The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 11. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1800.
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THE BOUNDS of the city and county of Canterbury have been at several times perambulated by the chief magistrates and commonalty of it. Thorn (fn. 1) gives an account of one made in the 46th year of king Edward III. as being made partially and much to the detriment of his monastery and several others. It is as follows:
In the same year, (viz. anno 46 Edward III.) on the Monday next before the feast of St. Augustine, a perambulation was made by Nicholas de Baa and William Cornwaille, then bailiffs of the city of Canterbury, by Nicholas ate Crowche, John Scheldwych, Thomas Everard, William Broune, Henry Lincolle, John Thyece, Edmond Horne, and Richard de Hoo, citizens and aldermen of the city, and by others, very many of the commonalty of the same, claiming the lands and tenements within their perambulation, as being within the liberties of the said city.
First, they passed along the metes and bounds of the same liberties from the corss of Shettynge, as far as the gate of a certain pasture called Poldreslese, and so they perambulated the whole of that pasture, to the disherison and usurpation made there upon the rights of the lords and other tenants, who were of the foreign of the country. Item, they passed along the metes and bounds of the same liberties at Fyspole, over the lordship of the abbot of St. Augustine's, and there fixed and placed a new wooden cross, as one of the metes and bounds of the same liberties, to the disherison and usurpation there made for a great space over the lordship of the abbot and convent, and of all the tenants of the whole hundred of Donhamford, in the hands of the lord abbot in ferme with other hundreds, of the demise and grant of the king, and so there unjustly and without licence they rode over the land of Thomas de Gardewynton, called Lilesdenne, on the east side of a certain pond called Fispoles-pond, passing along there the metes and bounds by the moiety of the pond. Item, in perambulating they passed along their metes and bounds of the same liberties from a certain bound called Wodestake, by perambulating unjustly the whole wood of Gwodrycheswode, wholly without their liberty. Item, they perambulated and passed along their bounds and usurped upon the lordship there of Gloucestre, in the hundred del Hwytstaple. They passed along Well, about xx acres of the land of the hospital of St. Laurence, near Canterbury, and of other tenants of the country there at Hwytefeldeshegge, without the limits and precincts of the same liberties, and there they perambulated unjustly the greatest part of the land in the hundred of Bregge, at the nook or corner of Hwytefeldeshegge.
In the reign of king Henry VII. about the year 1497, there was a perambulation taken of the bounds of the liberty of this city, which was recorded as follows,
First, the libertie and franchise of the citie begynnith at the end of the bridge of Westgate, to the breedth or wideness of the king's Stowere, (fn. 2) and beyond, of old usage, with the ground under the wall, with a parcel of meadowe land between the Stowere and the causeweye at the Posterne, by an old deke unto the bridge there; and from thence beyond the king's highway, leading to the water-lock unto Shafford's mill; and from thence between the meadow and Shafford's mill, and the meadow of St. Austen, next to the water-lock unto the king's Stowere; and so right by the Stowere unto Hold-mill; and by the same Stowere unto Sholdforthe; and from Sholdforthe by the Stowere unto Hards-mill; (fn. 3) and from Hardesmill, by the Stowere unto Chansell or Chantry; and by the same Stowere leading towards the fulling-mill of Stourrye, unto a certain deke leading from the said Stowere unto the king's highway, which leadeth from Canterbury unto Stourrye, unto a certeyne willowetree there being. And whatsoever is on the right hand of the aforesaide marks and boundes by circuitynge is of and within the libertie of the city of Canterbury, together with all the Stowere, and one meadow pertayning to the citizens of Canterbury, on the right hand of the Stowere, parcel of the cities fee ferm, be within the libertie of the city of Canterbury.
And furthermore from the said deke and willow tree, by the said highway leading from Canterbury to Stourrye, unto a certain ayshe standing on the left hand on the said king's highway, upon the bank of a deke called the Polders, (fn. 4) and so right beyond the Polders unto a certain well by Milfield; (fn. 5) and from the said well right unto the north end of the wood of Thoroltwood, (fn. 6) unto the cross and gallows of the libertie of Fordwich; (fn. 7) and from that corss by the king's highwaye, leading towards Stodmarshe unto King's-tree; (fn. 8) and from King's-tree unto Burwarke marke, (fn. 9) at Hawlinge, (fn. 10) beyond the Moate, and all the lands of the Moate unto Organ-lane, (fn. 11) at Fish-poole, and whatsoever is on the right hand of the said markes and bounds be of and within the libertie of the city of Canterbury.
And the circuite of the said libertie goeth from the said Organ lane by the midds of the pond of Fishpoole; and because the walk cannot there be made, but through the water, beyond the midds of the said poole, the said poole is gone about by a way they go to Pyntkin; and from Pyntkin unto Glassincrost; and from thence unto the uttermost part of the field of Homepits, and so going about a certain field called Goodrish field, (fn. 12) and to a certain marke called King's Markes by Chal-dank Elme, (fn. 13) unto an elder tree, standing between the lands of John Isaaks without the libertie, and John Diggs within the libertie, and from thence unto a certaine cross (fn. 14) or mark on Shegdank, near Gillindank, or Ginny-bottom, (fn. 15) and then unto Hengrove and Heathen-land, and from thence unto the Heythorne standing in the field behind the manor of Edmond de Staplegate, of Natyndon; (fn. 16) and then by the street of Natyndon unto the cross and a lane nye Winsole, leading towards Moreton or Doddingdale, unto the crab-tree there, circuytinge or going about all the lands of Moreton, or Doddingdale, and then unto Hanne-fielde towards Heppingtone, in which field be . . acres of land appertayning to the manor of the hospital of St. Jacob, and . . acres belonging to the manor of Dungeon; and from Hanne-fielde by Stoupington, (fn. 17) unto Holloway lane, (fn. 18) and then by the said land or King-streete unto the gate of the hospital of St. Jacob, and whatsoever is on the right hand of the aforesaid markes and bounds be of and within the libertie of the citie aforesaid, and so the circuyte of the libertie of the aforesaid city goeth by the king's highway from the hospital aforesaid back to the end of the stone wall of the said hospital (fn. 19) towards Tanynton, and from thence back towards Canterbury unto a certaine lane in Wincheape on the west part of the said way of Wincheape; which lane leadeth right over the meadows there, as it is known by the markes and bounds, unto the king's Stowere which cometh from Chartham unto Canterbury; and so by that Stowere unto the island of Brittain; which island pertaineth to the citizens of Canterbury, and a parcel of the king's Stowere; and from Brittain unto the deke of the city without the walls, unto the king's Stowere leading by Westgatemills unto the bridge where first it began; within which circuyte is contained the libertie of the city of Canterbury, with the parish of Westgate, whatsoever is within the walls, that is to say, of the lands and tenements within; and without the walls, nothing else but the king's Stowere with the ground as is aforesaid.
And also, that there were contained within the markes and bounds of the libertie of the city aforesaid, 3784 acres and an half of land, viz.
|In the ward of Burgate,
|In the ward of Northgate,
|In the ward of Newingate and Ridingate,
|And in the ward of Worthgate,
|Total number of acres
A perambulation of the bounds of the city of Canterbury, made on the 30th of Sept. 1728.
THE LIBERTY of the city of Canterbury beginneth at the end of the bridge of Westgate, for the breadth and wideness of the king's Stoure, and beyond the usage, with the ground under the wall of the said city, with a parcel of meadow between the Stoure and the causway at the postern, by an old dike unto the bridge there; and from thence beyond the king's highway, unto a water-lock at Shafford's mill, (now Dean's mill) and to the meadow of St. Austen, next to the waterlock, (Quære, it not being mentioned in the map) and so, right by the Stoure, we went to the first meadow beyond Shalloak and passed along by what is called the back river till we came to the joining of the back river with the Stoure, and from that joining we kept by the Stoure, till we came opposite to Clackett's-lane, (which is the lane just by Mr. Charles Knowler's half way house to Sturry) which we measured from the joining to this place, and is eighty two rods—ordered a MARK MARK there, as being as nigh the place as we could find where Holle-mill stood; from thence we kept by the Stoure into Shelford land, lying by the Stoure, ordered a MARK there, as being as nigh the place as we could discover where Hardres-mill stood; from thence by the Stoure we went to Chancery-head, ordered a MARK; from thence we crossed the Stoure to a certain dike near a small ozier-ground, and from the aforesaid dike we kept up the road leading to Sturry, to a certain ash there, standing on the left hand of the king's highway, on a bank called Polder's bank, and so straight from the ash on Polders we went to a certain well, which is now almost filled up, being near Millfield, which field is the broomfield adjoining to Fordwich, and from that certain well to the upper end of Millfield south, right along the hedge, where there is a mark almost decayed, so ordered A MARK; from thence we went to Thurholt-down, and leaving a large oak on our left hand, standing on a bank on Thurholtdown, just by a rivulet, which runs between Thurholtdown and Thurholt-wood—(N. B. The wood is down, and only gors grows): 'we came to a stone just at the entrance of Thurholt wood, by this rivulet, standing on the right hand; and from thence we went straight till we came to another stone at the upper end of Thurholt-wood, adjoining to the road to Stodmarsh; and from thence we went into that road and to what is called the cross and gallows of the liberty of Fordwich, which is at the upper end of a lane leading to Fordwich called Toell-lane; and from thence to a certain stone in the wall in Stodmarsh-road, right against Brethren-close, which we measured, between the cross and the stone, seventeen rods; and from the stone in the wall to a certain large tree standing within the Motewall, called King's tree, we measured straight from the stone to the tree eleven rods, and from thence through a certain wood called Mote-rough, and from thence to a rivulet at the furthermost part of the Mote adjoining to Eldbridge-marsh—ordered A MARK; and from thence straight to a large oak within the wall nigh unto a lane called… and from thence straight to Fishpoole, but as it would not permit to walk there, we turned over a gate into a wood adjoining to Fish-poole, and kept to the right hand near unto the Reed pond, we kept turning on the right till we came into Bekesborne road, which we crossed and went to the field called Homepitts, kept by the hedge on the left and came to where there had been a marked tree stood, between the Homepit field and Godrick alias Gutteridge field, that tree being grubbed up—ordered A MARK there; we kept up Godrick-field till we came into Bridge road, and so to Milestone-hole, just by the turning up to Milestone farm, where a mark had been, but was gone, so ordered A MARK there; then we crossed Bridge road and kept on an angle to Shegdowne, where our directions said there was a mark, but we could not find it, so quere where to put a mark? from thence we kept on to where there had been an hawthorne, as a mark, standing behind the manor of Staplegate, (which Mr. Fox now occupies) and the hawthorne being gone, ordered A MARK there; then we came into Nackington road, and passed Sir William Willis's house to a hole called Winsole; and from Winsole we turned on the right hand till we came to a certain field called the Hundred Acres, in which stands a stone near the foot path leading to Heppington; and from that stone we turned on the right hand, which brought us into Hollow-lane to a mark tree, and so down that lane to St. Jacob's hospital on our left hand and came into Wincheap coming to Canterbury, at a certain house, which we went through (which now one Jarman useth) which house is about three doors from what is called the Cock and Bull, and came into the meadow joining to the Stoure, called Bingley; then we crossed the Stoure to a certain ozier ground, formerly known by the name of the island of Brittany, and so by that Stoure into the dike of the city, without the walls of the city into the king's Stoure leading by Westgate-mill unto the bridge of Westgate, where we began.
The following is an account of the last survey of the boundaries of the city and liberties of Canterbury, taken in April, 1791, with the assistance of the owners and occupiers of the lands and premises, through which they run, or adjoin to. According to the old custom in describing the marks and bounds of this antient city, they begin at Westgate bridge, and include the whole breadth of the river Stour, along the back of Northlane to the bridge above Dean's-mill; and then crossing the river, take a direction by the rails that part the foot path from Dean's meadow; the meadow being in, and the foot-path out of the liberty; the said rails being placed there in lieu of a dike that formerly was a boundary, but is now filled up; and crossing the said foot-path about twenty feet from the scite of the old postern, where, until this year, there was a wooden foot bridge, which divided the middle branch of the Stour from a garden belonging to the mayor and commonalty, in the occupation of Mr. John Brown, and includes the said garden or island, but leaves out the middle branch of the river, until it comes to the lowermost point of the said island, it then includes the whole breadth of the main or principal river to Barton-mill; and from thence to Claris's island, and so on, still including the breadth of the river, for upwards of half a mile below the said island, to the corner called Chantry head, where the river divides itself into two branches; and from the said corner across the meadows by a ditch unto the king's highway leading from Canterbury to Sturry, to a large ash tree, and crossing the road from thence along the hedge by the end of Millfield, to a boundary stone at the lower end of a field called the Lower Ten Acres, of the Old Park lands, belonging to Sir Edward Hales, bart. and now in the occupation of Mr. John Austen; and so by the hedge and ditch to the north end of the rough grounds called Scotland hills; and from thence up a hollow that divides Scotland-hills from Chequers-wood, to a stone by the king's highway without the wall of Earl Cowper's park, called the Mote; and then leading along the highway under the said wall towards Stodmarsh, by the Mote farm-house; and by the end of Well-lane, where the cross and gallows of Fordwich formerly stood, to the gate that leadeth into Trenly park; seventeen rods from which gate, within the Mote park, stands King's tree, an antient boundary; and from the said gate by the corner of the park, right down the hollow of Mead's-ruff, to a mark stone at the north-east corner of Elbery-marsh, by Holdridge wood; and along by the brook under Holdridge wood, and enclosing the Mote lands by Organ-lane, unto Fishpole bottom; and crossing the king's highway that leads from Canterbury to Littlebourn, southward, through the boggy hollow ground, close under the side of Paternoster wood, crossing the Patrixbourn road, under the garden of Paternoster-house to Homepitfield, in the occupation of Mr. Thomas W. Collar; and from thence along the eastern extremity of Gutteridge-field unto the mile stone, a few rods eastward up Dover road, beyond Gutteridge bottom; and from thence to a stone by an elm tree at the north east corner of Shegdowne, and the south-east corner of Dover close, in the occupation of Mr. Fox, of Nackington; and circuiting through Shegdowne, enclose the Hengrove and Heathen-land, and so on to an elder tree in the land of the said Mr. Fox; and then to a stone in the garden at the corner of the farm-yard of Nackington; and through the said farm-yard into the high road leading from Canterbury to Hithe; and then along the said high road to the south-east corner of and including the gardens and pleasure grounds of Richard Milles, esq. of Nackington, and from thence by the end of Murton-lane, across the two fields in a southwest direction to Winsole chalk-pit, about eighty rods from Murton farm-house; and from thence in the same direction to a stone in the hedge adjoining to the foot-path that leads from Murton to Heppington, near the angle of the hedge in Hanne field; and then right across two fields to the stone in Holloway-lane, which leadeth from Stuppington to Almes-hole; and then by the said lane to the smith's forge at the corner of St. Jacob's hospital, in Wincheap; and along the said wall to the turnpike house; and then back again by the street of Wincheap to Cock and Bull lane; and down the said lane and across the meadow at the end thereof to the end of a ditch, unto the river Stour; and along the said river, including the island of Brittain, round the point below Bingley; and from thence across the field to the city ditch, without the city wall; and including the said ditch to the bridge of Westgate, from whence the perambulation began.
IT APPEARS that there were formerly many disputes and controversies between the mayor and commonalty and the prior and convent of Christ-church, concerning the limits and bounds of their respective jurisdictions in and about this city, which occasioned a composition to be entered into between them in the 7th year of king Henry VII. which being made into an indenture, was interchangeably sealed with their respective seals; by which, to put an end to all such quarrels and to promote future tranquility and peace, it was agreed, that the mayor and commonalty, their heirs and successors, should not from thenceforth cause and in no wyse challenge, proclaim or demand any privilege, liberty, franchise, jurisdiction, ministration of justice, or execution thereof within the following limits or bounds.
That is to say, from the church of Northgate by the Ambery wall, as the wall leadeth unto the corner of the same Ambery, nor from the said corner right by a line over the way, unto the wall of the palyce of the archbishop, nor from the church of Northgate aforesaid, as the wall of the said cytie standeth, unto the church of St. Michael, nor from the said church unto the gate called Christ-church gate, otherwise called the Churchgate, nor from thence as the closure of the stone wall leadeth unto the said palace of the archbishop, except in the tenaunties and houses lying from the gate called St. Michael's gate, otherwise called Burgate, unto the said gate called Christ-church gate, and from the said gate unto the palace of the archbishop, of which the doors and windows then were, or thereafter should be, opening unto the street. And it was likewise covenanted and agreed between the said parties, that the prior and convent and their successors should from thenceforth cease and in no wyse challenge, claim nor demand any privilege, libertie, franchise, jurisdiction, ministration of justice or execution thereof, in the said tenaunties, nor houses lying from the said gate called St. Michael's gate, otherwise called Burgate, unto the said gate called Christ-church gate; nor from thence unto the said palace of the archbishop, of which the doors and windows then be or thereafter should be opening unto the street, nor in any other places within the limits or boundes of the said cytie, other than be conteined within the limits and bounds aforesaid; saving unto the prior and convent and their successors, all the lands and tenements, possessions, rents, reversions and firmes, with the appurtenances, and their lawful ways thereunto within the limits and boundes of the said cytie, to hold, possess and enjoy the same in like manner as they and their predecessors have had theretofore, or ought to have, in right of their church; saving also to them all such franchises, liberties and privileges, as they had or ought to have within the manor of Calcott, and the burrowe of St. Martin's, not hurting the mayor and commonaltie of a fine or rent of 12d. by the year of the said burrowe; nor the said mayor and commonaltie, their heirs nor successors, of any libertie, franchysis, or privilege, which they had or ought to have in the same or any parcel thereof whereunto the mayor and commonaltie might have, and the prior and convent have no title.
And also it was covenanted and agreed between the said parties, that if it should happen hereafter, that any tenaunt or fermour of the prior and convent and their successors within the city, or within the said tenaunts tenements or houses, or any of them, should do or suffer any thing whereby by the law he was or should be to lose or forfeit his moveable goods, that notwithstanding it should be lawful to the prior and convent and their successors to enter into the same tenaunts tenements and houses, and in every of them, and every parcel of the same, for all rents and fermes due unto them, to distreine such goods, and them to bear and carry away, reteyne, and keep unto the time that they should be thereof, and every parcel thereof, truly contented and paid; and if any such farmer or tenaunt of the prior and convent or their successors had, or thereafter should have any of their goods or chattels by the name of a score, it should be also lawful for them from time to time to take and seize the same goods and score, as their own proper goods, and them to reteyne, and keep to their own use and behoof, without lett, interruption, challenge, or claim of the mayor and commonaltie, and their heirs or successors. It was also covenanted and agreed between the parties by these indentures, that the mayor and commonaltie, by the king's licence, should by their deed, sufficient in law, give and grant to the prior and convent, all the lands and tenements, that they had in right of the city, lying in length on the east side within the wall of the said cytie, from the said church, called St. Michael's church, by the said wall toward Northgate, containing in length 38 perches, one fote and 3 inches; and on the other side of the west part, containing in length 37 perches, and 4 fote 3 inches; and in bredth at the south hedd 38 fote 4 inches; and at the north hedde 37 fote and 8 inches; and also all the walls and towers of the mayor and commonaltie from the said church of Northgate unto the said church of St. Michael, to hold to the prior and convent and their successors for evermore. And the prior and convent, for themselves and their successors, covenanted and granted, that they from thenceforth should sufficiently make, maintain, and repair the said walls and towers, from the said church of Northgate unto the said church of St. Michael, for the de fence of them and of the said citie, as oft as need should thereto require; and the mayor and commonaltie, their heirs and successors, should nothing do nor cause to be done to the hurt, harm, or lett of, or to the same; and of all such reparations the mayor and commonaltie should from that time be clearly discharged. And it was covenanted and agreed between the said parties by these presents, that the mayor and commonaltie, their heirs and successors, should nothing challenge, or demand of the prior and convent, nor of their succesiors, for or toward any making or reparation to be done upon any other walls, gates, or towers in other places of the citye at any time from thenee to come; and it was also convenanted and agreed between the parties, that the prior and convent and their successors should have free libertie to make a postern or gate through the said wall between the church of Northgate and St. Michael, and a bridge over the dyke of the cytie adjoining thereto, and the same postern and bridge peaceably to have, use and enjoy to the prior and convent and their successors, making, maintaining, and keeping the same postern and bridge at their proper costs and charges; and it was also covenanted and agreed, that if it happened the prior and convent and their successors thereafter to build any houses or tenaunties, with doors and windows opening into the street between the Northgate and the Ambery corner, or upon the said ground which the mayor and commonaltie should by the king's licence grant unto the pryour and convent, and thereupon let the same house to farme, to any other person, that then the mayor and commonaltie, their heirs and successors, should have the like privilege, franchise, libertie, and jurisdiction in the same houses, as they should by this agreement have in the said tenements between the said gate called St. Michael's gate, and the gate called Christ-church gate aforesaid; saving to the prior and convent and their successors such right, title, and interest of and in the possession and inheritance, rents, and services which they had, or thereafter should have in the same or any part thereof. (fn. 20)
To this indenture was annexed a schedule, more particularly to explain the clause in it relating to the manor of Caldicot, and the borough of St. Martin; which the reader will find fully noticed under the description of that manor.