A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (1 of 2)
Major general Sedgwicke to secretary Thurloe.
Jamaica, May 1, 1656.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 14.
Yesterday, whilst I was making my dispatch, two small vessells were descryed at sea, standing in for this harbor. Wherefore hopeing for news, I deferred the sending away of the Falcon one day longer. Upon their arrival I was not altogether frustrated of my expectation, for they both came from Nevis, and brought me this enclosed from governor Stoks, which I thought necessary to communicate to you; and as soon as these letters are gone for England, at my first meeting with coll. Doyley I will advise with him, what is best to be don in complyance therewith; for as I am ready to be acting in the discharge of my duty and his highness commands, so it gives some life to the business to find others will joyn with us in our worke. And I am not a little pleased, that there is yet some hopes of planting this island, which I conceive will be very advantagious to our nation, if the people that come be industrious. Having no more to add, I humbly take my leave, and rest, sir,
Your faithfull humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 18.
Yours of the 25th is come to my hands, whereby I perceave you have only receaved two of myn, which I much admire, since I never ommitted to vreet with all occations since my arrivall in this cuntrie, saif onlie with the last post, fairing my former had ben intercepted at Dover. Now you shall heare from me weeklie. Don Jhon of Austria is arrived in Brabant, and is to mack his entre this day into Brussels. He did salute the archduck Leopold, who is goen for Germaine, at Loven on munday last. The king of Scotts is still at Bruge, and he sent for all his pople, whoe warre at Bulen and in this place, so that wee doe not question heire, but that he is finallie agried with the Spyniard, thoe the particulars be not known to anie of our freinds; so secretlie bussiness arr cairried on. He heath got no monie as yeet in Flanders, which causes the stay of some of his peple at Culen. Lieutenant generall Midelton will be with him the nixt week. If they warr not all devided, great thinges might be expected. This cold sprin doth hinder the French and Spanish armies from going to the campagne. If I get but a litle monie, which I expect with the first occatione, I hope to be in Brabant before the armies march. There is no appirence of a generall peace. The best intelligence we have of the Sueds is, that the king is still alive, but blocked up betwixt the Vesel and ane other river by morr then fyftie thousen Pollanders and Cosakes. The merchands heir arr overjoyed with the arrival of the silver flot, and the newes of the Suedes. There arr tuo shipes coming from Spain to this place with monie and silver, which the marchands feare will be plondered, if they rancounter anie English men of warre. Our fleet heere is not as yeet in rediness. I have no more to add at present, but that I am, vorthie sir,
Amsterdam, May 11, 1656. [N. S.]
Your faithfull humble servent,
Secretary Thurloe, to mr. John Pell, resident in Swisserland.
In the possession of the right honourble Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high-chancellor of Great-Britain.
As to the treatye on foot by the French ambassador for renewing the league with the cantons, and their intentions of desireing your advise therein, whereof you make mention in yours of the 3d of the last month; his highnesse will be alwayes ready to give them his best counsell in what may concerne their affaires and interest. And if you can be usefull to them in this perticuler treatye, he would have you comunicate with them therein, and give them such advise, as you shall judge profitable for them and the comon interest, wherein you are to consider, that France is alsoe a friend and an allye of this state, with whom his highnesse hath lately made a treatye of peace, which he intends to observe with that candor and sinceritie he made it, and cannot yet judge, that France is otherwise minded for the present, seeinge they themselves sought the peace, and are desirous to come into further termes of amitie more strickt and intimate.
In case your presence be desired at Baden, I suppose you are instructed by what you have already received hence, how to carry yourself there for the advantage of the protestant cantons, soe that I need not write any thinge to you upon that subject.
The last week hath fallen out to be very barren of news; soe that I am saved the
labour of writing, and you of readinge any thinge of that nature. Wee have had noe letters from our fleete since they went from hence; but suppose they are before Cadiz, where
2 of the plate gallions are come home and noe more; and those not very rich, I beleeve
not 2 millions sterlinge, 2 others, and those the richest, are yet expected, but most thinke
they are lost in the sea. I remayne
Whitehall, May 1, 1656.
Your very affectionate freind and servant.
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 22.
I Received yours, which gives me some hope, that there will be a way settled for the carrying on the charge of the employment his highness hath been pleased to cast upon me; of which as I am in many respects unworthy, soe altogether unable to doe my worke, if I be not from time to time supported with supplyes of money; and having heard nothing more since your letter, I am afraid the bussiness may be asleepe againe: and truely, sir, I doubt our bussines sufferrs for want of settlement.
Sir, I am informed by one, that came from Redding, that Sturgeon (late one of the
life-guard) that did soe bassely abuse his highnes with his quæres, is now in that towne,
and hath publicke meetings at 6 a clock every night, and hath greate companies of people, that doe come to heare him and others preach. I cannot heare, that he meddled with
the state publickely, but capt. Thornhull desiring to speake with him, found him very
perromptory, and saide his highnes would not have spared him, if hee could have found
any thing against him; and that he had kept him long in prison without shewing any cause;
and that he was barely discharged, and never had any thing laid to his charge. I thought
good to give you this accompt of him, to the end you may doe as you see cause. But I
cannot but wounder at his impudent bouldnes, having been soe very guilty in those trayterous quæres. I doubt he doth ill deserve the favour he had in being released. I have
given sir John Byron a passe to goe to London. If you have any doubt of him, you may
know his lodgings at the register's. I have not else, but to subscribe myselfe, Sir,
Winchester, May 1, 1656.
Your most affectionate freind and servant,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 46.
The newes latly spread in thes parts of the king of Polland's recovering som strength, and being in a condition to fyht the king of Swed, (som believ has fouht and worsted him) gives great reputation to the Spanish interest, who now talk of great succours to com to them out of Germany, and maks them hold up theyr head again. Yet the Inglish fleet at Cales troubles them very much; for thoh they had never so many men, yet if money be wanting, they will not long keep theyr men together. The pope does now in a manner publikly declare himself Spanyard; and 'tis believed the 6000 men hi is now raising ar for the servis of Millan. The French ar very backward this year in theyr army for Itally, which maks som beleiv they hav a pryvat treaty stil a foot. This week past a French post throh Pisa (within a dozen myles of this place) towards Rom, who cam in 6 dayes from Paris, which fil'd every man with expectation of som greate matter; and in conclusion 'twas to seek from the pope investure in som church preferment, a dean or an abbot being dead. 'Tis a strange thing so potent, gallant, and ingenious a nation as the French is, should not discover theyr own vasselledge, but lacquy it thus to Rom for preferment, as if theyr king wanted power or autority to giv it. But 'tis no marvail; for wi know til the appointed tym com, they wil thus wander after the beast. Thes seas ar very ful of Turks men of war, the gallyes of Genoa having latly taken a ship and a bark. I am,
Leghorn, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
Right honourable, your faithful servant,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to the senate of that city.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 26.
Cum ego ab ipsissima celsitudine Domino meo, ejusque senatu amplissimo, istius insolentis contumeliæ, qua Franciscus Townleus, societatis Anglicanæ hìc residentis mercator, me nuperrimè contempsit, probationis gratiâ testimonia sine morâ transmittere, qui ipse per eandem authoritatem coram iis curiâ eorum Londinensi, vulgò Aulâ albâ, personaliter apparere arctè jussus est, novitèr mandatus suerim:
Idcirco amplissimum senatum obnixè rogo, & ipsius celsitudinis nomine peto, ut judicem hujusce civitatis more jusjurandum administrare authorisatum, tales societatis Anglicanæ mercatores vel alios hic residentes, quales ego scriptura nominabo, coram seipso citare, eorum placeat excellentiæ statuere & ordinare, quod ibi tactis sacrosanctis evangeliis dicant & promittant talibus interrogatoriis, qualibus ego in hac causâ proponam vel proponi faciam, vera & particularia responsa manibus subscriptis se statim mihi tradituros.
Hujusmodi hoc tempore processus respectu celsitudinis ipsius necessitate consideratâ de
vestris respectubus & justitiâ nullatenus dubitabo. Quæ omnia maximis astringent vinculis,
Hamburg, Maii 2, 1656.
Excellent. vestr. devotissimum,
Vol. xxxviii. p. 29.
Ad instantiam nobilissimi & generosissimi domini residentis Angliæ, super petitâ examinatione quorundam testium, decrevit senatus Hamburgensis, quod si excellentia sua secundum statuta hujus civitatis & tenorem juris communis, articulos in linguâ Germanicâ conscriptos exhibere porroque consentire velit, ut illi Francisco Townleio, tanquam parti, ad tantum sua interrogatoria communicentur; tunc senatus per dominos prætores testes jurare, præstitoque juramento legitime examinare faciet. Rogat autem suam excellentiam senatus, quod se excusare velit, si eo modo, quo ab ipsa petitum est, cùm sit contra statuta hujus civitatis, in examinationem testium consentire non possit. Decretum in senatu 5 Maii, 1656.
Ex speciali commissione spectabilis senatus civitatis Hamburgensis Martinus Rouer.
J. V. L. ejusdemque reipublicæ secretarius subscripsit.
Dutch embassadors to Sweden to the states general.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 58.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, our last to your high and mighty lordships was of the 6th current from Dantzick: since that we departed from thence on the 9th following, with an intention to have gone for Elbing with all speed. During our abode at Dantzick we were treated by the magistrates with all manner of respect, and demonstration of a singular affection. At our departure we were saluted in the name of the council by the lords Helmer and Rosenbergh, and upon that occasion once more earnestly desired, that we would use our utmost endeavours with your high and mighty lordships for the preservation of the rights and privileges of the said city; and that we would endeavour to prevent, that the commerce may not be diverted from thence to any other place. In our way we understood of a certain, that his majesty of Sweden was arrived at Marienburgh very well disposed, and in good health. Wherefore we thought fit to remain in this place, and to signify our being here by our secretary to the lord chancellor, that so they may give order for our reception, according to the dignity, honour and respect, which your high and mighty lordships state doth require. We also ordered our secretary to compliment the lord chancellor in such terms as are usual upon the like occasions.
We are informed, that his majesty of Sweden will make no long stay at Marienburgh, but doth intend after a few days to go and reside at Grandents for some time.
We hope in the mean time to be admitted to have audience of his majesty.
Guoyang, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
The states general to the king of Poland.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 56.
Regiæ majestatis vestræ literas exaratas Leopoli secundo Martii proxime præteriti non fine gaudio accepimus, quippe cum in iis manifesta indicia reperiamus egregii amoris & affectûs, quo regia majestas vestra nos remque publicam nostram prosequitur, eo usque ut nobis tanquam amicis suis intimis rerum suarum præsentem statum benignè significare voluerit, pro quo propenso in nos amore majestati vestræ summas gratias agimus, & vicissim officii nostri esse censemus majestati vestræ hisce testatum sacere, nos non parum cruentis illis dissidiis & bellis, quibus Polonia exarsit, indoluisse; & jam inde ab initio motuum istorum eò cogitationes nostras intendisse, ut eadem dissidia amicè componerentur; cui tam pio & vere Christiano proposito promovendo, legatos ex nostro ordine misimus, qui jam Dantiscum appulerunt, summoperè sperantes, illorum operâ & industriâ æquas conditiones pacis & concordiæ inter utrasque partes initum iri. Nos vero nunquam deerimus veram & incorruptam fidem & amicitiam cum regia majestate vestra, ejusque regnis & subditis civitatibus colere; in cujus rei fidem jam etiam in gratiam Dantiscanorum nonnulla senatûs consulta facta sunt, & præterea consultamus, quid porro agendum erit. Quod reliquum est, Deum optimum maximum precamur, ut majestati vestræ ejusque regnis & subditis pristinam tranquillitatem & pacem quam primum restituat. Dabantur Hage in Batavis  Maii 1656. [N. S.]
An intercepted letter of Windebank to Thomas Jones.
Calais, the 12/2 of May, 1656.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 30.
I Am exceedingly troubled, you cannot hear from our friends in the country; most especially, because I apprehend and fear some ill accident may have befallen them; and in the next place, because I am thereby like to be disappointed in the speedy setling of my trade, which you cannot but know to be of very great concernment to me at this time, and about which I cannot write more than I have already acquainted you withal; and therefore I shall forbear to write any more, till I have an answer from mr. Tho. to what I have writ, whereby you will sufficiently understand, how necessary it is for me to be with your factor, where I am expected, but cannot conveniently go, until I have discharged all my accounts here, and provided for my future trade hereafter.
The French army is drawing to a rendezvous upon the frontiers of Flanders, so that suddenly some action will be undertaken.
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 50.
We are here at present in the time of a fair and rejoicing, during which the states general do not meet but to read the letters, that come from several parts. Those of Dantzick from their ambassadors do assure them of a great alteration in the affairs, and that there is a great likelihood of the defeat, as of the death of the king of Sweden, by Charnesky and Lubomirsky, who are between Warsaw and Sendomir with an army of 12000 men; but those from Stetin do not confirm this news, but that the king of Sweden and Wrangell were joined, and in a good condition at Warsaw, intending to go and meet his queen at Elbing. It is believed, that the king hath work enough upon his hands, in regard the Polish nobility and gentry do begin to rise against him.
The fleet is still in the ports for want of mariners.
We have several letters to confirm the burning down of the town of * * * to the ground.
To monsieur Petkum.
Hague, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 42.
I Cannot write you any thing at present, but what the letters from Dantzick advise us, of the bad condition of the Swedish forces in Poland and Prussia. If one may give credit to them, it is impossible their armies can subsist any time, whether the king be dead or alive. If he be dead, and so many brave men dead with him, I know not where they will find another army and money, not only to preserve their conquests, but to make an offensive war against an united and numerous a people as the Polander is. Many wagers are laid again, that he is dead. If he be alive, and if he doth not find the passage free for his person from Warsaw to Thorn, he will run a hazard of falling into the hands of the Polanders: novissima erunt pessima.
They still resolve here to send half the fleet of war for the Baltick sea, though there is nothing to do for them, but merely to shew, that this fleet will not acknowledge there any dominion, and to send it afterwards against the Portugals.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador at Paris, to the states general.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 38.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, last monday the parliament begun to sit again, and to work upon the decision of some law suits, which formerly were brought before them, tho' the counsellors and sollicitors and other lawyers do not yet appear as they used formerly. The court was of opinion, that the parliament should first begin, and then should expect the recalling of their exiled brethren; and the' the accommodation (whereof I mentioned in my last) seem'd to be deferred again, yet it is believed, that before they will enter upon business in parliament, something good in favour of the exiled counsellors will be done.
By the last post I sent likewise the contents or a short abstract of the speech, which the lord chancellor of France made in the presence of the king, queen, and council, and many other great lords, to the deputies of the clergy of France, in relation to the reading of the pope's letter in their assembly, wherein were some resolute words concerning the pope and his nuntio very remarkable. I am inform'd for certain, that the said speech was delivered to the lord chancellor in writing by the court, to pronounce the same in that manner and in such words; and whereas they find now, that this affair will be taken very much to heart at Rome, as the same is done here by the said clergy and bigotted zealots among the Roman catholicks, they begin to consider the same at present a little nearer, and are at work to find out some expedient to excuse this affair as well as they can, as well at Rome as here in France. The court has demanded of the lord chancellor and withdrawn the original writing, whereby his lordship was commanded and charged to make the said speech. The clergy doth not take it well, that (the king intending to set out from hence very speedily) his majesty wills and commands them, that their assembly shall follow the court in a body, since it is not thought adviseable at all, that the clergy should continue their assembly here at Paris, in the absence of the court.
The envoy of the lord protector did not arrive here eight days ago, but it was a gentleman sent by the envoy to get every thing in readiness for him, as I am well informed by the lord count of Brienne. However last tuesday we got advice here, that the lord envoy Lockhart was arrived at Dieppe, and that he was received there with great distinction. On sunday the 7th instant he is expected at Rouen, from whence he is to come hither, or to the place where the court shall happen to be. I will follow your high mightinesses orders and instructions sent me on that account.
On the 10th instant was married here at Paris, for the second time, the prince d'Harcourt to madam the eldest daughter of the late lord duke of Bouillon: they say likewise, that the solemnisation of the marriage of the present duke of Bouillon with a lady, the niece of the lord cardinal of Mazarin, will soon be perform'd likewise, as also that of the count of Royé the only son of my lord count de Rouzy with madam de Duraz.
The mareschal de Turenne sets out to morrow from hence, to the frontiers, to assemble the king's army design'd for the Netherlands, at the place of their rendezvous, since the weather grows better and sets in for summer.
At St. Malo is arrived a large quantity of silver from Cadiz in four French vessels; those who say least, speak of two millions of pieces of eight, together with some merchandises imported by the last ships from America. At Havre de Grace is likewise some silver arrived, but not such a large sum: the two richest galleons with silver are still wanting, whether they are lost at sea, or gone back to the West Indies.
Paris, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
Wherewith &c. high and mighty lords &c.
Instructions for the honourable lord Jacob van Wassenaer, lord of Opdam, lieutenant admiral of Holland and Westfriesland, governor and drossart of Hoesden, colonel of a regiment of horse, and now ready to sail with a squadron of men of war of this state, for the East to and about the Oresound.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 101.
1. The said lieutenant admiral shall sail with the ships under his command with the first fair wind for the Oresound, and continue there about the harbours and islands of his majesty of Denmark, in such places and within such a district, as he, according to the rules of navigation, and for the better executing of those orders, which shall be given him by their high mightinesses upon occasion, shall think most fit.
2. The said lieutenant admiral shall particularly, on the said account, consult with his royal majesty of Denmark or his ministers; and shall, as to the management of his squadron and the ships under his command, either under sail or at anchor, consult as much as any ways and without prejudice to the orders of their high mightinesses can be done, the satisfaction and service of his said majesty.
3. For which purpose the said lieutenant admiral shall correspond with the ministers of their high mightinesses in Denmark, who shall be order'd to co-operate therein, and if necessary, to comply with his majesty according to the rules of navigation and as far as it is for the service of the fleet.
4. And whereas the chief aim of their high mightinesses is, by the ships now under the command of the said lieutenant admiral, and with those that may still further be given him, to provide for the security of the navigation and trade of the inhabitants of these provinces, as well in the Baltick as without the same, the said lieutenant admiral shall from time to time keep a watchful eye upon what may happen to the trade and ships of this state in and about the said Baltick sea.
5. And the said lieutenant admiral shall carefully and with all possible speed acquaint their high mightinesses with whatever he shall learn in relation thereunto, in order to have their resolution thereupon; and before he has received the same, he shall not leave the Oresound, nor go from the places thereabouts further into the Baltick sea.
6. But if it should happen against expectation, that the ships of one nation or other, within the Baltick or without the same near his fleet, should attack, take or destroy the merchant ships of this state, so that the danger which was to be fear'd in consequence of such enmity, could not be neglected, without falling into further dangers and inconveniencies that might arise from delaying the necessary resistance and opposition, then the said lieutenant admiral with the ships under his command, and with those that shall be further added unto them, shall go, without any further orders, to such places and districts in and about the Baltick sea, where he may be able to give the best protection and assistance to the trading ships of this state, in case of any enmity that might be exercised against them.
7. In which case the said lieutenant admiral shall not only endeavour to protect the said trading vessels of this state, against all and every one, that has any intention of hurting, taking or destroying the same, and to deliver those that are taken out of the hands of the captors, but also do his utmost, according to the duty of a soldier and mariner in his turn to attack, take, or destroy such ships or vessels, which in manner aforesaid have attack'd, taken or destroy'd, and send the ships thus taken into these provinces, as the same most conveniently may be done, to the collede of admiralty, by whom the said captors are fitted out, adding the necessary informations, to be deliberated upon by their high mightinesses.
8. In case it should happen, that on any roads or before any places by force of ships of war, or other violences of those to whom the said places or towns do not belong, any payment of tolls or other impositions should be lay'd and demanded from the in habitants of these provinces on account of their ships and goods (let the aggressor be whoever he will) he the said lieutenant admiral, in such a case, with the advice of the said lords the extraordinary embassadors of this state, who previously shall communicate to and confer with his said royal majesty of Denmark, do proceed thither with some ships of his fleet, or send a squadron under the command of an able officer, with order to escort and convoy thither all such ships belonging to the inhabitants of this state, that are bound for those parts or places, and not to permit that any such payments of tolls and imposts be demanded from them; however without offending or hurting any body, unless some body or other in an hostile way should happen to oppose his said orders; in which case he shall repel force with force, and shall further behave against such a one, as in the former 7th article express'd. And in case there should be some well grounded suspicion, that such violences and unlawful demand of toll would be practised; then and in such a case the said lieutenant admiral shall dispatch some advice-boats or galliots to make enquiry, and to get information thereof, and convoy and assist the trading ships of this country bound for those places, with suitable forces, for the aforesaid purpose.
9. And whereas their high mightinesses, at all occurrences, are willing to shew, that they are resolved to contribute all, that may be expected from them, for the security and preservation of his above mentioned majesty's kingdoms and dominions against all hostile violences that may happen; the said lieutenant admiral, in case his majesty should be attack'd at sea, in his dominions and ports, by any foreign naval forces, so that his majesty, on that account, should be obliged to come to a rupture, and therefore should think it necessary to call their high mightinesses arms to his assistance, in those contingencies, if the urgent necessity of affairs requires, he shall, even without further orders, in conjunction with his majesty's forces, help to avert, by way of succours, such an attempt and invasion.
10. The said lieutenant admiral, any affair of moment happening, shall consult thereupon with the ministers of this state in Denmark, and afterwards behave in such a manner, in the execution thereof, as they shall find it most fitting and necessary for the service of this state, and the performing of their high mightinesses good intentions.
11. In the striking of the flag, and shewing other civilities, whether to Danish or Swedish men of war or otherwise, he shall regulate himself, according to the former and recent customs.
Thus done in the assembly of their high mightinesses the states general of the United Netherlands. This day of May, 1656.
Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
London, May 12, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 34.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, I cannot understand, that there are any letters come to the government here from the fleet under the generals Blake and Montague, since they set fail out of Torbay. But here is news among the merchants, which came in a merchant man, that mr. Meadowe, envoy of the lord protector to the king of Portugal, had audience of the king on the 16th of April last; and that the same night the generals were come to an anchor in the river near Lisbon. Monsieur de la Barriere, who hath been employed here for some years in this court in the behalf of the prince of Condé, being to depart hence, desired a frigat of this state to transport him to Dunkirk from Dover, but it would not be granted him; so that, as I am informed, he went from hence for Flushing under the convoy of capt. Bancker.
They write over hither out of Ireland, that the quakers do encrease there very much; and that by their means some mutiny had happened in the regiment of col. Phaire; but that the same was presently pacified, and the authors sent for up.
The lady of the lord Henry Cromwell is brought to bed of a son, which doth very much rejoice the lord protector: preparations are said to be making for the christening, and to name it after the name of the grandfather.
The lord Coyet envoy of Sweden is not yet departed, although he hath taken his leave a long while since. I am told he is presented with a golden chain with the picture of the lord protector at it, beset with diamonds: the same is said to be done in acknowledgment of what was presented to mr. Rolt in the Swedish court.
Mr. P. Meadowe, envoy at Lisbon, to the generals Blake and Mountagu.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 363.
About 12 dayes since I dispatched an express for England, by whom I gave his highnesse a very lardge accompt of all transactions here. I feare his majestie's answer will be dissatisfactory, because it is insisted therein, that eyther the treaty be ratified with a clause of recourse to his hollines for the consent to the article of religion, or else that the seaventh and seaventeenth article in the treaty 1641 be substituted in the roome of the sixth and fowerteenth of this present treaty. This made me give out things tended towards a breach, which begatt such a muttering in the people, as if they apprehended their Brasill fleete to be in danger of yours, in soe much as my lord chamberlaine was sett upon me to taste my temper in this particular; who asked me very confidently, what security I could give them, that our fleete should attempt noe hostility upon them, till his highnesse's minde was knowne concerneing his majestie's answer? I slighted the proposall, and tould him, it was a gracious demand indeede, that I should engage to tye my master's hands. Ratesy the treaty, and then you are secure. Till that be done, you must run the hazard. Ay but, sayth he, unlesse you, as a publique minister, will give us reasonable security, his majesty in the meane tyme will not grant your fleet the benifitt of his ports. I replyed, that if his majesty denyed us the benefitt of his ports for watering and other conveniencys, which is due by the law of nature and nations to all but professed enemyes, this was formally to denounce a war; and whilest on his owne jealouseyes he supposeth us to be enemyes, he makes us such, whether we will or noe. This difference and uncertainety, wherein I kept them, made his majesty willing to resume the businesse by other commissioners, whereof the principal was the conde de Mira, a man well affected to our nation. I shall wave perticuler passages, being more then a dayes discourse; and barely acquaint your lordshipps with the present state of affaires. His majesty hath ratified the treaty, as it was concluded in England by his embassador, saving some little difference in the articles of religion, which before stood refered to his holiness, but now stand submitted to his highnesse in the manner following the sixth article, provided that if any marriner runs from his ship, upon pretence of being a Roman catholique or any other pretence, the master of the ship may deteine his wages, cloathes, and goods for satisfaction of damages; besides the party offending, if he can be found, shall be compelled to his ship. Now the king would have this clause of compulsion not to be intended to cases of religion. With this the merchants here are generally satisfied, and thinke the detention of their wages, cloathes, and goods wil be provision enough. In the fowerteenth article his majesty is to request his highness, that this clause, for which a blank is set, may be inserted viz. That the English demeane themselves modestly without scandall; and his sayd majesty is to give assureance unto his highnesse, that word scandall shall not be extended to pervert or enervate the sense of the article; with which all here are very well satisfied; for if the word scandall be not expressed, it is still implyed, and the practice wil be one and the same. For these small alterations blanks are left in the treaty, to be filled up after his highnesse shall give his consent. Besides the treaty thus ratifyed, I have obteyned likewise the ratifycation of the prelyminaryes and secret articles, by which the customes are restrayned to three and twenty per cent. to be taken off; the 50000 l. due to his highnesse is payd me. And in case his highnesse dissents to the treaty as propounded, the same may be demanded againe by his majesty; but after his highnesse consent is declared, his majesty hath given me his royall faith by an authenticke writting, that I shal be free to remitt it for England, or otherwise dispose of it, according to the commands of my superiours. Besides this there is a debt due to the English from the Bolsa for fraight and demurrage of ships amounting to about 20000 l. sterling. This by the award of the arbitrators in England was to be satisfyed out of the half customes, which according to that rate wil not be paid off this ten yeares. This after a great deale of hard tuging I have procured to be payd in two and two monthes, immediately after the exchange of the instruments of ratification. And lastly I have obteyned from the king a charter of privilidges under his hand and seale, that the English shall be exempt from the taxes called Meneo & decima, nor be bound to furnish the king with horses for his warres, which was not specifyed in the treaty. It may wel be wondered, how I could bring them to discend to such honorable termes, especially considering what a potent Spanish faction there is in this court, who have used there utmost endeavour to hinder an alliance and conjunction with England. But the accomplishment of this worke soly apperteining to your lordshipps and the fleete under your command; onely I thought good to make the best improvement I could of this advantage for my master's service. In answer of all these performances on their part, I have promised these two thinges; first, to write to his highnesse in the most effectuall manner I can, in order to the obteyning his consent to the aforesaid alterations. Secondly, to give them security, that the English fleet shall not in the mean time attempt any hostilityes upon them; which I did after this manner: I tould them, I knew the generalls of the fleet, when I came out of England, brought with them his highnesse letters to his majesty, wherein his highnesse gives them assureance of friendship and good affection. And the reason, sayd I, why these letters are not yet delivered is, because things are not setled betwixt both the nations; but things being thus concluded, I wou'd write to the generals of the fleete, and obteyne these letters from his highnesse to be presented to his majesty; and that withall I would obteyne letters from the generalls themselves, giveing his majesty assureance of their amicable intentions towards him and his dominions. And, my lords, this is that, which with conformity to your instructions, I must intreat your lordships, that if your intentions are not to fall upon the Brasill fleete, which for my part I must needs say God forbid, you would give his majesty all satisfaction in this particuler; and that in generall all his subjects and people be free of any hostilityes from you; and if you think it convenient, pass a complement upon his majesty, and tell him, you shall be so far from invading the Brasill fleete, that upon notice of their neere aproach, and signification of his majesty's desire herein, you shall be ready, as far as shal be consistent to your present service, to give the said fleete convoy with a squadron of frigotts into the river. The more copious and large you are in expressions of this nature wil give further content to the jealous people. And if you intend the thing, never spare for words. Lett me have coppyes of your letters, and make noe mention of those formerly sent. The bearer hereof, mr. Smith, a Spanish merchant, and very well versed in the affaires of Spayne, is one, in whose integrity I can repose, soe that you may safely committ your letters to him. I received your letters of the 16th of Aprill ten dayes after their date; and I should have answered them sooner, but that his majesty would not grant me safe conduct untill the business was done. You shall receive herewith a quadruplicate of letters of the same date, which I penned in that stile, because they were communicated here. God preserve your lordships many yeares. I am
Lisbone, the 13/3 of May, 1656.
Your lordships very humble servant,
My present indisposition of body necessitated me to make use of another hand; the occasion of which the messenger can informe your lordships.
Lockhart, resident in France, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 62.
May it please your honor,
From Diepp I gave you an account, what entertainment I mett with here. Since my departure from thence I have not had occasion to know anie thing, that will be fitt to trouble you with.
I aryved at St. Denis upon wedensday last, and have been necessitated to stay hear two dayes; partlie upon the account of a small indisposition I have had, but chiesly to have tyme to provyd my self with a coach, and to fitt those of my companie with those things, that were necessarie for them. I have this morning writt to the cardinall and to count Brienn. I expect their answere this night at Paris, whether I am going just now.
I would not have given your honor the trouble of reading this, that hath nothing in it,
if my dewtie did not reqwyer me to lay hold of all opportunities of letting yow know,
how zealous my inclinations are to acknowledge my self to be,
St. Dennis, May the 3/13, [1656.]
your humble and obedient servant,
To col. Bamfylde.
Paris, May 13, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 66.
Sir John Berkeley hath lately been at Calais: he is not returned, but we look for him in a day or two.
Monsieur Turenne goes not till monday; and the court for the affair with the parliament hath deferred their departure for eight days longer. The court and pope are at great distance, and the cardinal de Retz, they say, with the project of the peace, is the author of it. They talk, as if harsh declarations will pass quickly. The publick minister of England hath not yet had his audience, having arrived here but two days since.
Luigy Malo to the Venetian agent.
Antwerp, May 13, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 70.
This is now the second post, that is come without bringing any letters from you; whereof I thought fit to advise you, that so you may see to redress the same.
Here is not much at present worthy of your knowledge.
Don John of Austria arrived at Brussells the day before yesterday, who was met a day's journey from thence by the archduke. They dined together at a round table, and so parted.
The foot here begin to march towards the rendezvous; and the horse will soon follow to begin the campaign, which will be supplied with a considerable army of old soldiers out of Germany.
There are two of the galleons of the silver fleet still missing, it not being known what is become of them.
The English flock hither from all parts. Their king is at Bruges, expecting money to go on in his business.
An intercepted letter to mr. White.
Brussels, May 13, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 81.
The prince don John is come, and made his entrance on thursday last, and the marquis de Caracena with him. Here they are busy to form his court. Don Alonzo de Cardenas is his major domo and intendant of his estate. Shortly all will be going to the field, and I know not yet what to resolve.
Commissary Pels to the states general.
Dantzick, May 13, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 95.
High and mighty lords,
Your high and mighty lordships embassadors being gone hence on the 9th current, they received certain intelligence upon their way, that his majesty of Sweden, together with the queen, were coming to reside for a while at Marienburg; and therefore thought fit not to go for Elbing, but to remain in a certain village called Guoyan, and to stay there till they received audience, having sent their secretary besides a letter to the lord ryx chancellor to signify so much unto him, that so they may make preparations for their reception. In the mean time the king arrived on the 11th current at Marienburg, and the next day early he went very privately to Dirshaw, a town upon the Weissell five miles hence, to take a better view of this place. He is expected back again at Marienburg very suddenly. The ships of war, that brought the queen, brought no soldiers in them, nor have attempted any thing upon the tolls.
A letter of intelligence.
De Hambourg le 13 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 347.
Encor que messieurs de Danzic ayent fait une grande feste pour remercier sa divine majesté au son des tambours, trompettes, & bruit de tout leur canon, sur l'advis, qu'ils eurent de l'arrivée des trouppes Polonnoises, & que ceux cy dans leur marche avoient ruiné quelques compagnies Suedoises, & occupé diverses petits villes; sy est ce pourtant, qu'ils n'ont pas encore accordé au generaux Czarnezky & Lubomirsky les munitions, canons, & mousquetz, qu'ils leur ont demandé, & ce a cause de l'arrivée a Thorn de sa majesté Suedoise & de son armée, qui leur travaille un peu l'esprit, comme aussy la perte, qu'ils firent du depuls de 150 hommes, qui au nombre 3 a 400 vouloient recuperer la place de Dirslaw, dont ils furent repoussez avec la susdite perte.
Apres la conjunction, que firent le generalissime prince Adolff Jean, les genereaux Vrangel & Steinbock de leurs troupes, tous trois s'en allerent avec un corps considerable contre les Polonnois, qui ont pris poste dans la Pommerellie entre Bromberg & Tauchel a la riviere de Brom; cependant s'emparerent les Polonois de la villette de Bromberg, faisant faire serment aux soldats Suedois de ne servir plus contre la couronne de Polonie, les seignant aussont avec un fer chaud; mais devant Costen & le Chasteau de Pinzaw une journée de Craccavie ils perdirent deformais quelques 100 Polaques nobles & contadins.
Dans la marchée du roy de Suede de Warsavie vers Thorn rompit sa majesté une grande partie de Mosures, & le premiere du courant arriva le reyne de Suede a Pillau, avec 6 gros vaisseaux, dont l'electeur de Brandenbourg avec son espouse & sa mere se porterent la pour la recevoir, & l'inviter de venir a Koenigsberg; mais le roy se porta de Thorn a Grandenz ensemble avec le comte palatin de Sulzbach, & plusieurs autres princes, contes, & seigneurs, comme aussy le chancelier Oxenstirn s'est porté d'Elbing a Frawenstatt, pour y conferir avec le comte de Valdeck, general de l'electeur de Brandenbourg, en matiere de conjunction de leurs gens, comme dont le dit electeur commanda le general major Canneberg avec 44 compagnies, parmy lesquels 12 compagnies de dragons pour observer & guarnir les confins de la Mazovie & de joindre les Suedois au cas de besoing.
De la Silesie le 13 May 1656. [N. S.]
Le 7 du courant arriva le roy de Suede à Elbing, & le reyne le 8 de ce mois; tous deux en bonne santé depuis s'amasserent au deca & au dela Vistule quelques 1000 nobles & contadins autour de Craccovie, la quelle ils blocquerent, de forte que rien y peut entrer ou sortir; dont les Suedois firent sortir de celle ville les lavoriers, & de bouchers, & cervotiers, & autres personnes, qui n'ont pas leurs maisons propres, en nombre de 3000, & se fortifierent & ravitaillerent en telle maniere, qu'ils se pourront tenir quelque temps fans aucun secours. Le mesme firent aussy ceux de Posen, lesquels pour se mieux defendre bruslerent ces fauxbourgs; mais ayant les generaux Czerneczky & Lubomirsky entendu l'arrivée de l'armée Suedoise en Prusse, s'allestirent a la retraite, venant maintenant advis que les Suedois avoient rompu & fait prissonnier bon nombre d'eux es entours de Sneidmil, & donnerent passeport aux peres Jesuites a Thorne de sortir de celle ville ailleurs, & prindrent un batelier sur la Vistule avec lettres escrites du roy Casimirus a la ville de Danzic, lequel magistrat print a son service a petite solde 5000 mainoeuvriers, qu'estoient oisiss faute du commerce, & se fit prestrer le serment, & print la possession de la place, & Starostie de Puzle donné du roy Casimirs a celle ville de Danzic.
Advise from Stetin the 13th of May 1656. [N. S.]
Of the Swedish army under prince Adolph and earl Wrangell, which is said to be followed after Chernesky and Lubomersky, we do not yet hear any news; a sign, that there hath been no fight. It is reported, that the king of Sweden's army is much diminished and tired, so that they cannot march with any speed after the Poles.
They write from Littaw in Courland, that the Polish gentlemen do rise generally against the Swedes; and wheresoever they find them, they put them to the sword.
There is said to be a truce of 22 years concluded between the king of Poland and the Muscovites; and that all Littaw is to be restored to the Poles. One of the gentlemen of the lord embassador of Sweden here told me, that his lord had received letters, that the king staid but one night with the queen, and went away the next day for Thorn. How long he would stay there, was not certain. The want of pay and good discipline in the Swedish army is the chief cause of the peoples revolt against him, in regard they do take from them all that they can meet withal in their way.
It is reported here, that the Swedish lieutenant general Muller hath routed some of the chiefest Polanders, and killed a thousand upon the place. This I can hardly believe to be true, in regard the Swedish forces are not in a condition to resist the enemy, being harassed and much weakened, and for want of pay and clothes were run away from them. The king of Poland, as they write from Dantzick, hath 100000 men in arms, and would willingly go for Prussia, if so be there were provisions to be had for their subsistence upon the way.
A letter from mr. Wm. Prideaux at Mosco.
May 3, 1656. Nova Stoboda.
Noe letters from you, nor indeed from any body from England, which puts us to a great stand, not being able to imagin, what should be become of our letters. Some be confident there, that the Russe intercepts all letters, and gets them interpreted, that thereby they may be informed of the proceedings of our parts; as alsoe to know, what prises commoditys bear; but by whom they should get them interpreted, know not, unless by new Christians, who are sworne silence. The first present the Swedes commis sary was interred, having bine kept so long above ground upon contestation about his debts. Wee presume the embassadors have taken upon themselves to clear his wife and children. Great preparations be there made, and far greater brags to over-run the Swedes, as they have done the Pole. The events of all things are in the hand of God, on whom we must wait with patience, untill he brings all things to pass. Rumours run here of his majestie's sudden marching towards Smolensko, and of his taking the embassador of the German emperor along with him. Some would have, that the Swedes embassador goes also, but others, that he shall be dispatcht homewards from hence. Nothing of certain newes from hence to be informed of. The Russe hath found out a new way to gayne more proselits to their religion: finding by experience, that the dipping over againe was so heinous, his holiness the patriarch hath ordered, that none, that hath bine once christened, shall be forced to a second baptism; but that after six weeks purging in a monastery, the priest shall absolve them, and they be accounted for as true Christians as himself. Here is a messenger from the king of Poland to the emperor come (as they say) in a submissive way, to depose all his kingly power at the emperor's feet, and with a desire to holde his kingdome tributary to the emperour. They use him very flightly, his majesty scarce deigning him admittance to his presence, but commanding the lord chancellor Almaze Iuanovich to treat with him in his own house. One of the messenger's followers having been amongst some of his acquaintance that were captives here in Mosco, and a little overmuch entertayned by them, in his return home met a Russ lord's servant, who upbraided him with uncivill termes. The Pole forgetting the low condition of his country, flew in passion, out with his sabre, and pursued after him; but the servant got into a house, and escaped him; yet the Pole's fury ceased not, but meeting with another Russe in his way clest his head with his sabre, with which blow he dyed; and the next day on the same place the Pole was beheaded. Heretofore the killing of a Russe was not above ten rubles damage, but now woe be to that stranger, that meddles with them. All manner of provisions here are extraordinary deere, caused by the new money, which is made in abundance, and all the army paid therewith.
A letter of intelligence.
Porto Santa Maria, May 14, 1656. [N. S.]
My last to you was of the 7th currant, when gave you advise of the continuance of generall Blake's fleet in this bay, where they still remaine; and by their proceedings do give us reason to imagine, that their intentions are to lye here all this summer. These people make but a pass-time of what hath happened hitherto, it having imported no more than some small skirmishes between their ketches, and shallops, and the long boats here. Only 2 calme mornings this weeke went forth the royall gally of Spain and two more in her company, and fought with some of the fleete in our sight. We fear they might doe some damage with their great guns, but at their return found they had received but little, except by one shott, which broke some of their oars, though we guesse near 800 great shott came from our fleete. The shott, that hath come on shore, hath killed 2 persons, and beat down a piece of a church. It being a great calm, our fleete could not move, whereby the gallys had much the advantage. This is what hath passed since my last. I pray God turne all things for the best.
To mr. Samuel Bathurst.
To Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Paris, May 14, 1656. [N. S.]
In the end all our affairs are finished, and the counsellors of the parliament are recalled and received into favour, except monsieur de Longueil and Portail. Monsieur de Montauglan is set at liberty, so that the whole business is accommodated; and now the court will begin to think of appointing a day for their removal hence towards the frontiers of Flanders. The envoy of the lord protector is arrived at St. Denis. I will send you word, what reception he will have, and how conducted.
Madam Sanguin desired of me a copy of an extract, which I found in a book, which She hath sent to you, though it be neither to the advantage of England and France, but of a king of Great Britain, who will be one day anointed at Poictiers, as you will see by the extract, which I shewed to the queen of England, to endeavour to make her laugh. She hath been very ill of late, and is now somewhat better.
An intercepted letter of Halsall to his sister.
May 4, 56.
I Now think that serjeant Dendy and major Slater are very backward in appearing for me; for I am confident, that major Slater might have got freedom to have seen me (if he had so pleased) very easily. I am now more strictly guarded than ever; wherefore I know not. There are some would endeavour to persuade me to maintain my self; and then they say I should find more favour and freedom. But you know how far I am from being able to do it of myself. I pray you let me know, whether you have had at any time any directions for it from any person, and then I shall resolve: to delay your petition, I do not understand it, but you must be ruled by them. I should be glad to have seen him. I pray have a care of your own health, or I am undone. Let me know how my friend doth, and what news of Will. I should be glad to know, when you have another opportunity of sending to mrs. Par. I know serj. Dendy might have got your petition delivered in three dayes time, if he had pleased; but now I see, that all my help and hopes must be from God above. In him I trust, and doubt not. I have many eyes upon me. Sure there is some great cause of fear amongst them, which makes it. I have all the reason in the world to be confident of this bearer. Adieu.
Mrs. Halsall's answer.
May 5, 1656.
Major Slater was with me upon thursday last, and told me, the lieutenant had denied him to see you, and that he would advise me not to petition his highness as yet; and when I did, that I would deliver it my self, which I intend after a time. For the present they are so discontented with the news of the second rout given to the king of Sweden, and Charles Stuart's coming to Bruges to continue, and the king of Spain's owning his quarrels, and the fear of Holland falling out with us, that it is no looking at them yet. Yet I am told, there is one come from the king to be rightly informed of your condition. My lady Orm. hath within this week sent twice to know how you are. I sent my letter very safe to mrs. P. by mr. Nevell's means. I hope by this it is with him. I think it is your only way to maintain your self, for so your friends say, when I spoke with them. But why do not say how ? but I will endeavour it one way or other by the grace of God; for before you shall live this life you do, I will beg for you; for it grieves me to the heart to think of it. But my hope is, that it will not continue long; but I beg, whatever thou do, my dear heart, make much of thy self; for this is my only comfort. I have not had one penny from any body since I came, but 20 l. from mrs. Rich, which was your own money, and 10 l. which was left at the Tower, was of the same. If you will, I shall send you 10 l. in gold by this bearer, which, I hope, is very honest. I wish I were able to requite him, as I would desire. Mrs. A. B. is very ill. I was with her the last week, and she was so pleased with my company, that she would not part with me till dark night, and that I might promise her to come again. They are the most obliging persons that ever I saw, and the greatest lovers of you. Her daughter dreams of your liberty. Will is in town. The next week I intend to go to lye at mr. Simpkin's for 4 or 5 days, on purpose to find out Will; for he is often seen thereabouts, for I long to see him, for I hope it will be for your good; for I am so well acquainted with his humour, that give him but good words, and I can get his heart; for here I shall never see him. I believe he is the only man, that hath caused all that trouble to mr. Skip. He is now to enter into very great bond to the major general of Lancashire for his good behaviour, and his appearance, when he shall be called; or else to have a certificate from him to come to London to give bond to the lieutenant of the Tower. His imprisonment hath been very chargeable unto him, as I understand by a letter this post. I advise him to give bond in Lan. and not in London. I have here sent you a copy of his bond, which he desires advice in what to do, for after he hath freed himself, he is for London. I have been so free in this, that I tremble till I be satisfied it comes safe to you. I believe my brother will be married, and then he will be no more our brother, but I shall look at him as a stranger. But however, my heart, thou shalt ever find me a sister, whilst I have a farthing. I am so sleepy, I can say no more at present. In my next you shall hear more concerning your maintaining your self, for I will advise with your friends about it.