Between the Hermitage and the Hospital of St. Mary, Rounceval

Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1935.

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'Between the Hermitage and the Hospital of St. Mary, Rounceval', in Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross, (London, 1935) pp. 240-257. British History Online [accessed 13 April 2024]


The frontage between the hermitage and the Hospital of St. Mary, Rounceval, seems to have been first built upon about the year 1400. A document of Westminster Abbey (fn. n1) giving the rents received by the Chapel of St. Mary in 1392–4 mentions the receipt of 12d. in respect of a certain vacant place lying between "Rouncevale" and the hermitage. In the account for 1405–6 (fn. n2) is an item concerning ten shops at "Charryng" belonging to the sacristan, which appear in the account for 1411–2 (fn. n3) as ten shops near "Rouncyvall" demised to the sacristan, and in a statement of receipts for the years following 1413 (fn. n4) the ten shops are specified as "inter Rouncyvall et heremitagium." On 31st August, 1487, the Abbot of Westminster leased (fn. n5) to John "Hareys" nine tenements situated together near "Charyngcrosse" with gardens adjoining, abutting on "le Rouncevall" on the north, on the garden of "le Rouncevall" on the east, on the ground called "Scotlond" on the south, and on the royal way leading from "Rouncevall" to Westminster on the west. No dimensions are given, but these are supplied in a lease of the same property to John Henbury on 19th December, 1519, (fn. n6) in which the premises are said to contain in length along the street to the chapel or hermitage of St. Katherine 167 feet 3 inches, and in width from the street eastward next the chapel 143 feet, extended westward "triangulariter" near the estate ("fundum") of St. Mary of "Rouncevall" and next the estate opposite called "le Scotlond," 203 feet. The length of 167 feet from the centre of the entrance into Craig's Court, representing the original northern boundary of Hornebolte's house, on the hermitage property (see p. 226), takes us to the northern boundary of No. 1, Whitehall, which from other considerations can be shown to be the southern limit of the Rounceval property on the street frontage.

On 18th May, 1531, Henry VIII, who had acquired the freehold from Westminster Abbey, purchased (fn. n7) Henbury's interest, and at once proceeded to pull down and rebuild the houses. (fn. n8)

Site of the former No. 20, Charing Cross. On 14th March, 1547–8, Edward VI granted (fn. n9) to William Delahey a 21 years' lease of a messuage then in the latter's tenure. The Ministers' Accounts show that the premises had formerly been on lease to John Wylton and John Ibleton. Subsequently Robert Gardiner, "sergant of her mats seller," obtained a reversionary grant for 21 years. (fn. n10) No record of a grant in perpetuity has been found, but his grandson Richard was distinctly under the impression that Robert was "lawefullye seised in his Demeane as of fee" in the messuage, when on 26th May, 1565, he granted a 25 years' lease of it to Thomas Putterell, then in occupation. The property was described as "ioyninge on a Tenement then in the Tenure of one Peter Nicholson on the south parte, and the Tenement … of William Horsley on the north parte, and adioyninge upon a Tenement … of John Rede on the east parte, and the street Leadinge betwene Charinge Crosse and Westm' palac on the west parte." The property descended to Robert Gardiner's son, Richard, on whose death in 1594 it came to the latter's son, Richard. In 1609–10 Sir John Parker, who had a lease of the adjoining house, formerly of Horsley, "not beinge Contented wth soe much as was in the tenure of the sayd William Horsley," had encroached on what Gardiner considered his freehold, and, moreover, put forward a claim on behalf of the King to the whole of Gardiner's premises. The result was the suit (fn. n11) in which Gardiner, David Hughes and Edmond Newsham, (fn. n12) the two latter being Gardiner's tenants, were the defendants, and which has given us the valuable plan of this and the adjoining property in 1610 (Plate 110).

A few words on this plan are called for. The signature at the bottom is illegible save for the word "Robt.," but from the depositions in the suit it appears that the author was Robert Tresswell. It shows the whole of the premises between "Scotland" and Rounceval. The two centre houses marked "Sir John Parker "and "Mr Gardyner," and shown in ground plan, are described with some exactness, but the plan was probably not intended to show the rest of the houses with meticulous accuracy, and while giving a true general impression cannot be relied upon in details. None of the measurements (except of the two centre houses) agrees with the facts save that of 143 feet from the street to the north-east corner of "The Armitage." The latter is represented with an eastern boundary roughly parallel to the line of the street, but this is very wide of the mark, for its south-east corner was really about 220 feet from the street, and the appearance of the plot is therefore misleading. Moreover, the wall of "Scotland" was not straight as shown on the plan. The plan reproduced on p. 218 shows that the eastern half of the Scotland Yard boundary had two noticeable "kinks," and there was an even more prominent one (see p. 224) near the western end. It is probable, however, that the number of houses shown is accurate.

Apparently Parker's contention that Gardiner had no right to the house was upheld, for on 21st March, 1610–11, the King granted it in perpetuity at a rent of 20s. a year to Robert Elliot and William Awdeley. The latter, on 14th June, 1611, transferred their interest to Sir John Parker, who surrendered the property, (fn. n13) and on 17th March, 1611–12, received from the King a fresh grant in perpetuity at the same rent. (fn. n14) There is some evidence that the house was shortly afterwards rebuilt. (fn. n15) Parker's property descended to his nephew, Sir Thomas Parker, who in his will, dated 28th March, 1653, left (fn. n16) it to George, his eldest son. In 1663–4 George Parker sold the premises to James "Crag." (fn. n17) In his will dated 11th November, 1669, (fn. n18) James "Cragg," of Westminster, cook, mentions three messuages "neere Charinge Crosse." The one, "knowne by the name of the Talbott, wherein I formerly lived," he left to his wife for life and afterwards to his son Joseph. The other two, "the one in the occupation of Mr Alexander Cully and the other called the Cheshire house," he left to Joseph. The latter are to be equated with the two portions of the adjoining house to the north, formerly occupied by Sir John Parker, and The Talbot must therefore be the house now in question. The frontage is shown on the plan of 1610 as 21 feet, but that of the later No. 20, Charing Cross, to which the house corresponded, was only about 15 feet. The evidence of the ratebooks suggests that the house was rebuilt at the time of the formation of Craig's Court, and it thus appears that about 6 feet of the frontage was utilised for the entrance into the court.

One of the earliest occupiers of the newly built house was George Dewell, (fn. n19) who is shown there from 1707 to 1722. His widow continued at the house until 1731, when she was succeeded by Paul Fourdrinier, whose family occupied the premises until 1810.

The site is now covered by the building of the National Bank (No. 15, Whitehall).

Site of the former No. 19, Charing Cross. On 14th March, 1547–8, the King granted (fn. n20) to William Horsley a 21 years' lease of a messuage then in the latter's tenure. The Ministers' Accounts show that the original lessee had been John Payne. Horsley, on 5th December, 1562, received a new lease for 21 years, and on 17th June, 1573, a reversionary lease, also for 21 years, from Michaelmas, 1583, was granted to Katherine Hampton, who parted with her interest to John Ruff, who had married Horsley's widow, Frances. Ruff died, and his widow married Thomas Walker, who in 1590 applied for a fresh lease. The report on the application states that the "now Tennante hath well repayred of late the said houses otherwise than common Fermors do use to doe, And I finde the now Tennante ready to pull downe the backe parte of the building of the sayd house, for that the same building ys a very weake buildinge, And he will newe builde the same agayne at his owne Costes." (fn. n21) A lease for 33 years was granted to Frances, now for the third time a widow, on 26th April, 1591, and on 25th September, 1601, she obtained a fresh lease for 50 years, on condition that she would spend £60 in repair and rebuilding within the space of four years. (fn. n22) On the following day Frances conveyed (fn. n23) to her son-in-law, Thomas Hibbots, and Anne, his wife, all her "leases, Takings, goods & Chattles whatsoever." The reasons she gave for this step were that Hibbots had "disbursed for me the some of One hundred Markes … about the Repayringe of the house wherein I nowe dwell and in procuring a lease thereof for me and in my name … and did also heretofore redeeme my ould lease of the same house Wch was mortgaged by my late husband, Thomas Walker, and forfeyted to Mary James of London, widdowe, and also hath lente unto me diverse Somes of monye and bynn at Chardges Wth me during the Tyme of my long sicknes, And hath undertaken to pay unto Michaell Harrison, yoman, such mony as I doe owe him." Moreover the transfer was to be in satisfaction "of all such legacies as I am to paye unto the said Thomas in right of his wife, Wch are severallye due unto her by the late wills and Testamts of William Horseley and John Ruffe deceased, my former husbands."

On 21st June, 1608, Hibbots sold (fn. n24) the lease to Sir John Parker, who, on 6th June, 1609, obtained (fn. n25) a fresh lease for 60 years. He is shown in the ratebooks as succeeding Hibbots in 1609, and his name continues until 1617. On 5th February, 1629–30, Thomas Cary obtained a grant (fn. n26) of this, among other property, for a term of 41 years after the expiry of Parker's lease.

Sir John Parker

In 1651 the premises comprised two buildings, which in May of that year were described as follows: (fn. n27)

"The Marmayde Taverne. (fn. n28) —All that Taverne or Tenemt Comonly called … the Mermayd Taverne lying … nere Charing Crosse … Consisting of an entrie at the Comeing in of the said Taverne of 58 feete in length from the Street backewards and three feete in breadth, consisting of one Taverne Roome and one Kitchen wth a Sellar under neath ye same, and above staires in the first Storie two Roomes, and in the second storie two Roomes, and over the same Two Garretts, the ground whereon the said House stands wth a small Court yard Contayning forty eight feete in length, and in breadth thirteene feete & ½, standing betweene the House of Sr Thomas Parker South, and the House in the occupacion of Alice Gifford north, and abutting on the ground of Sir Roger Palmer on the East, and a House now the signe of the Crowne on the West, now in the occupacion of one Mr George Oldfeild, and is worth per Annum xx li.

"The Crowne—All that Tenement built wth Timber and Flemish wall and Covered with Tile, commonly called … the Crowne scittuate … as aforesaid, and adioyning to the aforesaid Tenemt, consisting of one faire shopp, and a Kitchen behind the same Paved wth Purbeck stone, well fitted and ioynted, and one Celler underneath the same, and above staires one faire Dyning Roome next to the Street, and one Chamber, and a Clossett behind the same, and in ye second storie two Chambers and two Clossetts, and over the same a Garrett, divided into three Chambers. Also one small sincke or Back-Court wth a Shedd there about tenn feete square, now in the occupacion of Mr Malue, (fn. n29) and is worth per Annum xl li."

In 1678 the premises were included (fn. n30) in the Manor of Westminster granted to Sheldon and Charlton, who on 26th February, 1678–9, leased (fn. n31) them to Thomas Slaughter, in trust for Joseph "Cragg." (fn. n32) They are described as "a messuage" formerly in the occupation of Horsley, and leased to Parker and Cary. Whether the use of "messuage" in the singular had anything to do with it or not, it is a fact that when in 1752 Philip Craig applied for a fresh lease, only one of the two houses was treated as coming under the lease, the house in the rear passing as Craig's freehold.

Craig stated in his application (fn. n33) that the front house "having been built near 80 years" (fn. n34) had become old and ruinous, and would require rebuilding in a few years. At that time the widening of the street in front of the premises was in contemplation (see appendix), but no decision had been reached as to which side was to be set back. In view of the possibility, therefore, that Craig's house might be wanted, consideration of his petition was deferred until 1758, when on 30th November he obtained a new lease for 50 years. In 1799 General Francis Craig applied for a further lease. The house was then said to be in the occupation of John Stevenson, hairdresser, and was described as brick built, containing kitchen offices in the basement storey, with three square storeys above and garrets, and to need an expenditure of £200 on substantial repairs. General Craig obtained on 9th June, 1800, a reversionary lease for 51 years and 126 days. In 1829 the freehold of the house, with others, was transferred to the Vicar of St. Martin-in-the-Fields.

Site of the former Nos. 16–18, Charing Cross.—In the Ministers' Accounts for 1534–5 (fn. n35) we meet with two tenements, leased to Peter Cutler and John Simpson, the history of which for over a century ran separately.

(i) On 6th October, 1546, a grant for life was made (fn. n36) to John Whatton, mole-catcher to the King, (fn. n37) of Cutler's tenement, and on 17th June, 1573, a reversionary lease for 21 years was granted to Katherine Hampton, (fn. n38) who on the following day sold (fn. n39) her interest to Whatton. The latter died on 27th May, 1579, and in 1588 John Gardiner, who had acquired the reversionary lease, surrendered it and applied for a fresh one. The tenement was said to be in great ruin and decay. Gardiner, on 22nd June, 1588, obtained a new lease for 31 years. (fn. n40) On 8th December, 1631, the tenement was granted (fn. n41) in perpetual fee farm to William Collins and Edward Fenn, who, on 12th June, 1632, together with Sir William Russell, sold (fn. n42) property at Charing Cross to Humphrey Chambers and Arnold Spencer, and the two latter on 2nd June, 1638, parted with it to Valentine Saunders, junior, under the title of all that tenement situated in a certain street near Charing Cross late in the tenure of Peter Cutler. (fn. n43)

(ii) Meanwhile on 14th March, 1547–8, a 21 years' lease had been granted (fn. n44) to Nicholas Urshaw ("Ursheus") of what was certainly Simpson's tenement. (fn. n45) On 13th January, 1560–1, he obtained a new lease for the same period, (fn. n46) and on 24th October, 1573, a reversionary lease, also for 21 years. Urshaw died in April, 1575, (fn. n47) and his widow conveyed her interest to Thomas Smith and Rebecca his wife. (fn. n48) Smith, who was one of the grooms of the Queen's scullery, surrendered the lease, and on 9th January, 1589–90, obtained a fresh lease for 30 years. On his death Rebecca married Ralph Harwood, who, with Silvester Harwood, on 24th February, 1604–5, conveyed the lease to Anthony Hill. (fn. n49) In the following year (2nd August, 1606) Hill obtained a fresh lease for 60 years. On 14th September, 1631, the premises were granted in perpetual fee farm to Sir Henry Browne and John Cliffe, junior, (fn. n50) who on 7th September, 1640, assigned (fn. n51) to Sir James Harrington "all that Messuage … sometymes in the tenure … of Thomas Smyth and nowe or late … of Anthony Hill." (fn. n52)

We now reach the period when for a time the two properties seem to have been combined. In an assignment (fn. n53) dated 22nd February, 1648–9, by Valentine Saunders and others to Sir William Brownlowe of a number of messuages and tenements, all but three of which are identifiable as representing the sites of Nos. 11–15, Charing Cross, are included: "One other Tenemt then or late in the tenure of Henry Hodgould, … And one other Tenemt in the tenure of the sayd Henry Hodgould Wherein hee then lived … And one other Tenemt then or late in the tenure of John Smythes." Whether or no "John Smythes" is a mistake for "Thomas Smithes," it is certain that "Henry Hodgould" is a misreading of "Henry Lidgold." Lidgold's two houses are shown by the ratebooks to have been situated respectively in the north and south portions of the combined property, and it therefore appears that Valentine Saunders had obtained possession of the Urshaw tenement as well as Cutler's. Whatever their interim history may have been, both the properties were on 25th September, 1658, in the ownership of Thomas Browne and Lettice his wife. On that date they sold to Francis Seagood two messuages, one "now or late in the tenure … of Thomas Smithes" (i.e. the Urshaw tenement), and the other "now or late in the tenure … of Henry Lidgold, All which premisses or some part thereof was … heretofore in the occupacion of one Peter Cutler." (fn. n54)

The property seems now to have been split up again, and we hear nothing more of the southern portion of it until 1717 (see below). On 3rd June, 1706, Seagood's grandson, George, sold the northern portion to Charles Wright. (fn. n55) It is described as consisting of the messuage "now in the tenure … of Richard Crofts, (fn. n56) commonly called … the Rumer Taverne, (fn. n57) containing in breadth in the front next Charing Crosse nineteen feet … abutting South in the front part … on a messuage … now or late in the tenure … of William Rogers, a poulterer, and North in the front part … on a messuage … now or late in the tenure … of John Diton a haberdasher of hatts, the said messuage … in the back part … abutting North on a Certaine Messuage … now the Fountaine Taverne, now or late in the tenure … of James Erwin … and South on a messuage … now or late in the tenure … of John Crips, Victualler."

On 2nd June, 1719, Wright sold (fn. n58) The Rummer to John Robinson and Richard Arnold, and on 28th February, 1733–4, Ann Robinson (John's widow) transferred (fn. n59) it to William Robinson. It was then described as "all that Messuage … now in the tenure … of Richard Haddock, comonly called … the Turks Head (fn. n60) and was lately the Rummer Tavern, (fn. n61) and the Room and Shop lying under the Chamber, part of the said Messuage." In 1767 William Robinson's widow and daughter sold (fn. n62) to Lancelot Reed and John Holliday the messuage formerly of Richard Haddock, afterwards of Elizabeth Haddock, "and now or late in the Tenure … of Sophia Lenoy (fn. n63) … formerly called … the Turk's Head, but now used as … a Bagnio." It was known as The Royal Bagnio in 1789. (fn. n64)

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the premises were occupied by Francis Place, tailor and radical reformer. (fn. n65) In 1801 Place removed from No. 29, Charing Cross, to "a much larger and more conspicuous shop … at No. 16, Charing Cross," (fn. n66) where he remained until 1817, when he handed over the business to his eldest son. The premises apparently included No. 17 at the rear.

No record of the sale by Seagood of the southern portion has been found, but in 1717 it was in the possession of Thomas Tatlock. A deed of 18th July in that year (fn. n67) relates to two freehold messuages, one behind the other, in the tenure of Thomas Lawson, hosier, and Francis Cripps, (fn. n68) victualler, and a later deed of 1737, (fn. n69) relating to the same two, describes them as "one of them now known by the Sign by the Roebuck, and now or late in the tenure … of William Kelly, and the other known by the Sign of the Golden Key and late in the tenure … of Thomas Jackson." The property, which in frontage corresponded with the later No. 18, Charing Cross, has not been further traced. A part of it in the latter portion of the seventeenth century had been in the occupation of Charles Blount or Blunt, a well-known bookseller, the sign of whose house was the Catherine Wheel. (fn. n70)

The site of the whole of the premises, as well as that of the two adjoining on the south, comprising altogether Nos. 16 to 20, Charing Cross, is now covered by the building of the National Bank, No. 15, Whitehall.

Site of the former Nos. 11–15, Charing Cross.—In the Ministers' Accounts for 1534–5 (fn. n71) are three items relating to tenements leased to Nicholas "Orsewe," Richard Bryce and William "Colle alias Pynner." On 11th February, 1540–1, Henry VIII granted (fn. n72) to Sebastian "le Sene," the King's clockmaker, a tenement lately built by the King, in which Sebastian was then living, together with a court or vacant place with garden adjoining the tenement, bounded on the north by the house of Peter "le Deulx," on the east by the garden of John Rede, on the south by the tenement inhabited by Richard Germanus (apparently Bryce), jeweller, and on the west by the main road from Westminster to "Charyng Crosse." Later Ministers' Accounts show that the tenement in question, which was the northernmost of the three, was that previously leased to "Orsewe." (fn. n73) They also show that the tenement was afterwards granted to Duddy Bonner. (fn. n74) On 21st April, 1573, a reversionary lease was made to David de "Lay" for 21 years from Lady Day, 1584, of the tenement late in the tenure of Duddy Bonner. (fn. n75)

The two other tenements were on 14th March, 1547–8, leased (fn. n76) for 21 years to Richard Atsell, to whom at the request of Don Diego de Cordi a reversionary lease of 30 years was granted (fn. n77) by Philip and Mary on 14th July, 1557. Atsell died in 1565, leaving to John Read the lease of his house after the death of his wife. (fn. n78) On 21st April, 1573, David de Ley obtained a lease for 21 years from Michaelmas 1599. The leases of all three tenements were therefore in the hands of David de Ley, goldsmith, when on 15th February, 1606–7, new reversionary leases for 40 years were granted (fn. n79) to Thomas Mery, chief clerk of the King's kitchen. On 5th February, 1629–30, Thomas Cary, one of the grooms of the bedchamber, received a grant (fn. n80) of a reversionary lease for 41 years (from 1660) of the two Atsell tenements, and on 10th April, 1639, his widow, Margaret, obtained a further lease for 41 years. (fn. n81)

On 22nd February, 1648–9, all the premises (the site of Sebastian's tenement as well as of the two of Atsell), specified as in the tenure of Miles Knight, gunsmith, Thomas Barnes, John Bevin, Thomas Darling and John East, were assigned (fn. n82) by Valentine Saunders, Henry Barker and Anthony Collins to Sir William Brownlowe for "all the residue and remainder of yeares wch they … have therunto." Presumably Valentine Saunders had acquired the leases.

In 1678 the whole was included in the Manor of Westminster granted at the nomination of John Hall to Joseph Sheldon and Nicholas Charlton, as "all that tenement nere Charinge Crosse, sometime in the tenure of David de Ley … and all those two tenements, sometimes in the tenure of Richard Atsell … and now held by — Browne, Cittizen of London, for divers yeares yet to come."

On 23rd March, 1682–3, John Hall and Matthew Johnson conveyed (fn. n83) the premises to Humphrey (afterwards Sir Humphrey) Edwin. They are described in detail, and comprised: (i) The Three Tuns tavern, in the occupation of William Packe, (fn. n84) 46 feet east to west and 37 feet north to south, (ii) The Three Feathers, adjoining (i) and containing 66 feet east to west, 10 feet in front and 17 feet in the rear, in the tenure of Joseph Hopkins, (iii) A messuage next to (ii), 50 feet east to west and 11½ feet in front in the occupation of … Benson, (iv) A messuage next to (iii) 58 feet east to west, 11½ feet in front and 7 feet in the rear, formerly in the occupation of Miles Knight and then of … Hawgood, (v) A messuage on the south side of (i) 37 feet from east to west and 10 feet north to south, then occupied by … Davison, and (vi) The Golden Sword next to (v), 25 feet east to west and 10 feet north to south, then in the occupation of Henry Davison or Jonas "Grasses", (fn. n85) haberdasher. The property was subsequently divided between John Edwin and Humphrey Edwin, the former obtaining the sites of Nos. 11 and 14, Charing Cross, and the latter the sites of Nos. 12, 13 and 15.

On 4th December, 1738, Humphrey Edwin obtained a reversionary lease of the latter property for 30 years from 1756. It then comprised four houses, one (the later No. 15) in the occupation of John Lutwiche (abutting south on the house of Richard Haddock, and corresponding to The Golden Sword mentioned above); two in the occupation of Robert Sidey and James Puech (corresponding to the houses of Davison and Benson in 1683); (fn. n86) and one (the later No. 12) occupied by James Howard (abutting east and south on Sidey's house, and north on the house of William Revis, and corresponding to The Three Feathers in 1683). About 1750 the houses of Sidey and Puech (then of Thomas Field and — Rook) were burnt down, and were rebuilt as one house (the later No. 13). (fn. n87) On 26th May, 1759, Humphrey Edwin obtained a further reversionary lease to fill up his interest to 50 years. Nos. 13 and 15 are said to have become vested in his sister Martha, who had married Sir Hew Dalrymple, and on 10th May, 1803, their grandson, Sir Hew Dalrymple-Hamilton, obtained another lease of these two houses for 53½ years from 5th April, 1808. The premises, occupied by Mark Noble and John Rastrich, were in good repair, consisting of kitchen offices in the basement and four square storeys above. (fn. n88)

The lease of No. 12 was on 29th January, 1777, sold to the occupier, James Cullum, "sword cutler," (fn. n89) who on 15th August of the same year obtained a Crown lease for a reversionary term of 18 years from 5th April, 1809. The lease came into the possession of Thomas Dawkins, cook, who in 1816 applied for a fresh lease. When surveyed in 1821 the house, which was an old one, consisted of kitchen offices in the basement with a vault under the street and another under the yard, four square storeys above ground and a garret in the front part of the roof. The plan then made of the premises is here reproduced. A lease of 34½ years from 5th April, 1827, was granted to Dawkins on 29th March, 1822.

Figure 44:

No. 12, Charing Cross in 1821.

Copied from plan in the possession of H.M. Commissioners of Crown Lands

John Edwin on 15th September, 1738, obtained a reversionary lease for 30 years as from Christmas, 1756, of the two houses, afterwards Nos. 14 and 11, Charing Cross, described as (i) the messuage, formerly called the Prince William, now the Rummer Tavern, in the occupation of Christopher Finch (corresponding to The Three Tuns mentioned in 1683), and (ii) the messuage, called "the Artichoak" (corresponding to the house of Hawgood), and on 3rd March, 1772, a fresh lease for 33 years as from 5th January, 1787, of the two houses was granted to Lewis Way and Thomas Corbett in trust for Elizabeth, only daughter of Charles and Elizabeth Dalrymple, only daughter of John Edwin.

Of these two houses the more important (fn. n90) was No. 14, known successively as The Three Tuns (fn. n91), The Fountain, (fn. n92) The Prince William (fn. n93) and The Rummer. As the last it figures in Hogarth's engraving Night (fn. n94) (Plate 111), published in 1738. The house continued to be known by that name well into the nineteenth century. (fn. n95)

Figure 45:

No. 14, Charing Cross in 1822.

Copied from plan in the possession of H.M. Commissioners of Crown Lands

In 1770 the house was said to be "Chiefly Built with Timber and … much out of repair, now in the occupation of Mathias Walsh." (fn. n96) It was probably not entirely rebuilt, for when it was surveyed in May, 1811, in connection with an application from the Earl of Balcarres (who had married Elizabeth Dalrymple) for a new lease, it was reported to be "very old, and the floors to be much out of the level." It then consisted of cellars in the basement, with three square storeys above the ground and garrets in the roof, and a room in the yard used as a bar covered with a lead flat, and then in the occupation of William Comyn. The plan made in 1822 is here reproduced.

The Artichoke (fn. n97) (No. 11) was in 1770 "an old Brick Messuage, in indifferent condition … in the occupation of Willm Woolaston."In 1780 the name had been lost, for it is referred to (fn. n98) as a "Messuage … formerly called the Artichoke." When surveyed in 1811 it was reported to be "very old," consisting of cellars in the basement and four square storeys above. The plan made in 1822 is here reproduced.

All five of the houses were included in the exchange made in 1829 with the Vicar of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. The sites are now numbered 5 to 13, Whitehall.

Figure 46:

No. 11, Charing Cross in 1822.

Copied from plan in the possession of H.M. Commissioners of Crown Lands

Site of the former Nos. 9–10, Charing Cross. On 24th June, 1533, Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) Heneage wrote (fn. n99) to Cromwell, intimating the King's pleasure that Pero, his yeoman cook, should have his dwelling in one of the new houses at Charing Cross, and on 10th December, 1539, a grant was made (fn. n100) to Perot "le Doulce," (fn. n101) cook pro ore both to Henry VII and Henry VIII, of the tenement in which "Perott" then lived, situated among other tenements of the king near "Charyng Crosse," between the Hospital of the Blessed Mary of "Rouncedevalle" on the north and others of the King's tenements on the south, on the highway leading from the City of London to the vill of Westminster on the west, and on the Cemetery of the Hospital on the east. The grant was for 40 years from the following Lady Day.

By his will, (fn. n102) dated 14th July, 1555, "Petar le Dowly" left to Ambrose "Gwynarte" the residue of his estate. Ambrose Guenard died in November, 1558. (fn. n103) His will (fn. n104) provided that the house in which he dwelt should be "devyded into two partes … the one moietie therof lying towards the Wall of the hous caled Rouncevall," i.e. the northern half, to be left to his wife, Barbe, during her widowhood, and the other to his son Francis. It is probable that a physical division of the premises was not intended: at any rate there is no evidence that this took place so early. Francis Guenard made several leases of the property to James Depree, the last being for the remainder of the 40 years' term of the original grant. In spite of this, after Guenard's death, John Fortune and William Jasper claimed the tenement on the ground that they held a lease for the rest of the term, while Depree on his side alleged that they had stolen his last indenture. (fn. n105) There is no record of the result of the suit, but Depree managed to secure a reversionary lease of the tenement, which had been granted (fn. n106) on 4th May, 1570, to Philip Strelley for 21 years from 1580. Later on he surrendered this lease, and on 4th February, 1589–90, obtained a new lease for 31 years. (fn. n107) This was in turn superseded by another lease for 40 years granted on 10th July, 1605, to John Cokoe. (fn. n108) On 20th July Cokoe assigned his interest in the premises to Eve Hickson, who on 20th September in the same year parted with it to Gabriel Brewer, armourer. (fn. n109) Brewer was already in occupation, the ratebooks showing him with "Widdowe Deprye" in 1597.

In 1610 Brewer seems to have applied for a new lease, (fn. n110) and in connection therewith called attention to the fact that the tenement was "in great Ruine and Decay." This was confirmed, and the survey having disclosed certain encroachments "made uppon the said Tenemt by other the neighbour Tennants thereunto," a precise measurement was made, giving the following details: length on the north side, 59 feet; length on the south side from west to east 67 feet; width on the east side, 21 feet; width on the west side, 26 feet; width in the middle near "le Corner wall" on which a brick chimney was built, from north to south 27 feet. (fn. n111)

On 19th October, 1628, Sir Nicholas Fortescue obtained (fn. n112) a lease of the premises for 31 years from the expiry of Cokoe's term, and on the following day assigned it to Richard Holt and William Carrill. The latter on 16th March, 1629–30, parted with it to Gabriel Brewer.

On 14th September, 1631, a grant of the tenement of Peter Cook in perpetual fee farm was made to Sir Henry Browne and John Cliffe, jun., (fn. n113) who on 4th February in the following year assigned it to Holt and Carrill. The latter on 16th December, 1651, sold it to Sir Henry Croke, (fn. n114) who had already (28th January, 1650–1) purchased the fee farm rent. (fn. n115) We therefore have at the end of 1651 Sir Henry Croke in possession of the freehold and the heirs of Gabriel Brewer in the tenure of Fortescue's lease, due to expire in 1676.

Brewer had divided the tenement into two houses, which in 1650 were surveyed by order of Parliament. They are described as: (fn. n116)

"All that Tenemt built wth Tymber and Flemish Walle and Covered wth Tyle scituate … neere unto Cheringcrosse … consistinge of one Shopp and a Seller underneath the same, and behinde the said Shopp one Kitchen paved wth Purbeck stone well fitted and Joynted, alsoe one Court yard well paved. And above stayres in the first story one dyneinge Roome Wainscoted, and one other Roome behinde the same, And in the second story two Chambers, and over the same two Garretts. The ground wheron the said house standeth wth the Courtyard contayneth in Length 55 feete and in breadth 14 feete, nowe in the occupation of one Mr Wright, (fn. n117) a Stone cutter, and is worth per annum xxxiiijli.

"All that Tenemt built as aforesaid and scituate as aforesaid, adioyninge south on tha' foresaid house. Consistinge of one faire shoppe nowe used by a scrivener, and one Seller under the same, and one Kitchen and one small Court paved and a stoole house there, and in the first story above stayres 2 faire Chambers & in ye second story 2 faire Chambers, and in the third story two more Chambers, and over the same 2 fayre Garretts. The ground wheron the said houses stand together Containe by admeasuremt 55 feete in Length and 12 feete in breadth nowe in the occupacion of Mr Wolford and is worth per annum xlli

"Memdd one Mr Brewer (a Papist in Armes) dwellinge in Kent is the Reputed Landlord, But hath not made out his Title to us. The said Tenemts are nowe under sequestration and the Tenants pay there Rent to the state."

Gabriel Brewer had died in 1640, leaving (fn. n118) to his wife, Elizabeth, "the Rents … of my two houses … wherein — Leech Esqr (fn. n119) and — Wright, Stonecutter, doe now dwell." His own residence was in the rear of these two houses on ground formerly belonging to the Hospital of Rounceval. (fn. n120)

Sir Henry Croke on 10th August, 1659, conveyed the premises to Henry, his younger son, who on 15th February, 1659–60, sold them to William Burnet. Burnet left them to his son Henry, who on 12th December, 1676 (when the Fortescue lease had expired), leased them for 51¼ years to Lionel Emps, who on 8th July, 1686, purchased the freehold from William Burnet, brother of Henry. (fn. n121)

The premises continued in the ownership of the Emps family until 1717. (fn. n122) On 19th February, 1716–7, Joseph Prestwood, nephew and heir of Frances Emps, sold to John Robinson the southern of the two houses (No. 10, Charing Cross), and on 10th April, 1717, the northern also (No. 9). (fn. n123) Ann Robinson, John's widow, on 28th February, 1733–4, parted with both houses, in the occupation of John Pigou, linen-draper (No. 9), and Samuel Weather, linen-draper (No. 10), to William Robinson, (fn. n124) whose widow, Isabella, sold them (fn. n125) on 14th August, 1767, to Lancelot Reed and John Holliday. They were then in the occupation of Charles Marsh (No. 9) and Francis Maw (No. 10).

In 1864–5 the premises were rebuilt for the National Bank, now removed further south. Nos. 9 and 10, Charing Cross, have recently been renumbered as Nos. 1 and 3, Whitehall.


  • n1. Westminster Abbey Deed 23192.
  • n2. Ibid., 23201.
  • n3. Ibid. 23204.
  • n4. Ibid. 23205c.
  • n5. Westmr. Reg., I, fo. 17b.
  • n6. Westmr. Reg., II, fo. 151.
  • n7. P.R.O., Ancient Deed, A. 1559.
  • n8. "To Roberte Pyrrey, John Dawling and Edmonde Wethers for the leying of xx/iiij iiij. m1 pleyne tyle, as welle newe as olde upon the Rentes late Edified besides Rouncyevalle" … "For leying of xl. m1 pleyne tyles upon the newe Rentis edified nygh unto Charing crosse … Paied for the making of x Chymneys every of them with a doble Tonnelle within the newe Rentes Situate nygh unto Rouncyvall at xls the pece." (P.R.O., E. 36/252, pp. 435, 589 and 649.)
  • n9. P.R.O., E. 315/219, ff. 10–11.
  • n10. See particulars given in P.R.O., E. 310/19/95, fo. 42. The actual grant has not been traced.
  • n11. P.R.O., E. 112, Jas. I, Middx., 656; E. 178/4186; and a fragment of the beginning of the latter, not noticed by Miss Honeybourne, who first made known the plan, E.134, Mich., 8 Jas. I, No. 8.
  • n12. Apparently the person referred to in the following. "One Edward Newsom havinge a Shopp nere unto Cheyringe Crosse, goinge toward his howse in Westmr betwene the howres of 6 and 7 uppon the 19th of this Instant in the evenings " found a libel affixed to "Whytehall garden dore wch is over against the tennys court." (P.R.O., S.P. 14/4, No. 23–19th October, 1603.)
  • n13. P.R.O., L.R. 1/54, ff. 261–2.
  • n14. Ibid., 1/56, ff. 98–100.
  • n15. According to the ratebooks Abraham Chapman succeeded "Edmond Newsum" in the occupation of the house in 1610 and in a list of 1618 of "such principall buildinges as have ben erected contrary to his Majesty's proclamacions since Michaelmas in the 13 yeare of his … raigne" is included "the house of Abraham Chapman betweene Charingcrosse and Whitehall, built with timber and jutties and cant windowes." (Cal. of Acts of Privy Council, 1617–19, p. 283.)
  • n16. P.C.C., 100 Juxon, proved 17th July, 1663.
  • n17. Final concord between James "Crag," Isabella his wife and George Parker, concerning one messuage, two cottages, one garden and half a messuage, in perpetuity. (P.R.O., C.P 25 (2) 689–Hilary, 15–16 Chas. II.)
  • n18. P.C.C., 3 Penn, proved 19th January, 1669–70.
  • n19. "The Black Memorial or a List of the Names of those pretended Judges who State and sentenced to Death our Sovereign King Charles I … Sold by … G. Dewell, Stationer, at the Bell and Dragon, between Charing Cross and Whitehall." (The Post Boy, 1–3rd January, 1712–3.)
  • n20. P.R.O., E. 315/219, fo. 11.
  • n21. P.R.O., E. 310/19/94, fo. 1.
  • n22. P.R.O., L.R. 1/49, fo. 49.
  • n23. P.R.O., L.R. 1/52, fo. 143b.
  • n24. P.R.O., L.R. 1/52, ff. 144a–146.a
  • n25. P.R.O., L.R. 1/52, fo. 162.
  • n26. P.R.O., C. 66/2503, No. 3.
  • n27. P.R.O., Parliamentary Surveys, Middx., E. 317, No. 3.
  • n28. There was another Mermaid at Charing Cross, see chapter 19.
  • n29. Shown in the ratebooks as "Penny Malhew."
  • n30. Strangely enough the premises are not mentioned in the grant (P.R.O., C. 66/3207), but the indenture mentioned below is conclusive that they were regarded as part of the Manor.
  • n31. See schedule attached to indenture, dated 17th July, 1688, between (1) John Hall, (2) Matthew Johnson, and (3) Sir Humphrey Edwin. (P.R.O., L.R. 1/63, ff. 53–5.)
  • n32. The two houses were already in the possession of the Craig family before the grant of 1678, for they are mentioned in the will of James Craig (see p. 242). It is possible that they had been included in the sale by George Parker in 1663–4, whose lease had still some years to run.
  • n33. Records of H.M. Commissioners of Crown Lands, E. 3, p. 165.
  • n34. The ratebooks suggest that the occupiers of the front house from 1650 were: Penny Malhew (to 1664), George Stockdale (1666–79), Isaac Rowhouse (1680–84), Robert Wood (1685–93), Mrs. Wood (1694–1712), John Robinson (1713–25), John Franklin (1725–58). This list affords no clue as to when the rebuilding took place. The Hearth Tax Roll for 1674 shows the two houses as in the occupation of George "Stockdall" and "Alexr Culley," assessed at 8 and 11 hearths respectively.
  • n35. P.R.O Ministers' Accounts, Henry VIII, 2101.
  • n36. P.R.O., E. 315/236, fo. 225b.
  • n37. "Captorem talparum in diversis terris nostris."
  • n38. P.R.O., L.R. 1/47, ff. 45–6.
  • n39. P.R.O., L.R. 1/48, fo. 185.
  • n40. P.R.O., L.R. 1/49, ff. 72–3.
  • n41. P.R.O., C. 66/2574, No. 2.
  • n42. Moulton's Palaeography, Genealogy and Topography, p. 156.
  • n43. P.R.O., L.R. 1/60, fo. 191.
  • n44. P.R.O., E. 315/219, fo. 9.
  • n45. This may be seen from a comparison of the earlier Ministers' Accounts with that for 1556–7 (191, Ph. and M.), in which Nicholas "Ursheus" takes the place of Simpson.
  • n46. P.R.O., L.R. 1/47, fo. 33.
  • n47. Accounts of the Churchwardens of St. Martin's, p. 281, and Registers of St. Martin's, p. 118.
  • n48. P.R.O., E. 310/19/94, fo. 8.
  • n49. P.R.O., L.R. 1/49, ff. 154–6. Anthony Hill, "Cittizen and Armorer of London," died in 1647 (Will, P.C.C., 150 Fines, dated 14th April, proved 9th July, 1647). He is shown at presumably this house in the ratebooks from 1598 to 1646.
  • n50. P.R.O., C. 66/2567, No. 2.
  • n51. P.R.O., L.R. 1/60, fo. 1. The meaning of the grant is not very clear. If it was a sale Harrington did not long continue in possession. Harrington was on the commission for trying Charles I, and was afterwards a member of the Council of State. On the Restoration he was excepted from acts of pardon and warrants were issued for his arrest. His lands in the counties of York and Lancaster and his property in Westminster were granted to Charles Lord Gerard (Cal. of S. P. Dom., 1663–4, p. 538), but neither the Signed Bill (P.R.O., S.O. 7/12, March, 1663–4), nor the entry on the Patent Roll (P.R.O., C. 66/3056, No. 10), although they include the lands in Yorks and Lancs, say anything about Westminster property.
  • n52. It is puzzling to find that the premises were also included in the perpetual fee-farm grant made to William Collins and Edward Fenn on 8th December, 1631, three months after the similar grant to Browne and Cliffe, and that the fee-farm rents payable by the latter in respect of both Cutler's and Urshaw's tenements were sold on 16th June, 1658, to Francis Offley and Richard Redding (P.R.O., E. 307/15/02). This is, however, partly explained by the King's statement on 18th February, 1675–6, that "many mistakes have been committed and many doubts have arisen in and about the Sale of Our Fee farm Rents … which have been occasioned partly through the inadvertency of Our Officers before whom the said Rents stood in charge or of the Clerks employed in the Sale of the said Rents or by some other waies or meanes." (P.R.O., S.O. 8/11.)
  • n53. P.R.O., L.R. 1/60, fo. 204.
  • n54. P.R.O., C. 54/3986, No. 25.
  • n55. P.R.O., C. 54/4960, No. 27.
  • n56. The identification of tenants of this house before 1687 presents difficulty. From that date, however, for a number of years they can be identified as Lawrence Courtney (1687–97), John Poulteney (1698), Samuel Cooke (1699–1703), Richard Crofts (1704–28), Wm. Clements (1728–30), Richard Haddock (1730–51) (this is a mistake; he died in 1748), Sophia Lenoy (1752–65), Olivia Harington (1766–77).
  • n57. "Left in a Hackney Coach on Monday Night last, about 10 of the Clock, that took a Gentleman up at the Rummer-Tavern at Charing-Cross, and set him down in Holborn, A Scarlet Cloak trimm'd with Gold, and Gold Lace Button-Holes, with a Green Velvet Cape. If the Coachman, or any other Person will give an Account of the same, so that it may be had again, to Mr Crofts at the Rummer aforesaid, he shall have a Guinea Reward and no Questions ask'd." (The Post Boy, 3–5th February, 1712–3.)
  • n58. Middx. Register, 1719, II, 61.
  • n59. Ibid., 1733, V, 256.
  • n60. In Haddock's will (P.C.C., 299 Strahan, dated 7th May, 1731, and proved 5th October, 1748), he describes himself as "Master of the Turk's Head Bagnio near Charing Cross." There was another Turk's Head Bagnio on the other side of the road, see p. 102.
  • n61. The old title of The Rummer had now been transferred to the adjoining property on the north, which is described as a messuage, "now called the Rummer, which lately was the Fountain Tavern."
  • n62. Indenture, dated 14th August, 1767. (Middx. Register, 1767, VI, 465.)
  • n63. Elizabeth, Richard Haddock's widow, named Sophia Lenoy her executrix, and left to her the use of all her goods, chattels, effects, etc., not otherwise disposed of for the term of her life or until marriage. (P.C.C., 12 Bettesworth, dated 14th December, 1751, proved 8th January, 1752.)
  • n64. Indenture, dated 17th March, 1789, between Joseph Rushworth and Dorothy Bean concerning the "Messuage … at Charing Cross, known by the name of the Royal Bagnio, late in the tenure of Mrs [Olivia] Harrington." (Middx. Register, 1790, II, 25.)
  • n65. Francis Place was born in 1771. He was apprenticed to a leather-breeches maker and afterwards became an independent journeyman. In 1793 on a strike in the trade Place was chosen organiser. He also became secretary to a number of trade clubs and for a time was active in the advocacy of reform. He studied much to improve his education, and in 1807 again entered political life in support of the candidature of Sir Francis Burdett for parliament. For many years he worked hard and successfully for radical reform, and his library at Charing Cross was a regular resort for politicians of the same views. His influence declined after the passage of the Reform Bill. He died in 1854 at Hammersmith.
  • n66. Graham Wallas's Life of Francis Place (1898), p. 33. Wallas quotes Place's own account. "I put in … a new front as elegant as the place would permit. Each of the panes of glass in the shop front cost me three pounds, and two in the door four pounds each … Such shop fronts were then uncommon; I think mine were the largest plate-glass windows in London, if indeed they were not the first … Fitting up the shop cost me nearly three hundred pounds … There were five large Argand lamps in the shop, besides candles, to make the windows and every part of it as nearly equally light as possible."
  • n67. Indenture between Thomas Tatlock and Anne his wife and Richard Grosvenor and Edward Fazakerly. (Middx. Register, 1717, II, 90.)
  • n68. The southern abuttals of the northern portion of the premises sold in 1706 are given as William Rogers and John "Crips." The ratebooks show that Lawson succeeded Rogers in 1709.
  • n69. Indenture, dated 7th March, 1736–7, between John Tatlocke and Edmund Davis. (Middx. Register, 1736, V, 598.)
  • n70. He is shown in the 1681 ratebook as succeeding Joshua Mildmay, and his residence therefore probably dated from 1680. He was a "publisher of medical books, plays and novels. Amongst the latter may be noticed The Mock Clelia, advertised in Mercurius Civicus, April 22nd, 1680, and A. Oldy's Fair Extravagant, 1681 … In the same number he also advertised a translation of one of the novels of Cervantes, called The Jealous Gentleman of Estremadura. His last advertisement was in the issue of Michaelmas, 1684" (Plomer's Dictionary of Booksellers and Printers, 1668–1725, p. 39). His last appearance in the ratebook is in 1687.
  • n71. P.R.O., Ministers' Accounts, Hy. VIII, 2101.
  • n72. P.R.O., E. 315/235, fo. 88b.
  • n73. The tenement of "Orsewe" is said in 1534–5 to be that next adjoining to that of Peter Cook, who was also known as Peter "le Deulx" (see p. 254), a fact which puts beyond doubt the identity of the two.
  • n74. "Et de xxvjs viijd Recept' pro Redditu Unius Tenementi nuper in tenur' Sebastiani le Semeno et modo in tenur' Duddye Boner" (P.R.O., Ministers' Accounts, 191 Ph. & M.). "Dyddie Bonner" is shown in the ratebook for 1577, and was succeeded by "Widdowe Bonner" in the following year.
  • n75. See particulars for lease in P.R.O., E. 315/202, fo. 52b.
  • n76. P.R.O., E. 315/219, fo. 12b.
  • n77. P.R.O., E. 315/226, pt. 2, ff. 74–5.
  • n78. Westminster Wills, 249 Bracy, dated 8th January, 1564–5, proved ten days later.
  • n79. P.R.O., C. 66/1719, No. 1.
  • n80. P.R.O., C. 66/2503, No. 3.
  • n81. P.R.O., C. 66/2849, No. 30.
  • n82. P.R.O., L.R., 1/60, fo. 204. One house (that of Abraham Beck, afterwards, in 1683, of Davison) seems to be missing.
  • n83. P.R.O., L.R. 1/63, ff. 26–7.
  • n84. "Information of Samuel Jevon, drawer to Mr Pack, vintner, of the Three Tun tavern, Charing Cross. Standing at the bar he heard a great noise, and going to the room he heard John Langham say the Duke of York was a rogue and a Papist dog "—6th November, 1681 (Cal. of S.P. Dom., 1680–1, p. 552). William Pack succeeded Edward Darling in 1676 and continued until 1685. His widow took his place until 1688.
  • n85. Given in the ratebooks as "Graisley."
  • n86. We have a full description of the southern of these two houses as well as of The Golden Sword in 1671 (indenture, dated 13th February, 1670–1, between John Hall and Thomas Browne—P.R.O., L.R. 1/62). It runs as follows: "All yt Messuage … scittuate … neere … where Charing crosse lately stood on ye East side of ye high street there … & next adjoyning to ye south side of ye entry of ye 3 Tuns Taverne there & conteyning in lengh from ye said streete on ye west to ye house there adjoyning backward now in ye tenure … of one Mr Darling Vintner on ye East 37 feet … & in breadth below stayers from North to south 10 feet … And … consisting of theise severall roomes, that is to say, one shop next to ye street, And above stayers in ye first story 2 Chambers next to ye street, one of them lying over ye said shop & ye other next adjoyning Northward & extending over & beyond ye entry of ye said Taverne, & a faggott roome in ye same story, & over them one garrett devided into 2 roomes. And also one other Messuage … late commonly called … ye golden sword next adjoyning to ye south side of ye aforesaid … Messuage … & conteyning in lenght from ye said street there on ye West to ye said house now in ye occupacion of … Mr Darling on ye East xxv feet … & in breadth from North to south 10 feet … & consisting of … one shopp & a small kitchin, a Cellar under neath ye same, a little yard behinde ye said shopp & kitchen, And above stayers in ye first story one faire Chamber & over ye same one faire garrett."
  • n87. See indenture dated 28th September, 1752, between Martha Edwin and John Revis and Samuel Spencer, linen drapers. The ratebook for 1750 shows the two houses as empty, and that for 1752 gives "Messrs Revis and Spencer" at a much larger house.
  • n88. Records of H.M. Commissioners of Crown Lands, U. 4, pp. 268, 270.
  • n89. Indenture between (1) William Hill, (2) Mary Edwin, Humphrey's widow, (3) Thomas and Elizabeth Corbett, and (4) James Cullum (P.R.O., L.R. 1/72, fo. 71). Cullum appears in the ratebooks in respect of the house in 1752.
  • n90. It was one of the largest houses north of Scotland Yard, the Hearth Tax Rolls for 1666 and 1674 showing that it was assessed at 16 hearths.
  • n91. There is a token extant of "Tho. Darling at 3 Tuns neare Charing Cross" (1657) (London Tokens of the 17th Century, by A. W. Franks (1862)). Thomas Darling first appears in the ratebooks in respect of this house in 1647. In 1661 his place was taken by Edward Darling, who died in 1675–6 (will dated 13th April, 1675, proved 19th April, 1676, P.C.C., 37 Bence), and was succeeded by William Pack. Pepys visited the house several times. "From thence with him [Sir W. Pen] to the 3 Tun Tavern, at Charing Cross, and there sent for up the maister of the house's dinner, and dined very well upon it, and afterwards had him and his fayre sister (who is very great with Sir W. Batten and Sir W. Pen in mirth) up to us, and looked over some medals that they shewed us of theirs, and so went away." (Diary, 1st November, 1661.)
  • n92. "All that Messuage … near Charing Cross … called the Fountain Tavern, then or late in the occupacion of James Irwin" (indenture, dated 12th March, 1711–2, between Thomas Edwin and Charles and John Edwin—Middx. Register, 1735, I, 85). James "Irwing" is shown in the ratebooks in respect of this house from 1704 to 1711. See also p. 247.
  • n93. See above. Finch is shown at the house from 1734 to 1737.
  • n94. The view is looking north towards the King's statue, but the engraving is reversed, the east side of the road being shown on the left hand, and the west on the right (notice the barber is apparently shaving with his left hand). For The Cardigan's Head and The Bagnio on the right hand, see pp. 125 and 102. Next to The Rummer on the left hand is The New Bagnio, i.e., Haddock's establishment, see p. 248. The Rummer bears not only the sign of that name (a rummer was a kind of large drinking glass) but a bunch of grapes. The full sign was therefore probably The Rummer and Grapes. At The Rummer and Grapes Tavern, Westminster, one of the three leading freemasons' lodges used to meet (Larwood's History of Signboards, p. 239), and if this could be equated with the tavern at Charing Cross, it would appear likely that it was from this tavern that the intoxicated freemason (usually taken to represent Sir Thomas De Veil, the magistrate) was being led home by the tyler of his lodge.
  • n95. This is the fifth Rummer met with in the neighbourhood, and it would seem convenient here to sum up the information with regard to them. (i) The earliest, in 1683, was one of the houses on the west side of the road, probably on the site of the timber yard (see p. 78). (ii) The Rummer Eating House is found in 1712, on the same side of the road, a little further north, probably on the site of Samuel Prior's establishment (see p. 84). (iii) There must have been a Rummer still further north, which gave its name to Rummer Court, in existence in 1754 (see p. 89). (iv) No. 16, Charing Cross, on the east side of the road, was known as The Rummer in 1706 and 1719, but in 1731 the sign had been changed to The Turk's Head and the place converted into a bagnio. (v) With the change of sign of (iv) No. 14, Charing Cross, became The Rummer. It will be seen from the above that at various dates there must have been a Rummer on each side of the street. There are also references (undated) in the Advertisements of Curiosities, preserved in the British Museum, to the Two Blue-Posts and Rummer, near Charing Cross, and The Mitre and Rummer at Charing Cross. Both The Blue Posts and The Mitre were on the west side of the street. For The Blue Posts see p. 78. The Mitre is described as "opposite Craigg's Court" in an advertisement in The Daily Advertiser for 23rd December, 1741, quoted by MacMichael, Charing Cross, pp. 61–2.
  • n96. P.R.O., T. 55/15, pp. 362–3. Walsh had succeeded Mrs. Owen. "On Sunday Mrs Owen, who kept the Rummer Tavern by Charing-cross was suddenly taken ill, sitting in her chair, fell down and expired immediately" (The London Chronicle, 25–26th March, 1765). "Edward" Owen is shown in the ratebooks for this house from 1749 to 1765.
  • n97. Known in 1719 as "the Golden Lyon" (indenture, dated 8th December, 1719, between Thomas, Charles and John Edwin and others—Middx. Register, 1721, VI, 103).
  • n98. Indenture, dated 3rd August, 1780, between (1) Charles Dalrymple, (2) Thomas Corbett and (3) the Earl of Balcarres. (P.R.O., L.R. 1/72, fo. 154.)
  • n99. Cal. of L. & P., Hy. VIII, VI, No. 694.
  • n100. P.R.O., E. 315/235, fo. 10b.
  • n101. Perot is generally styled Peter Cook in the Ministers' Accounts.
  • n102. Westminster Wills, 83 Bracy. He is probably the same as "Petrus Lyddosse," buried at St. Martin's on 1st November, 1555. (Registers of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, p. 105.)
  • n103. "It' R' the xviij Daye [of November] for the herse Clothe, the knyll, and the waste of two tapers, At the buryall of Ambrose gurnard." (Accounts of the Churchwardens of St. Martin-inthe-Fields, p. 170.)
  • n104. Westminster Wills, 144 Bracy, dated 5th October, 1558, and proved on 19th January, 1558–9.
  • n105. The above information is taken from Depree's statement in P.R.O., Req. 2/99/27.
  • n106. P.R.O., L.R. 1/47, fo. 161.
  • n107. P.R.O., L.R. 1/49, ff. 47–8. His name is given as James "de Prees." James "Deprie" is shown in the ratebooks at intervals from 1587 to 1595 for what is presumably this tenement.
  • n108. P.R.O., E. 315/229, fo. 7.
  • n109. P.R.O., L.R. 1/51, ff. 91–2.
  • n110. There is no record of one having been granted.
  • n111. P.R.O., L.R. 1/54, fo. 137.
  • n112. P.R.O., C. 66/2503, No. 2.
  • n113. P.R.O., C. 66/2567, No. 2.
  • n114. This, and most of the above information is, when not otherwise specified, obtained from the statement of Frances Emps in 1703. (P.R.O., C. 5/238/32.)
  • n115. P.R.O., L.R. 1/60, fo. 260.
  • n116. Parliamentary Surveys, P.R.O., E. 317, Middx., 4.
  • n117. William Wright first appears in the ratebooks in 1607 and continues until 1653. (i) "Recognizance … of William Wright … tombe maker, in the sum of forty pounds, for the said William Wright's appearance at the next Session of the Peace … to answer … 'for annoying the streete nere Charing Crosse with loading of cartes, turning the Judges and all other passengers into the Channell.' "—4th November, 1613 (Middx. Session Records, II, p. 93). (ii) "Account by Wm. Weld of disbursements for Sir Wm. Pelham; it includes 10l paid to Mr Wright, the stonecutter at Charing Cross, towards a tomb he is making for Sir William."—23rd May, 1630. (Cal: of S. P. Dom., 1629–31, p. 263.)
  • n118. P.C.C., 119 Coventry, dated 7th July, 1640, proved 15th September, 1640.
  • n119. "John Leech Esquier" is shown at the house from 1638 to 1641.
  • n120. "I give unto my said Wife … all my Lease … in the back house … wherein I now dwell holden of Sir Roger Palmer."
  • n121. P.R.O., C. 5/238/32.
  • n122. Lionel Emps died circa 1698, leaving the premises to his wife Frances, who in 1703 brought a suit against certain of the residents in the rear, on the Trinity Hospital estate (formerly of Rounceval), who wished to establish a right of way to the street through her property. This gives valuable information as to the history of the premises. (P.R.O., C. 5/238/32.)
  • n123. Middx. Register, 1716, V, 177, and 1717, V, 74.
  • n124. Ibid., 1733, V, 254.
  • n125. Ibid., 1767, VI, 465