Survey of London: Volume 40, the Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair, Part 2 (The Buildings). Originally published by London County Council, London, 1980.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
In this section
- South Side
The whole of this side of the street west of Park Street is now occupied by the north front of Grosvenor House, Park Lane, and the houses here were all demolished in 1927–8. No. 33, old Grosvenor House itself, is described in Chapter XIII.
Nos. 25–30 (demolished).
The whole frontage between Park Lane and the site of No. 31 was originally developed in the late 1720's and early 30's under an agreement with the mason Richard Lissiman (fn. 2) to whom the houses were leased in 1729 (Nos. 25–28) and 1732 (Nos. 29 and 30). (fn. 3) At No. 25 Lissiman's son-in-law and former apprentice, William Hale, was co-lessee. (fn. 4) This house was either rebuilt or extensively remodelled by Samuel Baxter in 1825–6, acquiring in the process a wholly stuccoed front. (fn. 5) William Hale was himself the first occupant of No. 26, the site of which extended south to include a large plot with a frontage to Park Lane where Hale had his mason's yard. (fn. 6) After 1736 Mrs. Hale kept on the house and yard until they were taken over in 1742 by another mason and former apprentice of Lissiman, William Secull. (fn. 7) In 1766 the yard was agreed to be sold to provide a site for Lord Petre's new mansion in Park Lane. (fn. 8)
In 1840–1 Nos. 26 and 27 were united into a single house (thereafter No. 26) behind a new front designed by 'Mr. Harris'. (fn. 9)
No. 28, despite having 'been thoroughly repaired and beautified at a large expence' in 1809, and possessing 'complete warm and cold baths', (fn. 10) was demolished in c. 1826 and rebuilt to the designs of J. P. Gandy Deering. The new house had a severely plain brick and stucco front, similar in style to Gandy Deering's slightly later houses at Nos. 14–20 (even) South Street, but smaller in scale and without a portico. Inside, there were two water closets, on the ground and third floors. The specification for this rebuilding, together with plans and an elevation, were published by T. L. Donaldson in c. 1860, 'as an example of one in which the parties, acting in perfect good faith on both sides, merely requested a general statement of the class of construction required'. (fn. 11)
At No. 29 the original structure was never completely rebuilt but substantial improvements may well have taken place in 1826 when the house passed through the hands of a speculator, Thomas Oliver. (fn. 12) In 1832 it was considered fit for occupation by Lord Robert Grosvenor, the Marquess of Westminster's recently married youngest son, though his sister-in-law Lady Elizabeth Belgrave thought it a 'nasty' house. (fn. 13)
No. 30, the biggest of Lissiman's houses here, did not attract a tenant until after 1738, when it was advertised in The London Daily Post 'To be Lett or Sold Cheap'. The advertisement described it as 'A Large Convenient New House . . . having Great Stairs and Back stairs, a covered Way leading to the Offices behind the Garden, with two Coach-houses, and Stable for Eight Horses'. (fn. 14) One of the later eighteenth-century occupants, Sir Thomas Cave, had alterations made in 1777 under the supervision of the carpenter Charles Evans, (fn. 15) and Thomas Dowbiggin, the upholsterer, worked here for the fourth Earl of Ashburnham between 1837 and 1841. (fn. 16) In 1853 the house was acquired by Lord Breadalbane for the sake of the back plot, where he built a 'Baronial' ballroom as an annexe to his mansion in Park Lane (fn. 17) (see page 269). In c. 1900 two rooms at least retained their plain early-Georgian panelling and original fireplaces. (fn. 18)
Occupants include: No. 25, Richard Savage Lloyd, M.P., 1762–5. Capt. (latterly rear-adm.) Henry Collier, 1852–8. Lady Barrett-Lennard, wid. of Sir Thomas, 1st bt., 1862–73. Sir William Young, bt., 1891. Baron Hugh Halkett, 1892–5. Theodore Lumley, J.P., 1907–22. No. 26, William Hale, son-in-law of the lessee, Richard Lissiman, mason, 1730–6: Mrs. Hale, 1736–42: William Secull, mason, apprenticed to Richard Lissiman, 1742–61. United with No. 27 in 1841. Later residents include Roger S. Aytoun, M.P., 1860–3. No. 27, Edward Wortley Montagu, M.P. (? sen. or jun.), 1748–51. Lady Caroline Waldegrave, da. of 3rd Earl Waldegrave, 1791–1805. Capt. William Robe, 1836–8. United with No. 26 in 1841. No. 28, Lady Stapleton, wid. of Sir Thomas Stapleton, 5th bt., 1795. Lord Delvin, later 8th Earl and sole Marquess of Westmeath, 1811–12. Lady Kinnaird, wid. of 8th Baron Kinnaird, 1828–47. Lady Singleton, 1855–7. Dow. Lady Farquhar, wid. of Sir Thomas Harvie Farquhar, 2nd bt., 1868–9. No. 29, 5th Earl of Essex, 1827–8. Frederick Gough-Calthorpe, later 4th Baron Calthorpe, 1829–31. Lord Robert Grosvenor, son of 1st Marquess of Westminster and later 1st Baron Ebury, 1832–5. Henry Kingscote, philanthropist, 1838–42 (later at No. 10). Reginald and Lady Dorothy Nevill, 1848–68. John Cooper Forster, surgeon, 1871–86. Alfred M. Wigram, Chairman of Reid's Brewery Co., 1887–92. No. 30, Hon. Frances Bruce, 1739–51. William Stroud, esq., ? William Strode, M.P., 1753–5. Dow. Countess of Exeter, wid. of 8th Earl, 1755–7. Lady Buchan, 1758–60. Dow. Lady Stourton, wid. of 15th Baron, 1760–7. (Sir) Thomas Cave, latterly 6th bt., 1771–80: his wid., 1780–1819: their da., Sarah Otway Cave, wid. of Henry Otway, 1820–31, 1833–4. 2nd Viscount Saint Vincent, 1831–3. 4th Earl of Ashburnham, 1837–53. Edward H. Knatchbull-Hugesson, M.P., 1865–80. Thomas Charles Agar-Robartes, latterly 2nd Baron Robartes and later 6th Viscount Clifden, 1881–8. Lady Tenterden, wid. of 3rd Baron, 1889–92. Norman de l'Aigle Grosvenor, son of 1st Baron Ebury, 1893–8: his wid., 1898–1926 (later at No. 2).
No. 31, 32 and 34
No. 31, 32 and 34 (demolished) were erected on the curtilage of Lord Chetwynd's mansion (later Grosvenor House) at No. 33, which was set back from the street with a courtyard in front (fig. 55 on page 244). Nos. 31 and 32 were built in c. 1732 at Chetwynd's expense, probably by the carpenter Benjamin Timbrell, and No. 34 under a sublease of 1731 from Chetwynd to Timbrell. (fn. 19) To compensate for the shallowness of the sites, the two houses flanking the entrance to No. 33 were unusually wide, No. 32 having a fifty-seven-foot frontage, the biggest in the street. No. 34 was wholly and No. 32 partially demolished in 1842 to allow for the building of Thomas Cundy II's entrance screen to Grosvenor House. (fn. 20)
Occupants include: No. 31, Lady Herbert (sometimes Lady Mary or Anne), ? wid. of 2nd Baron Herbert of Chirbury, 1744–70. Lockhart Gordon, 1770–5. Either Dow. Countess of Tankerville, wid. of 3rd Earl, or her da.-in-law, wife of 4th Earl, 1779–85. Lady Beauchamp-Proctor, wid. of Sir William, 1st bt., 1785–96: their son, Christopher Beauchamp-Proctor, 1796–9. Francis Robert Bonham, sometime M.P., 1837–42. Dow. Countess of Antrim, wid. of 4th Earl, 1857–60. No. 32, George Wright, ? George Wrighte, M.P., 1736–42. 2nd Viscount Chetwynd, 1744–64 (also at No. 35): his da. or niece, Miss Chetwynd, 1764–73. Philip Bouverie, who assumed the name of Pusey in 1784, son of 1st Viscount Folkestone, and father of Rev. Edward Pusey, the theologian, 1780–99. Prince William of Gloucester, son of William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and grandson of Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1800–5. Sir Hew Hamilton-Dalrymple, 4th bt., 1806–11. Sir James Hamlyn Williams, 2nd bt., 1812–29: his son, Sir James Hamlyn Williams, 3rd bt., 1829–31. No. 34, Col. Richard Pyott and/or Mrs. Pitts, 1732–7. 'Lord Lotherdale', 1746–53. 9th Lord Cathcart, 1762–5. George Villiers, son of 1st Earl of Clarendon of 2nd cr., 1798–1809 (also at Nos. 35 and 36). Gen. George Milner, 1811–31 (later at No. 9).
Nos. 35 and 36
Nos. 35 and 36 (demolished) were both originally built in c. 1735 under leases to Thomas Skeat, bricklayer, and John Eds, carpenter, respectively. (fn. 21) Little is known about their subsequent history but No. 35 was probably either rebuilt or reconstructed in the later eighteenth century. In 1793 it was acquired by the Hon. George Villiers but being quite a small house he soon found it necessary to extend his occupation to No. 34 (in 1798, the year of his marriage), and later added No. 36 as well. (fn. 22)
Occupants include: No. 35, 2nd Viscount Chetwynd, 1738–41 (also at No. 32). Sir Henry Harpur, 5th bt., M.P., 1741–8: his wid., 1749–53: her 2nd husband, Sir Robert Burdett, 4th bt., 1754–69: her son, Sir Henry Harpur, 6th bt., M.P., 1769–89: his wid., 1789–90. George Villiers, son of 1st Earl of Clarendon of 2nd cr., 1793–1809 (also at Nos. 34 and 36). Rowley Lascelles, antiquary and miscellaneous writer, 1811–41: his kinsman (? son), Charles Francis Rowley Lascelles, 1841–59. Maj. (later lieut.-col.) David Scotland, private secretary to 1st Duke of Westminster, 1877–80 (later at No. 36). Lord Gerald Richard Grosvenor, son of 1st Duke of Westminster, 1903. No. 36, George Villiers, son of 1st Earl of Clarendon of 2nd cr., 1808–9 (also at Nos. 34 and 35). Lieut.-col. David Scotland, private secretary to 1st Duke of Westminster, 1881–92 (previously at No. 35). Col. Wilford Neville Lloyd, private secretary to 2nd Duke of Westminster, 1900–9 (later at No. 10).
Nos. 37 and 38
Nos. 37 and 38 were rebuilt in 1911–12 as part of a range having its principal elevation in Park Street which is described on page 252. When the sites were originally developed by the bricklayer James Jenner in the early 1730's, he built three houses here, the corner house being entered and numbered in Park Street. (fn. 23) The latter was rebuilt in 1825 and was briefly known as No. 37A Upper Grosvenor Street in the mid nineteenth century. (fn. 24) All three houses were demolished in about 1910.
Occupants include: No. 37, Col. Francis Williamson, 1731–8. Lord Henry Richard Charles Somerset, M.P., son of 8th Duke of Beaufort, 1875–6. Sir John Grant, Indian and colonial governor, G.C.M.G., 1878–85. No. 38, Richard Edgcumbe, latterly 1st Baron Edgcumbe, politician, 1733–58: his son, 2nd Baron, politician, 1758–61: the latter's brother, 3rd Baron, latterly 1st Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, admiral, 1761–95: his wid., 1795–1807. Frederick West, son of 2nd Earl De La Warr, 1808–50. Dow. Countess of Powis, wid. of 2nd Earl, 1854–5: their son, Robert Charles Herbert, 1855–67, and their da., Lady Lucy Calvert, wife of Frederick Calvert, Q.C., 1867–78.
Eaton House: Nos. 39 and 40.
This bulky, but architecturally small-scaled block of flats, was built in 1934–6 by Edifis Limited of Grosvenor Road, Pimlico (described in directories as wharfingers). (fn. 25) The job architect was S. C. Macey, the front elevation, however, being designed by Wimperis, Simpson and Guthrie. (fn. 26) This they originally intended to be of brick with stone dressings, but the Estate contributed to the greater cost of a wholly stone-faced front. (fn. 27) In 1937 the new flats were advertised as the only ones in London to be fully air-conditioned. (fn. 28)
The site was originally developed in the early 1730's, (fn. 29) but the two houses demolished in 1934 for the present flats had both been rebuilt in 1875–8. (fn. 30) At No. 40 the rebuilding lessee was John Walter II, proprietor of The Times. In 1872 Walter's architect, Robert Kerr, was consulting with the Estate about the proposed rebuilding, but by 1874 the two men had fallen out over the cost of Bearwood, Walter's enormous country seat in Berkshire, and instead of Kerr it was Walter himself who designed No. 40, assisted by Samuel Deacon, his surveyor at Bearwood. (fn. 31) The house was built under Deacon's supervision by workmen from Bearwood where Walter had set up his own brick kilns and joinery workshops. (fn. 32) Unfortunately nothing is known about the appearance of No. 40 except that it had a red-brick front, bay window and portico. (fn. 33) The hall and staircase were later reconstructed in classical style by Reginald Blomfield, probably for (Sir) Henry Brassey. The hall was given a tunnel-vaulted coffered ceiling supported on pairs of Tuscan columns, the floor laid with marble quarries and the staircase rebuilt in stone with a scrolly wrought-iron balustrade by Thomas Elsley Limited. Trollope and Sons were the main contractors. (fn. 34)
At No. 39 the architect for the rebuilding of 1875–7, on behalf of C. F. Abney-Hastings, was Henry Clutton (builders, Longmire and Burge). (fn. 35) A glimpse of the exterior in a photograph of Nos. 37–38 (fn. 36) suggests that in its upper storeys at least No. 39 foreshadowed Clutton's red-brick and stone design for Nos. 41 and 42 King Street, Covent Garden (1877).
Occupants include: No. 39, 3rd Earl of Jersey, 1733–43. James Stuart Mackenzie, son of 2nd Earl of Bute, M.P., 1749–52. Marquess of Carnarvon, later 3rd Duke of Chandos, 1753–5. Anthony Swymmer, M.P., 1755–60: his wid., 1760–1: her 2nd husband, Sir Francis Vincent, 7th bt., M.P., 1761–75: his son by previous marriage, Sir Francis Vincent, 8th bt., 1775–8: the latter's stepmother, Lady Vincent (previously Mrs. Swymmer), 1778–85. James Gordon, father of James Gordon, M.P., 1786–1807. Henry Seymour, sometime M.P., 1821–43: his son, Henry Danby Seymour, M.P., 1843–69. Suo jure Countess of Loudoun, 1872–4. C. F. Abney-Hastings, later 1st Baron Donington, 1877–9. Coleridge John Kennard, M.P., 1880–90: his wid., 1890–2. 3rd Baron Delamere, 1896: his mother, wid. of 2nd Baron, 1896–8. Sir Lionel Edward Darell, 5th bt., 1899–1908, 1911–13. Baron Whitburgh, colonial merchant, 1915–30. No. 40, Lord Lynne, latterly 3rd Viscount Townshend, 1735–41: his estranged wife, 1741–4. 2nd Earl of Portmore, 1745–81. Col. George Lionel Dawson Damer, son of 1st Earl of Portarlington, M.P., 1829–38. (Sir) James Weir Hogg, latterly 1st bt., director of East India Company, 1837–47. John Walter II, M.P., chief proprietor of The Times, 1847–94: his son, Arthur Fraser Walter, 1894–1903. (Sir) Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey, M.P., later 1st bt. and 1st Baron Brassey, 1904–20 (later at No. 42).
These three houses have stone-faced elevations in a restrained classical style, designed to 'read' as a single composition and provided by Turner Lord and Company in 1912–14. (fn. 37) But at each house the client was different, and only No. 41 was totally rebuilt.
This house, the widest of the three, was originally erected under a sub-lease of 1731 to the carpenter John Eds, and first occupied in 1734. (fn. 38) A nineteenth-century occupant was the financier Thomas Baring, who had a distinguished collection of 'upwards of 300 pictures, distributed through the apartments, and filling a moderately-sized gallery which has been erected expressly to display some of the larger works'. (fn. 39) The gallery, doubtless forming a wing at the back of the house, had probably been built by Dowbiggins in 1849–50. (fn. 40) Being lit by gas it was chosen for examination by the Commission which reported in 1859 on the effects of gas-lighting in galleries. The Commissioners were unable to discern any deterioration in the pictures. (fn. 41)
In 1879 the Estate required alterations to the existing brick front which were carried out to the designs of a Mr. Robson (probably E. R. Robson) and evidently included the addition of 'tablets' and the introduction of more plate glass. (fn. 42)
The rebuilding of the old house in 1912–14 under the auspices of Turner Lord was initially on behalf of Miss Helena Schilizzi, the future wife of the Greek Prime Minister, Venizelos, (fn. 43) but she soon assigned her interest to Colonel Frank Shuttleworth, who promised the Grosvenor Board 'it would be the best house in Mayfair'. (fn. 44) Some anxiety was felt in the Grosvenor Office about Turner Lord, who were 'decorators and not architects', and the assistant estate surveyor, George Codd, was appointed consulting architect to give the Estate the 'protection required'. (fn. 45) In fact Turner Lord had their own architects, W. Ernest Lord and Sidney Parvin, the latter being largely responsible in association with W. E. Lord for the design of No. 41: during construction Codd redesigned the portico. (fn. 46) W. Cubitt and Company were the contractors. (fn. 47)
The house had a very fine neo-Georgian interior, the quality of which is still apparent despite the theft of many fittings in c. 1975, when all the chimneypieces, numerous doors and ornamental features and the balustrade of the main staircase were lost.
Nos. 42 and 43 were both originally built under leases of 1731 to the joiner John Green, and first occupied in 1734 and 1735 respectively. (fn. 48) Describing No. 42 for a prospective tenant in 1780 Viscount Grimston, the leasehold owner, wrote: 'It consists of three Rooms on a Floor, exclusive of the Hall in which the Stair Case stands; . . . over there are four good Bed Rooms, and the Garrets are perfectly convenient, and sufficiently large for the servants of any Family that such as House would suit. The Kitchen and its Contingencies are out of the House, connected, however, with it by the Advantage of a cover'd Way. There is Stabling for seven Horses, Coach House contiguous. . .' (fn. 49) The accommodation at No. 43 was similarly disposed, the two houses probably having been built as a pair on a mirrored plan. (fn. 50)
In 1880 the old brick front at No. 42 was modified, at the Estate's insistence, to match the newly altered front at No. 41. By 1910, however, this was thought 'hideous', and a refronting in stone was made a condition of renewing the lease. (fn. 51) At No. 43 there was originally no intention to ask for a refronting, as the estate surveyor, Eustace Balfour, was not generally in favour of this 'where the fronts were old-fashioned Georgian as in the case of No. 43'. But after complaints of unfair treatment from the tenant at No. 42 the Estate decided to require the refronting of both houses. (fn. 52) Before any work had been done the two sitting tenants sold out their interests. No. 42 was bought by Stephen Schilizzi, the brother of Helena, and No. 43 by a Mrs. George Clarke who was said to have told the vendor that she 'would give anything he liked to ask'. (fn. 53) W. Ernest Lord of Turner Lord was involved in arranging these transactions and it was he who designed the new fronts, with Codd again acting as consulting architect on behalf of the Estate. (fn. 54) The work was carried out by Turner Lord's regular contractors, William Blay Limited in 1913–14. (fn. 55)
Behind the new fronts both houses were extensively reconstructed but one or two traces of the earlier houses remain, including a faint echo of the mirrored plans. The well-planned interiors are good, if not outstanding, examples of the neo-Georgian taste of their time (Plate 62e). In the ground-floor front room of No. 43 there is a late eighteenth-century marble fireplace decorated with a carved tablet of Diana.
The old stable buildings in Reeves Mews were reconstructed to the designs of W. E. Lord at the same time as work was proceeding at the three houses and using the same contractors. (fn. 56) At least one of the tenants told the Estate he wanted a garage rather than stables. For the north fronts overlooking the gardens Lord provided handsome brick elevations of a Wrennish character which, like the house fronts, were designed to give the impression of a single composition. (fn. 57) The middle block has a pedimented centre and is crowned by a small clock turret (fig. 53). In 1914 the sound of the clock striking was complained of by neighbours and had to be stopped. (fn. 58)
Behind the houses the gardens were laid out in a pleasantly formal manner, with stone flags, balustrades, fountains and statues, and were planted with shrubs (Plate 62c).
Occupants include: No. 41, Henry Vane, later 1st Earl of Darlington, 1734–9: his brother-in-law, 3rd Duke of Cleveland, 1740–2. 2nd Duke of Montrose, 1743–90. Maj.-gen. Sir Archibald Campbell, K.C.B., 1791. 3rd Baron (later 1st Earl) Cadogan, 1793–1800. Thomas Knox, latterly 2nd Viscount Northland and later 1st Earl of Ranfurly, 1801–24. Edward Ellice the elder, politician, 1825–33. John Marshall, M.P., manufacturer, 1833–45. Thomas Baring, financier and Chancellor of Exchequer, 1850–73. 11th Marquess of Huntly, 1873–9. Viscount Stormont, eldest son of 4th Earl of Mansfield, 1889–93: his wid., 1893–1912. Sir Victor Warrender, 8th bt., later 1st Baron Bruntisfield, 1922. No. 42, 7th Viscount of Falkland, 1734–6. Sir John Bland, 5th bt., 1737–43. 1st Lord Sandys, 1744–70. 2nd Viscount Grimston, 1772–3: his wid., 1773–8. Sir Thomas Miller, 5th bt., 1798–1805. Adm. Sir John Borlase Warren, bt., 1806–22: his wid., 1822–4 (later at No. 19). William Haldimand, philanthropist and director of Bank of England, 1825–8. Lady Anne Scott, 1828–43. Capt. (later adm.) John Rous, son of 1st Earl of Stradbroke, 1843–4. Henry FitzRoy, son of 2nd Baron Southampton, statesman, 1845–59: his wid., 1859–64. (Sir) John St. Aubyn, latterly 2nd bt. and later 1st Baron St. Levan, 1866–77. 5th Baron Thurlow, 1878–81. (Sir) William Gilstrap, latterly bt., 1883–8. Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore, bt., 1890–1902. Prince Arthur of Connaught, 3rd son of Queen Victoria, 1920. Sir Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey, M.P., 1st bt., latterly 1st Baron Brassey, 1922–40 (previously at No. 40). No. 43, Marquess of Carnarvon, later 2nd Duke of Chandos, 1735–9. Capt. (latterly Col.) John Thomas, 1740–60: the same, 'for Ambassador', 1761–3. Adm. John Forbes, 1763–7. Sir Walter Blount, 6th bt., 1768–85: his son, Sir Walter Blount, 7th bt., 1785–9. Maj.-gen. Herbert Francis Eaton, 1897–1903. Col. Everard Charles Digby, son of 9th Baron Digby, 1904–14. 3rd Baron Denman, 1921–47.
Nos. 44 and 45
Nos. 44 and 45 were both erected under leases of November 1727 to William Draycott esquire of St. James's, Westminster, but were probably built by Charles Griffith, carpenter, who was a party to the leases. No. 44 was first occupied in 1731 and No. 45 in 1732. (fn. 59) They have virtually identical three-bay brick fronts with segmentalheaded windows (lengthened on the first floor, and at No. 45 perhaps on the ground floor also), and both have had their original garret storeys replaced by two full storeys in matching style (Plate 6a in vol. XXXIX).
No. 44 still retains a handsome eighteenth-century doorcase of engaged and fluted Ionic columns supporting an entablature and triangular pediment (Plate 62d). No. 45 has a nineteenth-century portico altered in 1930. (fn. 60) The backs, which were originally straight, have been rebuilt as bows (Plate 62b); that of No. 44 in c. 1791 for William Morland, (fn. 61) and that at No. 45 between 1817 and 1869. (fn. 62) The houses were planned as a mirrored pair with central toplit staircases sandwiched between the front and back rooms (fig. 3d in vol. XXXIX).
Inside No. 44 its early-Georgian past is best preserved in the hall and principal staircase. The former is panelled with a good modillion cornice, and black and white marble paving, which is probably not original. Fluted square pilasters flank the doorway leading to the principal staircase. This is of wood, rising round an open well to the first floor only, with carved step-ends and three barley-sugar balusters per step. The toplight is set in the middle of a plastered dome, decorated with rosettes in diagonal lattice-work which rests on a drum some five feet in height. A fine original door leads from the staircase compartment to the ground-floor back room. Adjacent to the main stair is a simple early nineteenth-century wooden back staircase. The washroom and water closets, opening off the hall, were decorated with painted pilasters and frieze, by M. Boudin of Jansen et Cie of Paris for Leo d'Erlanger in c. 1934. The same firm was doubtless also responsible for the 1930's French decoration of the main rooms, including the oval bedroom (second-floor back), and of the bathroom. In 1935 Vogue told its readers that 'the new house all London is talking about is Mrs. Leo d'Erlanger's in Upper Grosvenor Street, for it's unlike anything London has ever seen. The dining room is painted pink, and has a table of black glass. . . . Her bedroom is circular and done in a colour scheme of white, blue and green.' But it was the bathroom (second-floor front), with its intriguing incised wall picture and extraordinary coral and shell wall-lights, which provoked Vogue into commenting 'Bathrooms nowadays look more expensive than any other rooms in the house'. (fn. 63)
No. 44 is one of the few early houses to have preserved something of its original garden plot, which in most cases has been sacrificed to the expansion of basement offices. There are even some trees. At the bottom of the garden, with a front to Reeves Mews, is a two-storey stable block, the conversion of which into a garage was permitted in 1912 (fn. 64) and which is still leased with the house. (fn. 65)
No. 45 was severely damaged by a fire in January 1843, when according to the official report the building and its contents were 'all but consumed'. (fn. 66) But the front at least must have survived, since there is no sign of its having been rebuilt. The present interior is 'early Georgian' in style and doubtless dates from 1922–3, when the house was let on a long lease to, and altered by, the decorating firm of Turner Lord and Company. (fn. 67) It is, as one would expect from Turner Lord, a highly accomplished and convincing job, which may incorporate some authentic features. The hall, originally subdivided as at No. 44, has been opened up and part of the back wall has been removed to reveal an eighteenth-century-style wooden staircase with carved step-ends and barley-sugar balusters. The upper part of the staircase compartment is decorated with plaster picture-frames and garlands in the style of the 1730's. All the main rooms have panelled walls. At the back there is a small single-storey wing built of brick with brick pilasters and cornice which probably dates from about 1922, and contains a staircase connecting the basement kitchen with the ground-floor dining-room.
The former stable block in Reeves Mews is remarkable for having retained, on the side facing the house, a façade (now rendered) of the 1730's (Plate 62f).
Occupants include: No. 44, 2nd Baron Southell of Castle Mattress, 1732–3. Lady Delves, wid. of Sir Thomas Delves, 4th bt., 1734–8. Lady Stapleton, wid. of Sir William Stapleton, 4th bt., 1740–2. (Sir) Edward Hulse, later 2nd bt., 1754–9. Sir George Bromley (formerly Smith), 2nd bt., 1778. Baron Rolle, 1797–1823 (later at No. 18). Sir John Rae-Reid, 2nd bt., later Governor of Bank of England, 1825–31. David Lyon, West India merchant, 1841–50 (later at No. 2 South Street). Leo d'Erlanger, banker, 1936–70. No. 45, Sir George Oxenden, 5th bt., M.P., Lord of the Treasury, 1732–7. Lady Anne Peyton, 1738–51. Sir John Rous, 5th bt., 1752–8. Lady Jane Cotton, 1758–63. Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson, latterly 3rd Earl of Liverpool, 1818–35. Earl of Hillsborough, later 4th Marquess of Downshire, 1840–3. 2nd Baron Templemore, 1846–51. 22nd Lord Dacre, 1857–8. Earl of Uxbridge, later 3rd Marquess of Anglesey, 1862–6. (Sir) Edward Charles Leigh, Q.C., latterly K.C.B., 1882–1915: his wid., 1915–20. Sir Adrian William Maxwell Baillie, M.P., 6th bt., 1933–6. William Waldorf Astor, M.P., latterly 3rd Viscount Astor, 1937–66.
No. 46 is a nine-storey block of flats erected in 1937–9 by Marais Construction Limited to the designs of Fernand Billerey (fn. 68) (Plate 31c). It has a red-brick and Portland-stone front of minimal neo-Georgian character, for which the elevation was personally approved by the second Duke. (fn. 69) At the back of the main building, but linked to it, is a smaller block with a plain brick front to Reeves Mews.
These flats replaced a single house built by the carpenter Edward Cock under a lease of 1728 and first occupied in 1733. (fn. 70) With a forty-foot frontage this was one of the biggest and best-inhabited houses in the street. (fn. 71) Schedules of fittings in 1766 and 1774 show that all the main rooms were wainscotted and had marble fireplaces. (fn. 72) During the occupancy of the first and second Earls Carysfort, 1827–30, 'repairs or alterations' to the value of £6,000 were carried out under the direction of Henry Harrison. (fn. 73)
Occupants include: Lady Isabella Scott, da. of Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch, by her 2nd husband, 3rd Baron Cornwallis, 1733–48. 4th Earl of Holderness, 1748–9. 3rd Duke of Gordon, 1750–2: his wid., 1752–65: their son, 4th Duke, 1765–80. Lord Brudenell, latterly 5th Earl of Cardigan, 1782–1811. 2nd Baron Bradford, later 1st Earl of Bradford, 1812–14. Lord Stanley, later 1st Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe and 13th Earl of Derby, 1815–25. 1st Earl of Carysfort, 1827–8: his son, 2nd Earl, 1828–30: 1st Earl's wid., 1828–42: her da.'s, Ladies Charlotte and Frances Proby, 1842–4. Sir Ralph Lopes, 2nd bt., M.P., East India proprietor, 1845–54: his wid., 1854–70: their sons, (Sir) Massey Lopes, latterly 3rd bt., 1850–5, and Henry Charles Lopes, later 1st Baron Ludlow, 1854–62. Lady Lucy Joan Howard de Walden, wid. of 6th Baron, 1872–4. 5th Baron Suffield, 1875–88. Prince Alexis Dolgorouki, a chamberlain to Czar of Russia, 1902–15: his English-born wid., Princess Alexis (Frances) Dolgorouki, 1915–19.
The structural core of this thoroughly Edwardianised house is a rebuilding of the 1820's. It replaced the original early-Georgian house erected under a lease of 1728 to the bricklayer Robert Phillips, and first occupied in 1732. (fn. 74) Like the still-surviving and equally narrow house built by Phillips at No. 48, it was planned with a central toplit staircase compartmented between the front and back rooms. In 1750 this was said to be 'painted in a grand manner'. (fn. 75) By 1823 the old house was reportedly in a 'very delapidated state' (fn. 76) and in 1824–6 it was completely rebuilt by Samuel Peploe, a landed proprietor in Herefordshire, who had employed Nash to design his country seat at Garnstone. (fn. 77) His architect at No. 47 is not known, neither is the builder. The new house was evidently conventional in appearance with a brick and stucco front (fn. 78) and planned on much the same lines as its predecessor. (fn. c1)
In 1904 the Estate, departing from its usual practice, refused to renew the lease of the sitting tenant, a Miss Charlotte Geary, 'because she had been continually in arrears over rent'. It was thought Miss Geary had been 'gambling on the Stock Exchange, which is the real reason why she cannot pay her rent'. (fn. 79) After standing empty for some months the house was taken by the builder John Garlick, who agreed to spend at least £2,000 on improvements. The most important was the addition, in 1905, of the present red-brick and Portland-stone front, designed by R. G. Hammond (Plate 62a). Inside Garlick altered the staircase and made a bathroom. (fn. 80) Within the next three years a further £5,000 was spent on the house by the occupant. (fn. 81) In 1908 an extra storey with dormer windows was added from the designs of E. C. Macpherson. (fn. 82) Alterations by Garlick for George Warre in 1914 probably included the addition of the large but featureless single-storey room at the rear. (fn. 83) Mewès and Davis also worked here for Warre who was the occupant until 1934. (fn. 84) The results of the various decorative works carried out here is best seen in the entrance hall, which has a pretty neo-Adam character, with gilded ornaments and a marble floor laid in a pattern of diamond squares. The other principal rooms are all 'Georgian'. There are some good marble chimneypieces, that in the first-floor back room being decorated with a high relief panel of a fox and crane.
The stabling in Reeves Mews was rebuilt as a garage in 1908. (fn. 85)
Occupants include: Francis Blake Delaval, sometime M.P., 1732–8 (afterwards at a house in Downing Street, now part of No. 11). Sir Miles Stapylton, 4th bt., 1740. Isaac Maddox, Bishop of St. Asaph (later of Worcester), 1741–4: Samuel Lisle, Bishop of St. Asaph (later of Norwich), 1744–8. John Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, later Archbishop of York, 1749–57. Sir Hanson Berney, 6th bt., 1757–61. Philip Yonge, Bishop of Norwich, 1761–82. Anne Fairfax, da. of 9th Viscount Fairfax, 1793. Lady Caroline Waldegrave, da. of 3rd Earl Waldegrave, 1806–11. Lady Mary Ross, 1815–24.
This house, built in 1727–9 by the bricklayer Robert Phillips, (fn. 86) has the best-preserved early-Georgian front in Upper Grosvenor Street (Plate 62a). The interior, on the other hand, though little altered in plan, contains virtually no original features.
The house was purchased by its future first occupant, Colonel William Hanmer, while still in the early stages of construction, and completed by Phillips in accordance with the contract which he and Hanmer signed in March 1727. As this document has disappeared it is not known if the finishing was in any way modified to suit Hanmer's individual requirements. According to the editor of The Builder, who saw the original in 1867, the contract contained 'pretty full' details 'as to quantity and quality of work' but was in no way 'peculiar or special', (fn. 87) and certainly in its general arrangement the house was very similar to that built by Phillips next door at No. 47. (fn. 88) The contract was endorsed with details of the payments made by Hanmer as the work progressed. Some were signed by Edward Cock, doubtless the carpenter who was the building lessee at No. 46, and who perhaps was responsible for the carpentry at No. 48. (fn. 89) The lease was granted directly to Hanmer in August 1727. (fn. 90)
The house is only two bays wide and originally comprised a basement, three storeys and garrets. A fourth storey had replaced these last by 1839: (fn. 91) another garret storey has since been added at the back. The two-tone brick front has segmental-headed windows 'laced' together in an early eighteenth-century manner with vertical bands of red-washed bricks. The first-floor windows have been lengthened and fitted with iron balconettes, and the front door perhaps dates from 1920. The wooden doorcase, consisting of two Doric pilasters supporting an entablature decorated with a grotesque mask, is doubtless original. (For a reconstruction of the presumed original elevation see fig. 2c in vol. XXXIX.) There is the usual narrow-house plan with a central toplit staircase compartment sandwiched between the front and back rooms (fig. 54). The staircase itself has a simple but attractive balustrade of cast iron and wood, the cast-iron members having decorative roundels. This is not original and was probably one of the alterations made under the supervision of an upholsterer between 1845 and 1851.
Hanmer occupied the house from 1729, and after his death in 1741 his widow lived here until 1764. (fn. 22) The subsequent assignments of Hanmer's lease (expiring in 1824) chart the rising value of the property, which changed hands for £1,700 in 1769 and for £3,675 in 1811. The tail-end of the lease was naturally less valuable, the last two years selling for £787 10s. (fn. 92)
In 1845–6 repairs were undertaken by the Mount Street upholsterer Thomas Dowbiggin, for Dr. Edward Dowdeswell, D.D. (fn. 93) Then after Dowdeswell's death in 1849 Dowbiggin himself took on the house and laid out at least £1,000 on 'improvements' and 'additions' in 1850–1. (fn. 94) These included the rebuilding of the back wall of the house as a bow and some extension of the basement offices under the garden. (fn. 95) On completion of the works he sold the house for £2,600. (fn. 96)
In May 1914 a complete rebuilding was in prospect but this was abandoned on the outbreak of war. (fn. 97) After the war the interior decorations were extensively altered: first in 1920 by White Allom for Victor Blagden, and again in 1935 by Syrie Maugham for Mr. and Mrs. George H. Whigham. (fn. 98) The eighteenth-century-style panelling and décor of the present study and drawing-room is White Allom's work, slightly simplified. It was evidently designed to make a suitable setting for some genuinely antique fittings which no longer survive in the house. In the drawing-room, for example, the overmantel was decorated with an elaborately carved frame of swags and drops in the manner of Grinling Gibbons (Plate 61b). This was originally matched by a fireplace of early eighteenth-century character, which has now been replaced, most unsuitably, by one in the Adam style. In the study the focus of the decoration was a large antique overmantel consisting of a tripartite mirror set against a painted background of flowers and birds. The panelling in both these rooms has been altered and simplified, probably at the hands of Syrie Maugham. That in the dining-room is not known to be by White Allom but looks like their work.
Mrs. Maugham's contributions to the present interior are best preserved in the main bedroom (second-floor back) with its curiously attenuated pilaster mirrors, and in the bathroom (second-floor front). The latter is a very characteristic piece of 1930's work with mirrored walls and quasi-pilasters of reeded glass. (fn. 1)
At the back the much-altered stable block fronting on Reeves Mews is still leased with the house but is occupied separately. On the garden side there is a two-storey extension which has been separated off and is used as a staff cottage for the house. (fn. 99) The old stables were converted into 'a motor house' in c. 1916. (fn. 100)
Occupants include: Col. William Hanmer, 1729–41: his wid., 1741–64. Sir Walden Hanmer, 1st bt., M.P., 1777–83: his son, Sir Thomas Hanmer, 2nd bt., 1783–94. Richard Henry Alexander Bennett, sometime M.P., 1795–1801. John Ireland Blackburne, sen., sometime M.P., 1812–20. Baroness De Roll(e), 1820–2. Rev. Dr. Edward Dowdeswell, 1835–49. Sir Eric Hambro, K.B.E., banker, 1930–5.