Parish Church of Holy Trinity Goodramgate

Pages 5-9

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 5, Central. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1981.

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Parish Church of Holy Trinity Goodramgate

(2) Parish Church of Holy Trinity, Goodramgate (Plates 9, 16; Fig. 14), stands to the N.W. of Goodramgate, aligned N.E.-S.W., and screened from the road by the tenements built in the churchyard in 1316 and known as Lady Row (see Monument (222)). The fabric consists of Chancel and Nave, each of two bays, West Tower, North Aisle, South-East Chapel and South Aisle, the aisles extending westward to enclose the tower within a rectangular plan from which a South Chapel, Porch and North Vestry project. The walling is mostly of coursed squared limestone rubble with considerable repair in brick; the vestry is of brick.

The church is first mentioned in charters, possibly forged, of 1082 and 1093, and in a document certainly of c. 1125 (VCH, York, 372). A fragment of corbel-table confirms the existence of the church in the early 12th century; there is further evidence of this dating in some reused stonework and a carved fragment incorporated in the S. wall of the S.E. chapel. It probably consisted of a single cell coterminous with the present nave. Later in the 12th century the Chancel was added, part of the N. wall and a S.E. buttress of which survive.

In the 13th century a South-East Chapel was built against the S. side of the chancel with an arched opening from the chancel into its eastern part. Chantries were founded in 1316 (CPR, 1313–17, 476) and 1323 (CPR, 1321–24, 347), and both were probably located in this chapel. A South Aisle was added c. 1340, continuing the line of the S.E. chapel. At the same time the S.E. chapel was refenestrated, its S. windows matching the windows of the new S. aisle, and an archway was opened from the chancel into its W. bay. There is a bequest in a will of 1393 for lengthening the chancel, but this cannot have been carried out (Wills, 1, f. 55v). Early in the 15th century the Chapel of St. James, or Howme chapel, was built, probably from funds left by Robert de Howme, who died in 1396. His foundation of a chantry in the church goes back to 1361, but there is no reference to a chapel before the will of his son Robert de Howme in 1433. The chapel was built S. of the S. aisle, and entered from the aisle by a wide archway; the two windows displaced from the S. aisle were reset in the S. wall of the new chapel. Its E. window has been considerably remodelled. Further works were also carried out in the first half of the 15th century: the Tower and North Aisle were added, the S. aisle was extended one bay westward and the chancel arch removed. The two eastern arches of the N. arcade were probably opened out in the existing 12th-century chancel wall, but the N. wall of the early 12th-century nave was entirely removed except for a fragment of corbel-table at the W. end. The two arches to the nave are of unequal size to match those of the 14th-century S. arcade. The W. bay of the N. aisle may have been separated by an arch across the aisle, and was apparently roofed on a N.–S. axis. The weathering for this roof remains in the N. face of the tower, and the form of this cross-roof is preserved in the ceiling of the aisle. The new W. bay of the S. aisle was roofed in the same manner. The E. window of the chancel was replaced and reglazed in 1471 at the expense of the rector, John Walker. In 1633 the floor level of most of the church was raised, and in 1670 and 1703 large quantities of bricks were purchased, probably for repairs and reconstruction in the upper parts of the walls (Churchwardens' Accounts, 1559–1708, Borthwick Inst., y/htg 12). In 1792 the internal Vestry was abolished, and an external brick vestry built on the N. side. A major restoration was carried out in 1823 when the external walls of the N. aisle were rebuilt with new windows and the vestry was enlarged. The South Porch was rebuilt in 1849. The church was restored in 1973–4.

The church is of interest for the evidence it retains of a complicated, piecemeal development, but it is chiefly remarkable as the best surviving example, little altered, of pre-Tractarian arrangements to provide an auditory setting for Anglican worship with three liturgical centres contrived within a mediaeval church. It has suffered badly from decay but has been restored without loss of character. Among the fittings, the mediaeval glass and the surviving woodwork of the 18th-century ordering or reordering are of particular interest.

Architectural Description. The Chancel has the E. wall of irregular coursed rubble, patched with brick and entirely refaced in brick in the upper part of the gable. To S. are the remains of a gritstone pilaster buttress of the late 12th century and to N. a two-stage buttress probably of 1471. The E. window, of the latter date, has five cinque-foiled lights under a low four-centred arch; the sill of the window was raised, perhaps in the late 17th century, and the lowest row of panels blocked. The N. wall is of the late 12th century, pierced by a 15th-century arcade continuous with that of the nave; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders with broach stops to the outer orders, carried by octagonal piers with moulded capitals and bases; the bases are exposed below the present floor level. The S. side of the chancel has to the E. a moulded arch with filleted rolls of the second quarter of the 13th century. It is supported at the E. end by a respond with later moulded capital and at the W. by a 15th-century octagonal pier with a capital made from a 13th-century respond capital and retaining mutilated remains of stiff-leaf foliage on two faces. Above the capital a large springer has the mouldings of the 13th-century arch on the E. side, and the W. side has been recut with 14th-century chamfers for the W. arch. This last was built as a two-centred arch but the W. side is very distorted, having perhaps been rebuilt in the 15th century and modified in connection with a rood-loft. At the S.W. corner of the chancel a break in the masonry and a projecting chamfered springer indicate where a chancel arch has been removed.

The South-East Chapel, of 13th-century origin, has two-stage buttresses, added in the 14th century and completely renewed in 1973–74. The E. wall has a blocked 14th-century window-opening with two-centred head; in it is a smaller 19th-century window with two cinque-foiled lights under a flat head. Below the 14th-century window-sill are the remains of a blocked doorway of the same date. The S. windows are each of three lights with trefoiled heads and reticulated tracery under a moulded flat head. Heads and jambs were repaired 1973–74. This chapel is the only part of the church to have the floor, which was uncovered in 1905, at its original level.

The Nave has a N. arcade continuous with that of the chancel, and with a W. respond forming part of the N.E. pier of the tower. Three corbels of the original corbel-table at the head of the N. wall are preserved in the N.E. pier of the tower. Over the arcade the walling is of brick, presumably of 1670 or 1703. The two-bay S. arcade has arches of unequal size with two chamfered orders supported at the E. end by a pier of irregular shape, reflecting a change of wall thickness at this point. Between the two bays is an octagonal pier; the inner orders of the arches are continuous with the faces of the pier, the outer orders are carried on simple corbels. The original W. respond has been replaced by the S.E. pier of the tower, and between the chamfers where they die into the pier are two worn head-stops.

The North Aisle has an E. wall of stone rubble and ashlar, largely faced with brick internally. The E. window has two cinque-foiled lights under a flat head. The N. wall, of coursed rubble, has four windows each of three trefoiled lights under a flat head. That to E. is partly blocked to accommodate the roof of the vestry. At the W. end, adjacent to the tower, is a fragment of the original wall with part of a window jamb. The Vestry is a simple brick structure roofed with Welsh slates.

Fig. 14. (2) Church of Holy Trinity, Goodramgate.

The South Aisle is open to the S.E. chapel. On the S. side a wide four-centred arch, opening to the chapel of St. James, is of two chamfered orders with suspended shields carved on the springers (Plate 29); the E. shield is carved with in chief a Latin cross between the letters R R, in base the letter O, and the W. shield with the arms of Howme. At the back of the W. shield, within the arch-moulding, is carved a crouching animal. Further W., the S. doorway has a pointed arch recessed under a flat lintel supported on corbels of uncertain date. The W. wall, largely rebuilt in the 19th century, contains a window of three trefoiled lights with reticulated tracery under a two-centred head. The Chapel of St. James has two-stage buttresses each surmounted by a modern or restored gabled pinnacle, and a moulded string-course below the parapet. The E. window has three lights under a depressed four-centred arch; the central light has a triangular head, the others four-centred heads. The wall below the window internally has been cut back. In the N.E. corner of the chapel is a rough rectangular squint. The reset S. windows (Plate 24) are each of three trefoiled lights with reticulated tracery under a flat head, but the detailing of mouldings and tracery varies between the two windows.

The Tower is in three stages, separated by moulded stringcourses. The parapet is embattled and behind it is a modern pitched roof with brick gables. Arches opening to the nave and aisles are of three moulded and chamfered orders, intersecting at the springing, rising from piers and responds with moulded capitals. The W. window has five cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, casementmoulded externally. In the top stage are blocked openings, each of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. The Porch is built of ashlar and is entered by an archway with two-centred head. Roofs: the junction of nave and chancel is marked externally by a change in the height of the roofs; internally, their ceilings, probably of the late 15th century, are continuous and have moulded and slightly cambered tie-beams and three longitudinal beams forming thirty-two compartments. The chapel of St. James has a ceiling of moulded beams with two bosses enriched with shields and foliage, the E. shield painted with the arms of England. It is probably of the late 15th or early 16th century, restored in the late 19th century.

Fittings—Altar Stones: two and part of a third, all mediaeval and with consecration crosses, (1) and (2) set in the floor in the chancel and in the N. chancel aisle respectively and (3) raised on a frame and used as an altar in the chapel of St. James. Aumbries: in S.E. chapel, in S. wall, (1) small rectangular recess with internal rebates, mediaeval. In chapel of St. James, in S. wall, (2) pair of plain rectangular recesses, 15th-century.

Bells: four. In W. tower, (1) treble, inscribed '+REP[ENT] LEAST Y∃ P[ERIS]H', possibly by Robert Quarnbie and Henry Oldfield I, late 16th-century; (2) inscribed 'IESVS BE OVR SPEED 1626', acquired at a cost of £10. 17s. (Churchwardens' Accounts), probably by William Oldfield, but founder's name not recorded; (3) tenor, inscribed in black-letter '+ Sanc ta ma ri a o ra pro nobis', below the cross, a corroded plaque with the Virgin Mary, crowned and seated, carrying the infant Jesus, early 16th-century. In vestry, (4) small plain bell, possibly sanctus, date and provenance unknown. Bell-frame: of oak, with corner-posts with jowled heads and downward braces (Fig. 1b), late 15th-century with alterations. Benefactors' Tables: in chapel of St. James, on S. wall, (1) board with round-arched feature at head and three ball-finials, probably a benefaction board but inscription no longer visible; (2) simple rectangle with moulded frame, recording gift by Mrs. Thornhill of £20 in 1743 for education of four poor girls. In vestry, (3) and (4), one single and one double board in cream with moulded frames and black and red lettering, recording benefactions from 1662–1782.

Brasses and Indents. Brasses: in S.E. chapel, (1) in grey stone slab raised above original floor level, plate (Plate 40) with inscription in black-letter, 'Orate p(ro) a(n)i(m)abus Thome Danby quondam maioris civitatis Ebor. qui obijt Tercio die maij A° d(omi)ni m°cccc°lviij° Et matilde uxoris eius que obijt iiij° die januarij A° d(omi)ni m°cccc°lxiij° quor(um) a(n)i(m)abus p(ro)piciet(ur) de(us) Amen' (Thomas Danby mayor 1452). In S. aisle, (2) set in slab with indents for earlier brasses (see Indent (3)), rectangular plate, to Ellen Baker of Blake Street, 1837. Indents: in chancel, (1) oblong with three rivet holes, worn. In nave, at W. end, (2) for figure and inscription plate. In S. aisle, at W. end, (3) for four shields and inscription plate, worn in parts and with later Brass (2) inserted. In tower, (4) for figure and inscription plate. Coffins and Coffin Lids. Coffins (1) and (2) and coffin lids (2), (3) and (4), all of stone, were described in 1906 as discovered in recent excavations (R. Beilby Cook, The Old Church of Holy Trinity, Goodramgate, York (1906), 18–19). Coffins: in S.E. chapel, (1) and (2) tapered, shaped inside for the head. Coffin Lids: in N. chancel aisle, (1) tapered, with incised calvary base but with cross-head and shaft worn away and very faint inscription beginning 'orat(e) p(ro) a(n)i(m)e (sic) Willi ......', 14th-century. In S.E. chapel, loose at E. end, (2) slab (Plate 40) with incised floriated cross on calvary base, with symbols of fish and cauldron on dexter and sinister sides of stem respectively, 13th-century; loose against S. wall, (3) broken slab retaining upper part of incised figure, rather faint, head missing but hands just visible; inscription around edge no longer legible, mediaeval; (4) rectangular slab having worn inscription with incised outline to the letters 'hic iacet iohannes youle quondam civis et mercer ebor cuius anime p(ro)picietur deus amen'; below inscription an incised shield with merchant's mark. John Youle, or Yhole, of (North)allerton, draper, was free in 1356, and asked in his will dated 14 December 1390 to be buried in the church of St. Leonard under the stone placed there in his lifetime. The stone had been brought to Holy Trinity by the time of Torre's survey in 1691. In W. wall, (5) fragment with incised stem of cross, 13th or 14th-century.

Communion Rails: of oak, with opening semicircular section in middle, and turned balusters with square knops above squat vase-shaped pieces (Plate 34). In 1715 John Headlam, carpenter, was paid £9. 6s. for the rails and Jeremiah Myers, mason, £3. 1s. 4d. probably for the shaped altar steps (Churchwardens' Accounts, 1712–1819, Borthwick Inst., y/htg 13). Communion Table: of oak, provided in 1739 by James Smith, carpenter, at a cost of £1. 6s. (Churchwardens' Accounts). Consecration Crosses, see Altar Stones. Doors: (1) to Vestry, of six fielded panels, probably of the date of the vestry, 1792; (2) from Porch, of oak, with two-centred head, six panels on exterior face and, on interior, hinges with fleur-de-lys terminations, 19th-century. Font: octagonal bowl on octagonal waisted stem and plain octagonal base, early 18th-century. Font-cover: of oak, octagonal board surmounted by three circular stages with ball-finial, provided in 1787 (Churchwardens' Accounts).

Glass, of the first half of the 14th century and the second half of the 15th century. That of the 14th century consists of shields-of-arms, foliage and grotesques. When recorded by Torre, it was in the window on the N. side of the 'steeple' and in the N. aisle, but it is now in the S. wall of the S.E. chapel and in the chapel of St. James; the occasion for its insertion is not known but it can perhaps be associated with the building of the S. aisle in the first half of the 14th century or with the early 14th-century chantries. The main scheme of glazing surviving from the 15th century is in the E. window of the chancel, given in 1471 by John Walker, rector 1471–81. In 1669, when recorded by Henry Johnston (Bodleian, ms. Top. Yorks. C14, f. 133), the window also contained a third row of figure subjects depicting the Virgin Mary in five roles and a fourth row with a figure of St. Paulinus and four blank panels. Parts of these two lower rows survive in the E. windows of the N. aisle and S.E. chapel, together with other fragments probably from the glass in the pre-1823 E. window of the S.E. chapel. A marked feature of the E. window of the chancel is the compression of many of the figures; this is attributed by J. A. Knowles, who described the window as it is now in some detail (YAJ, xxviii (1926), 1–24), to the re-use of cartoons made for taller panels.

In chancel, E. window, I, of five graduated lights, each with cinque-foiled head, without tracery, contains two rows of figure subjects. The heads (3a–3e) contain canopies, the middle three incorporating shields-of-arms: (3b) probably of John Walker (Plate 45); (3c) of George Neville, Archbishop of York (1464–76) (Plate 56), with inscription beneath, 'A(rchiepiscopu)s Georgi[us] N[e]well'; (3d) probably of Thomas Kempe, Bishop of London (1450–1489) (Plate 45); all three shields supported by kneeling angels, one of which is modern. In upper panels, (2a) St. George slaying dragon (Plate 57); (2b) St. John the Baptist with Lamb and Flag, his undergarment a camel's skin (Plate 57); (2c) the Corpus Christi held up by God the Father and with the Dove descending onto Our Lord's head (Plate 46), the head of God the Father 15th-century but not original; at bottom left, kneeling figure of donor with inscription on long scroll 'Te adoro te gl[o]rifico o beata trinitas', the 'beata' destroyed by vandalism in 1974; (2d) St. John the Evangelist with dragon emerging from chalice (Plate 45), the saint's head 18th-century; (2e) St. Christopher carrying Christ Child (Plate 57); at the foot of these five figures a metrical inscription runs across the window: '[W]alcar rectoris a(n)i(m)e miserere ioh(annis) [?qu]i d(eu)s hic ista(m) fieri fecit atque fenest[ram hoc] cu(m) cancello deitatis absque du[ello an]no milleno C quater septuage[no 1] tame(n) adiu(n)cto rex i(n) honore t[uo]. The full inscription is given by Johnston (op. cit., f. 174). (1a) St. Mary Cleophas, Alphaeus and their four children, St. James minor, St. Simon carrying a long pole, possibly a toy windmill, St. Jude with a toy boat, and St. Joseph Justus (Plate 59); (1b) St. Anne wearing a pointed hood, with Joachim, the Virgin Mary wearing a crown, and infant Jesus holding sceptred orb, his head a recent insertion (Plate 51); (1c) Coronation of the Virgin by the Trinity represented as three similar bearded persons, all wearing Imperial arched crowns, seated and covered by a single cloak, Christ identified by wounds, scourging marks and crown of thorns; the Virgin's head, although of 15th-century date, is a replacement inserted in the 18th or 19th century, possibly from a donor figure, the original head having been crowned (Plate 58); (1d) St. Mary Salome and Zebedee, St. Mary carrying in her sinister hand a lily and in her dexter the infant St. John, who holds a book on which is an eagle; below him a patch, showing part of a Presentation in the Temple, takes the place of the other child, St. James major (Plate 59); (1e) St. Ursula with inscription 'S(an)c(t)a Ursula', holding an arrow and shielding with her cloak five persons representing two virgins, a pope, a king and a headless figure with a staff (Plate 58).

In N. aisle, E. window, nII, of two lights, each with cinque-foiled head, without tracery, the inner borders filled with fragments, including many grotesques of 14th-century date and architectural pieces of the 15th century. In the main panels, glass of the late 15th century unless stated, (3a) beneath two 14th-century harpies the Virgin Mary with triple tiara, holding sceptre and lily and set within a rayed mandorla, and flanking her a scroll with inscription 'Regina Celi' (Plate 55), all recorded by Johnston as in window I beneath panel (1b); (3b) beneath two confronted 14th-century wyverns, the Virgin Mary within a rayed mandorla, holding a sceptre and flanked by a scroll with inscription 'D(omi)na m(u)ndi', her head and dexter hand lost and replaced by those of a contemporary sainted bishop, recorded by Johnston as in window I beneath panel (1a); (2a) at the top, fragments, including a small half-figure of St. John the Evangelist; below, a fragmentary figure of St. William patched with a female crowned head and part of the Virgin Mary's robe powdered with 'm's; beside him a scroll inscribed 'Will(el)mus'; (2b) at the top, canopy fragments flanked each side by an angel playing a lute; below, the Virgin and Child in a rayed mandorla, the Virgin wearing a triple tiara and holding a sceptre over her sinister shoulder, flanking her a scroll with inscription 'Sancta Maria', the figures recorded by Johnston as in window I under panel (1c), the inscription contemporary but from elsewhere in the church; (1a) fragmentary upper half of female figure with, to left, part of an angel playing a lute; (1b) fragmentary figures including the 14th-century head of a knight.

In S.E. chapel, E. window, sII, similar in form and dates to window nII and the glass of like dates, the inner borders filled with fragments; (3a) under opposed harpies of 14th-century date, St. Paulinus as archbishop, with inscriptions on scrolls 'S(an)c(tu)s Pau[linus]' and, intruded, 'Gaudent', and on his left a small female donor figure, the saint recorded by Johnston as in window I under 'Domina Mundi'; (3b) under opposed wyverns of 14th-century date, St. Stephen(?), carrying book and stones, now with the contemporary head of a king, flanked by intruded inscriptions '[j]ubileto' and '.. con ..'; (2a) quarry fragments surrounding shield with arms of Latimer, all 14th-century; (2b) fragments surrounding a censing angel with archangel's head.

S. wall, 1st window, sIII, clear glazing, as in other windows in S. aisle and S. chapel, but with shields-of-arms in the two middle tracery lights for Provence and England, 14th-century. 2nd window, sIV, in two middle tracery lights, fragments of vine and geometrical patterns.

In chapel of St. James, S. wall. Each window has two shields-of-arms in the two middle tracery lights: 1st window, sVI, of Ros and de Vere. 2nd window, sVII, of Percy and Mowbray; all 14th-century.

Inscriptions and Scratchings: in chapel of St. James, on panelling, IM RI 1667 1670(?). Many masons' marks recorded in 1960 and filed in RCHM archives, as well as some plumbers' and glaziers' scratchings on the glass. Lord Mayors' Tables: formed by two sunk wooden panels with moulded frames, dated 1837 and with arms of the City of York, commemorating mayoralties of James Meek, 1837, George Hudson, 1838 and 1839, and James Meek jnr., 1856.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: in S.E. chapel, (1) Frances, wife of Sir Reginald Graham, Bart., of Norton Conyers, 1721, white marble sarcophagus with heraldic cartouche and, above, a shaped tablet, said to be by Charles Mitley, in poor condition. In nave, on N. wall, (2) James Robert Fryer, proctor, 1840, and other members of Fryer family, white tablet with foliage against shaped background, signed Fisher, York. In N. aisle, on N. wall, (3) the Rev. James Dallin, M.A., of Magdalen (sic) College, Cambridge, 1838, similar to (2), also by Fisher; (4) the Rev. James Dallin, 1838, and (added) Elizabeth his wife, 1864, white tablet mounted on larger black tablet containing inscription recording its reerection 1878 from the old church (St. Maurice) and signed J. Flintoft, York; on W. wall, (5) Joseph Smith, 1827, Christiana his daughter, 1824, freestone tablet decorated with drapery, signed Bennett S. Yk. In S. aisle, (6) Joseph Buckle, 1818, Esther his wife, 1834, plain white marble tablet against black rectangular background. In churchyard, a number of shaped headstones of late 18th and 19th-century date including, on N. side of church, (7) Bernard Watson, 1793; (8) George Lockey, builder, 1838; on S. side of church, (9) Frances, daughter of Charles Fisher, sculptor, and Mary Ann his wife, 1839; (10) Mary, wife of the Rev. John Slack, Wesleyan Minister, 1826. Floor-slabs: in chancel, (1) Henery (sic) Billingham of Whitwill of the hill, 1703; (2) Richard Graham, of Whitwell, youngest son of Sir Reginald Graham of Norton Conyers, Bart., 1746, Cordelia Graham, wife of Richard, daughter of William Chaloner of Gisborough, 1763; (3) Lyonel Elyott, youngest son of Thomas Elyott Esqr., Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles II, 1689, with recessed oval containing cartouche with shield-of-arms; (4) William Richardson, alderman and Lord Mayor, 1679; (5) William Loe, [1678]; (6) Richard Dennis, proctor, [1678]. In N. chancel aisle, (7) Margaret, relict of Benjamin Swineard, 1819; (8) Benjamin Swineard, 1796. In nave, (9) William Briggs, 1683, Ann his wife, 1673, William Briggs and John, two of their grandchildren who died young; (10) four children of James Robert and Mary Ann Fryer, 19th-century; (11) James Robert Fryer, proctor, 1840, father of four children named on (10). In N. aisle, (12) Mrs. Margaret Smith of Scarborough, 1762; (13) John Slack, 1744, Ann his wife, 1756. In S. aisle, (14) Mrs. Elezebeth (sic) [surname illegible], daughter of Richard Dennis; (15) Thomas Severs, 1829, Frances his widow, 1832; (16) T.B., 1831, small slab.

Panelling: in chapel of St. James, attached to table-frame on which Altar Stone (3) rests, fragment of 16th-century linenfold panelling. Piscina: in chapel of St. James, on S. wall, with trefoiled head and demi-octagonal bowl with drain, supported on moulded column with two-stage base; probably original to the chapel. Plate: cup by Peter Pearson, York 1622; flagon by Isaac Cookson, Newcastle on Tyne 1746, given in 1746 by Richard Graham, youngest son of Sir Reginald Graham, Bart., of Norton Conyers; paten given in 1706, with hallmarks which do not appear to be English (Fallow and McCall, 28); two pewter perambulation jugs, bought 1782; brass alms-dish, 1702. Pulpit: of oak, formerly part of a three-decker, octagonal, with two recessed panels on each face and with deep moulded cornice, 1785 (Churchwardens' Accounts).

Recess: in E. respond of N. arcade, small recess with ogee trefoiled head. Reredos: divided into three sections by pilasters with recessed panels and with bolection-moulded panels to dado; made 1721 for £9; main panels with the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments and the Creed in gold lettering, originally painted by Mr. Horsley but relettered 1823 by Charles James Hansom (Proceedings of Building Committee, Borthwick Inst., y/htg 94/5). Royal Arms: in chapel of St. James, on W. wall, Hanoverian 1714–1800, perhaps those painted in 1721 by Mr. Horsley (Churchwardens' Accounts). Seating: box-pews, dating mainly from the 18th century, possibly from 1738 when Joseph Barton was paid £11. 19s. 7d. for carpenter's work, but incorporating some 17th-century panelling, posts and strapwork decoration, and exhibiting a wide variety of shaped hinges.

Miscellanea: (1) altar-frontal with fragments of embroidery of 1740 (G. Benson, Extracts from the Churchwardens' Accounts). In S.E. chapel, below second window from E., (2) small stone, possibly a voussoir, decorated with chevron ornament, early 12th-century.