roofed with Westmorland slate. The front is in eleven bays, the lowest storey of the three central bays projecting and carrying four engaged Tuscan columns under a pediment to form a centre-piece (Plate 78). Above this there was formerly a circular colonnaded turret with a domed roof (VCH, York, pl. opp. p. 408). The end bays also project slightly. The central entrance is framed by rusticated Tuscan columns and pediment; recessed round-headed windows give emphasis to the first floor. In the end elevations the windows lighting the ends of the main corridors are of three lights elaborated with columns and pilasters; those on the second floor are semicircular; all are placed off-centre in the four-bay elevation. At the back the end bays project more boldly; the central pediment is repeated but not the columns below it. The early 19th-century buildings are more simply designed; they have brick walls with plain sash windows and roofs covered with Welsh slates.

All the earlier buildings have been refitted, but in the original building the Committee Room on the ground floor retains the original fireplace surround and cornice, and to the walls are fixed wooden panels in frames enriched with composition (?) decoration, on which the names of subscribers are recorded. In the N.E. block of 1817 the floors of the upper wards are carried on a fireproof construction of arched brickwork spanning between iron beams.

Fig. 44. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Fireplace in Committee Room.

(22) County Hospital, Monkgate, was designed by J. B. and W. Atkinson of York and opened in 1851. The original architects' drawings, dated 1849, are preserved in the office of Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby and Keighley, successors in practice to the Atkinsons. A hospital was opened in a house in Monkgate in 1740 and moved five years later into a new building which stood in front of the present building and which was pulled down in 1851 (VCH, York, 467–8). Additions to the new hospital include the Watt Wing opened in 1884 and a children's wing opened in 1899, both designed by Demaine and Brierley. The same architects probably designed a Nurses' Home, added in 1905. They also designed the iron balconies which were added to the E. side of the original building in 1902 but have since been removed.

The original building, of three storeys in brick with stone dressings above a basement of massive rusticated stonework, has a slate roof and forms a rectangular block about 185 ft. long by 56 ft. wide. The main W. front is designed in fifteen bays, the centre being marked by a large entrance with rusticated stone arch and tripartite windows above. Inside, the two main staircases have stone steps and balustrades with scrolled iron standards fixed into the ends of the steps, by William Walker. In the forecourt are lamp standards also by William Walker bearing his nameplate.

(23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham (Plate 79), was built as almshouses by Sir Arthur Ingram of York who died in 1640. The land was acquired in February 1629/30 from Thomas Sandwith and the building must have been nearing completion in the summer of 1632 when Richard Coundall was paid for seating and stalls for the chapel, and James Ettie made the stairs (Leeds Public Library, Separate Estates 9, Temple Newsam MSS., TN/YOA 12 and TN/YOB I). It included from the start an archway from the demolished part of Holy Trinity, Micklegate (Plate 46). The building was badly damaged in the siege of York and accounts for the repairs carried out in 1649 show that at least 5000 bricks were needed, and almost all the timber-work had to be renewed including partitions, floors, staircases and the roof. Accounts for repairs and maintenance during the later 17th and 18th centuries are preserved, and include bills for retiling part of the roof in 1674 and again in 1789 (TN/YOB I and II). In 1958 drastic alterations were made to the interior and the back in conversion of the building to flats, and windows were made in the back elevation where previously there had been none.

The building is of brick with tiled roofs and comprises a central four-storey tower flanked by two-storey ranges each of which contained five dwellings. Projecting S.W. from the back of the tower, a single-storey wing contained the chapel. Set in the N.E. face of the tower is the late 12th-century archway from Holy Trinity, of two orders with a label, all enriched with nail-head ornament. The ranges to each side have stone plinths, doorways with four-centred stone heads, ground-floor windows with stone dressings, a brick band at first-floor level and upper windows with stucco dressings. At the back, the projecting chapel wing is finished with a curved Dutch gable beneath which modern brickwork covers a window of four lights with plain uncusped tracery in a two-centred head. Each wing has two projecting chimneystacks and three doorways with four-centred brick arches. The ends of the two wings are now masked by higher later buildings, but some remains of a curved Dutch gable can still be seen at one end.

Fig. 45. (23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham.

Inside, the partitions between the rooms are timber-framed with brick filling between the studs housed into grooves cut in the sides of the studs. The original fireplaces had brick arches but these were covered in the late 18th or early 19th century by stone surrounds within which were placed iron ranges with ovens all enriched with a variety of raised patterns of panels with foliage, thistles, etc. The staircases were reconstructed probably in the 19th century. The roof is carried on collar-beam trusses with purlins clasped between collars and principals and receiving additional support from intermediate collars and brackets fixed to the underside of rafters.

Fig. 46. (23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham. Timber construction.

(24) The Retreat (Plate 82) was established at the end of the 18th century by the Society of Friends as a mental hospital, following the death of a Friend in the York County Asylum (Bootham Hospital) in 1791 and the unsatisfactory condition of the County Asylum at that time. William Tuke with the assistance of his son Henry and his friend Lindley Murray raised money for the purchase of the site which was acquired in 1793. Subscriptions were called for from Friends in all parts of England and, in spite of considerable financial difficulties, the first buildings were opened in 1796, comprising a central three-storey block with a recessed two-storey W. wing. The following year a corresponding E. wing was erected. The designer was John Bevans of London, and construction was supervised by Peter Atkinson, of York. In the next thirty years a new block was attached to each of the four corners and a third storey was added to the original E. and W. wings. Improvements recorded in the annual report for 1843 included warming the building by hot water, drying apparatus, additional warm bathing, and the lighting of apartments, galleries and passages with gas. Further improvements were made in the years that followed. In 1850 there were 114 patients, the highest number up to that time. Further buildings were added in the later 19th century and in the present century. An extensive programme of modernisation was carried out c. 1960. (S. Tuke, Description of the Retreat (1813); H. C. Hunt, A Retired Habitation (1932); Annual Reports.)

The buildings are of plain brickwork with slated roofs. The entrance retains its original pedimented door-case but most of the windows have been refitted with modern sashes. The original sashes of which only a few now remain were of iron with iron glazing bars; in order to give security without the appearance of bars one sash filled the whole height of the window but was only glazed in the lower part, and a second, moving, sash had glazing bars which, in the closed position, came exactly behind those of the first (Plate 81). The interior has been entirely refitted.

(25) St. Mary's Hospital and The Grange Welfare Centre occupy buildings begun in 1848 as the York Union Workhouse for the accommodation of 300 paupers (VCH, York, 280; YG 20/11/1847; 22/1/1848). A competition was held for the design and that chosen was by J. B. and W. Atkinson. The work was carried out by Thomas Linfoot and cost less than £6,000; as a contemporary newspaper report described it, 'Externally it is perfectly plain, as buildings of this class should be...' (YG 2/6/1849). The workhouse comprised three parallel ranges of buildings lying N. and S. on a square site within confining boundary walls. The E. block, now The Grange, housed the administrative offices; it was of nine bays but has been lengthened to eleven. The central block was the longest and has been little altered externally except for additions to the ground floor. Most of the W. range has been replaced and most of the boundary walls have been pulled down.

The buildings are of three storeys with brick walls and slated roofs, and are designed in a simple utilitarian style. The E. range has round-headed openings to the ground floor on the main E. front. The middle range has central projections to E. and W. behind which a central octagonal hall contains a staircase winding round a circular well; other symmetrically disposed projections to the E. contain lavatories.

(26) Wandesford House, formerly Wandesford Hospital, No. 37 Bootham, was opened for occupation by 'ten poor maiden gentlewomen' in 1743. Mary Wandesford, a spinster of York, left an endowment in her will dated 1725 and the site was purchased from William Wilberforce of Hull in 1739 (E. Brunskill, YGS, Occasional Paper, vii (1960), 30). Accounts for the building survive and record payment to John Terry, carpenter, and for bricklayers' work to Robert Kibblewhite, Thomas Dunn and Richard Nelstrop (Borthwick Inst.). In the 19th century additional staircases were constructed to give access from each living-room to the bedroom above, and in 1968 further modernisation was carried out; at the same time the central entrance, previously a plain brick doorway, was given a timber door-case with broken pediment.

The building is of two storeys with brick walls and tiled roofs. The front is designed in seven bays with the central three bays projecting under a pediment. The treatment of the walling is unusual, each bay having a round-arched recess within which the windows of both storeys are set, and a deep impost band is carried from arch to arch and across the recesses (Plate 79). At the wall-head is a heavy timber cornice and within the pediment is a plain niche containing a bust of the foundress. Two lead rainwater heads and down-pipes are original.

On the side and back elevations there are no arched recesses but the impost band from the front is continued below the sills of the upper windows. At the eaves plain oversailing courses of brickwork replace the timber cornice of the front. The windows have flat arches of gauged brick and there are two more lead rainwater heads, one dated 1739.

Fig. 47. (26) Wandesford House, Bootham.

The interior is very simple. The original two staircases each rise in a single flight with closed string, square newels, turned oak balusters with half-balusters against the newels, and a heavy moulded and swept handrail (Plate 124).

(27) Grey Coat School, No. 33 Monkgate, now a Schools Clinic. The Grey Coat School was a charity school for girls opened in 1705 at No. 60 Marygate (Monument 252) in conjunction with the Blue Coat School for boys which formerly occupied St. Anthony's Hall, Peaseholme Green. In 1784 the girls' school was moved to new premises in Monkgate part of which survives as the back wing of No. 33, the front part having been rebuilt soon after 1850.

The surviving building is a two-storey brick range with slated roof; the principal elevation to the N.E. is in six bays with tall ground-floor windows set in shallow round-arched recesses. The OS map of 1852 shows that the range was originally of seven bays but the end bay to the S.E. is now enclosed within the later building. The ground floor contained a spinning-room and a sewing-room and above was a large lodging-room reached by a flight of stone steps (Hargrove, ii, 569–70); the existing stone staircase is not the original one.

(28) St. John's College, Lord Mayor's Walk, occupies two buildings erected between 1840 and 1850 to which many later additions have been made. To the S.E. stands the building opened in 1845 as the York and Ripon Diocesan Training College for schoolmasters; for the previous four years the College had been accommodated at premises in Monkgate previously occupied by the Manchester College, and subsequently by the York and Ripon Diocesan Training College for schoolmistresses until the removal of that college to Ripon in 1861. To the N.W. is a building erected by the Diocesan Boards of Education and opened in 1846 as the Yeoman School, described as a 'middle-class' boarding school providing a practising school for the college. It was amalgamated with Archbishop Holgate's school in 1858 (VCH, York, 452, 458).

Both buildings are of two storeys and have walls of brick with stone dressings and are designed in Tudor style (Plate 80). The original Training College building is H-shaped on plan with two long parallel wings joined by a main range in the middle of which is the entrance and centrepiece, elaborated with gables and octagonal turrets. The rest of the building is plain, with stone mullioned windows with four-centred heads to the lights.

The School building consists of a long main range with short cross-wings, of unequal length, at the ends. The front (S.W.) end of the N.W. cross-wing is masked by an addition of the later 19th century which contains the principal entrance. The main range has had modern windows inserted between the original three-light windows on the ground floor; the upper floor is lit by single-light windows.

(29) St. Peter's School buildings (Plate 84) were erected in 1838 for a Proprietary School started by a company formed by leading York citizens; the architect was John Harper (Colvin, 266). In 1844 the Dean and Chapter bought the buildings to accommodate St. Peter's, the school attached to the Minster since its foundation probably in the eighth century, which at that time was accommodated in a building in the Minster Yard. The two schools were thus amalgamated and the original buildings now form only the nucleus of a much larger complex (A. Raine, History of St. Peter's School (1926)).

The central block which contains the main entrance and the Assembly Hall is of two storeys with an elaborate turretted elevation to the N.E. faced with stone. To each side is a low wing with three traceried, square-headed windows lighting a classroom and with a passage behind, and beyond is a two-storey pavilion with octagonal corner turrets flanking a lofty mullioned and transomed window lighting a classroom on each floor. The other elevations are of brick with stone dressings but are largely masked by additions; the N.W. end was enlarged to S.W. soon after 1850, the chapel, designed by Messrs. J. B. and W. Atkinson, was added in 1861 and other additions are dated 1905.

In the N.W. pavilion the original staircase remains with iron balustrade incorporating a simple fleur-de-lis design. The staircase in the S.E. pavilion has been removed.

At right angles to the school buildings and projecting N.E., stands the schoolhouse. This was originally joined to the school building by a curved screen wall, now removed. The schoolhouse is an irregular building of two storeys in brick with stone dressings, having small octagonal turrets at the prominent angles and mullioned bay windows to the principal elevations. Inside, the staircase is of the same design as that in the school building. Further N.E. stands the porter's lodge, a plainer building, of one storey with brick walls and stone mullioned windows.

(30) Pikeing Well, New Walk (Fig. 48), is a stone structure designed by John Carr. It was commissioned by the City Corporation in 1752 (VCH, York, 208) to form a decorative well-head feature. It is a simple rectangular structure with a round-headed doorway in the side facing the river; the coping on this side is made up with reused stones including three 12th-century capitals placed as finials.

(31) Arcade from the Theatre Royal. At the front of No. 73 Fulford Road are the remains of an arcade of 1834–5 which originally formed part of the Piazza erected 'in the Elizabethan style' in front of the Theatre Royal to plans by John Harper, architect (YCA, M17/A; Hudson, 168v). In 1879 the Theatre was again altered (Ben Johnson, Practical Guide (1886), 101) and the arches moved to their present position.

The arcade, built in magnesian limestone, has been much mutilated. Four complete bays remain, the arches four-centred, of a single chamfered order; three are glazed and closed in with wood to form workshops.

(32) Burton Stone, at the junction of Clifton and Burton Stone Lane, is a large square base for a cross. In addition to the central hole for the cross-shaft there are four cup-like depressions. It is probably the Clifton Stone mentioned in 1575 (YCA, E126). Mother Shipton's Stone, which formerly stood at the corner of Rawcliffe Lane, may have been part of the cross (T. P. Cooper, Miscellaneous Notes, 24, MS. in YCL).

Fig. 48. (30) Pikeing Well, New Walk.

(33) Fulford Cross, an octagonal stone shaft raised up on three steps, stands on the W. side of Fulford Road opposite Imphal Barracks (608501). It is no doubt the cross ordered to be set up by an award of 1484 between the City and St. Mary's Abbey (Drake, 597).

(34) Whitestone Cross, on the Haxby road now at 60735367 but moved from its original position, is a large irregular stone tapering from 6½ ft. to 3½ ft. wide by 5½ ft. long. It shows no sinking for housing an upright stone. It is said to be the stone referred to as 'the Whitestone Cross above Astell Brigg' in 1374 and the 'stone cross that is written upon, above Astyl Brigg' in the award of 1484 referred to under (33) above (Raine, 258).