Brixton: Lambeth Wick estate

Survey of London: Volume 26, Lambeth: Southern Area. Originally published by London County Council, London, 1956.

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'Brixton: Lambeth Wick estate', in Survey of London: Volume 26, Lambeth: Southern Area, (London, 1956) pp. 108-122. British History Online [accessed 11 April 2024]

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The origin of the Manor of Lambeth Wick (Wyk, Wyke or Wykecourt) is obscure, but it seems to have been appurtenant to the Manor of Lambeth which was granted to Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, by the Prior and Convent of Rochester in 1197. (fn. 11) The earliest mention of it which has been found is in 1271, (fn. 12) when “Lametheth with La Wyk” was in the king’s hands during the vacancy of the See of Canterbury caused by the death of Archbishop Boniface. In the chartulary belonging to St. Thomas' Hospital there are grants of land “in Wike” and “at la Wyke”. (fn. 13) Only one of these is dated (1338) and as no deeds relating to this land have survived among the hospital’s archives it is impossible now to identify it. The only surviving record of courts held for the Manor of Lambeth Wick occurs in a roll for the years 1385–6. (fn. 14) “Farmers” accounts for Lambeth Wick and references to repairs of the grange there (fn. 15) suggest that the property was administered as a separate unit from the end of the 13th century to the beginning of the 15th. But from 1480 (fn. 16) to the beginning of the 19th century it was the practice of successive Archbishops to demise the Manor for short terms at an annual rent of £8, reserving to themselves all courts, etc., but allowing the lessees 20 loads of wood a year. (fn. 17) In 1701 the Manor was let to Sir Stephen Fox, (fn. 18) father of the first Baron Holland of Foxley and grandfather of the famous Charles James Fox; various members of the family continued as lessees of the property till the beginning of the 20th century. The estate was developed by Henry Richard Vassall, the third Baron Holland, who adopted his wife’s maiden name of Vassall in 1800. (fn. 19) Holland Grove, Foxley, Vassall and Lilford (fn. 20) Roads commemorate the family’s connection with the area.

The land belonging to the Manor lay in three separate parcels. The most northerly extended from Kennington Common south and west to the site of Melbourne Square and across Brixton Road to Clapham Road; to the south of this lay a second parcel, separated from the east side of Brixton Road by copyhold land of Lambeth Manor (part of the Angell and Slade estates), and extending south across Coldharbour Lane almost to the junction of the present Mayall and Shakespeare Roads; the third and smallest parcel abutted on the north-west side of Coldharbour Lane and is now covered by parts of Lilford Road, Flaxman Road and Kenbury Street. In a survey of the Archbishop’s possessions in Lambeth made in 1647 Lambeth Wick Manor was said to be “divided into Twenty small Closes … (containing) … in all about two hundred and thirty Acres”. (fn. 21) Just before its development at the beginning of the 19th century the land was used chiefly as pasture and market garden ground. (fn. 22)

Although an Act of Parliament was passed in 1807 enabling the Archbishop to grant building and repairing leases of this and other of his estates, (fn. 23) the development of Lambeth Wick Manor did not start till 1820. This delay was probably due to the slow progress of the project which was first mooted in 1806 to build a bridge across the Thames at Vauxhall with connecting roads into Middlesex and Surrey (see page 78). Such a scheme would and did have a tremendous effect on the development of Kennington and Brixton, and it seems likely that building in Lambeth Wick was delayed until it was known definitely what direction the new roads would take. Vauxhall Bridge was eventually opened in 1816 and two years later an Act of Parliament was passed providing for the formation of a road from the bridge foot to Camberwell, (fn. 24) i.e., Harleyford Road and Camberwell New Road, the latter passing across the northern parcel of the Manor. The estate thus acquired valuable frontages to both sides of the new road, which was subsequently linked with the Brixton and Clapham Roads by Caldwell Street and Vassall Road.

Between 1820 and 1824 the whole of the Manor was let to Henry Richard Vassall, third Baron Holland, under 15 different building leases for terms of 99 years, due to expire by 1923. (fn. 25) Under the covenants of these leases brick houses were to be erected of at least the third rate and were to be kept in good repair; the outside wood and ironwork were to be painted every fourth year and offensive trades were prohibited. For developing each plot £1,000 were to be expended on building in the first five years of the term and another £1,000 by the end of the following fifteen years.

Building began first in the northern parcel of the Manor where prospects had been considerably improved by the opening of the Camberwell New Road. The frontages to Clapham, Brixton and Camberwell New Roads, and later to the new roads in between, were let in small parcels by Lord Holland to both builders and speculators for terms of 80 years. This policy of piecemeal letting, especially in the Brixton Road, resulted in unrelated groups of villas and terrace houses which, in spite of the charm of individual members, gave to the whole an untidy and haphazard appearance. In some cases the reserved rents of the plots sub-let by Lord Holland were sold by him for the duration of the sub-lease to persons not actively engaged in developing the property. (fn. 26) This practice provided the vendor with fresh capital to re-invest in further development, while the purchaser of the rents and his dependants enjoyed an annuity for some time to come.

The long thin shape and isolated position of the southern parcel of the Manor made development more difficult, and building started later. There were no roads on the east side and there was no access to Brixton Road except by Loughborough Lane (now Road) and across the fields of the Slade and Angell estates (see page 128). Coldharbour Lane was the only other road running across the estate and though on the south side the frontage was considerable, on the north side only a narrow neck of land fronted the road. The whole of the southern portion of the Manor, let on building leases to Lord Holland in 1824, was immediately let by him to Lt. Col. Randall Gossip of Thorp Arch Hall, Yorkshire. (fn. 27) Gossip was probably acting as a steward, for in 1829 he surrendered all the property which he had succeeded in sub-letting for development, to Lord Holland’s trustee. (fn. 28) Most building in this area took place between 1830 and 1850. A plan (fn. 29) for the layout of St. James’s Crescent, Millbrook Road and Barrington Road was prepared by Henry Currey, (fn. n1) and building lots fronting these roads were offered to the public by advertisement in 1843. Loughborough Park was formed in the years 1844–57, and the detached portion of the Manor on the north-west side of Coldharbour Lane was built up in the early 1830s.

On the triangular-shaped piece of ground now covered by Evandale, Claribel, parts of Loughborough, Lilford and Akerman Roads, stood Loughborough House and grounds. The house itself, shown on a plan of 1825 (fn. 33) as an oblong range of buildings facing west with its south side abutting on Loughborough Lane, stood on the site of the south-east corner of Evandale Road and part of the roadway. It was supposed to have derived its name from its occupation by Henry Hastings, first Baron Loughborough, and younger son of the fifth Earl of Huntingdon. His biographer states that in 1664 his residence was “an old mansion in … Lambeth”. (fn. 34) This may have been the house which was occupied by a Mr. Younge in 1661 with ten acres of land “most part of yt planted”. (fn. 35) In 1820 Loughborough House was described as a “very large old house of light construction” and the grounds comprised about 11 acres. (fn. 22) Henry Hastings fought on the Royalist side during the Civil War and at the Restoration was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Leicestershire. In 1664 he promoted a Bill in Parliament for making a navigable river from Brixton Causeway to the Thames. The Act (fn. 36) received the Royal Assent but perhaps because Hastings died two years later (fn. 37) no advantage was taken of the scheme. In spite of the insistence of the Act that the proposed waterway would “tend much to the increase of Trade” it is difficult to imagine how the scheme would have benefited such a sparsely populated area. Towards the end of the 18th century Loughborough House became a “superior Academy” (fn. 38) and in 1787 the second edition of a collection of elocution lessons was published by R. Turner dedicated “To the Young Noblemen and gentlemen receiving their education at Loughborough House School”. (fn. 39) In 1825 Thomas Willett, who had lived at Loughborough House for some years, purchased the leasehold interest of the house and grounds, which included a field called Shoulder of Mutton Close, from Randall Gossip for £5,000. (fn. 33) Willett was not bound by this contract to erect any buildings on the land, and it is probable that he made the purchase to prevent its development. He died in 1846 (fn. 40) and the house was pulled down about 1854. (fn. 41)

The dates and names which follow the architectural description of the houses mentioned below are the dates of the building leases granted by Lord Holland—presumably when building was nearing completion—and the names of the lessees. When known, the occupation and address of the lessee is given on the first occasion he is mentioned thereafter only his name is repeated. All the houses are built of stock brick unless otherwise stated.

Nos. 97–113, 119, 121, 127–133, 135 (odd) Clapham Road

Formerly Nos. 3–11, 14, 15, 17–20, 22 (consec.) Holland Place

No. 97 is a house of two storeys and a semibasement, its three windows wide front finished with a cornice and blocking course. The centrally placed entrance has a patterned fanlight. March 4, 1824; Skinner Chart of Kennington Lane, builder. (fn. 42)

Nos. 99–107 form a terrace of houses containing three storeys and semi-basements with the centre house, No. 103, rising to four storeys. The entrances and ground-floor windows are round-headed and set in arched recesses. Nos. 99 and 101 have cast-iron window guards at the first floor. January 4, 1823; Arnold Heath of Kennington Cross, corn-dealer. (fn. 43)

No. 109 is similar to No. 97; it originally had a hood over the doorway, but this has been removed. No. 111 is a narrow two-storey house with a semi-basement, its front finished with a cornice and blocking course. March 20, 1821; William Gummer of Kennington, plumber. (fn. 44)

No. 113 is similar to No. 97. Its centrally placed entrance has attenuated columns and a patterned fanlight. September 11, 1820; James Crundall of Clapham Road Place, timber merchant. (fn. 45)

No. 119 is a two-storey villa, three windows wide, with overhanging eaves and a slated roof. The centrally placed doorway has slender columns and is round-headed. April 16, 1821; Jane and Eliza Sorel of Kennington, spinsters. (fn. 46)

No. 121 is a narrow house of two storeys and semi-basement with an attic in a mansard roof. It is two windows wide and the round-headed doorway has a patterned fanlight. March 23, 1822; William Richard Self of Clapham Road Place, plumber. (fn. 47)

Nos. 127 and 129 are paired three-storey houses with semi-basements. The front of each house is two windows wide and finished with a cornice and blocking course. The ground-floor openings have semi-elliptical heads and No. 129 has a patterned fanlight. The entrances are in single- (No. 127) and two-storey (No. 129) annexes; the latter is joined to No. 131 by a two storey link which is set forward slightly. Nos. 131 and 133 are similar but three windows wide, and the entrances are set in the body of the houses; No. 133 has no annexe. No. 131 has a patterned fanlight. March 20, 1821; William Bird of Clapham Road Place, builder. (fn. 48)

No. 135 is another three-storey house with a semi-basement, but has been mutilated. October 18, 1821; John Lett of Montague Place, Bedford Square. (fn. 49)

Nos. 11–43 (odd) South Island Place

Formerly No. 4 and Nos. 23–8a (consec.) South Island Place

Nos. 11–43 form a continuous terrace of plain two-storey cottages. The front of each cottage

contains a rectangular window and a round-arched doorway on the ground floor, two rectangular windows on the first floor, and finishes with a plain coped parapet. The four cottages at the east end have their ground-floor windows set in elliptical-headed recesses, and there are apron panels above the upper windows. Nos. 31 and 41 alone have simple fanlights which are respectively of radiating and circular pattern. Nos. 11–41, March 23, 1822; William Richard Self. (fn. 47) No. 43, July 29, 1823; James Collins of Kennington, mason. (fn. 50)

Nos. 37–61 (odd) Hillyard Street

Formerly Nos. 11–23 (consec.) Russell Street

Nos. 37–61 form a continuous well-maintained terrace of three-storey houses, each two windows wide, of which Nos. 37–47 form one group and Nos. 49–61 another (Plate 48c). The groups are similar and of the same height to their parapets. The former group has a linking band at first-floor sill level while the others are linked at first-floor level. The ground floor windows and doorways have round arches springing from stone imposts; the first-floor windows have gauged flat arches set in shallow semi-circular headed recesses. The terrace is devoid of ornament except for the castiron guards protecting the first-floor windows of Nos. 49–61. December 31, 1822; James Crundall. (fn. 51)

Nos. 91–115 (odd) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 1–13 (consec.) Bowhill Terrace

Nos. 91–109 (Plate 50b), form a long, plain three-storey terrace with five houses at the centre joined by single-storey entrance links to two houses at the north end and three at the south end. The end houses of the centre and south blocks are set forward slightly. At ground-floor level all the houses are faced with rusticated stucco and have round-headed recessed windows and deepset entrances. The majority of the houses have first-floor cast-iron window guards withanthemion and wave ornament, and some have entrance fanlights of radiating pattern. The crowning cornice has been removed. Nos. 91–103, January 4, 1823; Thomas Hill of Harleyford Place, Kennington. (fn. 52) Nos. 105–109, January 4, 1823; John Muggeridge of Harleyford Place, builder. (fn. 53)

Nos. 111–115 are plain three-storey stuccofronted houses with semi-basements. There are pilasters on the lines of the party walls and at the corners, and all the openings have architraves. The crowning cornice has been removed. August 26, 1823; James Crundall. (fn. 54)

Nos. 117–141 (odd) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 1–13 (consec.) Minerva Terrace

Nos. 117–137 (Plate 48b), form a three-storey terrace in which the centre house, No. 127, is stuccoed, and the end houses are set forward slightly. All the houses have depressed semielliptical arches over the ground-floor openings, and the doorways (Plate 68d) have patterned fanlights and fluted quadrant reveals. Most of the ground-floor windows have their original glazing bars with marginal panes; those at No. 23 retain their original amber glass. The first-floor windows have cast-iron guards. Nos. 139 and 141 are both stucco-fronted, and are divided by pilasters which, with the friezes under the consoled window hoods, are somewhat coarsely ornamented. July 29, 1823; James Crundall. (fn. 55)

Nos. 147, 149 and 155 Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 3, 4 and 7 Vassall Place

These houses are simple two-storey villas with overhanging eaves and slated roofs; they are very similar to No. 112, on the opposite side of the road. No. 149 has a Greek Doric Porch, and No. 155 is stucco-fronted. Another villa in this group, No. 151, was demolished in 1950. Nos. 147, 149, 151, January 23, 1822; James Crundall. (fn. 56) No. 155, January 26, 1824; John Keith of Camberwell (New) Road. (fn. 57)

Nos. 167–179 (odd) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 1–7 (consec.) Claremont Place

No. 167 is a large three-storey house with a semi-basement and attics, and is finished with a cornice and blocking course. It is three windows wide and has a centrally placed doorway with a projecting porch supported on columns. There is a coach-house at the side. Nos. 169 and 171 are similar but have only two storeys. June 13, 1823; Evan Roberts of North Brixton, slate merchant. (fn. 58)

No. 173 is another two-storey villa finished with a cornice and blocking course; it is three windows wide and has a centrally placed entrance. There is no porch, attic or coach-house. Nos. 175 and 177 are paired two-storey houses with semibasements and overhanging eaves; the roofs are slated and have small projecting attic windows. No. 179 is similar to No. 173; the doorcase is illustrated on Plate 68c. Nos. 175 and 177, January 26, 1824; George Grove Unwin of Kennington. (fn. 59) Nos. 173 and 179, October 15, 1821; William Woods of Kennington, builder. (fn. 60)

Nos. 195–211 (odd) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 1–9 (consec.) Alfred Place

Nos. 195–203 form a three-storey terrace with basements, the ground storey being faced with rusticated stucco. The centre and end houses are set forward slightly and are flanked on the upper storeys by pilasters with key ornament; they also have continuous cast-iron balconies on the first floor, while those on the intermediate houses are separate. May 8, 1824; James Crundall. (fn. 61)

No. 205 is a two-storey villa with windows set in segmental arches on both floors. The central entrance has quadrant reveals and in the inflected blocking course of the parapet above there is a ribboned wreath. No. 207 is another two-storey villa but it has an attic storey in the mansard roof, and a two-storey projecting bay on one side. These two houses were both designed as detached houses, but were built on such narrow plots that they are actually joined together (Plate 55b). Nos. 209 and 211 are a pair of three-storey houses with semi-basements and two-storey annexes, which in the case of No. 211 contains the entrance. Each house is three windows wide and the fronts are finished with a cornice and blocking course. April 16, 1823; William and Thomas Cox of Playhouse Yard, St. Luke's, Middlesex, paper stainers. (fn. 62)

Nos. 98–112 (even) Brixton Road

Nos. 98–110, formerly Nos. 2–8 (consec.) Elizabeth Place

Nos. 98–108 form a three-storey terrace well raised above stuccoed semi-basements. Nos. 98 and 100 are a pair joined to the others by a twostorey link. Nos. 102 and 108 are set forward slightly and the round-arched ground floor windows are linked by moulded imposts. The entrances have patterned fanlights and are flanked by attenuated Greek Doric columns. Each house has steep steps with cast-iron balustrades. May 15, 1823; William Bird. (fn. 63)

No. 110 abuts No. 108 and is a plain threestorey house with semi-basement, its ground floor faced with stucco. It is slightly lower than Nos. 98–108, and the entrance is contained in a single storey annexe. No. 112 (Plate 55c) is a neat well maintained two-storey villa with wide overhanging eaves to its slated roof. It is three windows wide, and its central entrance and ground-floor windows are set in shallow elliptical arched recesses. The doorway has a fluted surround and a delicate fanlight. March 20, 1821; William Bird. (fn. 48)

Nos. 120–124, 130–142 (even) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 1–3 (consec.) Carlton Terrace, and Nos. 1–7 (consec.) St. George's Place

Nos. 120–124 were similar to Nos. 98–108, but stucco-fronted. They were demolished in 1955. (The building lease cannot be found.)

No. 130 is a three-storey stucco-fronted house, three windows wide and with a two-storey wing. There is a projecting porch supported on columns. Nos. 132–138 are two-storey houses with semibasements, the fronts being finished with a cornice and blocking course; Nos. 134 and 136 have attics in a mansard roof. Each house is two windows wide, and the doorways and ground-floor windows are round-headed, the latter being set in arched recesses. No. 138 has a two-storey annexe which was probably built at the same time as the house and served as a coach-house. August 16, 1824; Peter Daly of Margate. (fn. 64)

Nos. 140 and 142 are a pair of three-storey houses with semi-basements. They are faced with channelled stucco at ground-floor level and the original doors, ornamented with Maltese crosses, survive. May 2, 1824; the Hon. James Abercromy of New Street, Spring Gardens. (fn. 65)

Nos. 152–160 (even) Brixton Road

Formerly Nos. 5–1 (consec.) St. Ann's Terrace

These houses (Plate 49a) are the survivors of a terrace of seven large four-storey houses with semi-basements; Nos. 148 and 150 were destroyed in the war of 1939–45. All are stuccofronted at ground-floor level and are finished with a cornice and blocking course. The centre house, which is three windows wide, and the end house, No. 160, are set forward slightly, and the entrance to the latter is set in a single storey annexe. There are cast-iron balustrades with anthemion and wave ornament enclosing the areas and guarding the first-floor windows. Nos. 152, 156, 158, February 7, 1828; Robert Stevens of Burnham, Berkshire. (fn. 66) Nos. 154 and 160, February 7, 1828; William Thorowgood of Acre Lane. (fn. 67)

Nos. 162–168 (even) Brixton Road

No. 162 is a two-storey villa with a stucco fronted semi-basement. The front is finished with a cornice and blocking course and the house is three windows wide with the doorway in the centre; the ground-floor windows have cast-iron guards, and there is a coach-house at the side. Pediments have been added to the dormer windows in the mansard roof. Nos. 164 and 166 are a plain three-storey pair with semi-basements. The ground floors are faced with channelled stucco, the upper storeys are set forward over the entrances at the end, and the fronts are finished with a cornice and blocking course. No. 168 is very similar to No. 162, but has a Tuscan columned porch at the centre with a mutule cornice. Nos. 162 and 168, January 1, 1823; William Woods. (fn. 68) Nos. 164 and 166, September 1, 1824; the Hon. James Abercromby. (fn. 69)

Nos. 32–48 (even) Foxley Road

Formerly Nos. 10–2 (consec.) Foxley Cottages

Nos. 32–48 are three-storey detached villas, linked in pairs by recessed annexes, of one or two storeys, that contain the entrances. The uniform fronts are unusual in composition and severe in expression (Plate 51b). The semi-basement is faced with horizontally channelled stucco, but the stock brick face above relies for effect on the arch-headed shallow recess that rises almost to eaves level and is centred between the two windows of each storey. This recess is echoed by a further break at each end of the front. The groundfloor windows are round-headed and set in arched recesses; those on the first floor are rectangular and on the second floor square. The slated roofs are low pitched and overhanging. The entrances are recessed in stuccoed porches, with pilasters at each side. The doors are surmounted by patterned semi-circular fanlights. January 1, 1824; Nicholas Phillipps, Rothery of Exeter. (fn. 70)

No. 34 was occupied between 1827 and 1841 by David Cox (1783–1859), the water-colour artist; his residence there is confirmed by entries in the rate books for 1830–40. Cox was born in Birmingham, but came to London in 1804 where he was employed at Astley's Amphitheatre in Westminster Bridge Road, painting scenery. For a few years he taught at Hereford but returned to London in 1827, when he began “the most arduous and the most rewarding period” of his life. (fn. 71)

Nos. 15–37 (odd) Foxley Road

Nos. 21–37, formerly Nos. 9–1 (consec.) Eltham Place

No. 15 is a plain two-storey villa raised above a stucco-fronted semi-basement. It has eaves and a slate roof, and there is a centrally placed Doric porch. No. 17 is similar, but slightly higher. No. 19, which is now derelict, is a three-storey stucco-fronted house with a flat pediment carried on consoles over the architrave-lined central entrance. Nos. 21–37 form a plain three-storey terrace with basements. The end and centre houses are set forward slightly and have an extra storey. Each house is two windows wide and cast-iron balconies link the first-floor windows of each house. The ground storeys are stuccoed and channelled, and contain entrances with panelled door frames and simple segmental fanlights. The cornices to the parapets have been removed. Nos. 15–31, January 1, 1824; N.P. Rothery. (fn. 70) Nos. 33–37, January 1, 1824; John Williamson of Fleet Street. (fn. 72)

Nos. 3–41 (odd) Vassall Road

Nos. 7–41, formerly Nos. 1–18 (consec.) Mitford Place

Nos. 3 and 5 are uninteresting two-storey buildings with shop fronts; they abut a long terrace consisting of Nos. 7–41. These houses have three storeys and semi-basements and are finished with a cornice and blocking course; the ground storey is faced with channelled stucco. Some of the doorways have simple semi-circular fanlights and there are window guards at first-floor level. Nos. 3–7, July 29, 1823; James Crundall. (fn. 55) Nos. 9–41, July 15–22, 1825; James Crundall. (fn. 73)

Nos. 57–87 (odd) Vassall Road

Formerly Nos. 4–19 (consec.) Clarendon Place

Nos. 57–73 form a plain three-storey terrace. Each house is two windows wide, and the groundfloor windows and doorways are round-headed; most of the latter have patterned fanlights. The whole range is unified by a first-floor sill-band. Nos. 75–87 are similar to the above, but the entrances of Nos. 77–87 are paired and protected by shallow hoods borne on consoles. September 1, 1823; James Crundall. (fn. 74)

Nos. 89–93 (odd) Vassall Road

No. 89 is an unprepossessing two-storey house with semi-basement and an attic in a mansard roof. It is three windows wide and there is a projecting porch borne on columns. No. 91 is similar, but the semi-basement is faced with stucco. May 24, 1831; Benjamin Currey of Old Palace Yard. (fn. 75)

No. 93 also resembles No. 89, but the whole of the front is faced with stucco and the centrally-placed entrance has a pediment. April 23, 1828; Benjamin Currey. (fn. 76)

Nos. 95–123 (odd) Vassall Road

Formerly Nos. 1–5 (consec.) Kendal Place, and Nos. 1–10 (consec.) Winterslow Place

Nos. 95–103 and 105–113 form two plain four-storey terraces of which the end houses in each block project forward slightly. The ground storeys are faced with channelled stucco and contain recessed windows and doorways. The end houses have annexes containing the entrances, which are flanked by Greek Doric columns. Cast-iron balconies extend across the full width of the first floors of the end houses; on the intermediate houses they are separate. Nos. 115–123 are similar but only three storeys high. Nos. 95–103, March 1, 1824; John Gullett of Devon. (fn. 77) Nos. 105–111, January 1, 1824; John Williamson. (fn. 72) Nos. 113–123, January 1, 1824; John Adolphus Snee of Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn. (fn. 78)

Nos. 125–133 (odd) Vassall Road

No. 125, formerly No. 11 Winterslow Place, and No. 133, formerly No. 3 Vassall Road

Nos. 125 and 127 are a pair of three-storey houses with basements. Each house is two windows wide, the ground storey is faced with channelled stucco, and the fronts finished with a cornice and blocking course. The doorways, which have Greek Doric columns, are contained in two-storey annexes. A cast-iron balcony extends across the width of both houses at first-floor level, and there are iron railings enclosing the areas. No. 127 has a two-storey extension flanking the entrance annexe. Nos. 125 and 127, January 1, 1824; John Adolphus Snee. (fn. 78)

No. 129 is a two-storey villa with overhanging eaves and a slated roof. It is three windows wide and has a centrally placed porch supported on columns. There is a low two-storey annexe at one side. Nos. 131 and 133 are a pair of three storey houses with eaves and slated roofs. The first-floor windows of No. 131 have standard cast-iron window guards of anthemion and wave ornament; those of No. 133 were probably removed when its shop front was built. May 9, 1823; Benjamin Tapley of London Road, Blackfriars. (fn. 79)

Nos. 48–52 and 64–82 (even) Vassall Road

Formerly Nos. 22–24 (consec.) Devonshire Place, and Nos. 11–2 (consec.) Ampthill Place

Nos. 48–52 form a two-storey terrace with shop fronts. The latter are neatly detailed with swept ends to the fascias and there are projecting panels with aprons over the first-floor windows. August 30, 1824; James Crundall. (fn. 80)

Nos. 64–80 form a line of small two-storey detached houses with slated roofs. They are raised on high semi-basements and are only two windows wide; the entrances, which are at the side, are approached up narrow flights of stairs. The ground-floor windows have hoods borne on consoles and those on the upper floors are architrave-lined. May 25, 1831; Benjamin Currey. (fn. 81)

No. 82 is similar but is three windows wide and has a centrally placed entrance with a patterned fanlight. The ground floor windows are round headed and set in arched recesses. The first floor windows are taller than those of Nos. 64–80. November 16, 1826; the Hon. James Abercromby. (fn. 82)

Nos. 86, 88 and 90, 98, 100–110, 114 and 116 (even) Vassall Road

No. 86 is St. John's vicarage; the other houses were formerly Nos. 11 and 10, 6A, 6–1 (consec.) Langton Place, and 4 and 3 Union Place

No. 86 is a four-storey house with semibasement. It is two windows wide with a twostorey annexe, and has a Greek Doric porch. The ground-floor windows flanking the porch have hooded architraves. The conspicuous return elevation overlooking the church of St. John the Divine has three windows on each floor; the centre ones are blind. September 1, 1824; the Hon. James Abercromby. (fn. 83)

Nos. 88 and 90 are a plain two-storey pair with semi-basements; No. 90 has an attic in a mansard roof. Each house is one window wide and the entrances are set in low two-storey wings. The ground-and first-floor windows are set in shallow round-headed recesses springing from little stone imposts. Both houses have patterned fanlights and ground-floor window guards. No. 98 is a two-storey villa with a slated roof. It is three windows wide, and the square-headed groundfloor windows are set in recessed round-headed arches. September 1, 1824; William Jennings of Dorset. (fn. 84)

Nos. 100–104 form a three-storey terrace with semi-basements, the fronts being finished with a cornice and blocking course. No. 102 has a mutilated Ionic porch, and the entrances to Nos. 100 and 104 are contained in recessed porches flanked by pilasters with vase heads. Nos. 106–110 are plain three-storey houses raised above semi-basements. Each house is two windows wide, and the entrances to the end houses are contained in two-storey annexes. All three houses have cast-iron railings to the stone entrance stairs. Nos. 100–106, June 21, 1824; John Woods of Vassall Road. (fn. 85) Nos. 108–110, September 1, 1824; William Jennings. (fn. 86)

Nos. 114 and 116 are a plain three-storey pair. Each house is two windows wide, and there are recessed rectangular panels above the third-floor windows. No. 114, December 6, 1830; Francis Scrimes of Pimlico. (fn. 87) The house was erected by George Gadsby. No. 116, December 6, 1830; George Gadsby of Grays Walk, Lambeth, carpenter. (fn. 88)

Nos. 9–27 (odd) Cowley Road

Formerly Nos. 1–10 (consec), Cowley Road

Nos. 11–21 are two-storey stucco-fronted houses (Plate 48a). They form a terrace which has a front of considerable distinction, being in effect a continuous wall arcade. Each house has three elliptical-headed arches, the middle one containing the arched doorway and that on either side a ground- and first-floor window, the latter adorned with a cast-iron guard. Each house is separated from its neighbours by a narrow roundheaded recess. The front of No. 9, which is similar though set back and narrower, and the fronts of Nos. 11–21 are uniformly finished with a delicate cornice and blocking course which is continued above the more orthodox fronts of Nos. 23–27. August 30, 1824; James Crundall. (fn. 80)

Nos. 29–67 (odd) Cowley Road

Formerly Nos. 1–20 (consec.) Cowley Place

These are rows of two-storey houses, the centre group being raised on a semi-basement. All are two windows wide and the wall face sets back for the entrances and to mark the party walls. The doorways are framed by architraves and those in the lower houses have fluted quadrant pilasters. At first-floor level there is a sill-band and the fronts finish with a cornice and blocking course. There are variations in several of the houses. May 25, 1831; Benjamin Currey. (fn. 81)

Nos. 69–107 (odd) Cowley Road

Nos. 89–107, formerly Nos. 1–10 (consec.) Cowley Terrace

No. 69 was built as a detached two-storeyed villa, three windows wide, with single-storeyed wings. It has a slated roof and the long groundfloor windows are in round-arched recesses with moulded imposts. October 30, 1830; George Henry Rickards of Vassall Road. (fn. 89)

Nos. 71–87 are undistinguished stock brick or stucco-faced houses of two storeys, mostly built in pairs. May 25, 1831; Mrs. Mary Currey, widow, of Charterhouse Square. (fn. 90)

Nos. 89–107 form a row of two-storeyed houses of the poorest type. May 26, 1831; Benjamin Currey. (fn. 91)

Nos. 4–16 (even), 22 and 24 Normandy Road

Formerly Nos. 1–7 (consec.), 9 and 10 Addison Place

Nos. 4–14 are two-storeyed houses, built as a terrace, with the end houses set slightly forward and with recessions marking the party walls. Each house has a central square-headed doorway and round-arched ground-floor windows. The upper storey has two windows and a panel above the door. Part of the ground floor of No. 4 is used as a shop. No. 16 is a crudely elaborated stucco version of one of the above. Nos. 22 and 24 are very plain two-storeyed houses, with a brick cornice and parapet. No. 22 has a central round-headed doorway and one window on each side. No. 24 is two windows wide. August 30, 1824; James Crundall. (fn. 92)

Nos. 4–10 (consec.), 14 and 15 Melbourne Square

Nos. 4–10 and 14–15 are paired houses of two storeys on a semi-basement, linked by lower two-storeyed blocks set well back. Each house is two windows wide and has stucco dressings, the slate roof being partly hidden by a cornice and blocking course. No. 3, which paired No. 4, has been destroyed. Nos. 11 and 12 differ in having no parapet and being each three windows wide. May 26, 1831; Benjamin Currey. (fn. 91)

Nos. 65–99 (odd) Camberwell New Road

Formerly Nos. 3–20 (consec.) York Terrace

Nos. 65–77 are three-storey houses with semi-basements; they have a sill-band at first-floor level, and the round-headed doorways have fluted quadrant reveals. Nos. 79–99 are plain three-storey terrace houses with semi-basements, the ground storeys being faced with channelled stucco. Nos. 79, 81, 89, 91 and 99 are set forward slightly, and all the houses have elliptical-headed doorways and windows, the latter set in arched recesses. Nos. 65–79, June 11, 1824; Jonathan Hawkins of Albany Street, Albany Road, builder. (fn. 93) Nos. 81–99, August 8, 1825; Benjamin Tapley. The latter houses were erected by John Wise of Vassall Place. (fn. 94)

Nos. 101–107 (odd) Camberwell New Road

Formerly Nos. 1–4 (consec.) Cambridge Place

These three-storey houses are raised on high semi-basements; there is a sill-band at first-floor level and the fronts finish with a cornice and blocking course. Nos. 103 and 105 form a pair and are linked to the flanking houses by two-storey wings containing the double entrances. Nos. 101 and 103 have heavy porticoes with balustraded parapets, but those of Nos. 105 and 107 have been removed. All the windows are square-headed except those on the ground floor of Nos. 103 and 105 and those above the porticoes, where they are round-headed. December 14, 1825; Isaac Bates of Brixton. (fn. 95)

Nos. 109–137 (odd) Camberwell New Road

Nos. 109–135, formerly Nos. 1–14 (consec.) Grosvenor Place; No. 137, formerly No. 5 Surrey Place

Nos. 109–127 are similar to Nos. 101–107, but they are grouped in pairs and their elliptical-headed doorways have no porches. Some of the doorways have patterned fanlights, and all the ground floor windows are round-headed; those of Nos. 121 and 123 have cast-iron guards. Nos. 129 and 131 were probably built as one plain two-storey cottage, three windows wide, with a centrally-placed doorway, overhanging eaves and a slated roof. No. 133 is similar to Nos. 129 and 131, but has small single-storey wings and a porch enclosed by cast-iron trelliswork. No. 135, Grosvenor Lodge, is another two-storey house, three windows wide and flanked by low two-storey wings. There is a sill-band at first-floor level and the front was originally finished with a cornice, now removed. The centrally placed entrance has a coarse stucco surround and a semi-circular fan-light, and the round-headed ground-floor windows are set in arched recesses. No. 137 is a two-storey stucco-fronted house surmounted by a pediment. At ground-floor level there is one window and a segmental-headed doorway with a patterned fan-light and fluted quadrant reveals. On the first floor there are three windows and a sill-band; all the openings have architraves. August 14, 1823; John Shelton of Gravel Lane, Southwark. (fn. 96)

Nos. 62–76 (even) Camberwell New Road

Nos. 64–76, formerly Nos. 1–7 (consec.) Olive Place or Olive Terrace

Nos. 64–76 are formally grouped three-storey houses with semi-basements. The end and centre houses, which have band courses at second-floor level, are set forward slightly, and the blocking course above the cornice of these houses is inflected and contains the inscription “OLIVE TERRACE 1825”. The ground storey of the terrace is faced with channelled stucco, and all the first-floor windows have anthemion-ornamented guards. Nearly all the entrances have patterned fanlights and retain their original fret-ornamented doors. No. 62 abuts No. 64 and has an identical cornice and blocking course. There is a shop front on the ground floor. No. 62, May 7, 1825; Nos. 64–70, August 30, 1824; Nos. 72–76, June 16, 1825; Edward Kilsby of Nine Elms, ship breaker. (fn. 97)

Nos. 78–100 (even) Camberwell New Road

Formerly Nos. 1–12 (consec.) Orchard Place

Nos. 78–82 form a two-storey terrace with a rendered semi-basement and attics in a slated mansard roof. Each house has a cornice and blocking course and is three windows wide, No.80 being brought forward slightly. The ground-floor windows and doorways are round-headed, and the latter have patterned fanlights. No. 82 contains a blank arched recess on the ground floor and the doorway is contained in a slightly recessed additional bay of the same height. Nos. 84–90 are similar but paired. Each pair is flanked by lower wings of two storeys. These wings are recessed and contain the doorways, which have patterned fanlights and fluted quadrant reveals. Nos. 92 and 94 are a pair of two-storey villas raised on high stuccoed semi-basements and with overhanging eaves. Each house is three windows wide, the outer one contained in a set-back with the doorway below. The doorways are segmental-headed with panelled pilasters and patterned fanlights. All the windows are round-headed, those on the ground floor being set in arched recesses. No. 96, Russet Lodge, is a two-storey villa three windows wide with a centrally placed doorway. The latter has a round-headed fanlight and a key-ornamented door frame, and there is a projecting Greek Doric porch. The ground-floor windows, which are also round-headed, are set in arched recesses and there is a sill-band at first-floor level. Nos. 98 and 100 are a pair of two-storey houses with semi-basements and finished with a cornice and blocking course. Each house is two windows wide and the doorways are set in much altered annexes. The ground-floor windows and the doorways are round-headed, and the latter have slender Greek Doric columns. May 9, 1823; Benjamin Tapley. (fn. 79)

Nos. 102–114 (even) Camberwell New Road

Nos. 102–112, formerly Nos. 1–6 (consec.) Holland Place

Nos. 102 and 104 formed a pair similar to Nos. 98 and 100; No. 104 has been demolished. Nos. 106–112 are also paired two-storey houses with semi-basements. Each house is three windows wide, the outer one contained in a set-back with the doorway beneath. The doorways are round-headed and Nos. 108 and 110 have patterned fanlights. The ground-floor windows have cast-iron anthemion-ornamented guards. No. 114 is a three-storey house, its front finished with a cornice and blocking course. It is two windows wide and there is a two-storey wing containing the doorway. The window above the doorway and those on the ground floor are round-headed, the latter being set in arched recesses. There is a small cast-iron porch with a tented roof. August 14, 1823; Thomas Gibbons of Belvidere Place, Southwark. (fn. 98)

Nos. 116–142 (even) Camberwell New Road

Nos. 122–142, formerly Nos. 11–1 (consec.) Bath Terrace

No. 116 is a three-storey stucco-fronted house with a slate roof. There is a two-storey annexe containing the segmental-headed doorway which has fluted quadrant reveals. Nos. 118 and 120 are a pair of two-storey cottages with overhanging eaves and slated roofs. Each house is two windows wide, the outer one contained in a set-back, with the doorway below. The ground-floor windows and the doorways are round-headed and set in arched recesses. Nos. 122–142 form a long two-storey terrace with semi-basements. The end houses are set forward and the two centre houses have an extra storey with a mansard roof. The ground storey is faced with rusticated stucco and the entrances, most of which have patterned fan-lights, are flanked by fluted pilasters. The ground-floor windows are set in arched recesses with panels beneath. Some of the areas are enclosed by good cast-iron railings. The front gardens are bounded by square stuccoed piers with flat pedimented stone cappings. May 9, 1823; Benjamin Tapley. (fn. 79)

Nos. 289–299 (odd) Coldharbour Lane

These are three pairs of two-storeyed stock brick “Gothic” houses with stuccoed fronts and slated roofs containing attics. Nos. 289 and 291, and Nos. 297 and 299, are identical pairs with shallow gabled projections, small bay windows and a central chimney stack corbelled out from the wall face. The imaginatively arranged entrances are at the side and all the openings have label mouldings, those on the ground floor with well-modelled stops in the form of male and female heads, while there is a single enriched corbel to each window-sill. Nos. 293 and 295 share three Dutch gables and have oriel windows on the first floor. January 29–31, 1844; George Sturge of Kent Road. The houses were erected by Charles Wyatt of Walcot Place, Kennington Road, builder. (fn. 99)

Nos. 12–50 (even) Sussex Road

Formerly Nos. 1–20 (consec.) Sussex Road

Sussex Road, lying west of, and parallel with the north-south branch of Loughborough Park, has on its west side a terrace composition containing twenty cottages of early 19th century date, built of stock brick and without ornament, but presenting a remarkable example of monumental design applied to housing of the most humble description. Each cottage is uniformly two storeys high and two windows wide, but the middle pair are set slightly forward and crowned with a triangular pediment, while the first and fourth house at each end of the terrace is similarly accented with a smaller pediment. Standing in their well-kept front gardens, these utilitarian cottages present a picture of undeniable charm. January 25, 1825; the Hon. James Abercromby. These were let by Randall Gossip (fn. 100) (see page 109).

Loughborough Park

The layout of Loughborough Park appears to date from about 1844 when Lady Holland began to grant building leases of one or two plots in the road. (fn. 101) In 1846 Benjamin Currey (see page 109n.), in association with William A. Loch, a conveyance and equity draughtsman, (fn. 102) granted some more leases with the consent of the estate trustee. Thereafter leases were granted by Loch with the consent of the trustee up to 1857. (fn. 103) In view of his father’s connection with the estate, and his own connection with the development of the estate north of Coldharbour Lane, it is possible that Henry Currey designed Loughborough Park. Most of the houses were erected by Edwin Heritage of Loughborough Park, builder. Loughborough park is an attractive and well-planned development consisting of single and paired houses with spacious front gardens lining a wide roadway that leads south from Coldharbour Lane, each side then expanding in a convex sweep to meet another similar roadway running from the south-west to the north-east. There is an enclosed garden in the triangle thus formed.

The houses on the east side of the first branch are generally detached, two storeys high over semi-basements, and with stucco-faced fronts of simple Italianate design, three windows wide and with a central porch. Those on the west side are mostly built in pairs, two storeys high and two windows wide, with fronts of grey brick dressed with stucco, generally with Regency Greek detail. The most striking houses are the two pairs on the south-east side of the second branch, Nos. 89–91 and 93–95. Their combined fronts are faced with stucco and treated to form a balanced composition, each house being defined by giant Doric pilasters supporting a simple entablature. This frame contains a ground-floor window of three lights, dressed with an architrave, plain frieze and triangular pediment on consoles, over which is a single unadorned first-floor window. The recessed portion of the front contains the doorway, framed by pilasters and a simple entablature, with an arch-headed window above. The low-pitched slate roof has a wide overhang. Nos. 89–95, formerly Warburton Villas, December 31, 1846; Benjamin Bates Cowell of Old Kent Road, coal meter (sic). (fn. 104)

Christ Church, Brixton Road

In 1823 the Rev. Dr. John Styles obtained a sub-lease from Lord Holland of a piece of land on the west side of Brixton Road on which he had recently erected Holland Chapel. (fn. 105) At first the chapel was used for Independent worship, but about 1836 Dr. Styles and part of the congregation seceded and moved to a new chapel in Clay lands Road (fn. 106) (see page 61). In the 1840s Brayley described Holland Chapel as “a neat stuccoed edifice, with a bell-turret over the central part” and said that it had been a proprietary Episcopal chapel for some years. (fn. 107)

Owing to the efforts of the Rev. J. McC. Hussey, who purchased the leasehold interest in 1854, the chapel became vested in the Church Building Commissioners, and was consecrated in 1855 and renamed “Christ Church”. Hussey gave the leasehold interest to the Commissioners and enlarged the chapel out of his own private funds. He also acquired the advowson and presented himself to be the first vicar; he held the living until his death in 1891. During the incumbency of the next vicar, W. R. Mowll, the chapel proved inadequate for the increased congregation. A printed appeal for funds reported that “The congregations attending the Church, more particularly on Sunday evenings, are immense; … The building has been packed from floor to roof; and … the adjoining Church Room has also been filled with eager listeners.” Plans for a new church to accommodate 1,200 persons were provided by Professor Beresford Pite but were not finally approved until January, 1900. Meanwhile two houses at the rear of the church in Chapel (now Mowll) Street were purchased for the erection of a hall (also designed by Pite) which was to accommodate the congregation during the rebuilding of the church. The foundation stone of the new hall was laid on July 24, 1897, and the building was completed in 1899. The foundation stone of the new church was laid on December 13, 1898, by Princess Christian, and the old church was demolished in the following year. The house adjoining the old church in Brixton Road (No. 96) was also pulled down and the land on which it stood was incorporated in the site of the new building. At the same time a six-foot strip of land was given up for the widening of Chapel Street. (fn. 105) The church was built by Alfred A. Webber of Mortimer Street, St. Marylebone, at a cost of about £17,000 (fn. 108) and was consecrated by the Bishop of Rochester on December 5, 1902. (fn. 109) The outside pulpit at the south-west corner was designed by Weir, Burrows and Weir and was erected without reference to Pite; (fn. 110) it was dedicated on November 3, 1907 (Plate 17, fig. 35).

Figure 35.:

Christ Church, Brixton Road, plan

The church is designed in an eclectic style with Byzantine motifs predominating, and has a cruciform plan. It is built of yellow stock bricks banded by courses of Berkhamsted purple bricks and has window arches of red brick. Stone dressings are used extensively on the Brixton Road front. At the centre of this front rises a domecapped octagonal tower of unusual appearance, flanked by lower square towers. The crossing is roofed by a dome with a small louvred lantern, carried above an octagonal brick drum. The plainness of the exterior is relieved by diverse arrangements of round-headed recesses and windows. The sanctuary is at the west end in an apsidal chancel surrounded by an ambulatory. The altar which stands below a semi-domed ceiling borne by eight Byzantine columns, is unusually arranged, with the communion rail completely surrounding the Lord's Table. The lectern is set directly in front of the altar and flanked by the pulpit and reading desk. The bold plain vaulting at the crossing and the wall surfaces are plastered, the walls being relieved by interlinking arches and arcading on different planes. The north transept contains the font which is of well figured polished green marble and has a large round bowl. The organ gallery is over the east end. The floor of the church slopes towards the altar. The hall at the rear of the church, built of yellow stock brick, has a bold round-arched north window divided by vertical buttresses in a manner characteristic of the church windows. The fabric was damaged during air-raids in the war of 1939–45 but was restored in 1954. Several uses in this church recall its origin as a place of Independent worship. Communicants kneel all round the communion rail and the officiating minister wears a black preaching gown with Geneva bands for preaching his sermon. The lectern has a reversible top and the Bible is always presented to the congregation before the lessons are read.

Church Of St. John the Divine, Vassal Road

In the 1860s the south-east portion of the parish of St. Mark's, Kennington, which until then had consisted of strawberry beds, market gardens and exhausted brick fields, became the scene of widespread building. In 1866 a district mission was established under the Rev. D. T. W. Elsdale in a school in Bolton Street (now Crescent). (fn. 111) In 1867–8 a building was erected to the designs of C. A. Gould (fn. 112) on the corner of Elliott Road and Frederick Crescent; a lower room served as a temporary church and an upper room was used for a school. (fn. 111) The present site of St. John's Church was obtained from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in whom the Lam beth Wick Estate was then vested, in 1871; George Edmund Street (1824–81) was commissioned to design the church and his plans were approved in 1872 (fn. 112) (Plates 18, 19, fig. 36). It was originally intended to complete the east end of the church first, and then to make do with a temporary iron nave until funds were available to complete the building. (fn. 113) The foundation stone was laid by Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Winchester, on July 4, 1871, and the chancel, vestries, organ chamber and chapel were completed by September, 1873. Consecration was delayed, however, as an anonymous gift of £10,000 made the building of the nave possible and the church was eventually consecrated on November 14, 1874, by Bishop Harold Browne who had succeeded Wilberforce at Winchester. (fn. 114) The tower and spire were built in 1888 to Street's original design and dedicated on May 4, 1889. (fn. 115) The church was built of specially manufactured red brick with Bath stone dressings (fn. 116) and according to Elsdale was “glaringly pink and white at its birth”. (fn. 113) The graceful iron grilles in the chancel and baptistery, which were designed by Street, the clock, and the peal of eight bells (cast by Messrs. Mears and Stainbank, Whitechapel) were all added shortly after the dedication of the tower and spire in 1889. (fn. 117) G. F. Bodley was responsible for work carried out between 1890 and 1892 when the nave roof was painted, the chancel elaborately decorated and a wooden reredos added. The latter, depicting the Annunciation and the Crucifixion, was carved by Messrs. Brindley and Farmer. (fn. 118) The stained glass included work by Clayton and Bell, C. E. Kempe, Burlison and Grylls and Herbert Bryans. There were also three memorials to past vicars. The font cover in the baptistery was given in 1923 by the nieces of the Rev. D. T. W. Elsdale (vicar 1866–81); in 1913 a bronze bas-relief on a marble ground in memory of Canon C. E. Brooke (vicar 1881– 1911) was erected on the north wall of the Sanctuary; the Deedes Memorial Chapel, commemorating the incumbency of Canon A. C. Deedes from 1911 to 1916, was completed in 1920 to the design of Sir Charles Nicholson. (fn. 118)

Figure 36.:

St. John the Divine, pencil sketch drawn by G. E. Street to explain his plans

The church was heavily damaged by enemy action during the war of 1939–45. Restoration was started in 1955 under the superintendence of Mr. H. S. Goodhart-Rendel.

The Church of St. John the Divine is an outstanding masterpiece of the Gothic revival, a remarkable example of its architect's genius for deriving inspiration from the Gothic churches of Italy and Spain, as well as France and England, yet producing a building that is completely homogeneous and highly personal to its author, fully expressive of the time and circumstances of its creation.

The church contains an apse-ended chancel, flanked on the south by a chapel, and on the north by cloisters with vestries and the organ chamber. The wide hall-nave is flanked by aisles, that on the south opening to the baptistery at its west end, that on the north side having a corresponding porch. At the west end of the nave is the great steeple, containing the vestibule and belfry.

The brick-vaulted vestibule opens through a high arch to the finely proportioned nave, some 110 feet long and 24 feet wide. The first bay is narrow and aisleless, each side wall containing a tall window of two lights. Then follow arcades that open to the aisles, 13 feet wide, and have four wide bays and one narrow, the last canted inwards to meet the chancel arch. The moulded twocentred arches rise from shafted piers with rich foliage capitals, only the single shaft on the front face rising unbroken to the level of the archcrowns to support the transverse ribs of the pointed vault of wood. This rests on the corbelled and crested wallplates above the brick spandrels, and over its surface decorative ribs trace a pattern of groining. The transition from the wide and lofty nave to the smaller-scaled chancel is beautifully contrived, the wood ceiling following the inward splay of the last bay and then returning with a groined intersection to form a lunette over the chancel arch, which is a larger and more splendid version of those forming the nave arcades. The chancel, measuring some 46 feet in length by 24 feet in width, has one wide and two narrow bays, the former arcaded, and terminates in a three-sided apse, the whole being ceiled with a simple groined vault of brick with moulded stone ribs and carved bosses. The south chapel and the cloisters are similarly vaulted. There is no clerestory, but each aisle wall contains a range of finely traceried windows, two to each wide bay and one to the narrow. All are divided into three lights, their heads being filled with different patterns of Decorated tracery. The windows of the eastern apse are of two lights with foliated heads beneath a cinquefoil. From the westernmost bay of the south aisle projects the semicircular apse of the baptistery, lit by three trefoilheaded windows and ceiled with a groined brick vault. The circular space is completed by a wrought-iron grille projecting into the aisle.

The elements composing the plan are perfectly expressed in the elevations and general grouping of the exterior, which is dominated by the western steeple, rising to a total height of 212 feet. The tower consists of two lofty stages, the first corresponding in height with the nave roof ridge. This stage has flat gable-terminated buttresses on each exposed face, on the west flanking the great doorway, and on the north and south a tall window with two tiers of two lights and a Geometrical traceried head. Against the north side is a circular stair turret, its conical cap rising into the upper stage of the tower where each face has two tall two-light louvred windows in an arcaded and gabled setting. The brick face is then corbelled out to receive the tall broach spire of stone, which is finely adorned with three rings of gabled dormers, diminishing in scale towards the capstone.

The north and south elevations are generally similar, the main interest being provided by the aisle wall where the main bay divisions are marked by massive buttresses surmounted by niched and crocketed pinnacles, while the buttresses marking the secondary divisions rise only to the windowarch springing level, all having weathered offsets. Between the pinnacles runs a stone parapet that is adorned with various Geometrical patterns, such as blind arcades, quatrefoils and cinquefoils. Behind the parapet the lean-to roof of the aisle extends to meet the plain parapet of the nave wall, above which rises the immense roof of the nave, its slated expanse broken only by a range of minute dormers. The gabled wall of the chancel arch carries a gabled bellcote flanked by crocketed pinnacles. The buttresses of the eastern apse again rise only to the springing level of the window arches, and the chancel roof rests on brick corbelling. The vestries on the north side have a lean-to roof, while that to the south chapel is gabled.

Christ Church C.E. Primary School, Cancell Road

The site of this National Society school formed part of Lambeth Wick Estate and in 1860 was freely granted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord John Russell and the Duke of Devonshire to the minister and chapelwardens of the district chapelry of Christ Church, Brixton Road. In 1864 a small piece of this land was sold to the Governors of Queen Anne's Bounty as a site for a parsonage house. (fn. 119) The school buildings were erected in 1860 by Henry Currey, architect. The infants’ school was designed in 1876 but was rebuilt in 1904; the original building was remodelled in 1909. The school is in two singlestorey brick buildings with slate roofs. It was damaged by enemy action in the war of 1939–45. (fn. 120)

Kennington Secondary School, Hackford Road

This school occupies a plain three-storey brick building which was built for the London School Board by H. Hart of Southwark, whose tender for a school for 996 children was for £10,249. (fn. 121) The architect was T. J. Bailey (fn. 122) and the date of opening was May 9, 1887. (fn. 123) The south wing was added in 1894. (fn. 122)

Durand Primary School, Durand Gardens

This building adjoins Kennington Secondary School and was erected for the London School Board in 1888 as a Pupil Teachers’ School. The contractor was H. Hart of Southwark, whose tender was for £6,230. (fn. 124) The architect was T. J. Bailey. (fn. 122) The building was later used as a secondary school for girls, and a second floor was added in 1906, Bailey being the architect. (fn. 122) The south wing was damaged in the war of 1939–45 and has since been rebuilt under the supervision of Mr. Richard Nickson.

Stuart Secondary School, Sussex Road

This school was built for the London School Board and included a Cookery Centre and a Manual Training Centre. The contractors were J. T. Chappel of Pimlico, whose tender for a school for 798 children was for £15,811; (fn. 125) owing to a breach of contract the work was completed by W. Downs of Walworth. (fn. 126) The architect was T. J. Bailey, (fn. 122) and the date of opening April 9, 1894. (fn. 123) The school comprises an irregularly arranged group of three- and fourstorey stock brick buildings.


  • n1. a Henry Currey, architect, 1820–1900, became architect to St. Thomas' Hospital and designed the hospital buildings on the Embankment. His father Benjamin was solicitor and steward to Lord Holland for his Lambeth estate, and Clerk Assistant in the House of Lords. Frederick Currey, one of Henry’s brothers, was a prominent mycologist.
  • 11. Survey of London, vol. XXIII, p. 3.
  • 12. Cal. Pat. Rolls 1266–1272, p. 605.
  • 13. Chartulary of the Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr, Southwark (Stowe MS. 942), 1932, Nos. 570–578.
  • 14. C.C., Deeds 171184 4/4 Court Roll for Lambeth Wick Manor.
  • 15. L.P.L., Court Rolls: Farmers' Accounts, Nos. 578–590; Reeves and Serjeant's Accounts, Nos. 545–547.
  • 16. C.L.C. Register S, f. 306.
  • 17. C.C., Deeds: Archbishopric of Canterbury, Registers of Leases.
  • 18. Ibid., Muniments Register vol. 6, Deed 86583 (the original deed is missing).
  • 19. G.E.C.
  • 20. The sister of the fourth Baron Holland, whose second son inherited the Surrey estates, was Baroness Lilford.
  • 21. L.P.L., Parliamentary Surveys, Lambeth Manor, f. 71.
  • 22. C.C., Deed 276006.
  • 23. 47 Geo. III sess. 2, c. 128, local.
  • 24. 58 Geo. III c. 76, local.
  • 25. C.C., Deeds 276001–276005, 276007–276011, 276013–276017.
  • 26. Ibid., Deeds 276450, 276474, etc.
  • 27. Ibid., Deeds 276018.
  • 28. Ibid., Deed 276018, endorsement.
  • 29. L.C.C.R.O., Surrey and Kent Commissioners of Sewers plans, vol. 3/87.
  • 30. R.I.B.A. Journal, Jan. 12, 1901, p. 113. The Builder, Dec. 1, 1900, p. 495.
  • 31. C.C., Deed 276128, enclosed correspondence.
  • 32. D.N.B.
  • 33. C.C., Deed 276146. Copy of plan at Minet Public Library.
  • 34. The Huntingdon Peerage, by H. N. Bell, 1820, pp. 127–128.
  • 35. C.C., Deed 90510, book of contracts for leases.
  • 36. House of Lords Act No. 16, 16 and 17 Car. II.
  • 37. P.C.C. 62 Can.
  • 38. Brayley, vol. III, part 11, p. 365.
  • 39. M.P.L., S 166.
  • 40. Ibid., S 3654.
  • 41. L.C.C. Members' Library. MS. copy of lectures delivered by Dr. James F. Young, 1856–1857, on the history of Lambeth, p. 87.
  • 42. C.C., Deed 276164.
  • 43. Ibid., Deed 276460.
  • 44. Ibid., Deed 276461.
  • 45. Ibid., Deed 276165.
  • 46. Ibid., Deed 276462.
  • 47. Ibid., Deed 276166.
  • 48. Ibid., Deed 276450.
  • 49. Ibid., Deed 276167.
  • 50. Ibid., Deed 276406.
  • 51. Ibid., Deeds 276472 and 276474.
  • 52. Ibid., Deeds 276096–276101.
  • 53. Ibid., Deed 276102.
  • 54. Ibid., Deed 276103.
  • 55. C.C., Deed 276446.
  • 56. Ibid., Deeds 276105–276107
  • 57. Ibid., Deed 276109.
  • 58. Ibid., Deed 276112.
  • 59. Ibid., Deed 276113.
  • 60. Ibid., Deed 276449.
  • 61. Ibid., Deed 276117.
  • 62. Ibid., Deed 276118.
  • 63. Ibid., Deed 276127.
  • 64. Ibid., Deed 276128.
  • 65. Ibid., Deed 276129.
  • 66. Ibid., Deed 276135.
  • 67. Ibid., Deeds 276134 and 276136.
  • 68. Ibid., Deed 276137.
  • 69. Ibid., Deeds 276138 and 276139.
  • 70. Ibid., Deed 276149.
  • 71. L.C.C. Members' Library, File 962.
  • 72. Ibid., Deed 276210.
  • 73. Ibid., Deeds 276444, 276475–276477.
  • 74. Ibid., Deeds 276459, 276481, 276482.
  • 75. Ibid., Deed 276432.
  • 76. Ibid., Deed 276438.
  • 77. Ibid., Deed 276439.
  • 78. Ibid., Deed 276440.
  • 79. Ibid., Deed 276453.
  • 80. Ibid., Deed 276418.
  • 81. Ibid., Deed 276191.
  • 82. Ibid., Deed 276423.
  • 83. Ibid., Deed 276242.
  • 84. Ibid., Deed 276425.
  • 85. Ibid., Deed 276426.
  • 86. Ibid., Deed 276427.
  • 87. Ibid., Deed 276428.
  • 88. Ibid., Deed 276429.
  • 89. Ibid., Deed 276192.
  • 90. Ibid., Deed 276193.
  • 91. Ibid., Deed 276194 (missing, information taken from Register).
  • 92. Ibid., Deed 276037.
  • 93. Ibid., Deed 276451.
  • 94. Ibid., Deed 276158.
  • 95. Ibid., Deed 276159.
  • 96. Ibid., Deed 276452 and 276160.
  • 97. Ibid., Deed 2761 52–276154.
  • 98. Ibid., Deed 276454.
  • 99. Ibid., Deed 276178–276180.
  • 100. Ibid., Deed 276413.
  • 101. Ibid., Deed 276255, 276260–276262, 276266.
  • 102. P.O.D.
  • 103. C.C., Muniments Register.
  • 104. Ibid., Deed 276284.
  • 105. Ibid., File 20452.
  • 106. The Story of Congregationalism in Surrey, by E. E. Cleal and T. G. Crippen, 1908, pp. 276–277.
  • 107. Brayley, vol. III, part II, p. 364.
  • 108. The Builder, Nov. 22, 1902, p. 476.
  • 109. Christ Church, North Brixton, Birthday Book, 1910 (copy in possession of the vicar).
  • 110. Recent English Ecclesiastical Architecture, by Sir Charles Nicholson and Charles Spooner, N.D., 2nd ed.[1911], p. 77.
  • 111. Fifty years at St. John the Divine, Kennington, 1874–1924, ed. by the Rev. Canon Down, N.D., pp. 5–7 (copy in possession of the vicar).
  • 112. C.C., File 36517
  • 113. St. John the Divine, Kennington (Earliest Years, 1866–1871), by the Rev. D. T. W. Elsdale, 1921, p. 12 (copy in possession of the vicar).
  • 114. Down, op. cit., pp. 8–10.
  • 115. Ibid., pp. 13–14.
  • 116. The Builder, 1874, p. 954.
  • 117. Down, op. cit., pp. 12, 14.
  • 118. Ibid., pp. 16–17.
  • 119. Ch.C., vol. IV, p. 598.
  • 120. L.C.C, Architect's list of Voluntary Schools of Architectural Interest, 1953.
  • 121. L.S.B. Minutes, Oct. 8, 1885.
  • 122. L.C.C. Architect's plans.
  • 123. L.C.C. Elementary Day Schools. Report of the Education Committee, 1905.
  • 124. L.S.B. Minutes, July 7, 1887.
  • 125. Ibid., April 7, 1892; Feb. 2, 1893.
  • 126. Ibid., Nov. 27, 1893.