State Papers, 1654: May (3 of 6)

Pages 286-302

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

May (3 of 6)

The protector to colonel Alured.

[In the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe, and signed by the protector.]

Vol. xiv. p. 146.

I DESIRE you to deliver up into the hands of lieutenant generall Fleetwood such authorities and instructions, as you had for the prosecution of the bussiness of the Highlands in Scotland; and you doe forthwith repaire to me to London; the reason whereof you shall knowe, when you come hither, which I would have you doe with all speed. I would have you alsoe give an account to the lieutenant generall, before you come away, how farre you have proceeded in this service, and what money you have in your hands, which you are to leave with hym. I rest
16. May, 1654.

Your loveinge freind,
Oliver P.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

27/17 May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 188.

I RECEIVED yours of the 21st instant, by which I see your peace with the articles between England and Holland, of which truly I am right glad; but you may be sure the most here are of the contrary; though yet many particulars are of my mind, as in effect may be seen, if the occasion does present.

Since my former, some report, that the king's coronation is deserred till the eleventh of June next; others till the eighth of September, being our Lady-day, which is (as they say) more credible, by reason of the deputies here lately arrived from the city of Rheims, signifying to his majesty, neither themselves nor their horses could subsist at Rheims for want of provision, without spoiling all their corn, which was to their ruin; and therefore, if they had come, that they would be forced to go twenty-five leagues off at least, to get meat for themselves and their horses. So they desired his majesty to consider of it, and not to trouble themselves till such time as they should be able to receive him as they ought to do. Some say, they obtained their demand, and that the king ordered all his domesticks, sent away the twentieth instant with provisions, tapestries, ornaments for such ceremonies, conveyed by six soldiers out of every company of the regiment of guard, to remain where they were, till further orders; and also Mons. de St. Tost, master of ceremonies, with some other officers of the king's house, which received each of them 300 livres for that voyage; yet notwithstanding all preparations are a making; and it is reported, his majesty will part at least for Compeigne next saturday. By the next you shall hear more of it.

The queen is very forward for the king's coronation, and said plainly to the deputies of Rheims, that it must be done as soon as they can possible; and therefore desired every one to prepare for it, and that especially provision must be had for the court, and those that follow it: as for the rest, that they had liberty to provide themselves. Marshal de Turenne will depart next week to command the army of Picardy. I hear, some of the Irish in Flanders do endeavour to come into the service of France. One of their officers came to La Basse, and said, many Irish promised to followed him.

It was lately proposed to the council to bring the sainte ampoule, as they call it, from Rheims, to consecrate the king at St. Dennis in France; and in case the canons of the church of Rheims should resuse to give it, to send for that in the abbey of Mont-moutier near Tours. We do not hear, whether it was accepted or refused.

We hear, the greatest cause that the king's coronation is deferred, is, that the cardinal expected, that the city of Paris would shew so much affection for their king, as to send every coach-door a man and a horse to the field, and every little door a soldier, to put them in garison in the frontier towns, and draw out all the old soldiers there to assist the king's coronation, and augment the army in the field afterwards; which the citizens do not think of at present, nor of any thing like it. The prince of Conti is preparing for Catalonia; he has sent already all his baggage before him.

The marriage of duke d'Aumale with mademoiselle de Longueville is forwarded; so is that of Candale with one of the cardinal's nieces, called Mary Mancini. Marshal d'Hocquincourt is resolved not to serve in the field this year, except the king will give the survivance of his government of Peronne to his son, as he promised.

You have heard in some of my letters before, how the duchess of Orleans and her daughter mademoiselle fell out; this being the cause, the first saying to the second, she was cause the duke of Lorrain her brother was made prisoner by the Spaniard; the other answered, that if it were not for the respect of her father, she would make her prove it so; and that she might well believe, since her father meddled with the house of Vaudemont, that God did never prosper him; but rather all misfortunes happening to him daily, which was the cause of their differences being now brought to an accommodation, as we hear of.

I hear just now from Flanders, that a second plot was discovered there, framed by Lorrain's officers, wherein prince de Ligne had a hand, that when our king should go to Rheims to be crowned, the said officers were to oppose, and betray the prince of Conde in his way, coming to hinder the king's voyage for Rheims; which (if true) you may hear more of. It is said here, prince de Ligne is committed with some of the said officers, who endeavoured, as I hear, to have out their master either by right or wrong; or else they will quit the service of Spain, and come to us. It is written from Bourdeaux of the eighteenth instant, how a squadron of English ships of thirty or forty vessels appeared lately upon those coasts near St. Ouge, which made the inhabitants of isles d'Oleron and Rhé to retire with their goods into the country, though the said ships did them no harm, only made a shew thereabouts. They take all the barks and ships they meet withal in the Mediterranean seas. The sickness is very hot in Guienne.

Some other ships of the English, that appeared near St. Malo's, were beaten off by the townsmen, as said. The last friday, the Holland embassador had audience from his majesty here, who demands restitution of the ships taken at sea by the French from the Hollanders; which makes us afraid, it is but a pretext to join with the English against us, &c.

A certain Italian is sent from hence to Lisbon, to propose a marriage between this king and the princess of Portugal, as reported by the Portuguese. The duke of Guise continues his preparations to depart within ten or twelve days, and bring the 6000 men he has in Provence with him to be shipped at Marseilles.

Prince Conti will depart for Catalonia as soon as the court will depart hence.

Mons. Grand, master of the artillery, is buying of the dukedom of Mayence, for which he offers 700,000 livres. The cardinal is of the like design to buy that of Nevers, for his little Mancini, or at least in his name, and give it to Peter Mazarin his father.

It is reported here, that his highness the lord protector, besides his quality of being protector for the three kingdoms, pretends yet to be called emperor of the feas occidentales, being an old pretension of the kings that were heretofore of England; of which they had a book written twenty years ago, or thereabout, intituled, Mare clausum; against which another book was set out by one Mons. Grotius, intituled, Mare liberum. This you know best there, if true. I have nothing else, but that I am, Sir,
Yours most really.

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, 27th May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 194.

Yours I received this day, of the 21st instant; but the letters of the post before are not yet come, at which I wonder. Since my last, I conveyed yours to Rome, from whence you have, by this, other letters also.

I can confirm to you. that O Sullevan Beara's brother is gone for Ireland, with a small frigat laden with arms and ammunition; and in case he shall find none in arms there, he will go into the Highlands of Scotland, and deliver to them in arms there, what he has.

R. C. is still here. He says, the Scots will do as much or more for him in his absence from Scotland; yet if he can get money, he says, he will go, which is difficult to be had here, though he went the next way to get some, by taking his leave; but he is advised by rex Galliæ and his C. Mazarin to be patient awhile; and in fine, he shall not depart from France, till we know what the treaty's success shall be, our embassador retaineth with the protector; neither is it believed here any great good shall come of it. Wherefore C. Mazarin heartily expecteth the return of his envoy from Spain, sent, as you heard before, but very secretly, (as it is still kept) with Pimentelli his secretary, towards a general peace; because all extremely fear, lest your protector should join with Spain. And as Mons. Bordeaux and Baas do write, that the Spanish embassador in London is a great enemy to the general peace, and has made most large offers to the protector, even so high as cautionary towns or places; this troubleth us much here, and also the agents of the Huguenots, who press hard for their privileges; but are put off till after the king's coronation. C. Mazarin is for giving them all content, for fear of your protector, whom he most seareth in the world, and would seem as much to love him, if by that he could gain his friendship.

Here is one Mr. Andrew White (of whom formerly) returned from London, as he says, lately; and upon that, had audience from Mazarin. He seems to please the cardinal in saying something from the protector. Saturday next, the court removes to Rheims to the anointment of the king. I shall go with the cardinal, and leave orders how to correspond, &c. Here are great rumours of some of your men and ships towards St. Malo's; but the English there can give you best account of it: I know nothing of it here.

The general rendezvous of the army, under Turenne, is at Marli, four leagues below Rheims.

The duke of Guise departeth next week. His men are drawn near Marseilles.

The prince of Conti goeth not to Catalonia, till after the king's return.

The army for Piedmont is marched away; which is all the news now you have from, Sir,

A letter of intelligence from M. Augier's secretary.

Paris, 27/17 May, 1654.

Vol. xiv. p. 214.

Since my last of the 23/13 of this instant, the rumour has been great through this city, of a landing of the English four leagues from St. Malo; and it has been so much the more believed, that several inhabitants of the said city had written that news as true, and seemed to be afraid. It was moreover added, the duke of Longueville had raised the commons to resist them, and that they had been repulsed; but all that was sound to be grounded upon the defeat of a pirate, which following the coasts of Bretagne, and passing rashly in fight of the island of Jersey, the governor of the same had caused him to be pursued by an Ostender for want of an English ship sit for the same; which Ostender, instead of taking the pirate, had himself been taken by the same. Whereupon two or three English frigats were happened to assault the pirate, and had forced him to make shipwreck upon the coasts of the said St. Malo, where they had shot upon both the said ships, until they had rendered them unserviceable; but as the said pirate, whilst they shot upon him, had sound means to land the said Ostenders, whom he had taken prisonets, some countrymen were alarmed by it, and conjecturing they were English soldiers, they immediately carried the news thereof to St. Malo, and other parts. Some inhabitants of the said city have also given notice here, that admiral Blake had written unto their syndic, to release the goods they have caused to be seized upon the English, and whereof the said English had not yet obtained main levée, which they yet hope for at the council; whereunto they could not as yet tell what to answer after a long deliberation of their common. Every body is in a maze to see what will be the sequel of those affairs, and Mons. de Bordeaux's negotiation at London.

In the interim, the king's coronation is hastened as much as possible, the crown and the fuits being in readiness. His majesty's regiment of guards hath order to depart to-morrow for Rheims, and the whole court will depart on saturday next, to arrive there the thursday, by Meaux, without passing by Compeigne, as their majesties intended, the ceremony being to be made the sunday after 7June,/28 May, if the prince of Condé brings no hindrance thereunto, as he is said to dispose himself to do with a great party of horse, which obligeth marshal Turenne to accelerate his departure, and the assembling of his troops.

There is still a dispute between the embassador of Holland and the embassador of Savoy for rank, the last being more favoured than the other, especially since a speech, which the embassador of Holland made on thursday last unto the king himself, representing to him, from the lords of the United Provinces, the great disorder, which the French pirates, upholded by his majesty's ministers, had caused; which had depredated upon them 260, and ten ships, valued above thirty millions of livres, whereof the said United Provinces did demand restitution; complaining moreover of the cruelty exercised in the persons of several Hollanders.

News are arrived of a treason of several officers of the duke de Lorrain's troops, by intelligence with this court; which had been discovered by Mons. le prince. We are also informed, the Spaniards compose a body of army not far from Calais.

They have caused the ford to be sounded, to raise from the citizens a voluntary contribution, to reinforce so much the sooner the king's armies; but it is thought the Parisians will not be willing to do it.

The true answer, which has been made by the pope in cardinal de Retz's business, was this; that at his return from a journey he was going to make to Viterbo, he would resolve what was fitting; and that he thought it not convenient to consent, that the said cardinal should give his discharge, before he had his liberty.

Mr de Villeré, resident to the duke of Parma, having had his liberty as soon as his papers and letters had been searched over, wherein no such calumnies as had been imputed him have been found, the pope's nuncio, in the name of the most part of the other public foreign ministers, which are in this city, hath since written a letter upon that subject unto the said duke, whose new resident has not yet received audience from their majesties, nor the cardinal Mazarin; which is taken for a disdain.

I am informed, prince Rupert is at last resolved to withdraw himself unto his brother's Palatinate.

There hath a few days since been some rumour at the royal palace, by reason that one of Charles Stuart's officers being dead there, the justice was gone there, to have his means by escheatage, which the said Stuart would not suffer, keeping the succession for himself.

The proclamation of the peace, union, and confederacy, solemnly made and concluded the 15th of April, of this present year 1654. at Westminster, between his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, on the one part, and the high and mighty lords states general of the United Provinces, on the other part; whereupon either side's ratification was interchanged in due form, the second of this month of May, new style.

Vol. xiv. p. 198.

Be it known to all and every one hereby, that to the praise and honour of God the Lord Almighty, the welfare and advancement of the common good of these United Netherlands in general, and the good inhabitants thereof in particular, on the 15th of April of this year 1654. was made and concluded at Westminster, a good, firm, and inviolable peace, union, and confederacy, between his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, on the one part, and the above-mentioned lords states general, on the other part: whereupon either side's ratification was interchanged the second of this present month of May, at Westminster aforesaid; and that as well at sea, and upon the fresh waters, as at land, in all the countries, towns, and precincts of each side, without any difference of places, as also between their people and inhabitants, of what condition soever they may be, shall take effect after the 14th of this month of May, N. S. so that from that time forward all acts of hostility shall cease on either side, according and in conformity to the further explicatory act of the third article of the treaty here inserted, as followeth, word for word:

That whereas in the third of those articles of peace, union, and consederation, made, established, and promulged between the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the lords the states general of the United Provinces; it is agreed, that all injuries, charges, and damages, which either party hath sustained by the other since the 18/28. of May, in the year 1652. shall be taken away and forgotten, in such manner, as that hereafter neither party shall pretend any matter against the other, for or upon occasion of any the aforesaid injuries, charges, and damages; but that there shall be a perfect abolition of all and every of them, until this present day; and all actions for the same shall be held and reputed void and null, excepting such depredations as shall be committed by either side in these seas, after the space of twelve days; and in all other places on this side the cape of St. Vincent, after six weeks; and from thence within the Mediterranean sea, to the equinoctial line, after ten weeks; and beyond the equinoctial line, after the space of eight months, or immediately after sufficient notice of the said peace given in those places.

And whereas certain questions may possibly arise about the fore-rehearsed words, which may minister occasion of debates and disputes; the said lord protector and the said states general, to the end all manner of controversy and difference may be removed, which might arise by reason of any thing in the aforesaid article contained, have unanimously accorded and agreed, and do by these presents publish and declare to all and singular their people and subjects respectively, that immediately after the publication of the treaty of peace, which is already done, all acts of hostility shall immediately cease in all places expressed in the said article, and in all others wheresoever; and that all depredations, damages, and injuries, which shall be done or committed by one party against the other, after the fourth day of this instant May, in all places whatever, mentioned in the foresaid article, or elsewhere, as well on this side the line as beyond, shall be accounted for; and all things taken or seized after the above-said fourth of May shall be restored without any form of process; as also damages growing by occasion thereof. And to the end this agreement and article may be the better known, both parties shall publish the same within their respective territories and dominions, and streightly charge and command, as well their ships of war, as others, whether in port, or at sea, to observe the same.

In witness whereof, as well the lords commissioners of his highness, as the embassadors extraordinary of the states general, have signed these presents with their own hands.

Done at Westminster, the 28th April, old style, in the year 1654.

He. Laurence, præs.
Gil. Pickering.
E. Mountagu.
Wal. Strickland.
H. Beverningk.
Will. Nieupoort.
A. P. Jongestall.

Wherefore we order and command by these presents, on the behalf of the said lords states general, all and singular that live under the subjection and obedience of their lordships, to observe the said peace, union, and consederacy inviolably, without acting any thing against it, upon pain of being punished as disturbers of the common peace, without any grace, favour, compassion, or dissimulation.

Thus done and concluded at the assembly of the said states general, in the Hague, the 13th day of May, 1654. was signed John van Reede of Renswoude. Underneath, by order of the same, was signed,
N. Ruysch.

The publication of the peace mentioned in this, was made in all the United Provinces, associated countries, towns, and parts thereof, the 27th of this current month of May, 1654. N. S. In witness of me,
N. Ruysch.

Resolutions of the states of Friesland.

Read May 27. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 196.

The present deputies for the province of Friesland, having read and examined what has been brought in on the 26th instant, by word of mouth, as well as in writing, at the generality by the lords of Holland, do observe with great satisfaction the declaration of the said lords of Holland; viz. That they are resolved, and shall always continue, sacredly to preserve and maintain the union, as also to help, assist, and preserve, by all due and possible means, nay even with their lives and fortunes, every particular province, together with the members and private inhabitants thereof, pursuant to the tenor of the said union, in their privileges and pre-eminences, and especially in their sovereignty and absolute government, which all the consederated provinces, pursuant to the perpetual alliance, and to the union made in the year 1579. are obliged to; wishing with all their heart, that the deeds may answer the words. But whether this be the case, and whether, as some of the lords of Holland pretend they are only some ill-grounded impressions of the deputies of Friesland, must be left to the judgment of all impartial men; since the lord prince of Orange, being an inhabitant of this province, ought to have been maintained by his rights and liberties, nor the honour, good name, and reputation of him, nor of his posterity and line, ought to have been blotted by the exclusion from those charges, which his antecessors have been possessed of. We submit it to your high mightinesses consideration, whether this said exclusion is not a scandalous condition, which as it encourages the English, so it will cause a disesteem of this state by all kings, princes, and potentates; and whether it doth not tend to create differences and discontent among the commonwealths of the people, which for all those benefits and services of the glorious antecessors of the prince, bear and shew such a great love and affection towards this young branch. How the inhabitants are protected by their rights and privileges, one may see also herein, that the fleet is not so much as at sea, nor has been at sea this great while; when nevertheless all old maxims and political considerations require, that one ought to make peace with sword in hand. Nay although the lords of Holland should observe the union, and perform what they so sacredly promise in their writing; nevertheless they have not yet complied with the request, and the so often justified declaration, to communicate what has been abstractively and separately resolved upon, and sent over to England by some lords of Holland. Wherefore the deputies of Friesland here present do again most earnestly require the same, that they may be able to inform the lords their masters persectly, and of all the whole matter, since they do not see how, and under what pretence and reasons, the same ought or can be denied them.

General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xiv. p. 184.

I Desire wee may have harts rightly affected with the mercy, in the Lord's owning your councils about the peace with the Dutch, wherein I think a great advantage may be taken for the protestant interest. I am very glad our act for navigation is preserved; and certainly that act privately made with the states of Holland, is very honest and honorable. I perceive by last, that insteed of thinking you in England blame-worthy for difposing of lands, I am looked upon as most blameable, though I can call to mind but one, that I have writ for, and that was only to my brother Cromwell, in the behalfe of colonel Brodericke, whom, though I wish well unto him, yet considering how much the lands fall short of expectation, I cannot think it adviseable, that lands should be disposed of to him, or any body else; and therefore doe desire, that if I have written for him, or any other, I may be denyed; for I know, these four counties may yield a considerable revenue to the commonwealth. Upon some late dissatisfaction, that I have had, that our power is by the act of parliament taken away from disposing of any land within the four counties, it was referred to the judges to consider of; and their returne is this, that we have nothing to do in the four counties, to set out lands in them. I suppose you will have severall addresses to have those orders satisfyed in the four counties; my advice is this, that those former orders may be satisfied out of the collateral security for the adventurers and soldiers above the four counties; or else, that they may be satisfyed out of the bishops lands, or to rate their proportions in a gross sum, and to cast it in to be satisfied with the debt of the army; divers of which orders, I suppose, are sold, and so the intentions of the parliament misapplied: but that what is due upon such orders may be satisfyed, I have offered one of these two ways for doing thereof. My desires are, not to injure particular persons, but to serve the publique, that the best improvement may be made of that little, which is left that state; and I have my end when that is done; which is all from, Sir,

Corke-house, 17 May, 1654.
Your humble servant,
Charles Fleetwood.


Regensberg, 18/28 May, 1654.

Vol. xiv. p. 574.

Since the emperor's departure, whereof I gave you notice in my last, there is nothing passed here.

The prince elector of the Paltz departed immediately after his majesty was gone.

Yesterday and the day before, the here present protestant and catholic princes electoral, and other princes embassadors, were feasted by the duke of Mentz; and to-day his highness gives the like entertainment unto the deputies of the counts, lords, and states of both religions.

His imperial majesty hath, upon intervention of the duke of Saxony, granted the free exercise of the protestant religion unto the city of Breslaw and other protestant princes in Silesia; but for them of the hereditary countries, nothing was to be obtained.

It was ordered and concluded at the rixday, before his imperial majesty's departure, that for the preservation of the empire in peace and safety, at the end of the rixday, all the circles shall join themselves; and having numbered their people, be bound according to the ordinance of execution, to make such necessary preparations, that they may be ready against the first of September next, to go into the field upon any occasion, and to meet at such a place, as the commander of that circle (where perhaps an enemy might chance to appear, or be at hand) shall appoint; and if their strength should not be sufficient, the suffering as well as the assisting circles shall be allowed to treble their forces, if necessity require the same. But in case all this should prove insufficient, his imperial majesty and the states of the empire, being duly informed thereof, will then think of some expedient for their speedy succour and assistance.

Resolution of the states general.

Jovis, 28th May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 262.

There being once more propounded to the assembly the desire of the lord commissioner of Bremen, made to their lordships for the conservation of the said city; there having been also debated and considered, what can be done or permitted by this state therein; after deliberation had, it is thought fit and understood, that there be represented, by a loving, and no less serious letter to the queen of Sweden, that which hath been made known by the said resident of Bremen, concerning the condition of the said city of Bremen, with a very earnest request, that her majesty would be pleased to admit of a composure of those differences, that are risen between her majesty and the said city; and withal, that her majesty would be pleased to desist, and cause to desist, all manner of hostility against the said city.

A paper of the commissioners of Holland.

Exhibited the 28th May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 222.

The lords commissioners of the province of Holland have, with deliberation of the lords of the council of that province, declared by word of mouth some very offensive clauses contained in the fore-mentioned writing, as the same was delivered in by the lord Wickel, commissioner of the province of Friesland. The said lord Wyckel was also admonished at large of the indecency of the said clauses; and after that, there were some of the most offensive and indecent clauses omitted out of the said writing. The said lords commissioners of the province of Holland, with the deliberation aforesaid upon the said subject, as the same standeth at present inserted in the notes, caused only to be set down, that their lordships did find that writing to be of the same nature as in the foregoing declaration of that of the lords commissioners of Zealand, upon the same subject formerly made; and that therefore their lordships do still adhere to the foregoing resolution and declaration, made and taken by the lordships states their principals, and exhibited here in the assembly; and do think it needless to give any particular resolution upon the said subject, as being assured, that their lordships and the states of the respective provinces, to whom the said writing doth belong, and ought only to be directed unto, who according to their usual wisdom, experience, and discretion, will be able to apprehend, that those unusual terms therein mentioned will occasion and furnish much discontent and commotion amongst the commonalty. Besides, their said lordships of Holland do find themselves very much grieved and troubled to declare their opinions of themselves, and without any farther impression, upon such indecent, and in this illustrious assembly unusual, manner of proceeding; and therefore they will make further report thereof to the lords their principals, who the next week will all meet together to be resolved and agreed on by their great lordships, what they shall think most fit and convenient for the preservation of the respect and lustre of the state in general, and of the provinces of Holland and West Friesland in particular.

A letter of intelligence from Amsterdam.

Amsterdam, 28 May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 266.; *The exchange, where the merchants meet.

Yesterday we had a very busy day here with the publishing of the peace, and thousands of people abroad in the streets, to hear and see the shews upon the Dam*, where was built a very stately triumphal arch, upon which stood on the top of all the arms of England on the right hand; and the lion, or the arms of this state, on the left hand; and a-top of the new town-house hung out a white flag of peace; also such another flag upon the steeple of the old church, and another upon the turret of the prince's court, where the admiralty fits. The frontispiece of the town-house was neatly adorned with all manner of green boughs of trees, and other curiosities, within: the windows were covered with carpets; so for an eternal memory to make the first publication. The burgomasters met first in the morning at their ordinary meeting-place in the prince's court, and then went afterwards to hear a sermon, all the messengers of the town going at a distance before them: then went the burgomaster, aldermen, and secretaries. At eleven of the clock, when sermon was done, they all went to the new town-house, and there caused the peace to be published with the found of several instruments and trumpets, and the discharging of the great guns; afterwards the magistrates went home, and dined, and came again about three of the clock to the city-house; and then the shew began, which was a very fine fight to behold. At night, when it began to be dark, the bonfires and fireworks were made throughout all the whole city. The burgomasters sent to the ministers here, being 26 in number, each a barrel of wine, containing 32 gallons, therewith to make themselves merry. I am informed, that there was more joy shewn amongst the citizens at the publishing of the peace between Spain and this state, than there was now. I did also perceive, that when the trumpeters began to found, the first tune they founded was Wilbelmus of Nassau, and wherewith I heard the commonalty were pleased. I hear they did it without order; some say, they had order from the magistrates to do it.

The Dutch embassadors in England to greffier Ruysch.

Vol. xiv. p. 240.

My Lord,
Their lordships letters and resolutions of the fifteenth, nineteenth, and twenty second of this month, were delivered to us the day before yesterday, and yesterday; to which we shall return no other answer, than that we will always endeavour to accomplish their good intentions and commands; but we do find ourselves bound concerning that resolution of the twenty-second, upon the letter of the king of Denmark's, humbly to offer to their lordships considerations, whether there ought not to be writ in very serious and iterative terms to the said king, about the restitution of the moneys, which did proceed from the sale of the goods, without any stop for the use of his subjects, or in recompence of damages, which might be sustained by them, as we see by the contents of the said letter is not only desired, but sufficiently agreed unto. And we desire their lordships seriously to weigh the words of the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth articles of the treaty of peace; and that they would be pleased to consider of them according to their usual wisdom, and to leave it to the consideration of his said majesty, what inconveniencies are to be expected by such refusals and denials of restitution, as well in regard of the obligation of one hundred and forty thousand pounds sterling, which is passed here about it on the behalf of their lordships, as concerning the comprehension of the king himself, who by such a denial would undoubtedly give occasion to undo all; and according to the ill disposition, which they do bear here to the king, they would interpret every thing in a bad sense. We do very well know, that the decision of the arbitrators is to be expected, and to satisfy according to their sentence; and also, that the act of the council of the twenty-fifth of March last did establish the comprehension of the said king, together with the satisfying the pretended damages; but we do think now, that it is dangerous in itself, to begin to contest anew in regard of the ill will they bear to that king, to expect the issue thereof; and we can assure their lordships, that in all negotiation, we never did bear any prejudice to the interest of his majesty, or the pretences of his subjects, which may be taken care of here by his minister, as he shall conceive to be most serviceable and convenient for the service of his lord and master; wherein we shall willingly assist him according to their lordships commands, although, we fear, with little likelihood. We did not think fit to confer with the lord Beverning with presentation of our service, concerning the memorandum of the king, but that he would advise and inform his majesty, how he found the affections and inclinations of the government here towards his master; that he would write very seriously about it to him; but he did declare roundly to us, that the greatest difficulty to his thinking would be, to raise so much ready money there. And he did intend, that we should find out some expedient to supply that defect, propounding to that end, upon mortgage of lands or obligation to be passed by his majesty, their H. and M. lordships should give him credit for it, and to order the resident de Vries to remit those moneys speedily to London, by the way of Amsterdam; whereunto we refer ourselves to their lordships wise discretion, who undoubtedly will find some expedient. However we shall take care, that by the said denial or refusal, no inconvenience may be occasioned thereby; which we thought ourselves bound in duty to represent. My Lord, &c.

Westminster, 18/28. May, 1654.


The Dutch embassadors in England to the protector.

Serenissimo celsissimoque domino reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ


Vol.xiv. p. 230.

Nullum majus boni imperi instrumentum esse quam amicos bonos, nec tutius rerumpublicarum præsidium, quam socios & rite consœderatos, vetus sapientiæ essatum est. Si autem longe lateque firmissimæ illæ consœderationis tabulæ sese extendant, eos autem præcipue circumscribant, qui vicinitate & locorum opportunitate possint esse utiles, aut mutuo rationum commodo sideles, illas & tutissimas & securas esse, non sapientiæ modo, sed & ipsius rationis infallibile dictamen est. Certe domini ordines generales uniti Belgii, superiores nostri, semper ita existimarunt, & ut pacis unionisque ejusmodi studiosissimi, ita de consœderatis etiam sociis & amicis semper anxie suere solliciti, quo debita sidei & reciprocæ amicitiæ officia iis digne persolvant, eosque simul in eadem securitate collocent, quam sibi prosecuti sunt, quod bonæ societatis maximum vinculum esse putarunt; de eo autem sapientiæ & rationis dictamine agere nobis nullo modo visum est, quasi notissimam seren. vestræ celsitudinis prudentiam & in rebus gerendis solertiam excitemus, sed ut modeste eidem exponamus, quid de iis domini ordines generales sentiant, cum isthæc sapientiæ essata, rationisque & naturæ dictamina, officium debitumque suum respectu amicorum & consœderatorum interpellant. Ab initio nostræ negotiationis ita nobis mandaverant domini ordines generales, & ita etiam nobis propositum fuit, non de amicitia duntaxat, sed de firma & in perpetuum duratura unione cum sereniss. vestra celsit. pacifci: eique non nostros solummodo status & populos, sed plerosque alios vicinos & consœderatos includere, quod in prioribus nostris chartulis explicite deduximus. Ita etiam de sereniff. Daniæ regis comprehensione, cum conventum est, de aliis non magnopere diffentiemus, cum aut a micitia, aut neutralitas nobis cum iis plerisque intercedat: sed de sereniss. Gallorum regis comprehensione præcipue laboravimus, cum lites quædam & discrimina intervenerint, quæ summis votis domini ordines generales exoptant, ut componantur, quippe nullum bellum unquam inter utrumque statum aut populum indicium, aut publico nomine hucusque gestum est, sed privatorum querimoniæ particularia diplomata extorserunt, quæ utrique statui & nationi, quin universæ etiam navigationi satis sunt incommoda & damnosa. Adest vir excellentiff. sereniss. regis regnique Galliæ extra ordinem legatus, sufficienti potentia & auctoritate instructus, & nisi nos fallit transactorum ratio, jamdudum non solummodo de finiendis iftis litibus, sed de restabilienda pace agicœptum est, quamvis non satis selici hactenus successu. Domini ordines generales pro propensissimo suoaffectu erga sereniss. vestram celsit. totamque hanc nationem, & pro isto amicitiæ & confœderationis vinculo, quo regi Christianissimo obligati sunt, omnibusvotis exoptant, & pronissimis animis offerunt, ut omnibus melioribus suis officiis intervenire possint, & utrique parti inservire: ita enim putant utrique statui conducere, & sibi ita etiam publicæ securitatis, vicinæ tranquillitatis, & mutui commodi rationes requirere. Certe si honestis & justis conditionibus præsentes lites assopiantur, in futurum autem certis & æquis regulis de communi libertate, & mutui commercii usu, prospectum & præcautum sit, absque aliqua vel minima diffidentia aut controversia, & status & populi sua libertate suisque commoditatibus gaudebunt; & dum mutuas undecunque utilitates procuramus, damna autem reciproce advertimus, tam publica quam privata, ita demum acceptissimis pacis fructibus fruemur, quos nobis in unionis & confœderationis nostræ tabulis proposuimus; a liter ex statuum nostrorum situatione in vicinitate, vix credibile est, ut si aut bellum ingruat, aut discordiæ præsentes maneant, tertius quisque possit extra partes esse, ita ut non iisdem incommodis involvatur, & omnis commercii & liberæ navigationis cursum sentiat interturbari, quod & irrefragabile necessitatis argumentum est. Adde quod perspectissimæ providentiæ documentum est, non solum quæ ante oculos sunt videre, sed & in posterum prospicere; eos de qui respublicas ingenuique populi justam libertatem diligunt, et qui orthodoxam religionem prositentur aut protegunt, non difficile est discernere. Quæ autem potestates in Europa constitutæ sunt, jamjam sui imperii amplitudine & potentia formidabiles: ubi autem & unde æquilibrium speres, aliasque potestates reperias, qui æquipollendo sufficiant, nostrum non est anxie disquirere, quippe qui savente Numine extra omnes sere partes inimicitiarum constituti simus, sed sagacissimæ sereniss. vestræ celfit. prudentiæ considerandum relinquimus; quam simul enixe hisce rogabimus, ut perpenso argumentorum nostrorum pondere serio de iis velit deliberare, ut pristina illa consœderatio societatis & amicitia aliquando restituatur & restabiliatur, quæ inter utrosque status olim & dudum intervenit, & ut amicabili tandem ratione ingratissimæ & incommodæ illæ præsentes lites componantur; quibus assopiendis, jussi sumus dominorum ordinum generalium nomine omnia ea paratissima studia offerre, quæ ab amicis & confœderatis desiderari possint; quæ etiam seren. vestræ celsitud. officiosissime hisce offerimus; cum voto ut Deus ter optimus maximus omnibus ejus consiliis ita benedicat, ut communis pax inter vicinos omnes quamprimum restituatur; enixe insuper petentes, ut aliquo responso nos dignari placeat. Factum Westmonasterii, 18/28. Maii, anno 1654.

H. Beverningk.
Wil. Nieuport.
A. P. Jongestall.

General Fleetwood to the protector.

May it please your Highnes,

Vol. xiv.p. 218.

May 18. 1654.

I desired captain Kingdon might acquaint your highnes with what he heard concerning colonel Alured; and since his departure I understand thos two good men, whom he thought dissatisfied, have heard such strange discontented discourses from him, that I must needes in the discharge of my duty let your highnes know, I cannot thinke he is a person to be trusted with this party, except his inward principles be better then I know. He lookes upon himselfe as sent out of your way, and gives out such discontented languedg both as to his owne dissatisfaction and others, who went latly into Scotland, that I confesse I could not truste him; but that the designe may not suffer, I say nothing to him, till I receive your commands. I have appoynted lieutenant colonel Finch, and major Reade, your highnes own major of foot, to go in this expedition, who are both of them extraordinary able officers. If the persons may be concealed, to whom he hath used this freedom, they will be able suddenly to discover what is working in Scotland; and indeede whatever hath bine rumoured concerning them, they are faithfull honest men, and affectionate servants to your highnes, and hate such indirect practices, as this man, I feare, ingages in. He sayth, some of your army meet now with Wildeman, &c. I have much that I could say of his carriage since his arrival heare; but I have ingaged to some privacy at present, and fearing the ordinary conveyance of letters, durst not be so free as suddenly I intend to be. I trust, the Lord will give you still a discerning spirit, and these kinde of clandestine underhand workeings will be blasted; and indeade all should teach us this, that our standing must be alone from the Lord, and therefore to have his dreade and feare alwayes upon our hearts, and his Spirit to be our only counsellor, is the best support of any authority; and that you may ever finde him your fun and shield, is the prayer of your highnes

May 18. 1654.

Most dutifull servant,
Charles Fleetwood.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

Paris, 26th May, 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 276.

I Have not yet received yours, though I hear the post is arrived, having not time to look after them. I fear you cannot have much news, only our king is this day going for Meaux, also the queen with all the court, where he will remain till monday next, and that night he goes to Soissons, and from thence to Rheims, where he is to crowned to-morrow come seven-night. All men able to go in this city are preparing for that journey, and many of them are gone away already. The king will go to the campaign after he is crowned, or at least to Compeigne, till the army goes to the field. Some say, the enemies are strong in their way, and like to oppose them; for which they make their preparations, in case any such should happen. The twenty-seventh instant the lieutenant of the grand prevost de France departed for Rheims with a great quantity of his archers, to secure the way before the king, and keep all passages free. The same day we received news from Rheims, how the marshal of the king's house took much pains to find lodgings in Rheims for the king, his train, and court, by reason of so many daily slocking into the town, besides the peasants of the country about, who sled in thither by reason the enemies continually appear there these fifteen days past; and the troops his majesty ordered there to oppose the said enemies, were retired, being not able to resist the quantities of horse and men in those parts. The king has three suits of cloaths newly made for the present journey, of divers colours, the one white colour, another green, and the third black; and four more of divers colours for four dukes, that must serve near his majesty's person, during the time of his coronation, with several sorts of ornaments fit for such ceremonies, and many other things so imaginable to be thought of, &c. And to pay part of these expences, we hear, the impositions of wine and salt are lately augmented by orders from the king's council. The duke of Mantua sent a curious present lately to the king, in a certain precious stone. As for four couriers coming from Naples, what they may signify we do not well know. Since my former, Mons. Boreel, the embassador of the United Provinces of Holland, got audience again from the king, to whom he signisied, he had orders from his masters to demand of his majesty and council the restitution of fifty-four vessels appertaining to the Holland merchants, which the French took since the last troubles between England and Holland, or at least the values of the ships and merchandizes in the whole; of which he has gotten no answer as yet, but promises. It is confirmed from le Bassé, that the enemies are there eating their contributions daily. From Picardy we have, that the enemies are continually about Peronne very troublesome. The last news from Alsace signify, that Harcourt is inclined to agree with his majesty of France upon his advantage. We have from Caen in Normandy, that the English landed there, and endeavoured to bring some bestials with them, but were beaten by the peasants, and their preys rescued with the loss of the English. From Bordeaux we have, that Mons. l'Estrades has 6000 men in Guienne to oppose the English, in case they should have the courage to attempt in those parts. The king is to go in procession at Rheims before his sacration, and afterwards must fast three days; and after the three fasting-days, will be crowned. The queen, that was, of England, her daughter, and her son York will be there; but the king Charles will not, as I hear: the duke of Gloucester will be there too. We hear just now from Rheims, that the enemies that were thereabouts are retired, by reason of some differences between Condé and prince Francis de Lorrain, which the archduke endeavours to accommodate, and without which accommodation Condé will not go to the field. Prince Conti parted for Catalonia last wednesday, and his wife went with him to Fontainebleau that night, and came back to Paris thursday following in the evening. Thursday last at night, the embassador of Holland made a bonfire with great solemnity, for the peace of both commonwealths, England and Holland. Mons. marshal de la Meilleraye, hearing the duke of Richelieu was in treaty with the court about the office of being general of the galleys, writ to the cardinal to suspend it as yet, for some considerable reasons yet unknown to his eminence. Mons. marquis de Viccone, who was in disgrace these two or three years past, is now returned, and in favour. Mons. de Bar will command a flying small army in Picardy, being now in rendezvous between Amiens and Dourlans. Count de Grandpré will command another about Stenay and Cleremond. The duke of Chaune, being in his own government of Dourlans, called Mons. de Bar to a duel by the chevalier d'Espagny; but Bar answered, he could not fight, whilst he commanded his troops; yet promised, as soon as he should be out of his majesty's service, that he would endeavour to satisfy him, &c. Yesterday in the afternoon, Mons. d'Aligre, having proposed in the high council the demands of the Huguenots, was resolved by an arrest, that the commissaries should be named by the king, one a Roman catholick, and the other a protestant, to go to Tholouse and Castres, to hear and receive the complaints of both parties, make a process verbal of it, and bring it to the council afterwards to be judged; which the deputies of the Huguenots took very ill, by reason they thought to get better satisfaction than so till then; and say they will not accept of that arrest. Mons. de Bordeaux, our embassador in London, writ by the last post to the court, that his highness the lord protector was much inclined to treat with France for a peace, of which he and they were very glad; yet we do not like well he should demand the payment of fourteen millions, as some say. Yesterday morning the parliament assembled for the reception of a new counsellor, and will next wednesday sit again about the affairs of the rentiers. The duke of Guise's fleet will be composed of the regiments of Auvergne, Poictou, Mercœur, Bellesons, Folleville, and Guise, with some Irish, and two thousand horse. They are to go, not to Naples, though so reported, but to fall into some city of the enemies. There is some treachery not yet ripe, and may be about Leryda: time will let us see. Mons. Mercœur is still at Toulon, preparing ships and galleys for the said forces. The vessels, that parted for Roses, are returned to Toulon, having lest relief of men there and provisions without any opposition. Mons. de Belesons and de Folleville will command under Guise, in quality of two lieutenant generals; there will be, besides, two masters de camp. Mons. chevalier de Chemerault, who was condemned to death three years ago, for taking by force the sister of Mons. de la Bazioure, and fled to Guienne, took Conti's part, returned hither since the prince Conti was married, and was committed; but before the said prince parted, he got him his pardon and liberty. In my last you had, that the archduke committed in Brussels count de Ligneville, and others, as we received from Picardy, which now we see is not true; and those that writ it, do excuse themselves, because they thought so, by reason the gates of Brussels were shut up half a day; but it was about a quarrel, that happened between some of Condé's gentlemen and some of Lorrain's, as you may see more of it in the letters from Brussels. Which is all at present known to, Sir,
Your real servant.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.


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Par les escrits, qui sont passees entre ceux de Frise & ceux de Hollande, & encore par le dernier de ceux de Frise, verres asses, que ceux de Hollande cachent entierement la resolution secrete, si que nul membre de l'assemblée de Hollande meme ne l'a point; ains seulement le raet pensionaire & le secretaire Beaumont en ont copie, mais chaque membre de l'assemblée a annoté ce, qu'il a peu en haste, lorsque le raet pensionaire l'a proposé; & de cela en voicy un verbal ou relation, par laquelle verres, que bien cinque villes ont contra-protesté ou contredit, dont Leyden est la principale, puis Haerlem, Alcmaer, Gorkam, Enckhuysen. Mais ceux d'Enckhuysen l'ont fait pour complaire à leur peuple. Un ministre y avoit negligé de prier pour le prince; desmatelots aprés le preche luy dirent, s'il ne prioit pas un autre sois pour le prince, qu'on le rueroit dans la mer, si que la prochaine fois dans sa priere il prioit presque qu'un demy heure de suite pour le prince. Par ainsy plusieurs se demonstrent plus affectionés au prince par dehors, qu'ils ne sont pas par dedans. Meme le raet pensionnaire a esté voir tant la princesse douariere, que le comte Guillaume, pour excuser la Hollande, allegants la presente & pressante necessité que cependant on travaille avec une peine indicible, pour ne pas delivrer la resolution on acte secret; ains persuader le protecteur de se contenter de la parole de les estats d'Hollande. On dit aussy, que dans la pluspart des villes on l'a surpassé avec une ou deux voix, & meme par crainte & constrainte. Cependant il est vray, que dans les estats d'Hollande la faction ou party de hons Hollandois prevaut, & celle de amis d'Orange est basse; car les familles, qui à present governent & subsistent per se, ne voudront pas volontiers se rendre dependents d'autruy. Mais le peuple, qui ne gouverne point, enrage pour le prince; & au peuple se joignit tout ce qui est militaire, ou ce qui attend du bien par la milice; item tous ceux des magistrats, qui ne trouvent pas leur conte. La commune opinion & la mienne aussy est, que les bons Hollandois sont aise, que Cromwell presse l'acte secret.

Par cette resolution du 26 May verres de surplus, que les bons Hollandois suppriment, tant qu'ils peuvent, l'acte secret.

Le sieur ambassadeur qui le tient, a juré au ambassadeur de Frieseland, que le 22/12. May il le tenoit encore en sa poche, & qu'il ne le rendroit pas 130, pour rien du monde sans nouvel & expres ordre. Il aura fait des grandes protestations de son innocence, & qu'il se peut bien justifier, jettant la faute fur un ou deux dans 105. Certes, la ratification trop repentine du lord protecteur a surprins les bons Hollandois; & maintenant je ne voy pas comment (si les estats d'Hollande opiniastre) le protecteur pourra constraindre les estats d'Hollande avec honneur a l'extradition; car la paix est ratisiée & publié sans reserve: mais je ne say pas quelle promisse les ambassadeurs ou leurs principaux les estats o'Ho. pourront avoir faits. Je suis

29 May [1654. N. S.]

Votre tres humble, &c.

A letter of intelligence from Rotterdam.

Rotterdam, May 29. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xiv. p. 280.

We burnt pitch-barrels here last wednesday; but it was slightly done, most of the understanding people being dissatisfied with the conditions of the peace; only those, that are enemies to the prince of Orange's house, did triumph in it. The rigid Presbyterian saith, that the Independents in England, by that article of excepting against persons here, have made a rod for themselves, if ever there should happen to be a change in England: but you know what stamp these Presbyterians are of. The ill-affected English were very backward in buying the pitch-barrels. At Leyden they did not burn at all; and at Dort the young men were so bold, as to set up the prince of Orange's colours upon the steeple, and De Witt durst not pull them down.

De Baas to Chanut the French embassador in Holland.

Vol. xiv. p. 286.

My Lord,
Since my letter of the 15th, I have been solicited by Mr. Pickering, to visit the lord protector upon some particular propositions, which his highness had a desire to make unto me; but this conference, which I did accept of, being put off till the next day, for some slight considerations, did vanish insensibly; and I do protest to you, that amongst all the reasons, which I have studied and found to be the cause of this failing, I am yet to find a good one. These gentlemen have a kind of policy in them, which I do not condemn, because I do not conceive myself a fit judge of those things; but it seemeth to me to be so much contrary to their interests, and a good reputation, which is so highly necessary and requisite to give to all new establishments, that I cannot likewise approve of it. My great desire and with would be, to have the honour to confer with you, and to make you observe the circumstances, and the small particulars, with certain terms, which are practised on their sides, in the order and method of our negotiations, and which do seem to me to be the true spies of the soul, to fortify me in my opinion, or to enlighten me in so much obscurity, which doth often blind me.

You have heard without doubt the action, which the English have done hard by St. Malo, which I know not yet how to give any name unto; but it is so contrary to all the rules of justice, of reason, and of prudence, that it will not be easy to justify it. But my lord embassador, who had yesterday a very long conference, and where we did think that it was not convenient for me to be present, will without doubt give you an account of all that passed there; so that to give you a repetition, would be unnecessary. You will judge by this relation, that we are ready, and likewise almost necessitated, to conclude speedily; but their minds, and the manner, after which they have negotiated the peace of Holland, doth confound me, and doth make me to apprehend their delays and artifice.

In the mean time your embassy doth find matter of action, which was not thought on; and I do rely upon you for the conduct, which you will use for the managing of it. The most common opinion in this country is, that a little murmuring, and some stirr, will determine this business in a short time; and my lord De Bordeaux is very much of this opinion. For my part, I do believe, that the advantages, which are found in the peace, is a reason that doth fortify it; but there are so many more, which are contrary to it, that I do fear with you, that the difficulties do increase, instead of diminishing. And although there should be nothing but the jealousy, which the province of Holland can give to the other six provinces at such time, that under the pretence of pretensions of sovereignty, which may be imputed to the house of Nassau, they do seem to establish insensibly one in their own favour, forcing them to follow resolutions of great consequence, which they had taken, and caused their embassadors to sign, without thinking themselves obliged to communicate them either to their collegues, or the states general. I do not know whether these proceedings will not be more suspected to them, than that which was undertaken by the deceased prince of Orange. My lord Beverning, speaking here of this business, said, that you had declared yourself in favour of the province of Holland against the prince of Orange. It was not to me; for since the first visit of compliment, which I gave to your lords embassadors, I have not seen or heard from them since.

As for Bremen, there are hopes, that all the states, that are interested in that city, will take vigorous resolutions in favour thereof, when it is too late. A famous city in Spain was taken by the Romans, in the mean time that they were debating of the form and title of letters, which they were to send to their allies for relief. In great affairs, long contestations are dangerous, especially with armed men, and those who are in action; and generally in all affairs I do hold, that men must make use with the most advantage of the present occasions, which fortune doth present unto us; and that, interest being made the sole rule of the conduct of the states, men must embrace it without scruple, especially when the example of another doth justify us.

London, 29/19 May, 1654.

Vol. xiv. p. 292.

My Lord,
Since the writing of this letter, our commissioners with Mr. Thurloe have been at my lord embassador's house, according to the promise, which the lord protector made yesterday. Our conference was very moderate, and three or four of this nature would almost put an end to our negotiation. The business of pretensions is almost in the road, that we do wish it. We are to draw up articles as to a single confederacy, which will chiefly have respect to the advantages and freedom of commerce, to which others may be added, if it be thought fit. They do declare, that they will conclude speedily; and as I know that it is their interest, I am almost persuaded to believe it.

The Dutch embassadors in England to the greffier Ruysch.

Vol. xiv. p. 304.

My Lord,
After that we had audience yesterday in the evening by his highness, and thereupon had dispatched the inclosed to their H. and M. lordships, without any foregoing knowledge of the audience, which was given to the lord of Neusville the same day in the morning, or having received any communication from him what had passed there, he was pleased late in the evening to invite us to a meeting in St. James's park, or elsewhere, to confer together on both sides of what had passed; and having related to him the contents of the inclosed to their H. and M. lordships, he declared to us on his part, to have received express order from the king his master to make such propositions to his highness here, that he should clearly comprehend, that he did desire an absolute and categorical answer; or for want thereof he was to depart from hence within fourteen days; and that he should take all excuses and delays for a denial; and that therefore he had expressed himself in very vigorous terms, and besides had declared, that the state and subjects of France suffer more prejudice through this uncertainty, than are to be feared they would do in an open war; and that therefore he was also commanded to tell them, that they had rather choose the latter, than to remain any longer in this confusion and combustion: and withal he expostulated concerning the attempt of the 18 English frigats, who had undertaken, near St. Malo in the bay of Coustance, to set on shore three hundred of their men, to plunder the country. Whereupon immediately the country rose upon them to the number of 50,000 men, who killed some of the plunderers, and took others prisoners, and two of their frigats they left behind them; yet for all this he desired a declaration and reparation of his highness. Whereupon his highness answered him, that they were to debate seriously about his first proposition; and that he had to expect his answer as that day before night, whereof he promised us communication; which we will send to their lordships, as soon as it cometh to our hands: and to the last, his highness declared, that he never gave any order for any such thing; but said, he would forbid it, and decree such punishment to those that did it, as his majesty could expect; having used him all along with a great deal of civility, as he did to us in the afternoon, that we will hope well of the treaty.

May 19/29. 1654.

My Lord,


Jongestall to Assuerus van Vlassen secretary to the states of Friesland.

Vol. xiv. p. 296.

This day we sent away an express with letters, by whom I writ to his excellency; so that you may be pleased to let his excellency know so much, in case the post should arrive before him. The lords Beverning and Nieuport are extremely troubled, by reason the resolution of Holland concerning the seclusion of his highness is made known. Notwithstanding this, they have been since three hours together, without my knowledge, in conference with the protector; so that they do still carry on their design with him: but they will answer for it in the end. I cannot write any thing certain now of my coming home; for I must stay here a while longer.

29/19 May, 1654.


Dantzick, 19/29 May, 1654.

Vol. xiv. p. 574.

From hence little of news, but that we are preparing for war. Our rebellious Cossacks have now given themselves under the protection of the Muscovites.

It is said, our embassador at Constantinople (contrary to all custom) is well received and entertained by the Turkish emperor, and hath accomplished his desires reasonably well, having amongst the rest moved and caused the said emperor to send to the great chan of Tartary, with earnest command, not to make any war against the crown of Poland; but rather to assist the same against any one whatsoever, that shall justly provoke them, either to a defensive or offensive war. If this do continue, we hope by the grace of God shortly to see a wished end of our war.

Our second parliament begins the ninth of June next. The Lord grant it may have better success than the former!

The Swedish resident to the protector.

Vol. xiv. p. 416.

Might it please your Serenissime Highnesse,
I Finde myselfe bound in duty to thanke very heartily your serenissime highness, for the order you were pleased to take concerning the disposall of the goods, that were aboard the Swedish ship, called the Great Christopher; which order I only received yesterday.

I am forced by the duty of my charge to trouble again your serenissime highness with a new bussiness, the particulars whereof being fully deducted in the here-annexed petition presented to me by the master, I shall forbear to relate here; but do very humbly intreat your serenssime highness to be pleased to give speedy order unto the judges of the high court of admiralty for the present releasment of the ship and goods mentioned therein, which are at present in the Thames; with an express order to the states advocate in the said court, effectually to proceed against the captain of the private man of war, and cause him to be brought to a condign and exemplary punishment, for the high disgrace and affront put by him upon her majesty the queen of Sweden my sovereign mistres; the which I do so much the rather press, because the master of the Swedish ship hath already acquainted his owners in Swedland with the same particulars mentioned in the said petition, who doubtles will let her majesty know the affront put upon her by the said private man of war; and her majesty would in reason blame me, if I should not press and desire of your serenissime highness, that satisfaction and reparation might be given and made by the offender, for the great dishonor and affront put by him upon her majesty, and for the wrong done to the master. I most humbly crave your serenissime highness pardon for this my importunity, and make bold to subscribe myself

London, 20 May, 1654.

Your Highness, &c.

To the right honorable Benjamin Bonnel, resident for her majesty the queen of Sweden, with the commonwealth of England:

The humble remonstrance of Gerbrant Cornelison, master of the ship, called the Abraham's Offering, of Newcoping in Swedland,

Vol. xiv. p. 428.

That the petitioner, failing from Newcoping with the said ship for Hamburgh, on the third of this month was seized by John Tresoer, captain of a private man of war, with no flag out, who took two men out of my ship; and pretending himself to be an Irishman, presently plundered me and my men of all things, as also much of the ship's furniture, money, and provisions; and opened a fatt of copper kettles, and took some of them away, as also four deckers of cordevant. And I telling him, that he should not deal so with us, because we were friends, and not enemies, the said captain Tresor himself did thereupon in mine own ship violently assault me, and with his sword cut a deep wound in my head, beat me, and hostily used me several times, saying, that he valued not the pass of her royal majesty of Swedland, but would wipe his posteriors with it, with other scandalous language; and coming into the river, his men have several times set pistols to my breast, and would have shot me through, when I would have gone on shore to make myself known, &c.

Vol. xiv. p. 432.

Might it please your Excellency,
This is a note of such ships and goods as are yet in esse, belonging really and directly to the subjects of the crown of Sweden.

In the ship the red Hart are taken the following parcels, which do remain in the hands of the commissioners of the prize-office.

Schipounds Lisp. iron
For Minert Hecker of Stockholm 227 5
For Henrick Loe of Stockholm 182
For Balthazar Wismar of Stockholm 105 15
For Lucas Hiding of Stockholm 102

In the ship the Gideon, likewise in the hands of the commissioners of the prize-office,

For account of William Momma of Newcoping, Schipounds Lispounds
606 rings of copper wire, weighing 82 12
94 rolls of Laton, weighing 9 15
Iron in bars 200 0
Two fatts of copper kettles 4 5
For Giles Wilmot of Newcoping, iron in bars 122 11½.

Out of the ship the Black Raven, coming from Northcoping, likewise in the hands of the commissioners of the prize-office;

For Francis Tinman of Northcoping, 32 parcels of steel. Two little guns, mounted. A chest with womens apparel.
For Wouter van Daler of Northcoping, Iron in bars266 dozen of deal boards.14 fathoms of fire-wood. Schipounds 89
For Adrian Trip of Northcoping, 200 rings of copper wire.

More, a ship called Abraham's Offering, belonging to Newcoping, taken by captain John Treasure, private man of war, lying at present in the river of Thames, laden with iron, laton-rings, and copper-kettles, belonging to William Momma, and Giles Wilmot of Newcoping.

The ship the King David, coming from Gothemburgh, being a Dutch bottom, lying at present in the Thames, taken by a private man of war, laden with tar and iron, and wood, the lading belonging to the subjects of the crown of Sweden, dwelling in Gothemburgh.

Moreover, a ship's lading of iron, tar, pitch, and deal-boards, taken out of the ship the Charity of Gothemburgh, belonging to admiral Ancherhelme, and other citizens of the town of Gothemburgh, which goods one Thomas Prince hath in his custody, as confiscated.

Out of the Great Christopher of Riga, for account of
Herman Becker,
Tilman Bremer,
John Bruce, and other citizens of Riga,
A parcel of hemp,
Linseed, and
Clapboards, remaining in the hands of one Thomas Chelston, a private man of war, as confiscated; the master of the said ship hath been here three months, since his ship hath been unladen, and cannot get a penny of freight from the said Chelston. There is an order given by his highness the lord protector, that the above-named Chelston shall deliver the money and proceed of the said goods in the hands of the commissioners of the prize-office; but the said Chelston slights the said order, and refuseth to deliver the said money as aforesaid.

The ship the King David of Stockholm, belonging to M. Laurence de Geer of Stockholm, laden with wine and paper, taken by a private man of war, and lying now at Rye.

By the commissioners for the admiralty and navy.

Vol. xiv. p. 418.

Representation having been made unto us by Edward Lewes, in the behalf of himself and one Gamaliel Acton, English merchants, Herman Becker, and others, merchants of Riga, subjects to the queen of Sweden, setting forth, that the petitioners, being encouraged to supply this commonwealth with commodities fit for the navy, did thereupon lade the great Christopher of Stetteine, from Riga, with 147 bundles of hemp, which goods, for avoiding the danger of the Danes and Hollanders, were given on, in the Sound in Denmark, in the name of the said Becker; that the said ship, in her voyage homeward bound, was taken by one captain Swayne, a private English man of war; and notwithstanding the evidence produced on the petitioners behalf, that the said ship and goods were bound from Riga to Dantzick, and from thence to London, for the use of the navy; the judges of the admiralty have upon cognizance of the said cause, and before judgment given, ordered the goods to be sold, and the proceed thereof to be left in the hands of the takers; the commissioners thereupon wrote this letter to the judges, desiring that the proceed of the goods and lading might, by their order, be deposited in the hands of some third person, as both parties should agree upon; and for want of such joint approbation, in the hands of the treasurer of the navy, until a final determination be had therein: unto which the judges returned this answer, that the court, before the receipt of the said letter, had passed an order concerning the proceed of the said goods to be in the hands of the takers, they having tendered unquestionable security to be responsible for the same; copies of which letter are hereunto annexed. And it being since represented unto us, by the petitioner, that the said proceedings will be to the utter ruin of himself and owners, and that the goods have by their detention these eight months past, been damnified one third part in their true value;

Ordered, that it be humbly represented to his highness the lord protector and council, that the proceed of the said goods and lading may be directed to be in the hands of a third person, such as both parties shall agree upon; in default thereof, in the hands of the treasurer of the navy, till such time as the cause shall have a full hearing.

And general Desbrowe is desired to report the same.

Monday, May 8th, 1654.

Rob. Blackborne, secretary.

May 12, 1654.

At the council at Whitehall,
On consideration of a letter to his highness, from Mr. Benjamin Bonnell, agent here for the queen of Sweden, being referred by his highness to the council, the same seting forth, that the goods late aboard the ship Great Christopher, were by an order of the judges of the admiralty to be provisionally unladen, and sold by consent of the commissioners on both sides, and the money deposited in the hands of the takers on security; ordered, that the depositing of the money in the hands of the takers, as aforesaid, be waved; and that the same be deposited in the hands of the commissioners for prize goods, till further order.

W. Jessop, clerk conc.

Vol. xiv. p. 420.

The commissary for her majesty of Sweden hath commanded me to signify to this honourable court, that he having sent to inquire of the security proffered for the goods in the Great Christopher, he cannot receive such satisfaction concerning their abilities, as to hold them sufficient to have the said goods of her majesty's subjects delivered to them upon such caution; two of them being already engaged in this court in the sum of 1500 l. for the charges and damages in this cause, and also in several other great sums in this court; and they are also interested, as he hath heard, and are persons of no certain or visible estates, but wholly depend upon trade and casualty, and are not persons of repute to be trusted with the sum of one thousand pounds for any thing, that he can be informed. And Pickering, who is principally interested in the man of war, that took the said goods in the Great Christopher, is already a prisoner in the upper bench, and so hath been for several years last past; and Chelston of very little or no estate. And it is very possible, the security tendered may be in the same condition with them; and therefore, as being publickly intrusted for the subjects of her majesty, he doth desire of this court, that they would take care, that the money may remain in a safe and secure repositary, so as the proprietors may not be defrauded of the same; and he doth protest against the acceptance of the said security tendered, or giving his approbation to any other; but shall expect this honourable court will re-provide, that they may be sure of the same, without any hazards, and not intrust the same in dangerous hands; for he shall always expect the money from this honourable court; and he desireth this his request and protestation may be registered and recorded.