Archdeacons of Canterbury

Pages 556-595

The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 12. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1801.

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1. WLFRID, is the first archdeacon of Canterbury, whose name is found in any chronicle or record, the names of all his predecessors, as well as some of his successors, are lost. He seems to have been once a monk of this church; and in the record of a council convened by archbishop Athelard, at Baccanceld, now perhaps Bapchild, among the subscriptions, as they are printed in the Decem. Scriptores, among the Evidences of Christ-church. (fn. 1) Wlfrid, archdeacon, subscribed among the bishops, anno 798, and afterwards in a synod at Cloveshoe, anno 803, Wlfrid, archdeacon, subscribed with the rest; the record of which council in Saxon characters, remains among the archives of this church; and to shew that Wlfrid was arcndeacon of Canterbury, which is not specified in either of these subscriptions, among the old writings of this church, there is in the like characters, a charter of archbishop Athelard, concerning the manor of Burne, dated anno 805, indict 13, to which Wlfrid, archdeacon of Canterbury, is a subscribing witness. The archbishop died the same year, and Wlfrid seems to have succeeded him in the archiepiscopal chair. (fn. 2)

2. BEORNOTH, anno 804, whose name in the subscriptions to a charter of king Ethelred, is set before divers dukes. (fn. 3)

3. ATHELWEALD, anno 853.

4. EALSTAN, anno 864.

5. SIGEFRETH, anno 866.

6. LIÆVING, anno 866; all these five archdeacons were, during the time in which Ceolnoth filled the archiepiscopal chair, which was a space of much trouble and confusion, on account of the Danish pirates, who then infested these coasts, assaulting the suburbs, and knocking at the very gates of the city of Canterbury, until they had a large sum of money given them to be gone, and at the same time there was a pestilence within the walls of the monastery. (fn. 4)

7. WERBEALD, anno 890.

8. BRINSTAN, about 1006; here is a long space of time unnoticed between this archdeacon and the former one, named before him, most probably upwards of 100 years, and there has been nothing met with to fill it up.

9. ALMERIC, or ALMER, who is supposed to have been the man, who infamously betrayed this city when it was besieged by the Danes in the year 1011, (fn. 5) as the story is told at large in the Saxon Chronicle, and afterwards by H. Huntingdon, R. Hoveden, W. Thorn, and others, whilst others have been inclined to impute this treachery to Elmar, at that time abbot of St. Augustine's, who was suffered to escape safe out of the hands of the Danes, and his monastery to remain untouched as the reward of it. (fn. 6)

10. HAIMO is the next archdeacon, mentioned as such; he lived in 1054, as we are informed from Boston, monk of St. Edmundsbury, and he may reasonably be supposed to have been cotemporary with Godwin, the last bishop of St. Martin's, who died seven years after this time, and had been probably constituted bishop, anno 1052. It is certain, that at the death of archbishop Elphage, there was no archdeacon of Canterbury; there were continual confusions in these parts, through the continual ravages made by the insulting Danes, the metropolitical church lay desolate, and in ruins. Archbishop Livinge, who succeeded Elphage, after seven years imprisonment, went beyond sea into a voluntary exile, there to bewail in secret the desolations of the church, which he could not repair; during which calamities, we cannot expect to hear of an archdeacon.

Haimo, above-mentioned, stands upon record as eminent for his learning and goodness, as Almar was infamous for his treachery and ingratitude; we are beholden to Bale and Pitseus for what we know of him; they tell us, that he was born in England of good parentage, brought up to study from his childhood, but this nation being at this time filled with tumults and disturbances, he retired into France, and became a monk at St. Denis, and reader of divinity at Paris; as soon as the affairs of England were settled in quietness, he returned and was constituted archdeacon of Canterbury, and grew into high esteem for his excellent preaching. He wrote several books, of which his Commentary on Genesis, was in the library of Lincoln college, in Oxford; he died at Canterbury on Oct. 9, but in what year, is no where recorded. With this archdeacon ended the anti-Norman ones. (fn. 7)

11. VALERIUS, of whom there is mention in a record concerning the right of provincial and diocesan jurisdiction in the vacancy of the see; it tells us, that archbishop Lanfranc constituted him archdeacon, and gave him and his successors a small tenement near the priory of St. Gregory, without the north gate of the city. (fn. 8)

12. ANSCHITILLUS probably succeeded him. He is mentioned in the survey of Domesday, taken anno 1070, by the name of Anschitil Archidiac, as holding lands in Deal, which had before been held by archbishop Stigand, and other land there, and at St. Margaret's, given to him by the bishop of Baieux. He subscribed, as such, to the decrees of a provincial council in 1075, immediately after the bishops and before the abbots.

13. WILLIAM was archdeacon in 1101, in which year he was sent by archbishop Anselm, to make en quiries whether Maud, daughter of Malcolm, king of Scots, who was intended to be given in marriage to king Henry I. was a professed nun; and afterwards; in 1108, he was sent by that archbishop, on his behalf, to invest Ralph, the next successor to Gundulph, and put him in possession of the bishopric of Rochester. (fn. 9) Anselm having bestowed it on him; there are three letters of the archbishop's to him, as archdeacon, one of which is concerning priests marriages, mentioned in the acts and monuments. This William was one of the witnesses to Anselm's charter; when he gave the manor of Stisted to this church. (fn. 10)

14. JOHN, nephew (sister's son) to archbishop Ralph, was constituted archdeacon in June, 1115, on his return from Rome, whither he had been sent with others to bring back the pall to the archbishop, which he delivered to him at Canterbury, on June 27, 1115, many bishops, abbots, noblemen and others being present at the solemnity of receiving and putting it on, at which time the bishops made it their request, and the monks declared their approbation, that this John should be constituted archdeacon; upon which he was nominated and admitted by the archbishop in the chapterhouse, and took the oath of obedience there, to the metropolitical church of Canterbury. (fn. 11) In 1119, he was sent by the archbishop to the council at Rhemes, to withstand the consecration of Thurstan, archbishop of York, at the pope's hands, archbishop Ralph having rejected him, on account of his having refused to make profession of obedience to the church of Canterbury. (fn. 12)

On the archbishop's death, William Corboil being elected archbishop, went to Rome for his pall, attended by this archdeacon and others; upon the death of Ernulph, bishop of Rochester, the archdeacon was promoted to that see, and consecrated by the archbishop on May 24, anno 1125. (fn. 13)

Eadmer says, he was a man of a good conversation, and courteous towards all.

15. ASKETIN, whose name, as archdeacon, is in an antient charter of this church. (fn. 14)

16. WILLIAM, the second, archdeacon of that name; is mentioned as such in a charter of archbishop Theobald, relating to the archdeaconry of this church, in which the succession of archdeacons before his time is thus given, viz. Asketin, William, Helwise. (fn. 15)

17. HELWISE was a regular canon, and promoted to this archdeaconry by archbishop William Corboil, who had a particular regard to those canons, of which he himself had been one, in 1134. He was sent by the archbishop, together with the bishops of St. David's and Rochester, to put the monks of Dover in possession of their new monastery, built for them by that archbishop; but those of Christ church appealing to the see of Rome, they returned without effecting their purpose. In the year 1138, this archdeacon was summoned to a legantine synod, convened at Westminster by Alberic the pope's legate. (fn. 16)

18. WALTER, the next archdeacon, was brother to archbishop Theobald, and was witness to his charter for the induction of canons into St. Mary's church, in Dover, which was confirmed by pope Innocent in 1138. Upon the death of Ascelin, bishop of Rochester, Walter was elected by the monks of Rochester, in the chapter-house at Canterbury, in the presence and at the nomination of the archbishop, to succeed in that see; which election was made in January, in the beginning of the year 1148. (fn. 17)

19. ROGER DE BISHOPSBRIDGE, or de Ponte Episcopi, succeeded him as archdeacon, and within a few years after, being advanced to the archbishopric of York, he was consecrated at Westminster by archbishop Theobald, in October, 1154. (fn. 18) Whilst he was archdeacon, as he was one who did not favour the monks of his time, he proved himself very offensive and troublesome to those of Christ-church, by intruding himself among them into their chapter and assemblies, as one of their society; being a secular, the monks could by no means submit to this, but addressed themselves to the archbishop for remedy, from whom they procured letters of inhibition to this purpose in future. (fn. 19)

20 THOMAS BECKET, so noted in the histories of this time, was next preferred to this archdeaconry, by archbishop Theobald, who had sent him into Italy, to study the civil law, and at his return, having conceived a good opinion of his excellent parts, heaped many rich preferments on him, and among them this archdeaconry. At the archbishop's instance, the king made him chancellor of England, and on the archbishop's death, he was advanced to the metropolitical chair of Canterbury, (fn. 20) and not long afterwards resigned this archdeaconry.

21. GEOFFRY RIDDELL succeeded next to it, on the resignation of Becket, who would not, however, lay it down for some time after he was made archbi shop, though the king importunately desired him to give it up, which he at last did, and at the king's most earnest request conferred it on Geoffry Riddell, (fn. 21) who afterwards became a chief favorite with the king, (being constituted by him one of the barons of the exchequer, (fn. 22) whose part he constantly took against the archbishop, and in 1169 was sent by him into France, to solicit, that the archbishop should not be permitted to remain in that kingdom, to which he had then withdrawn himself from hence.

He was soon afterwards excommunicated by the archbishop, who in a letter to the bishop of Hereford, advertized him of it, and calls this archdeacon in it, both arch-devil and a limb of Anti-Christ. In 1173, king Henry, at the instance of the cardinals Albert and Theodin, having granted that there should be free elections in the church of England, there were five archdeacons promoted to five bishoprics then vacant, one of which was this Geoffry, archdeacon of Canterbury, who was elected by the convent of Ely to that see; but being accused as accessary to the death of Thomas Becket, he made his protestation in the chapel of St. Catherine, in Westminster, that he was innonocent of that murder, and was no ways accessary thereto, by word, deed, or writing, wittingly or knowingly. (fn. 23)

22. HERBERT, or Herebert, was archdeacon at the time when archbishop Richard constituted three archdeacons in his diocese, which usually had but one before; their names were Savaricus, Nicolaus and Herebertus; but this innovation held but a short time, the three being in the same archbishop's time reduced to one again, (fn. 24) namely, this Herbert, to whom the archbishop made a personal grant of jurisdiction, much like that concerning which the archbishop of York and the archdeacon of Richmond differed, about the same time. (fn. 25)

Herbert continued in this archdeaconry till he was elected bishop of Salisbury in 1193. (fn. 26) and was succeeded by

23. ROBERT, whom Mr. Somner mentions next in his catalogue of archdeacons; but I know no more of him than his bare name. (fn. 27)

24. HENRY DE CASTILION was archdeacon in 1199, in which year he installed Savaricus, bishop of Bath, abbot of Glastonbury, his name as archdeacon is subscribed to several charters and other evidences belonging to St. Radigund's abbey, near Dover, made by archbishop Hubert and others. During his time, in 1202, there happened a great controversy between king John and the monks of St. Augustine's, concering the right to the patronage of the church of Faversham; during which, great violence was used by both parties, to oust the other from the possession of the church, by which the profanation of it ensued; upon which this archdeacon challenging right to the custody of the church during the vacancy of it, and interposing, excommunicated the monks for holding the church by force, overthrew the altars as profaned by them, and then interdicted the church; after which, the monks, by presents made to the king' compromised their suit with him; but as to their dispute with the archdeacon, concerning the custody and fruits of their vacant churches, especially those of Faversham and Milton, they immediately made their appeal to the pope, but what was the final issue of the controversy, I do not find, though it is probable, by a like course afterwards taken with a succeeding archdeacon, upon the renewal of the dispute, he had a composition given him by the monks; by which means he, in some degree shared with them a part of the profits of their vacant churches, which was yielded to him to make peace. The matter which they contended for was, in those days, of moment, and very considerable; but the case has been long since altered by the act passed for this purpose, which gives the successor the fruits in the vacancy, which put and end to all these broils. (fn. 28)

25. HENRY DE SANDFORD was the next archdeacon, who is reported to have been a great philosopher, that is, a learned and skilful man. In his time the contest above mentioned, between the archdeacon and the monks of St. Augustine, concerning their vacant churches, was compounded; he was present at the translation of the body of St. Augustine, and was co-executor, with the prior of Christ church, of the lady Agnes de Clifford; in the year 1227 he was, on St. Mark's day, consecrated bishop of Rochester, to which see he had been elected on December 26. (fn. 29)

26. SIMON LANGTON, the only brother of Ste. phen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, was the next archdeacon. He had been elected to the archbishopric of York, by that chapter, but taking part with his brother against the king, the pope, at the king's instance, made void the election; in recompence of which disappointment, Lewis, the French Dauphin, for whose establishment he was very active, constituted him his chancellor of Dauphiny, (fn. 30) and his brother the archbishop, the year before he died, conferred this archdeaconry on him, and in favour to him, much amended it, for with the consent and confirmation of the chapter, he annexed and united to it, not only the churches or parsonages of Tenham and Hackington, but the whole jurisdiction over the diocese, with an exception and reservation only of some causes and churches (fn. 31)

For as the archbishops Baldwin and Hubert, upon a controversy between them and the monks concerning the chapels of Hackington and Lamhith, and upon a displeasure taken against the archdeacon, probably for opposing them in that project in behalf of the monks, had exempted certain churches from the archdeacon's jurisdiction; so archbishop Langton, with the monks consent, by a special charter, reversed and revoked that exemption and subjected again those churches to the archidiaconal jurisdiction, whose predecessors never had other than a personal grant, such as was that above mentioned, made to Herbert or the like. These things happening in December, anno 1227; in the month of February next following, the same archdeacon made a double charter to the monks; for what reasons however, appears not; by one of which he conveys to them, with the consent of his brother the archbishop, all the tithes whatsoever of the manor of Eylwarton, lying within the chapelry of Stone, in Tenham parish, which at this day pass by the name of dominical, or demesne tithes; by the other he became engaged for himself and his successors, that nothing should be done in the church or chapel of Hackington, to the prejudice of the church of Canterbury; (fn. 32) a matter, which the late stir between archbishop Baldwin and the monks, made them fearful of, and therefore careful and cautious to prevent, and the more so, as the archdeacon had now seated himself there. From the time of archbishop Lanfranc, the archdeacon's dwelling had been before this, near St. Gregories priory, close by the court there, without the north gate of the city; this being now given and made over to the monks of Christ-church, the archdeacon removing thence, seated himself as above-mentioned, at Hackington, where his usual residence continued till Henry VIII.'s reign, when his mansion there was alienated; since which the archdeacon has been left without a house to reside in. This archdeacon, in the vacancy of the see by archbishop Edmund's death, withstood the monks' official for that time of the vacancy, challenging to himself, in right of his archdeaconry, all the jurisdiction, both provincial and diocesan; but at length, after some altercations on both parts, all contentions between him and the chapter, on this account, were ended amicably by a personal composition. (fn. 33)

It is said of this archdeacon, that, when upon the death of archbishop Richard, the chapter of Christchurch had elected to the see of Canterbury, Ralph Nevil, a prudent man, and one in high favour with the king, and petitioned the pope to confirm his election; his holiness asked the archdeacon what manner of man the archbishop elect was? who immediately replied, that he was a smart cunning man, an old courtier, powerful in the king's favour, and so stout and sturdy, that there was danger, if he was confirmed archbishop, of his creating a misunderstanding between his holiness and the king. Upon which the election was set aside. (fn. 34) He founded the hospital of the poor priests, in Canterbury; having been archdeacon twenty-one years, he died about the year 1248; (fn. 35) Bale says, he spent much time in study, and wrote a treatise concerning the fenitence of St. Mary Magdalen There are collected several of his letters into one volume, &c. (fn. 36)

There is a seal of this archdeacon, anno 1227, among the archives of the dean and chapter in their treasury, oval, a bust profile, a hand reaching down from above; legend, SIGILL: DNI SIMONIS DE LANGETON ARCHIDIAC CANTUAR. E. 136.

27. STEPHEN DE VICENNA seems to have succeeded to this dignity on his death in 1248. (fn. 37) He appears to have been archdeacon but four years, and then, either by death or cession, to have given place to his successor. (fn. 38)

28. OTHOBON, a Genoese by birth, descended of a noble family, the son of Thedisius, brother of pope Innocent IV. was created cardinal deacon, by the title of St. Adrin, anno 1252; he was then in possession of this archdeaconry, says Onuphrius, but it is not known how long he continued in it; he was afterwards wxalted to the papal throne, which he enjoyed but a very short time. (fn. 39)

29. STEPHEN DE MONTE LUCILI appears to have been archdeacon in 1257, by his subicription to a charter of St. Radigund's abbey, near Dover; William de la Gare was his official, anno 1259. (fn. 40)

30. HUGH MORTIMER, a native of the province of Poiction, and offical to the archbishop, (fn. 41), and his chancellor and vicar-general likewise, in the former of which offices he continued in 1270, as appears by a decision of his made as such, that year, (fn. 42), not long afterwards became archdeacon; for he was so at the death of archbishop Boniface, which happened in 1270; after which, during the vacancy of the see, he exercised the power of ordinary, by ratifying as far as the power of saculty of the ordinary is required, different appropriations, (fn. 43) the challenging of which, and the like power in the time of the vacancy, occasioned a quarrel between him and the convent of Christ-church, in like manner as there had been before between them and his predecessor, Simon Langton; and this ended too in a composition made between them. (fn. 44) The years of his death I do not find, only that he died on Ctober 4, but he could not continue in this office more than four or five years, beong succeeded in it by

31. WILLIAM MIDDLETON, who was a man commended for his honourable birth, good conversation and excellent learning, particularly in both civil and canon laws. (fn. 45) In the year 1273 he appears to have been both official and vicar to the archbishop, at that time beyond sea, and confirmed the election of John de Chisull to the bishopric of London; he was soon afterwards made archdeacon of Canterbury, and on Febuary 14, 1278, was elected bishop of Norwich, upon which he resigned this dignity, having been in the possession of it for two years and upwards. (fn. 46)

32. ROBERT DE YARMOUTH succeeded him as archdeacon, and continued so upwards of two years. In his time he renewed the dispute of jurisdiction in the vacancy of the see, which then happened by the removal of archbishop Kilwardbye; a matter twice set on foot before, as has been already mentioned; but during the appeal of the convent to the court of Rome, the archdeacon, who had gone thither to manage his suit, died there. (fn. 47)

33. RICHARD DE FERRINGES was his successor, who is said to have been well experienced in the rights and customs of the church of Canterbury; the archbishop on January 1, 1281, sent his mandate to Gregory de Rokeslye, citizen of London, requiring him to pay to his archdeacon Richard, in recompence for the dilapidations of the houses belonging to the archdeaconry, the sum of 33l. 18s. of the goods of Robert de Yarmouth, sometime archdeacon, which remained in his hands. (fn. 48) In 1290 he summoned the clergy, as he was commanded, to a convocation at Ely; his mandate for which is dated at Hackington, on August 4, that year, whilst he prosecuted with much warmth at Rome, the suit concerning jurisdiction during the vacancy of the see of Canterbury, which had lain dormant on account of his predeces for's death; he was by papal provision constituted archbishop of Dublin in 1298; upon which

34. JOHN LANGTON succeeded to this archdeaeonry in 1299, it being given to him by the pope, in recompence of his trouble and expence at the court of Rome, in his appeal against the archbishop, who had annulled the election, which the convent of Ely had made of him to be their bishop, at which time he was treasurer to king Edward, chancellor of England, (fn. 49) and rector of Burwell in that diocese; but pope Boniface VIII rejected his appeal, and appointed another to that bishopric; (fn. 50) he was afterwards, viz. in 1305, made bishop of Chichester, being consecrated by archbishop Winchelsea, on the 10th cal. October, that year. (fn. 51)

35. SIMON DE FAVERSHAM has the character of a learned man. He became eminent in philosophy and divinity, which he studied at Oxford, as Bale informs us, from Leland. He was rightfully constituted archdeacon by archbishop Winchelsea on the same day on which his predecessor was consecrated bishop of Chichester, but was soon forced to quit this dignity, and to give place to another, on whom the pope conterred it by his bull of provision, on,

36. BERNARD DE EYCI, who is written likewise Ecy de Labredo, or de la Breto, (fn. 52) but perhaps more probably De la Barton, being the son of Aumery de la Barton, of noble rank. (fn. 53) The pope's bull of provision for this porpose is dated Nov. 20, 1305; in which bull it is mentioned, that this Bernard had been advanced by papal provision to a prebend in the church of Bordeaux, and to the tithery of Anderanes, in the diocese of Agen; he was not of age to be canonically admitted into deacons orders, but the same power which heaped these rich benefices on him, dispensed with his infancy, and gave him licence to hold this archdeaconry likewise, without the necessity of being made a deacon, till he came to such years as the canons of the church required. The above-mentioned bull was accompanied with another mandatory one for his induction, which was directed to the bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, and to the abbots of St. Augustine's and Waltham; (fn. 54) he seems to have been deprived of this dignity for being married about 1318. (fn. 55)

37. GUTTERDUS LABREDUS, most probably, Le Brito, and therefore of the same province with his predecessor.

38. SIMON CONVENIUS, or DE COMINGES, was archdeacon of Canterbury; he is stiled in the papal bull, chaplain of the apostolic see; he died in 1323.

39. JOHN DE BRICTON, treasurer of the church of Wells, rector of Saltwood, in this county, the king's chaplain, and the archbishop's chancellor, was, upon the above archdeacon's death, presented to this archdeaconry on April 19, 1323, and admitted to it on August 2, following; but he was soon turned out by a power, which at that time was superior to that of the archbishop, or of the king himself, who both of them submitted to the pope's bull of provision, though yet not without some struggling; for when the pope, (John XXII.) sent his bull of revocation, namely, to recal the collation of John de Bricton to this archdeaconry, and to confer it upon Raymond, a cardinal of the church of Rome; (fn. 56) the messengers who brought it were roughly handled, for the archbishop, (Walter Reynolds) caused one of them to be seized, and his letters and writings to be taken from him by force; the other fearing the like usage, hid himself; notwithstanding which, the pope at last prevailed, and his provision filled the archdeaconry at this time, which he had made vacant by ousting his predecessor from it violently, by the plenitude of his power. (fn. 57)

40. RAYMUND de Sta Maria in Cosmedin, deacon cardinal, was the person named in the above mentioned bull of revocation to succeed to this archdea conry. He was nephew to pope Clement V. When he quitted, I have not seen, but the next possessor of this dignity that appears, was

41. HUGH DE ENGOLISME, so called from Angouleme, in the province of Aquitaine, sacrist of the metropolitical church of Narbonne, in Languedoc.—He was sent into England in 1324, as envoy from the pope and the apostolic see; he was archdeacon in 1327, at which time he received the Peter pence, collected in the diocese of Wells. (fn. 58) There is a letter extant to him as archdeacon, dated Aug. 16, 1328, from John, bishop of Exeter, who in it denied to pay the fees of his inthronization, to which the archdeacon replied, that he would assert and defend his rights; on December 20, that year, he requested leave to return to the court of Rome, which was at that time in his own country, France, pretending bodily infirmities and sickness. (fn. 59) His successor was

42. ROBERT STRATFORD, born at Stratford upon Avon, to which place he became a benefactor, by obtaining of king Edward III. in his 5th year, anno 1332, a charter of liberties for that town. He was canon of the church of Lincoln, and had procuratorial letters from the prior of Christ-church, to appear in his stead in parliament at York; in these letters he is called the archbishop's brother, John Stratford being then archbishop of Canterbury elect, and confirmed; and on Oct. 9, 1334, being then archdeacon, he was present at his inthronization. (fn. 60)

Among the archives of the consistory court of Canterbury, there is a plea of his, consisting of many articles, and containing in the first place a particular of all the rights and pleas of his archdeaconry; after which follows a suggestion of certain grievances offered to him and it, by the commissary of Canterbury, put up against him to his brother the archbishop, but with what succes I know not. He was elected bishop of Chichester in 1337, and was confecrated on St. Andrew's day that year, succeeding in it John Langton, one of his predecessors in the archdeaconry; after which he executed the great offices of chancellor of the exchequer, chancellor of England, to which he had two appointments, viz. in the 11th and 14th years of king Edward III. keeper of the great seal, (fn. 61) and chancellor of Oxford; in 1338, (fn. 62) he was constituted commissary to the archbishop, who was then beyond sea; not long after which he seems to have resigned this archdeaconry, having kept it near two years after he had been made bishop, and was succeeded in it by

43. BERNARD SISTRE, who appears to have been archdeacon in 1339, at which time he lent the prior and chapter of this church 1201. and in Feb. 1340, he collected the procurations for the cardinals. (fn. 63)

44. PETRUS ROGERIUS seems to have succeeded him as archdeacon. He was of the province of Thoulouse, of the county of Limosin, of the noble family of Monstria, born in the town of Malmont, earl of Beaufort, and nephew to pope Clement VI. who created him cardinal deacon, when he was but seventeen years old, by the title of S. Maria Nova; he never came into England, supplying his absence by constituting Hugo Pelegrinus, treasurer of Lichfield, and Raymundus Pelegrinus, canon of St. Paul's, to be his proctors in his absence; (fn. 64) as such, they presented clerks to the void churches of St. Clement's and St. Mary's, in Sandwich, and those of Linsted and Tenham, in the years 1346 and 1349; in the former of which years, being notary to the pope, he requested, that being resident in the court of Rome, he might have licence to receive his archidiaconal procurations.

As he never came into England, and continued so many years in this archdeaconry, neither the king nor the archbishop knew who was archdeacon, so that the former wrote to the latter to certify who was archdeacon of Canterbury, in the 20th year of his reign, and who was archdeacon at that time, namely in the 39th year of it; to which the archbishop returned this answer, that he had searched the registers of John, late archbishop, and other registers and records, by which it appeared, that Petrus Rogerius, cardinal deacon, had been archdeacon in the 20th year of his reign, and that he did believe that the said cardinal was yet alive and archdeacon of Canterbury, because he had never heard anything to the contrary, but on what day he had been installed, he could not tell; (fn. 65) this cardinal archdeacon was in the 44th year of king Edward III. anno 1371, elected pope, and took on him the name of Gregory XI. upon which he returned with the cardinals to Rome, after the court of Rome had continued about seventy years in France.

45. WILLIAM JUDICIS, of Limosin, seems on his vacating this archdeaconry, to have succeeded to it by the pope's nomination. He was nephew to pope Clement VI. and was created cardinal deacon with the title of St. Mary in Cosmedin, by his uncle; he was constituted archdeacon of the holy church of Rome by pope Innocent V. and was made cardinal presbiter, with the title of St. Clement, by pope Gregory XI. and died at Avignon on April 27, 1374.—His executors were sued by his successors, archdeacons, for dilapidations in 1375; (fn. 66) the year before which there was enquiry made concerning all foreigners, who had ecclesiastical benefices in England, and were nonresident; on which this archdeacon was returned as one of them, and that the true value of all the yearly fruits, rents and profits of the archdeaconry was worth 700 florins. (fn. 67)

46. HENRY WAKEFIELD was next admitted to this archdeaconry in June, 1375, being presented by the king during the vacancy of the see of Canterbury, and the mandate for his induction was directed to the vicars of Hackyngton, Tenham and Lymne; at his admission, the see continuing vacant, he took the oath of canonical obedience to the prior and chapter, being then treasurer of the king's household, before which he had been bishop of Ely, in the room of John Barnet, deceased, but the election was disannulled by the pope, anno 1373; however, in less than two months after his becoming archdeacon, the pope having disannulled the election of Walter Leigh to the bishopric of Worcester, by his bull of papal provision, dated Sept. 12, 1375, conferred it on him. (fn. 68)

47. ANDOMAR DE RUPY was in his room made archdeacon, by bull of papal provision, (fn. 69) to which archdeacon, as appears by the bundle of writs of anno 2 Richard II. pt. I. there belonged to the church of Lymin, within the same diocese, worth by year, after taxation of the tenth, xxi l. the church of Tenham worth by year, after the said taxation xxx l. vis. viiid. the church of Hackington, near Canterbury, worth by year xx marks; the church of St. Clement, in Sandwich, worth by year, after the taxation aforesaid, eight marks; the church of St. Mary, in Sandwich, worth by year, eight pounds, of the which the archdeacon received only six marks; the profits of all which premises Sir William Latimer had received, together with the profits arising out of the jurisdiction of the archdeaconry, worth by year xx l. (fn. 70)

48. WILLIAM DE PAKINTON, prebendary of York and Lincoln, was admitted to this archdeaconry on Nov. 7, 1381; this dignity having been conferred on him by the prior and convent, in the vacancy of the see, by archbishop Sudbury's death, his proctor making the accustomed oath of obedience to the prior and convent, that he would not attempt any thing to the prejudice of the church of Canterbury, but would faithfully execute such mandates as he should receive from the prior and chapter. (fn. 71) He died in the year 1390, and his will was proved on the 7th of October. (fn. 72)

Pitseus says much of this man, of his extraordinary worth and good parts. (fn. 73)

49. ADAM MOTTRUM, the archbishop's commissary, (fn. 74) was constituted archdeacon on July 28, 1390; (fn. 75) on March 6, 1395, he gave his assent, as such, to the appropriation of the churches of Sutton, Lillington and Farleigh, to the college of Maidstone; in 1396 he presented a clerk to the church of Westhithe, (fn. 76) at which time he was the archbishop's chancellor, and one of his legatees, as appears by his will; about which year he resigned this archdeaconry, probably by exchange for some better preferment, as he had formerly done the archdeaconry of Ely, and a prebend of York, for the precentorship of Sarum; (fn. 77) he died in 1414. (fn. 78)

50. RICHARD CLIFFORD was constituted archdeacon about the middle of the month of March, 1397, and being archdeacon, was made keeper of the privy seal. There happened a controversy between him and archbishop Arundel, concerning matters of jurisdiction, which was compounded between them; (fn. 79) he was in 1399 promoted by papal provision to the bishopric of Worcester, and had a licence to be conse crated out of the church of Canterbury, dated Oct. 1, 1401, at. which time he vacated this dignity; (fn. 80) he was afterwards translated thence to London in 1407, in the account of the bishops of which, Godwin speaks very honourably of him; his name and figure were drawn and set up in the west window in the chapter-house of Christ-church, in Canterbury, as a benefactor in all likelihood to the work, it being new built in his time, as the reader will find in the account of it.

In this manner religious men used to express their thankfulness to their benefactors, by representing their effigies, and setting up their names and coats of arms, if they had any, in some part of the building, which by their bounty they had helped to advance; sometimes adding what their gift was to it; an instance of this, out of many may be observed close by the door of the above chapter house, about the shield of a coat of arms, representing the effigies of a monk in his habit, one, who about the same time with this archdeacon, was a benefactor to that work; the legend about it tells us, that John Shepye, with the help of his friends, gave 100l. to the building of the cloyster, &c. (fn. 81)

51. ROBERT DE HALLUM was collated to this archdeaconry by archbishop Arundel, in 1401. (fn. 82) He was prebendary of York, (fn. 83) rector of Northfleet, in Kent, (fn. 84) and one of the executors of archbishop Courtney's will in 1396; the dean and chapter of Lincoln contended with him and his predecessor Clifford, about the right of installing Henry Beaufort, bishop of Lincoln, but at last they yielded and acknowledged the archdeacon's right, and confirmed this acknowledgment by an instrument under their seal, dated April 20, 1404, which is recorded in the registers of this church. (fn. 85) In 1403 he was chancellor of Oxford, which office he voluntarily resigned in the beginning of the year 1406; (fn. 86) he then went to Rome, and was there declared by the pope archbishop of York; (fn. 87) but the pope being sensible that he should provoke the king's heavy displeasure by it, revoked his papal provision, and soon after promoted him to the bishopric of Salisbury, and he made his profession of obedience to the archbishop of Canterbury, at Gloucester, on March 28, 1408, and this archdeaconry was vacated by him. (fn. 88)

52. JOHN WAKERING, chaplain to the king and keeper of the rolls in 1404, (fn. 89) was instituted archdeacon of Canterbury, on July 13, 1408, (fn. 90) probably by his proctor; for afterwards he is said to be admitted, perhaps inducted, to this archdeaconry on March 31, 1409, (fn. 91) in all likelihood in his own person, otherwise there is no reconciling the two different days of his institution or admission into this archdeaconry, as they are entered in the register of archbishop Arundel. He was made canon of Wells in 1409, and the same year he is said to have been keeper of the great seal; (fn. 92) in 1415 he was elected bishop of Norwich, and was consecrated on May 29, next year. (fn. 93) He has the character of having been a person of extraordinary merit, and bishop Godwin makes honourable mention of him.

53. HENRY RUMWORTH, aliasCirencester, was next collated to this dignity on June 5, 1416, and continued in possession of it on Dec. 10, 1418; (fn. 94) whilst he was archdeacon, he cited before him, John, bishop of St. Asaph, as not legally holding his bishopric, not being ever inducted or put into possession of it by his predecessor archdeacon Robert, as the manner was, and of right he should have been, it being one of the rights of the archdeacon to induct all bishops of the province into the possession of their sees. He was succeeded as archdeacon, by

54. WILLIAM CHICHELEY, of kindred to the archbishop of that name, prebendary of the church of Salisbury, (fn. 95) who was collated to this archdeaconry on Oct. 3, 1420, (fn. 96) at the time he was with the king in the French expedition; he was notary to the apostolic see and died at Rome in 1424. (fn. 97) He was succeeded by

55. PROSPER DE COLUMNA, a youth, then under fourteen years of age, who was by birth an Italian, of the noble family of that name, and nephew to pope Martin V. Being apostolic prothonotary, he was created a cardinal by the title of S. Georgii ad Vellus aureum, which title was agreeable to the rich provision that his uncle the pope had designed for him; for he not only advanced him by his bull of provision, dated June 10, 1424, to this archdeaconry, to which, however, the archbishop did not admit him till July 26, 1426, (fn. 98) but he also obtained a grant from the king, for his nephew to enjoy as many ecclesiastical benefices in England, as did not exceed the sum of sixty marcs a year, (fn. 99) and as he could not be capable of this dignity, by the laws of the realm, being an alien, the pope so far prevailed on the king, that he was, by royal indulgence, made denizen, and capable of the same, but so, that the pope should by his bull in express words, give way to the patron, freely to confer it afterwards, as it should fall void, and that this indulgence should not be drawn into example. (fn. 100)

But he seems to have fallen short of the great expectations he had from his uncle, and of the benefit of this grant, which was occasioned partly by the sudden death of the pope, who died of an apoplexy in 1431, and partly from the misfortunes of the Columna family, in that faction which they had raised against pope Eugenius IV. at which time this Prosper, as he was advised, quitted the city of Rome, and though he saved his life by it, yet he suffered much by having his goods plundered, and his palace pulled down in the tumult; not long after which, he seems to have resigned this archdeaconry, upon condition of an annual pension of 500 florins, to be paid to him out of it during his life; for upon his death, pope Pius II. bestowed the last year's pension upon Jacobus Ananatus, a Florentine, of Luca, bishop of Pavia, and cardinal presbiter of St. Chrysogonus, and commanded his successor to pay it. (fn. 101)

56. THOMAS CHICHELEY, a near relation of the archbishop's, was collated by him to this archdeaconry on December 14, 1433; (fn. 102) he appointed John Pentworth, to be register of his court, and his apparitorgeneral, which was confirmed by the archbishop on October 17, 1463. He was doctor of the canon law, and had several ecclesiastical preferments, as prebendary of the church of Lincoln, (fn. 103) provost of Wingham college, and master of the hospital of St. Thomas, in Canterbury, and was besides prothonotary of the apostolic see. (fn. 104) He obtained a bull from pope Eugenius, to confirm his archidiaconal right in proving wills; in the year 1449, he made a composition with Thomas Gage, the first provost of the collegiate church of Wye, (fn. 105) the year before which he presented a clerk to the vicarage of Tenham; (fn. 106) he was one of those to whom archbishop Chicheley committed the care and oversight of his splendid building of All Souls college, in Oxford; (fn. 107) he died in 1466, and was buried in the collegiate church of Wingham. (fn. 108)

57. THOMAS WYNTERBURN appears to have been archdeacon on September 1, 1448. He was present in the chapter-house, when John Oxney was elected prior of Christ-church, but he was obliged to declare, that he was present there, not as archdeacon, but as chancellor to the archbishop, (fn. 109) in 1478 he constituted John Sheffeld, a public notary, to be his apparitor-general; he was dean of Sts Paul's, (fn. 110) and had some other preferments, as may be seen in the history of the deans of that church. He died in 1478, and was succeeded as archdeacon by

58. JOHN BOURGCHIER, LL, B. a near relation to archbishop Bourghchier, who was by him collated to this dignity in February, 1479; (fn. 111) two years after which he appears to have been stiled doctor in the laws, and was a prebendary of the church of Wells. He died on November 6, in the year 1495, (fn. 112) and was buried in the chapel of the blessed Virgin Mary, usually called the Lady chapel, where his memorial still remains.

59. HUGH PENTHWIN was collated to this archdeaconry on November 26, 1495. (fn. 113) He and Henry Edyal, archdeacon of Rochester, were two of archbishop Morton's executors, and were the only administrators who acted in the performance of his will, and he was afterwards one of the executors of archbishop Dean's will; he died on August 6, in 1504, (fn. 114) and was succeeded by

60. WILLIAM WARHAM, a kinsman of archbishop Warham, who had a papal dispensation when he was made archdeacon, of not proceeding to higher orders for seven years, which being almost expired, was in 1520, renewed for six years longer. He had several rich benefices conferred upon him, for he was admitted to the prebend of Brounswood, in the church of St. Paul, (fn. 115) in 1515; he was collated to the rectory of Wrotham in 1517, to the provostship of Wingham in 1520; (fn. 116) and lastly, to the rectory of Haies; (fn. 117) at his instance, archbishop Warham founded a perpetual vicarage in the church of Wrotham, and thereby converted the rectory into a rich sinecure. (fn. 118) He attended cardinal Wolsey in his embassy to the French king in 1527; after the death of archbishop Warham, who died at his, the archdeacon's, house at Hackington, he resigned his ecclesiastical preferments, and had with the privity and consent of the then archibishop, Cranmer, a stipend or pension of 601. per annum, allowed him during his life, out of the archdeaconry, and 20l. per annum out of the provostship of Wingham; which continued to be paid by his two successors in the archdeaconry. (fn. 119)

61. EDMUND CRANMER, brother to archbishop Cranmer, was by him, on March 9, 1534, collated to this archdeaconry, and the provostship of Wingham, and had several rich benefices besides conferred on him by his brother soon after his being made archdeacon; he was promoted in 1549, to a prebend in Christ-church, and to the rectories of Clyve and Ickham, in this country; (fn. 120) about which time he is said to have alienated the parsonage house, commonly called the archdeacon's place, at Hackington, to the lord Cromwell and others. All the above preferments he continued to possess till queen Mary's reign, when in 1554 he was deprived of them for being married, and compelled to fly into Germany to save his life. He plainly confessed his marriage, alledging, that he thought his marriage lawful, and could never forsake his wife with a good conscience; upon which, sentence was pronounced against him, namely, to be suspended from executing the priestly functions, sequestered from all profits due to him, deprived of all ecclesiastical dignities and benefices, and enjoined to abstain from the marriage bed; to which sentence he submitted, without making any appeal or reply. (fn. 121)

62. NICHOLAS HARPSFIELD, LL. D. an eminent theologist, was, on his deprivation, presented to this dignity, (fn. 122) and was admitted to it on April 21, 1554.—He was born in the city of London, and educated in Wykeham's school at Winchester, and afterwards at New college, in Oxford, of which he became fellow, where he became very eminent both in the civil and canon law. In 1544 he was admitted principal of an antient hall, mostly for civilians, called Whitehall, on the scite of which Jesus college was afterwards partly built, and in 1546 he was appointed king's prosessor of the Greek tongue in the university. In 1553 he left his fellowship and took the degree of doctor of his faculty, and had then considerable practice in the court of arches. (fn. 123) Upon his institution into this archdeaconry, he made a solemn protestation, as was injoined him, that he would pay to William Warham, formerly archdeacon, during his life, the pension which had been settled on him out of the profits of the archdeaconry, as mentioned above, and decreed by Dr. John Cocks, vicar-general and principal official to the late archbishop Cranmer; in the same year, on April 27, he was admitted to the prebend of Harlston, in St. Paul's church, and two days afterwards to the church of Langdon, both void by the deprivation of Dr. John Hodgeskin. (fn. 124) In 1557 he visited all churches, as well exempt, as not exempt, within the diocese of Canterbury, and all chapels and hospitals; (fn. 125) at which time it appears, that he was rector of Saltwood, in this county; but in the year 1559 he was deprived of all his dignities and benefices in the church, and was committed prisoner to the Fleet in the beginning of queen Eliza beth's reign, for not acknowledging the queen's supremacy, after which he continued about twenty-four years a prisoner, which was to the time of his death, which happened in 1583. His confinement was easy, without any hardship or want; here he found leisure to compile several books, of which some remain in manuscript, and others have been printed; the chief of which is, his ecclesiastical history, printed at Douay in 1622; (fn. 126) towards the writing of which, archbishop Parker gave him much encouragement in the free use of his registers.

The character of him and his writings, are given with such different censures by those who have mentioned him, so clearly contrary, and to every appearance so full of partiality, as the one or the other of them have been protestants or papists, or at least inclined to the cause of either persuasion, that it is perhaps difficult to judge the real truth of it. On the one side Pitseus, the compiler of the Athenæ Oxonienses, (fn. 127) and some others, give him and his history great commendations; whilst Fox the martyrologist, the author of the Anglia Sacra, and of the English Historical Library, and others of the same sort, give their severe censures, as much to the contrary; however, the general unprejudiced opinion is become much in favour of him, and the commendations the former have bestowed on him.

63. EDMUND GEAST, or Guest, as his name is sometinies spelt, fellow of King's college, in Cambridge, was promoted by the queen to this archdeaconry in October, 1559 (fn. 128) He was son of Thomas Gheast, of the family of that name, of Rough Heath, in Worcestershire, being born at Afferton, in Yorkshire, (fn. 129) and on Jan. 21, in that year, was consecrated bishop of Rochester, and about the same time made almoner to the queen; in 1571 he was translated to Salisbury, till when he held this archdeaconry in commendam; upon his vacating it, (fn. 130)

64. EDMUND FREAK, S.T. P. was next constituted archdeacon; he was born in Essex, and educated at Cambridge; in 1564 he was promoted to a canonry of Westminster; in 1565 to a canonry of Windsor, and on April 10, 1570, was installed dean of Rochester; in 1571 he was made dean of Salisbury, but before he was well settled in that stall, he was elected bishop of Rochester, and was consecrated on March 9, 1571. He had a dispensation, by which he held this archdeaconry, and the rectory of Purleigh, together with his bishopric in commendam; but this dispensation became void in 1576, on his being translated to the see of Norwich; after this he was again translated to the see of Worcester, where he died in 1590, having left behind him the character of being a pious, learned and grave person. (fn. 131)

65. WILLIAM REDMAN, S. T. P. was instituted archdeacon on May 14, 1576. (fn. 132) He was son of John Redman, of Shelford, in Cambridgeshire, and was educated in Trinity college, in Cambridge, (fn. 133) of which he became fellow, and taking orders, was in 1589, further promoted to a canonry in this church, made rector of Bishopsborne, in this county, and in 1594, bi shop of Norwich, (fn. 134) when he vacated this dignity of the archdeaconry, (fn. 135) which was bestowed on

66. CHARLES FOTHERBY, who was collated to it on January 28, 1596, (fn. 136) at which time he was a prebendary of this church; in 1615 he was made dean of it, but he still kept this archdeaconry till his death, which happened on March 29, 1619. He was buried in the dean's chapel, near the martyrdom in this church. (fn. 137)

67. WILLIAM KINGSLEY, S. T. P. fellow of All Souls college, in Oxford, was collated by archbishop Abbot to the archdeaconry, in his room, being then a prebendary of this church. (fn. 138) He died on January 29, 1647, and was buried in the lower south wing or isle of this church, where his gravestone still remains with this inscription: Here lyeth interred the body of WILLIAM KINGSLEY, once archdeacon of Canterbury, and prebendary of Christ church; a person as exemplary in his life, as he was sound in his doctrine. He took to wife, Damaris, daughter of Mr. John Abbot, of Guildford, and brother to George, lord archbishop of Canterbury; by whom he had sixteen children: as he lived, so he died piously, on the 29th of January, 1647; in memory of whom his dear wife hath caused this memorial. Here lyeth also the body of DAMARIS, the wife of the above named William Kingsley, obit Oct. 30, 1678, æt at. 85. He was a considerable benefactor to the library of the cathedral.

68. GEORGE HALL, S. T. P. was, upon the restoration of king Charles II. in 1660, collated to this archdeaconry. (fn. 139) He was son of Dr. Joseph Hall, bishop of Exeter, and afterwards of Norwich, being born at Waltham abbey, in Essex, and educated at Exeter college, in Oxford, of which he became fellow; after which, taking orders, he became archdeacon of Cornwall, and vicar of Mayhenet, in that county. Some time before the restoration he had been first preacher of St. Bartholomew, near the Old Exchange, and afterwards vicar of St. Botolph's church, without Aldersgate; after the restoration he became one of the king's chaplains, canon of Windsor, and then archdeacon of this diocese; at length he was on May 11, 1662, consecrated bishop of Chester, and continued in this archdeaconry by a commendam, as he did in the rich rectory of Wigan, in Lancashire, conferied on him about that time. (fn. 140)

69. WILLIAM SANCROFT, S. T. P. succeeded to this dignity in 1668, and was afterwards promoted to the deanry of St. Paul's, upon which he resigned this archdeaconry in 1670; he was afterwards promoted to the archbishopric of Canterbury, where a further account may be seen of him.

70. SAMUEL PARKER, S. T. P. was installed archdeacon in his room, in June, 1670. He was the son of John Parker, a lawyer, and at length sergeant at law; being sent to Wadham college, in Oxford, he was there educated in rigid Presbyterian principles, but upon the restoration he changed over to Trinity college, and became a convert to episcopacy and the church of England; after which he entered into orders, and in 1667 was made chaplain to archbishop Sheldon, being sent for, for that purpose, to Lambeth; three years after which he was promoted to this archdeaconry, as above-mentioned; on Nov. 18, 1672, he was installed prebendary of Canterbury, having been collated in 1667, to the rectory of Chartham, and in 1671 to that of Ickham, both in this county. In the beginning of 1685, he resigned his prebend, and on October 17, next year, was consecrated bishop of Oxford, having licence to hold in commendam the rectory of Ickham, the mastership of Eastbridge hospital, and this archdeaconry. He was in 1687, by the king's mandate, put by force in possession of the presidentship of Magdalen college, in Oxford, being then inclined much to temporize and change his communion. Wood calls him an eminent and celebrated writer, and gives a long account of his several writings. (fn. 141) He died at the president's lodgings in Magdalen college, on March 20, 1687, and was buried on the south side of the chapel there. (fn. 142)

71. JOHN BATTELY, S. T. P. was collated to this archdeaconry on March 23, and was installed on March 24, 1687; he was born at St. Edmundsbury; in Suffolk, was fellow of Trinity college, in Cambridge, and domestic chaplain to archbishop Sancroft, who collated him to the rectory of Adisham, and in 1688 to a prebend in this cathedral church. He died on Oct. 10, 1708, æt. 61, and was buried in the lower south wings or cross isle of this church, where there is a mural monument put up to his memory, with the following inscription:

H. S. E.

Buriæ Sti Edmundi in Suffolciâ natus, collegii Scæ Trinitatis Cantabrigi socius, a sacris Domesticis Reverendissimo Willielmo Sancroft, archiepisco Cantuariensi, a quo meritissima accepit præmia, rectoriam de Adisham prope hanc urbem, hujus ecclesiæ metropoliticæ canonicatum, hujusq; diœceseos archidiaconatum, quæ omnia summâ cum side, & prudentia administravit munia, vir integerrima in Deum pietate, honestissimis, et suavissimis Moribus.

Excellenti divinarum et humanarum
Literarum scientia, singulari in egenos
Beneficentia, in suos charitate,
Candore et benignitate in omnes.
His tot præclaris dotibus hanc
Basilicam, totamq; ecclesiam
Anglicanam insigniter ornavit.
Obiit Octob. x. anno domini
MDCCVIII. Ætatis suæ LXI.

72. THOMAS GREEN, S. T. P. was in his room collated to this archdeaconry in 1708, being then a prebendary of this church; he was in 1721 consecrated bishop of Norwich, and in 1723 was translated to Ely; but on his becoming bishop of Norwich, (fn. 143) he vacated this preferment and was succeeded by

73. THOMAS BOWERS, S. T. P. who was collated to it by archbishop Wake in 1721; he was next year promoted to the bishopric of Chichester, and seems to have held this archdeaconry in commendam, till it was given to

74. SAMUEL LISLE, S. T. P. who was installed archdeacon in 1724, and was afterwards a prebendary of this church; he was in 1744 consecrated bishop of St. Asaph, but he held this dignity of the archdeaconry in commendam with his bishopric, till he was, in 1748, consecrated bishop of Norwich; when

75. JOHN HEAD, S. T. P. was collated to this preferment by archbishop Herring in 1748, and installed on April 15. He was the youngest son of Sir Francis Head, bart. and was educated a student of Christ-church, in Oxford. When he was promoted to this dignity, he was prebendary of this church of Canterbury; he was first rector of Pluckley, and of St. George's and St. Mary's, Burgate, in this city, both which he resigned on being inducted to the rectory of Ickham, which he held at his death, as well as the prebend of Barton Colwall, in the church of Hereford. Besides which, he was master of the hospitals of St. John, in Canterbury, and of St. Nicholas, in Harble-. down. By the death of his elder brother Sir Francis Head, he succeeded to the title of baronet in 1768, which he enjoyed but a small time, for he died at his prebendal house in Canterbury, on Dec. 4, 1769, without surviving issue, universally regretted for his urbanity of manners, his unaffected piety, and universal benevolence, and was buried in a vault in the chancel of Ickham church. (fn. 144)

76. WILLIAM BACKHOUSE, S. T. P. was next promoted to this archdeaconry, and was installed on Dec. 18, 1769, and in 1771 was collated to the rectory of Ickham, as he was to that of Deal in 1776, in which year he had a dispensation to hold them together; in October, 1777, he was inducted to the mastership of Eastbridge hospital, in Canterbury, which preferments he held till his death, which happened at his parsonage-house at Deal, to which he had been a good benefactor, by rebuilding it in a very handsome manner, on Sept. 28, 1788. He died unmarried, and was buried in the chancel of Deal church.

77. JOHN LYNCH, LL. D. was next promoted to this dignity on Nov. 7, 1788. He was the second son of Dr. John Lynch, dean of this church, and was educated at Christ-church, in Oxford, of which he was a student; he was first rector of St. Matthew, Fridaystreet, London; in 1771 he was collated to the rectory of Adisham, which he in 1781 exchanged, by consent of the patrons of both, with Dr. John Palmer, for the fifth stall in the church of Canterbury; and in 1782 was presented to the rectory of St. Dionis Backchurch, in London, both which preferments he holds at this time, and is the present archdeacon of this diocese; a gentleman, whose affability and courtesy of behaviour, benevolence of heart, and diffusive charity, have deservedly gained him universal esteem and commendation. (fn. 145)


  • 1. Col. 2212.
  • 2. Batt. Somn. pt. ii. p. 146.
  • 3. Ibid. pt. i. p. 152.
  • 4. Gervas, col. 1643. Batt. Somn. p. 152, pt. ii. p. 146.
  • 5. Leland calls him, the archdeacon of Elphage, whose burial place is said to have been in the north porch of the church of the monastery of St. Augustine, iu Canterbury. It should seem more probable from the place of his burial, that though perhaps Elphage might have constituted him archdeacon, whilst bishop of Winchester, yet that he retained him in that office, whilst he was archbishop.
  • 6. Battely, pt. ii, p. 146. See above, in the life of archbishop Elphage.
  • 7. Edsin stands next in Mr. Somner's list of archdeacons, but it is upon a supposition, that every bishop of St. Martin's was likewise archdeacon, a notion which Mr. Battely has controverted with strong probability. Battely, pt. ii. p. 148.
  • 8. It is said that Lanfranc repented his constituting an archdeacon, instead of a bishop of St. Martin's, which is not a thing to be credited, for the archbishop was a man of great spirit, and not apt to be troubled upon slight occasions. He was prudent, and therefore, not likely to do any thing he should afterwards repent of. If he was displeased with the archdeacon or archdeaconry, he could as easily alter the constitution, or remove the person at his pleasure, as he is said to have appointed either of them; and in stead of repenting, we soon find an archdeacon of Canterbury, in his days, acting in the same station as his successor. Battely, pt. ii. p. 148.
  • 9. Eadmer Hist. Nov. lib. iii. p. 57, 98. Somner, p. 153.
  • 10. Among the archives of Christ-church.
  • 11. Eadmer Hist. Nov. lib. v. p. 114. Anglia Sacra, pt. i. p. 109, 800. Gervas, col. 1662.
  • 12. Eadmer Hist. Nov. lib. v. p. 114. Batt. Somn. p. 153. M. Paris. Malmsbury. Ang. Sacra, pt. i. p. 70; and Saxon Chron. anno MCXXIII.
  • 13. Hoveden; Rad. de Diceto, &c. Bromton, col. 1015. Ang. Sacra, pt. i. p. 343. Battely, pt. ii. p. 149.
  • 14. Battely, pt. ii. p. 149.
  • 15. See Battely. pt. 1, appendix, No. lviii.
  • 16. Textus Roffensis. Gervas, col. 1341, 1346.
  • 17. Gervas, col. 1362. Antiq. Brit. vita Theobald. Godwin. Catal in Walter.
  • 18. Stephen Birchington. Rad, de Diceto, 510, 529. Imag. Histor. col. 529. Gervas, col. 1376. Battely, pt. ii. p. 150.
  • 19. Batt. Somn. pt. i. p. 154, appendix, No. lviii.
  • 20. Battely, pt. ii. p. 150.
  • 21. R. de Diceto, col. 511, 534.
  • 22. See Madox's Exchequer, p. 741, 743.
  • 23. M. Paris. Hoveden. Epist. Thomæ de Vitandis Excommunicatis. Buttely, pt. ii. p. 150.
  • 24. R. de Diceto, col. 588.
  • 25. See this grant to the archdeacon of Canterbury, in Batt. Somn. appendix, No. lix. This charter is transcribed from the archdeacon's black book, where this, and another charter were inserted, by archbishop Parker; and these words in the margin, viz. Concessio Personalis circa annum Domini 1230— were written by that archbishop's own hand, plainly relating to the latter. Battely, pt. ii. p. 151; and some annotations relating to it, made in the archdeacon's book, by a later hand, in Battely, append. No. xxxii.
  • 26. R. de Diceto, col. 522, 673. Gervas, col. 1588.
  • 27. Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 155. Battely, pt. ii. p. 151; during his time, I find a charter of inspeximus of archbishop Hubert, of land given to St. Radigund's abbey, to which is a witness, Magro Radulf. vice archidiacono.
  • 28. Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 155.
  • 29. Thorn, col. 1857. Regist. St. Aug. Chron. Annal, Wigorn, p. 487. Among the archives of the dean and chapter, in their treasury, is a seal of this archdeacon; oval, the archdeacon standing robed, in his right hand a church, in his left a book, a tower in the lower part, on each side; legend—SIGILLUM HENRICI CANTUARIENSIS ARCHIDIACONI, D. 166.
  • 30. Mathew Paris.
  • 31. See this instrument, in Battely's Somner, appendix, No. Ixa.
  • 32. See both these instruments in Batt. Somn. appendix, No. 1x. and the following ones.
  • 33. See this instrument, in Battely's Somner, pt. i. appendix, No. lxii.
  • 34. See Godwin.
  • 35. Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 157.
  • 36. Battely's Somner, pt. ii. p. 152.
  • 37. Anno 1250. he appointed Roger de Elham his official; and afterwards, one Mr. Omer in the lame place.
  • 38. Battely, pt. ii. p.153.
  • 39. Battely, pt. ii. p. 153.
  • 40. Ibaid.
  • 41. See Matthew Paris, anno 1245.
  • 42. See Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 158.
  • 43. Viz. the parish church of St. Margaret's Canterbury, to the poor priells hospital there; and the church of Preston to the abbot and convent of St. Augustine.
  • 44. Batt. Somn. p. 158, appendis, No. Ixii.
  • 45. Chron. T. Wilkes. Matthew Westminster.
  • 46. Battely's Somn. p. 158, pt. ii. p. 151.
  • 47. Batt. Somn. ibid.
  • 48. Ibid.
  • 49. He was first so constituted in 1293, and a second time in 1307. Annol. Wigorn. Histor. Elien.
  • 50. Godwin, in the catalogue of the bishops of Ely, Anglia Sacra, pt i. p. 639. Matthew Paris.
  • 51. Batt. Somn. pt. i. p. 158. In 1332, he sent a precious cup to the shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury, by Thomas Searles, his clerk. Batt. Somn. pt. i p. 158.
  • 52. Prynne, p 1097, calls him Lebreto.
  • 53. See the archdeacon's black book.
  • 54. It will, says Mr. Battely, p. 154, give some light into the following account of some of the archdeacons, if we here observe, that Raymond Goth, born at Mihandrall, within the diocese of Bordeaux, was first, bishop of Cominges, then archbishop of Bordeaux, and then elected pope. Anno 1305 he sent for the cardinais to come to him at Lyons, where he was inaugurated by the name of pope Clement V. and from this beginning the Roman court was translated from Rome to France, where it continued about seventy years, by this he was guided in his search, after several of the following archdeacons of Canterbury, to look for them in their native soil in some province of France, in particular Britany, Aquitaine, Lemoisin, and Gascony, the country of pope Clement V.
  • 55. In Rym. Fæd. vol. iii. p. 767, there is a letter from the king to the pope, in which he says, that understanding the archdeaconry of Canterbury, which the son of his faithful and well beloved Amanenus, lord of Labreto, lately held; and which, on his being married as was reported, had been declared vacant in the court of Rome; he recommended to the pope Master Henry de Burghersh, whom he had appointed archdeacon in his room, dated at york, May 10, anno 12 Edward Il. 1319; and by another letter to the pope, dated Nov. 2, in his 13th year, the king recommended Henry de Burghersh to the bishopric of Winchester; which Henry was nephew to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, steward of his household. Rym. Fæd. ibid.
  • 56. In Rym. Fœd vol. iv. p. 48, is the pope's bull, dated anno 1324, in favor of Raimund, cardinal deacon of St. Mary in Colmedin, whom the pope had made archdeacon of Canterbury, requesting the king, as he had often done by his letters before, to admit the said cardinal into the full and peaceable possession of this dignity.
  • 57. Regist. Eccl. Cantuar. G. Regist. Reynolds.
  • 58. Regist. Episc. Wellens Eccl.
  • 59. Regist. Grandison; Episc. Exon. Regist. Ecclef. Christi Cantuar. Battely, pt. ii. p. 155. To him Nicholas Trivet dedicated his history.
  • 60. Dugd. Warw. p. 515. Regist, Eccl. Christ Cant. 6.
  • 61. Robert de Stratford, archdeacon of Canterbury, and elect of Chichester, was made chancellor and keeper of the seal, Oct. 23, II Edward III. anno 1338. Dugd. Orig.
  • 62. Dugd. Orig. Wood Antiq. Oxon. Battely, p:. ii. p. 155.
  • 63. Regist. Eccl. Christi Cant.
  • 64. The former thus wrote himself:—Hugh Pelegrin, treasurer of Lichfield, nuncio of the apostolical see to England, vicargeneral in spirituals to the Rev. Father in Christ Peter Rogerius, archdeacon of Canterbury, cardinal deacon of the holy church of Rome. Batt. Somn. p. 159
  • 65. Mem. ex parte rem. Thesau. anno 39 Edw. III. rot. 19 Battely, pt. ii. p. 155.
  • 66. Regist. Eccl. Christi Cant.
  • 67. Fox's Acts and Monuments. Batt. Somn. p. 160.
  • 68. Regist. Eccl. Christi Cant. Battely, pt. ii. p. 156.
  • 69. He is called in the patent of 2 Richard II. p. 2, m. S, Adomar de la Roche, archdeacon of Canterbury; in which patent the king reciting that the archdeacon had taken part with the French, the king's enemies, by the advice of his council, he had caused the revenues and profits of the archdeaconry to be seized and taken into his own hands; but on account of the special grace and affection which he bore to this church, and especially on account of his father's lying buried there, he grants all the possessions, emoluments, &c. as far as he can, to Simon, archbishop of Canterbury, in aid of the great work which the archbishop at his great charges was carrying on, on the body of it, to hold them for so long time as they should continue in the king's hands. See Rym. Fœd. vol. vii. p. 216.
  • 70. Fox's Acts and Monuments, pt. i. p. 562.
  • 71. Regist. Eccl. Christi Cant.
  • 72. Regist. Cur. Archid. Cant.
  • 73. Batt. Soma. p. 160.
  • 74. He was the archbishop's commissary, in his proceedings against the Wiclivians, anno 1382. See Council. Brit. vol. ii. p. 631
  • 75. Regist. Courtney.
  • 76. Regist. Cant.
  • 77. Regist. Medford, Episc. Sarum.
  • 78. Regist. Bulwith, Episc. Sarum.
  • 79. It is extant, among the church records, and in the leiger of the consistory. See a transcript of it, printed in Battely, pt. ii. appendix, No. xxxiii.
  • 80. Battely, pt. ii. p. 156.
  • 81. Ibid pt. i. p. 160.
  • 82. Regist. Cant.
  • 83. Regist. Ebor.
  • 84. Regist. Cant.
  • 85. Regist. Cant. A.
  • 86. Antiq. Oxon.
  • 87. Thomas Walsingham, anno 1406.
  • 88. There is one remarkable thing to be noticed of him. In the same year that he was made bishop of Sarum, he, together with Henry Chichely, bishop of St. David's, and Tho. Chillenden, prior of Christ-church, were by the prelates who were convened in a synod at London, nominated and appointed to go as legates or deputies from the English bishops, to an occumenical council to be held at Pisa, a city in Tuscany. In their journey they passed through Paris, where John Gerson, the famous theologist, entertained them with a notable sermon.—They made a solemn entrance into Pisa, before the end of April. The bishop of Sarum made an elegant speech to the archbishops and bishops, who were assembled, to the number of 140, besides a multitude of abbots and other ecclefiastical persons. In 1411, this Robert was created a cardinal presbyter. See Battely, pt. ii. p. 156; who by the above, corrects the mistake of bishop Godwin, in his account of this legation, in his work, p. 495.
  • 89. Pat. 6 Henry IV. p. i. m. 12.
  • 90. Regist. Arundel I.
  • 91. Regist. Arundel II.
  • 92. Sir H. Spelman says, he was keeper of the privy seal to king Henry IV.
  • 93. Ang. Sac. p. i. p. 417. Rym, Foed. vol. ix. p. 321, 337, 338.
  • 94. Regist. Chicheley, Black Book.
  • 95. Regist. Sarum.
  • 96. Regist. Chicheley.
  • 97. Batt. Somn. pt. i. p. 161; pt. ii. p. 123.
  • 98. Regist. Chicheley.
  • 99. Duck's life of Chicheley.
  • 100. Batt. Somn. pt. i. p. 161; pt. ii. p. 123.
  • 101. He appears to have been present at the council of Basil, in 1435; and at Ferrara, in 1438; and at Florence, to which the same council was transferred in 1439, and subscribed to the acts. He was constituted archdeacon of the holy church of Rome in 1449. Battely, pt. ii. p. 157.
  • 102. Regist. Chicheley.
  • 103. Regist. Grey Episc. Linc.
  • 104. Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 161.
  • 105. See this instrument printed in Battely, pt. ii. appendix, No. xxvii.
  • 106. Regist Cant.
  • 107. Antiq. Oxon. lib, ii. p. 173.
  • 108. Battely, pt. ii. p. 158.
  • 109. Regist. Cant.
  • 110. Wharton, p. 229.
  • 111. See Regist. Bourghchier.
  • 112. Battely, pt. ii. p. 158.
  • 113. Regist. Morton.
  • 114. See Stow's survey of London.
  • 115. Regist Fitz James, Episc. London.
  • 116. Regist. Cant.
  • 117. Regist. Eccle. Christi Cant.
  • 118. Stow's Annals.
  • 119. Regist. Cranmer. Battely, pt. ii. p. 158.
  • 120. Regist. Eccles. Christi Cant.
  • 121. The whole process is entered in the registers of this church, and contains a specimen of the manner of proceeding against the married clergy in those times; it is printed in Battely, pt. ii. appendix, No. xxxiii.
  • 122. He was presented by queen Mary, in the vacancy of the see, on April 2, 1554, Rym. Fæd. vol. xv. p. 381.
  • 123. See Wood's Ath. vol. i. col. 214.
  • 124. See Regist. Bonner.
  • 125. The records of this visitation are still extant, in the office of the archdeacon's register.
  • 126. The original, in his own hand writing, is in the Cotton library, marked Vitellius, C. ix. No. 12; and there is a treatise of his, concerning marriage, occasioned by Henry VIII.'s divorce, in New college library, in Oxford.
  • 127. Vol. I. col. 214, where there is an account of his several writings.
  • 128. Wood's Ath. vol. i. col. 700.
  • 129. Rym. Foed. vol. xv. p. 1543.
  • 130. Battely's Somner, pt. i. p. 162; pt. ii. p. 159. He died in 1576, and was buried at Salibury.
  • 131. Battely, pt. ii. p. 160.
  • 132. Regist. Grindal. Rym. Foed. vol. xv. p. 752.
  • 133. He gave 100 marcs to the improvement of the building of the college library.
  • 134. He died in 1602, and was buried in that cathedral, leaving his widow Isabel surviving, and several children. Wood's Ath vol. i. p. 701.
  • 135. Battely, pt. ii. p. 160. He died in 1602, and was buried in Norwich cathedral.
  • 136. Regist. Whitgist, p. 11.
  • 137. See a further account of him, in the list of deans of this church.
  • 138. In a register of these precincts is an entry, March 1, 1632, and the same for the years 1634, 1635, 1638, and 1639; received of Dr. Kingsley, archdeacon, 6s. 8d. to be distributed to the poor within the precincts, which he was to pay for a licence to eat flesh, granted to him and others by the archbishop, his diocesan, and confirmed under the broad seal by his Majesty. Witness, Matthew Wariner, sacrist; which note is inserted here, particularly to shew the custom of that time, so different from that at present.
  • 139. See Regist. Juxon.
  • 140. He died at Wigan in 1668, and was there buried. See Wood's Ath. vol. ii. col. 416.
  • 141. pt. ii. col 297.
  • 142. Battely, pt. ii. p. 160. Wood's Ath. vol. ii. col. 814—See his life in Biog. Brit. vol. v. p. 3300.
  • 143. Biog. Brit. vol. vii. appendix, p. 112 [G]; and among the prebendaries of this church. He died in 1738, æt. 80.
  • 144. He married first Jane, daughter of the Rev. Peter Leigh, by whom he had several children, who all died before him; and secondly, in 1751, Jane, sister of Wm. Geekie, D. D. prebendary of Canterbury, who survived him, but by whom he had no issue; they all lie buried in the vault above-mentioned.
  • 145. See more of archdeacon Lynch in the account of the family of Lynch, under Staple, vol. ix. of the Hist. of Kent, p. 187.