State Papers, 1656: May (2 of 2)

Pages 764-775

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

May (2 of 2)

The Dutch embassadors to the king of Sweden.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 135.

Serenissime & potentissime rex,
Quod reg. majestati vestræ placuerit, ut primùm huc venimus, non tantum nos benevolè audire, sed & ore suo ad proposita benigniter respondere; imprimis verò quod nos iterum cadem promptâ benignitate ad hanc præsentem allocutionem admittere dignetur, nos non parum nos obstrictos profitemur, ingentesque eo nomine gratias agimus. Quod quidem ut nobis summo ducimus honori, ita etiam id existimamus documentum esse, quod nos dubitare vetet de regiæ majestatis vestræ prono benevoloque animo; nosque in spem adducit, atque augurari facit de fausto felicique successu negotiorum, quæ celsis præpotentibusque ordinibus foederati Belgii summis nostris potestatibus nobis mandare visum est. Et ne regiam majestatem vestram multis verborum ambagibus circumducamus, in rem præsentem brevibus veniemus.

Nimirum celsos præpotentesque fœderati Belgii ordines animo resolvisse, & vetus arctaque necessitudo vicinitatis amicitiæque mutua officia inter reges Sueciæ regiæ majestatis vestræ prædecessores, seque, atque inter utriusque regna, regiones, nationes, subditos, incolasque, ab omni ævo omnemque memoriam excedente tempore, optima & intemerata side intercesserint. Utque prædicta illa necessitudo, vicinitas, atque amicitia, multis id suadentibus rationibus, quæ bono atque saluti utriusque conducerent, occasionem dederit, materiamque præbuerit, quod regiæ majestatis vestræ prædecessores, præsertim vero Gustavus Magnus Christianissimæ & immortalis memoriæ, & celsi præpotentesque ordines fœderati Belgii arcto fœderi se mutuo adstrinxerint, quod quidem fœdus ea fanctimonia exercitatum suit, tamque salubres egregiosque fructus utriusque commodo protulit, ut anno 1640 idem fœdus non tantum renovatum, sed & arctioris intimiorisque obligationis vinculis sit illigatum, atque porro eo modo observatum cultumque, ut denique anno 1645 pactione quadam corroboratum, tempusque ei præfinitum in multos annos prorogatum fuerit. Quæ ut ordines fœderati Belgii ad animum suum revocarunt, ac rectè ritèque expenderunt, id nobis negotii iis dare visum suit, ut regiæ majestati vestræ suo nomine sinceri candidique animi sensa exprimeremus, nempe celsos præpotentesque fœderati Belgii ordines, quemadmodum omni studio id semper dedere, ut prædictum fœdus fideliter atque religiosè à suâ parte servarent, ita etiamnum iis animo sixum constanterque stare sententiam, non tantum id porro cum regia majestate vestra sanctè continuare, atque ad amussim excolere, ad mutuam defensionem auxiliumque ferendum adversus omnes cunctosque adgressores turbatoresque, prout verba & tenor fœderis id exigent; sed & id summè propositum, magis id magisque, atque bono utriusque regiminis & statûs adaugere, prout ratio præsentis temporis rerumque conditio id flagitare videbitur. Et quemadmodum nulli dubitamus, quin regia majestas vestra gratam acceptamque habitura hanc tam candidi animi professionem, ita vicissim enixè & officiosè rogamus, ut regia majestas vestra responso suo benevolo nos dignari velit, cum certâ fiduciâ, quod regia majestas vestra non gravabitur edere similem reciprocamque professionem.

Serenissime & potentissime rex, regiæ majestatis vestræ

Servitores devotissimi & cultores observantissimi, legati ordinum fœderati Belgii,

Marienburgi, Maii 15, 1656. [N. S.]

J. Van Slingelant,
Frederick Van Dorp,
D. de Hubert Isbrands.

Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 125.

Being yesterday at my lord Richard Cromwell's, I mett with very sadd complaints concerning the unworthy carriage of the magistrates of the towne of Southampton against the godly party; for prevention whereof for the future, I hope wee may in due time propound some humble desires to his highnes. In the meane time I was desired to lett you know, that the mayor of the towne is now gone to London, and it is feared upon some ill designe, (they say it is towne bussines;) and their humble desires are, if any thing doe come before his highnes or the counsell by way of proposition, that you would not suffer it to be concluded, til some of the honest men of that towne be acquainted with it. I beleeve mr. Nutley may bee knowing of theire busines. My lord Richard Cromwell and mr. Major are very sensable of the wicked spirrit of the majestrates, and doe judge it absolutely necessary, that something be done against them; but more of that (God willing) heereafter.

Sir, I shall now trouble you with a word about my selfe, and shall most humbly and earnestly begg your freindship in the bussines. I did yesterday receive a letter from his highnes, whereby I am comanded to be att London on satturday the 17th of May. Now, sir, having brought my wiffe and family to this place, I should have beene verie gladd to have staied with them till my wiffe were a little better acquainted with this place, which she doth not very much rejoyce in at present; and my leaving her heere alone is the thing att present she greatly dreades; and therefore my humble desire is, that you would be pleased to gaine a dispensation for mee till the beginning of June, if it may be without prejudice to the publicke affaires. However, if you would be pleased, when you perceive it will be absolutely necessary, to send by the post, the letter you wright att night I receive the next day in the afternoone, and for a neede cann be with you the next day after. Sir, having observed formerly, that some gentlemen have beene sent for in hast, that have wayted at Whitehall many weekes before they come to there bussines, I am the more bould (upon this my urgent occassion) to begg your help and favoure in this matter. And besides my owne occassion, I am to meete the comissioners concerning the decemation of mr. Pitts and some other busines the 23d of May, which it may bee may want my presence. Sir, if you shall please to vouchsafe mee a word of answer to this bussines by the next post, and give me some hint, how generall the intended meeting will bee, and of what consequence, I shall reckon it as a very greate oblegation upon

Winchester, May 5, 1656.

Your very affectionate friend and humble servant,
W. Goffe.

Supposing my selfe called of God to serve him and his people in the country, I have to my great trouble and expence (not alltogether, as you know, without advice) adventured to settle my selfe and family heere. And therefore shall now desire to loose as little time at Whitehall as may be; though I shall rejoyce to come thither, when I may be any way usefull to his highnes and the publicke.

My wiffe doth not yet know that I am sent for. Pray pardon me, that I trouble you with my private affaires. He is miserable, that hath no friend, and I thinke my selfe most happy to be free with you as a friend upon all occassions.

Major general Worsley to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 129.

Right honorable,
Wee have had a meeting at Stafford the last weeke, where we had the happiness of sir Charles Wolseley's company for one day. We had sir Charles Egerton upon his tryall, and found him liable to decimation, and have acted accordingly. Most part of his estate lyes in Yorkshire. I shall not faile to give col. Lilborne an account thereof. Wee have found out some others, that wee intend to call on, which is conceived will fall under the tax, as mr. Offley one. Wee have a meeting this week for the county of Chester at Midlewich, and the next for the city of Chester. Things are in a good posture for any thing is deserned. The sheriff of this county of Chester is a man not so qualifyed, as I could wish. I have some ground to beleive he is one, that was privy to the last designe. I am of a mind, we shall have him upon the stage for his dissaffection e'are long. I have taken care to reduce (according to the councel's order) twenty out of a troupe, and have already done it in two counties, and shall do the rest either this week's end or on monday next. I can get nothing done as to Booth, Leycester, and the rest, for want of the informations. If your occasions would admitt of so much time, as to send them downe, they would be of use to us. I shall not faile to give you an account of our meeting this week. I humbly crave your leysence for one month to come upp to London, about some occasions. I have no more to trouble you with, but that I am
Congleton, May 5, 1656.

Your honor's very faithfull servant,
Cha. Worsley.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.

In the possession on of joseph Jekyll esq;.

My lord,
Captaine Blackwell's occasions drawinge hym into Ireland for the finall settlement of his lands there, accordinge to such orders, as he hath obteyned from his highnesse and counsell here, I was willinge to take the boldnes of accompaninge hym to your lordship with this letter, and therein to recomend hym to your favour, as a person, who deserves very well of the state, and is of great use daylye in the thinges, which relate to his trust. I suppose a speedy dispatch of what he shall have an occasion to addresse to your lordship and the counsell in, will be a great conveniencye to hym, as it will to the publique service here, which will soone be sensible of his absence. In both which respects I doe earnestlye desire your lordship's favour on his behalfe, as I doe your pardon alsoe for this great trouble, which is hereby given you by

Whitehal, May 5, 1656.

Your lordship's most humble and faithfull servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

An intercepted letter of lord Inchiquin to col. Dennis Clancy.

Paris, May 16, 1646. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 147.

I Have received 300 pistols from monsieur de Palloe, and 600 crownes from out of Italy for your winter's quarter and the profit of your regiment there; soe that there is nothinge wantinge, but that you fix uppon some person there, whoe hath correspondency with some man of note heere, to whome I may deliver the said sume, and uppon whose letter you may be sure to receave it there.

The cardinall is soe busie about the dispatches for the feild, that I could not speake to him all this last week; but Palloe tells mee, that the duque of Modena wrote to his eminency soe earnestly, that without doubt you shall not want all incuradgments to goe on with your leavie; and that the cardinall will write to the protector for that purpoase; and that the rest of your leavy money shall be sent you in due time.

My brother desires you to write very earnestly to his highnesse of Modena to give orders, that your regiment may be encorporated with his, untill your returne, which will be much for your advantage and his, that being strong together they may be the abler to master the boores.

I pray looke to your businesse; and now you are recovered of your sicknesse, keep a better correspondency with

Your assuredly loveinge kinsman and servant,

Romer to Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador in England.

Hamburg, May 6/16, 1656.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 151.

My Lord,
Just now I receive this advice from Koningsberg: Muscoviticus legatus hic præsens nondum sua proposuit, grata tamen promittit; sed adversus Suecos, uti amici memorant, murmurat, an ex animo an simulate, incertum est. Serenissimus Pillauiæ est apud Sueciæ reginam. Comes Waldeccius ad regem Sueciæ profectus est. Those of Denmark have suffered some damage before Dartschaw, which town they thought to have made themselves masters of. The lords embassadors of the united provinces are gone from Dantzick to salute the king of Sweden at Elbing.

The new Swedish levies do still continue in the sea-ports, but not with that encrease as formerly. The king of Sweden is said to be come to Thorn; but some do still doubt of it, in regard the Swedish army is environed on all sides through the general revolts in great and little Poland.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 155.

Right honorable,
By the last weeke's post I remitted your honour an attestation of the delivery of the councel's letter to mr. Townley, whoe is yet heere, but as it's thought will goe over in theise ships. He gives it out to the Dutch and his party, that his highnes hath sent for him in a gracious manner, and that he can command any English ship in the river to carry him over; which indeed is suitable to his great spirit; but surely he will carry a lesse saile ere longe.

Sir, untill I receive the commission, which I desired in my last, I cannot proceede to the examininge of witnesses to prove the charge against him, there being at present noe court heere for the administring of an othe; and this senate will not doe it, as by my inclosed demand and their answer thereto doth appeare, which demand I made, that, if possible, I might have sent on that charge fully proved alonge with Townley, doubtinge the commission will come too late for it. Syndicus Peterson is very sensible of the senate's disrespect to his highnes and savouringe of Townley in thus pretendinge, it being alltogether improper to excuse themselves as they doe, except the businesse were to be tryed before them, which they well knowe by my said paper, that it was not, and which I am glad is not; for the truth is they beinge generally dissaffected to his highnes and the present government, notwithstandinge all the favours they have received and smooth pretences they have made to the contrary, are ready upon all occasions to shewe it, especially when they thinke they have any such like cullor for it. The syndicus would gladly, that his highnes should make them sensible of it; and I heare you have a good account at present of foure ships of their merchants (whoe he told me swayed the senate to this answer) lately brought into England, which were goeinge to the enemies country. I would have had the witnesses to have delivered me in writinge under their hands their severall testimonyes, as they would make othe thereof, if thereunto required, which I told them might perhaps satisfie the councel, and which the well affected would willingly have done, but that they live amonge such a people, both English and Dutch, as would doe them all the mischeefe they could, if they should doe it, before they be either required by othe or special command from the councell. Such underhand countenance doe this senate and citty give to dissaffected men, of which I have but too large experience in the bussiness of Waites formerly, and now in this of Townley, whoe for all his specious pretences hath let fall words lately to syndicus Peterson, as hee himselfe told me privately, which denoted him to be noe wel affected man to the present government. And that you may see, in what a violent and boysterous manner mr. Townley and his party carry on things heere, the other day one Cambridge, whoe was lately a servant to the said Townley, hearinge that witnesses were to be examined, and knowinge well whoe were likelyest to speake the truth of what they heard, he meetinge with one of them in the street, a godly and wel affected man, and one of the best quality in the company heere, he said, as he past by him, a rogue and a knave will sweare any thing, and spake it soe lowde, as that he should be sure to heare him, usinge that very language a second time, as he passed by him. And the said Cambridge, as the same person told me, beinge lately in company with some of his camarades, hee told them, that now they must arme themselves for sufferinge tymes, for the kingdome (as he said scornefully) was cominge into the hands of the saints. I presume this will be taken notice of, beinge done by one, that onst pretended to religion, as his master did.

If those, that in my last I propounded for commissioners, cannot allsoe be witnesses, and be examined one by another, as since I have thought they may not, I pray, sir, then be pleased to direct the commission to the persons under-writt, whose testimony I shall spare, haveinge others sufficient; but if the former may be both commissioners and witnesses, with power to give the othe, and examine one the other, to say, any two or more of them to examine the rest, I had rather it should be soe, and my selfe joyned with them, if it may be, beinge few of the merchants heere understand how to execute such a commission in forme, as it ought to be. I shall in my next acquaint you with a new and high imposition, which the Swedes officers at Stoade upon this river have put upon the last cloth-shipps and others from England. I have demanded a reason of it from the Swedish resident heere, and hee hath sent away to them to knowe by what command they have done it, assureinge me, that it's not done by the command of the king his master. When the ship-masters acquainted the company heere with it at an assembly, and that some moved, that I should be desired to demand a reason of it, mr. Townley checqued at it, saying, it was sit to apply themselves to the senate heere for redresse, which was agreed to by his party accordingly; yet however he and they did it to manifest their disrespects to me, if not to his highness in me. I shall observe my duty in requireinge an accompt of the business, and acquainting your honour with it, as soone as I have their answer. It's a great tax, as much now upon one peece of cloth as formerly was paid for a whole pack of 20 or 25 peeces. Begginge your pardone for this length, which I could not avoyde, I remayne
Hamb. May 6, 1656.

Your honour's most humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

The persons named in my last week's letter for commissioners were
merchants, whoe are all witnesses; but if their testimony cannot
then be taken, as premised, I request the commission may be
directed then to theis persons following:
Robert Palmer, sen.
David Hechstetter,
Isaac Blackwell,
Sam. Richardson,
Will. Strange,
James Baber,
John Banckes,
James Baber,
William Gore,
John Northley,
John Banckes,
merchants, and if the councel think fit, to add syndicus Peterson, whoe understands the language, and my selfe with any two of them.

The protector to the generals Blake and Mountagu.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 163.; In the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe.

You will perceive by the instructions herewith sent you, what is expected by myselfe and the councill at your hands. And although we are satisfyed, that you will beleeve we have sufficient grounds to give you these directions, yet wee have thought sitt for the further strengtheninge you unto this action, to give you a short knowledge of the true state of the difference between us and the kinge of Portugall. You very well knowe, that it is very neare 2 yeares since wee and the ambassador of Portugall did agree a treaty, they haveinge wronged us and our merchants, and took part with the late kinge against us. When the articles were fully agreed by the ambassador, who had full power and authority to conclude with us, wee on our part ratisyed and confirmed the same, and sent it to the kinge of Portugall to be ratisyed and executed also by him. He delaying to do it according to the 1st agreement, in which there were some preliminaries to be persormed by him, besore we would enter upon the whole body of a treaty, not only refused to give us satisfaction therein, but instead thereof sent us a pretended ratification of a treaty, soe different from what was agreed by his ambassador, that it was quite another thinge. In some essentiall articles it was proposed, that if wee would condiscend to some amendments, the king of Portugal would agree to confirme the whole. Whereupon we sent mr. Maynard to have the treaty consummated; but finding by his returne, that there was little reality, and nothinge but delayes intended, wee could not satisfye ourselves without sendinge another person fully instructed and authorized by us to take away all scruples, by yeildinge to their owne amendments, thereby to discerne whether they were real or not. But contrary to all expectation wee finde by the account the said person hath given us, that wee are put upon it to recede from all those thinges, that were provisional, either for the good of the state, or of our merchants, or else wee must have noe peace with them. In one of the articles agreed with the ambassador it was expressed, that the merchants should enjoy liberty of conscience in the worship of God in their owne houses and aboard their ships, enjoyinge alsoe the use of English bibles and other good books, taking care, that they did not exceed this liberty. Now upon the sendinge of mr. Meadowe, unlesse wee will agree to submit this article to the determination of the pope, we cannot have it; whereby he would bringe us to an owninge of the pope, which wee hope, whatever befall us, wee shall not, by the grace of God, be brought unto. And upon the same issue is that article put, whereby it is provided and agreed by his ambassador, that any ships coming to that harbour, any of whose company, if they shall run from their said ships, shall be brought back againe by the magistrate, and the commanders of the said ships not required to pay the said runaways their wages, upon pretence they are turned catholiques, which may be a colour for any knave to leave his duty, or for the Roman catholiques to seduce our men, which wee thought necessary to be provided against; yet to this alsoe, as I sayed before, they would not consent without the approbation of the pope, although it was agreed alsoe by their ambassador. Upon the whole matter wee finde them very false to us, who intended nothinge but what was simply honest. And truly wee cannot beleeve that article, that was for our good, was really intended by them; and wee may now plainly see, what the effect is like to be of any treaty had or made with people or states guided by such principles, whoe when they have agreed, have such an evasion, as these people have manisestly held forth in their dealinge with us. Wherefore wee pray you to be very exact in your prosecution of your instructions, which truly I hope doe not arise from the hope of gaine, but from a sense of duty, that seeing we cannot secure our people in their lives, libertys, and estates by a pretence of a treaty, nor yet answer the just demands this nation hath for wronges done them, but must in some sort be guilty of bringinge our people as it were into a nett by such spetious shewes, which have nothing but falsenes and rottennes in them, wee are necessitated, haveing amongst ourselves found out noe possible expedient, though wee have industriously sought it, to salve these things, have concluded out of necessity, and not out of choice, to goe in this way. You will receive herewith the coppy of an instruction given and sent to mr. Meadowes, wherein is a tyme limited for the kinge's answer, and wee desire, that this may not be made use of by the kinge to delay or deceive us; nor that you upon the first sight hereof delay to take the best course you can to effect your instructions, or that the Portugall should get his fleet home before you get between him and home, and soe the birds be flowne. Wee know not what your affaires are at the present, but are consident, that nothinge will be wantinge on your part for the effectuall accomplishment of this service. But knowinge that all wayes and workes, and ourselves are under at the persect disposition of the Lord and his providence, and that our tymes are in his hands; we therefore recomend you to the grace and guidance of our good God, who wee hope hath thoughts of mercy towards us; and that he would guide and bless you, is the prayer of
Whitehall May 6, 1656.

Your very loveinge freind.

We desire in this buisines, that your ayme be (if the providence of God give opportunity) to take that from them, which is considerable, or else not to make knowne your instruction, nor to make a breach with them.

Indors'd by secretary Thurloe.

His highnes letter of the 6th of May 1656 to the generals, sent with the instructions of the same date, as alsoe a duplicate.

Further instructions to the generals at sea.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 139. In the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe.

Whereas the king of Portugall doth refuse to ratifie the treatyes lately made with this comonwealth by his extraordinary ambassador here, or to performe any part thereof, either in what relates to the state, or to the people and merchants; and by his proceedinges gives ground to beleeve, that nothing is lesse in his intentions, then to give just satisfaction therein; wherefore wee doe hereby authorize and require you, as it will consist with the present condition of the fleete under your comand, and with your other principal instructions, to use your best endeavours, by the fleet or such part thereof as you shall judge necessary, to take, arrest, and seize upon the fleet or fleets belonging to the king of Portugall, or any his subjects, with their guns, cash, goods, and merchandizes whatever, now expected from the East and West Indyes, and to keepe and deteyne the same without breakinge of bulke or imbezilment, towards such satisfaction for the wronges and damages, which this state hath sufferred from Portugall, and to give notice forthwith of what you shall doe therein. And in case any of the ships of the said kinge or his people shall make any resistance, you have hereby power to fight with, kill, and destroy, and to seek for, and burne all such as shall soe resist. Neverthelesse if mr. Philip Meadowes, our envoy with the king of Portugall, shall before any seisure or act of hostility as aforesaid give you assurance, that satisfaction is obteyned upon the said treatyes, that this instruction shall be voyd.

Whitehall, May 6, 1656.

Col. Borthwicke to secretary Thurloe.

In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great-Britain.

Right honorable,
I Shall give your honor a breife relatione of the wayes I proposed at first for discovering of all, who are enimies to his highnes my lord protector in Scotland. I did informe the lord generall Monck of my brother's proceedings, quhen he was in Scotland in anno 1654, how the wayes wer layd doune for a new warre; and for that effect letters wer wrytten to Atholl, Glencarrine, and severall of the clannes. Some were delivered, and answer returned, as Glencarrine's, others wer left with me. Indeid great were the promises to Atholl and Glencarrin, they being the cheise of that factione) as the order of the garter to each of them; the command of both the regiments of the guard to Atholl, and any command in state that Glencarrin should desyre. All the letters, that wer to be sent, should come first to my hand, as they did. I thought it easie to fynd out all those would ingadge for C. S. so I desyred, that my commerad collonell Blacader (he being on, who had served the late king in all his warres in Scotland, and had now lost his right arme in the last service in the hills) might be presentlie sent abroad upon ane act of banishment, that I was sure he would be intrusted in all ther councells, and so might correspond with me, as he does now. I thoght, he being upon ther councells abroad, and I at home, nothing could escape us; but in the interim my brother comes home, and delivered to me a pacquett of letters, which I delivered to my lord Brochill, who coppied them, and returned them me sealed, as before. On of them, which was to Glencarrin, wee delivered with my brother's instructions; the other, which was to Atholl, wee never delivered, but is now in the lord generall's possessione. Ther wer some other letters left with the master of the shipp, which I gave notice, which lykwyse were ceased on. All this tyme ther wer not the least suspitione, till Glencarrin was ceased on, which to me seemed strange, for he was just come to Edinburg to consult upon the raiseing of some mony for carrying on the warre; and Atholl was to be sent for, which if it had got way would have clearlie decyphered all his highnes enmies. But I will not dive upon that grounds ye make on; onlie it stumbled me a little at first. Allwayes it being done, I did propose, that he might not be speedilie broght too a tryall, he being now sure enough; for I knew my name must needs be mad use of in all his tryalls, which would render me altogether unable to doe any more service that way, and utterly destroy my commerad collonell Blacader, who is now with C. S.

Now Glencarrin being prisonner I proposed, that I should lykwyse be sett fast for a whyle, which was done; and by great moyen I obtained my liberty upon ane act of banishment within twenty dayes; so that Glencarrin and all did regrate my sadd conditione; and immediatlie I tooke shipping without the least suspitione. Now if your honor think sitting, that I goe to Brudges, (my brother being a person so much trusted) I hope in short tyme to discover all what is designed for ther nationes; and my commerad collonell Blacader may be verry usefull, he being in the king of Spaine's service, will be upon all councels as a collonell ther. So that if bussines be but closelie kept, I hope by the assistance of God to goe so handsomlie about it, that his heighnes shall think it worthe of my voyage. And if I can, I will endeavour to carry any packquett shal be sent to thes nationes from C. S. And I belive they will be glad to gett on, who will now hazard, and so things may be farthere discovered then at present I can propose. Sir, I have in all my undertakings been fearefull to propound great things, least they should otherwayes fall out; but I hope hitherto I have performed more as I undertooke. And if in this way I can be serviceable, I will promise non shall be more faithfull. If this way relishe your honor, I shal be willing to undertake it; or if your honor shall fall upon any better way, I shall not be lakeing to the uttermost of my power; for I have resolved to spend my selfe in his heighnes service. Sir, I have shortlie given you ane accompt, that I am able to doe that way. Your honor may considder of it. As for my coming to Whytehall, except it be verry late, I think it not convenient. Therfor I have sett doune the place, quher I lodge, that quhen your honor does intend to speak with me, I may be found. My name heire is Sanderson. I will add no more for the present, but that whyle I live, I shall never be lakeing to approve my selfe, sir,
From my lodging at the signe of the 3 Falcons a litle above Cheering-cross in mrs. Dyk's, this 6th of May 1656.

Your honor's most humble servant,
Ja. Borthwicke.

Capt. Ferret to the protector.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 159.

May it please your highnes,
By any thing that hath been made appeare to the world of all the transactions in America, noe nation whatsoever hath given (as yet) any other demonstration of their knowledge in the mathematiques, but in the meere art of navigation onely, although a more full and practicall way in the mathemetical science is very necessary, and most usefull to the carrying on any great designe, in that great part of the world I have had the chiefe of my education, and spent the prime both of my time and study in the knowledge and practice of most parts of the mathematiques, as the greatest part of the students and teachers now of that science here can testify; and besides have been an oculer and eyewitness, and alsoe active of and at the takeing of severall townes and cityes of the Spaniards, both in Mexicania and Peruana, by the English.

I have observed America to be a vast (if not unlimitted) continent, and enough, if not too much, for the most industrious supplyes and greatest industry of Christiandome to be imployed in. Nor can the English soe oppose the Spanish, nor the Spaniard soe resist the English forces, as to obstruct them from any one port whatsoever they please for their residence and traffique there.

I came from thence to England on purpose, and have here attended the greatest part of seaven months, at extreeme costs and charges, with a reall intent to serve and imploy my utmost endeavours in your highnes service, for the publique good, in those parts of the world.

Now (great sir) that the planting of the English in America may be as safe as prositable, and as honorable as safe, I could, I suppose, point out to your highnes, whose judgment in this way and art is, as I understand, no lesse incomparable then curious; I could, I say, point out (should a metropolitan citty be determined as to the centre of the whole universe) the only place to build on.

But if the designe be at present for Jamaica, I do most humbly present my self and all my endeavours to serve (may I be soe happy) your highnes as a surveyor there,
May 6, 1656.

Being the most obliged to your highnes,
George Ferret, Geodætor.

Lockhart, resident in France, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvii. p. 707.

May it please your honor,
I Have received yours of the 1st instant this day about eleven a clock. It was kept up yesterday, though I sent twyce to the post for my letters. I shall endeavour to ingage the post-master to have a care of them hereafter.

My last from St. Dennis told your honor, that I was to lodge at Paris that night. As I was going to my coach, mr. Swist returned from the cardinall (from whom he receaved extraordinarie civilities,) and told me his eminence earnestly desyred, that I would doe him (as he said) honor to receave a visit from him next day at St. Dennis. Upon this I resolved to stay their till monday morning. Upon the Lord's day I receaved a verie kynd welcome from him by the master of the house, and a letter full of verie kynd expressions.

After my arryvall at Paris I renewed my desyre both to his eminence and count Bryen for audience, which is promised me to-morrow at night; and after I ame assured by a person of qualitie sent to me this morning from the cardinall, that I shall have the freedome allowed me to wait upon him as often as I will.

Count Bulion sent also to me this morning to tell me, that he was commanded by the king to waite upon me this day to congratulate my saif arryvall into France; and was verie earnest with me to appoynt him ane howr, which I lest to his own discretion and conveniencie.

I dare not as yet venture to say anie thing to the condition of affairs heare. I have receaved manie civill messages from persons of honor and good interest; and I fynd also, that my being heare is much dislyked by others, especiallye by the assemblie of the clergie. Some great words are given out by those at the pallace royall and their adherents. I shall make it my endeavor to waite upon God for his directione and protectione, and shall verie little troble myself with their menaces.

Sir, your conjecture, that I might have had audience before I should receave yours, makes me apprehensive the delay of it may be imputed to my remissnesse. I beseech you beleeve, that I have used the utmost of my endeavours, and putt a favorable construction upon his deportment, who desyers no greater happinesse then the esteem of being,
Paris, May 7, 1656.

Right honorable, your most humble and faithful servant,
Will. Lockhart.

The commissioners for Middlesex to Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 167.

My lord,
We have thought good to signify unto your lordship, that in pursuance of the several orders and instructions from his highness and the council, for securing the peace of the county of Middlesex and city of Westminster, we have assessed the earl of Berks twenty pounds per ann. for two hundred pounds per ann. for the house, wherein his lordship doth reside, being all his estate within the said county and city; which the said earl of Berks not having paid, according as he was directed, we do desire and shall expect, that your lordship do pay out of your rent for the said house unto John Baldwin, esq; receiver general of the said tax at his lodging in the Tower, one moiety thereof within ten days after the date hereof, and the remainder the 24th day of June next ensuing; and yearly and every year for the future upon the one and twentieth day of December, and four and twentieth of June, by even and equal parcels, until the said tax shall be taken off, or remitted, if your lordship shall so continue tenant to the said house. We have no more to add, but that we are, my lord,
Hicks-Hall, May 7, 1656.

Your lordship's most affectionate friends and humble servants,
William Roberts,
R. Frith,
Jo. Barkstead,
Hug. Wingfield,
Richard Powell,
Ric. Loton.

These for bis excellency the lord Nieuport, lord embassador for the states of Holland, at Berkshire-House.

A letter of intelligence.

De Vienne le 17 May, [1656. N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 348.

Ces jours sont de nouveau esté conduites d'icy quelques nouvelles compagnies vers le Milanois assouldoyez pour la couronne d'Espagne. Icy est arrivé un deputé du roy de France, lequel a eu hier audience de sa majesté a Laxenbourg: on ne sçait encore son negoce.

Nos lettres de Polonie portent, que combien que le roy de Suede n'estoit ni mort ni prisonnier, il avoit toutessois perdu en cette marche de Jarislaw jusques a Thorn quelques 1000 hommes, & que les Polonnois avoient taillé en pieces en une vilette pres de Gnesna quelques 100 Juiss, qui estoient du party Suedois; dont les autres es vilettes prochains s'avoient fait baptizer, & raser la teste & la barde, a la mode de Polonie, pour eviter la furie des Polonnois.

Commissioner Pels to the states general.

Dantzick, May 17, 1656. [N. S]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 195.

High and mighty lords,
As far as I can hear by the common reports, your high and mighty lordships embassadors are solemnly received at Marienburg; but in regard there came no post from thence hither, I do expect an express every moment from their excellencies with letters for your high and mighty lordships.

Here are letters come out of Poland of the 20th of April from Lemborch, that his majesty of Poland was marching with his whole army to recover his kingdom.

The army of Charnitzky lyeth near to Schroda 6 miles from Posen, intrenched; and the Swedish army under general Wrangel is quartered but 2 miles from them; so that several skirmishes happen between them.

The Dutch embassadors in Denmark.

Copenhagen, May 18, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 187.

My lord,
The lord president of Sweden here told several of the chiefest ministers to have a reiterative order to make further endeavours, to the end that the ships of their high and mighty lordships should not be admitted to pass the Sound.

The said resident hath also given out here, as if there was a design in hand to force the town of Dantzick to the subjection of his majesty of Sweden, and would not be undertaken without hope of good success. There is yet no answer come from the lord protector to the letter of his majesty; and the minister, who doth sollicit the same, is deferred from time to time.

We have here no certain news of the king of Poland and his army, nor of the designs of the Muscovites.

Resolution of the states general.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 183.

The states general of the United Provinces having resumed, read over, and considered the contents of the letter of the king of Poland writ to their high and mighty lordships from Warsaw the 6th of August last; also the memorandum or propositions in pursuance thereof delivered to their high and mighty lordships by the lord Nicholas de Bye, resident of the said king, do declare, that their high and mighty lordships were heartily sorry to understand the differences and divisions, as also the bloody war that had happened in the kingdom of Poland; and that they from the beginning thereof did consider of some expedients for a mediation; and also to that end have already sent an extraordinary embassy, hoping that by their good endeavours some suitable expedients will be found to accommodate both parties, whereof their high and mighty lordships gave his majesty notice in their letter of the 12th current; and their high and mighty lordships shall remain always inclined to preserve inviolably and uprightly all good amity and correspondence with his majesty and the crown of Poland; their high and mighty lordships having already began to resolve for the good of his majesty's city of Dantzick, and are still busy to debate further about. And their high and mighty lordships do desire the said resident to make a favourable report of their high and mighty lordships declaration to his majesty.

Done at the states general the 18th of May 1656. [N. S.]

Sir Tho. Bendyshe, embassador at Constantinople, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 179.

Having writt at large to his highness my lord protector two or three days past, and staying my letters a little longer then I expected for their passage, I cannot but intimate to your honour, what a strange alteration of this state is made in that short space of time.

The grand signor having proved his power by cutting off Hassan aga and 7 more of the ring-leaders of the late tumult, (as I declared in his highnes letter) and finding his people no way disturbed thereat, takes heart, and every day goes disguised about the citty with only one servant appearing with him; and where he sees any injustice done, or any violation made of his orders in selling, buying, or exchanging money, he immediately chopps of their heads, having his executioner to that purpose not farr off; in so much as a generall terror is faln upon the citty, so that no man dares to doe any violence, or extort from his neighbours, least the grand signor himselfe should see it. And whereas lesse then a weeke past no Christian could well passe in the streets without some danger of being wounded or affronted by impudent soldiers and renegadoes, now no such persons are to be seene, but are caught up, beaten, and put into the gallies; neither are any men permitted to weare hand-jarrs or longer knives then are necessary to eat with; so that any man may safely and securely now passe through the citty without any affront or molestation at all. The kemycam three days past being asked by the king, whether the soldiers pay was ready for the next day, told him, he hoped it should be; at which answer the king caught him by the beard, and swore, if he wanted an asper of it, he would cutt off his head; which put the poor old man in such a fright, as presently meeting with the chief customer, and demanding from him such money as he was to furnish, because he made excuse for not paying it presently, he layd him down, and gave him 80 blowes on the feete. Also he went to the arsenall, to see in what readynes the navie was, which not finding to his expectation, he sixed a time within a month to have all in readines; and whosoever shall be found at that time to have failed in his performance, is threatned by the gran signor to be cut off. In a word, so strange an alteration here is, and such a settlement made in the space of a weeke, as the like hath not been knowne in these parts. The king (if he can hold it) is now absolute, and what word he speaks is now a law; whereas the other day none valued him otherwise than a child.

They are at this time paying the soldiers; when that is done, usually something or other very extraordinary is put in execution; which if it be worth relating, I shall not fail to give knowledge thereof to his highnes and yourselfe, whose correspondence will extremely oblige, sir,
Pera, May 8, 1656

Your freind and humble servant,
Tho. Bendyshe.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of Joseph Jekyll, esq;.

My lord,
Colonel Hill beinge upon his returne to Ireland, I will only trouble your lordship with this concerninge hym, that he hath here beene very usefull to the affaires of Ireland, and hath propounded many very good thinges to the counsell; many whereof were accepted and passed, and others yet under consideration.

He hath made some tenders alsoe on his owne part, which did not succeed soe well, but is referred to the counsell of Ireland; the justice whereof for my part I understand not, noe more doe I fully the person. Your lordship will need noe information from hence of either. Soe much as I knowe by hym, he seemes to be a usefull man, and not to be disobliged; upon which account only I am bold to give your lordship this trouble, for which I begge your pardon, and rest
May 8, 1656.

Your lordship's most humble and faithfull servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

General Mountagu to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 191.

I Have adventured a letter to you by the way of Portugall, which will give you some little account of our affaires, and when I have more warninge, shall advertise you againe of our proceedinges; but the hast of this merchant is such, that I can comunicate nothinge safelye to you; neither indeed have I much more then what I wrote in my last. Wee are all in good condition (God be praised) and for further matter at this tyme, excuse mee to referr you to our generall letter, and soe remaine, Sir,
May 9, 1656.

Your humble servant,
E. Mountague.

Aboard the Nasebye in Tanger-bay.

Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 239.

Right honorable,
This wiek is aryved here a Duch ship from Lisbon and Cales, wanting 20 dayes of the latter and 30 from the former port. They giv no newes of the fleet under command of the two generals. Som letters by the said ship speak as if the fleet (or part of it) had bin sien of Algarva in Portugal, but herof ther is no certain advys. Al thes parts ar very attentiv and vigillant, what this fleet does. The French mak no preparatives yet for Itally, althoh the seson be sar spent. Here is only a nois, that the duk of Mercury is to com general together with the duk of Modena, who is to preced. The queen of Sweden has discarded her Spanish attendance, and taks Itallians in theyr rom, becaus she would not be accounted a party of ether syd. She begins to form a very royal court, having ordered the raising of a troop of hors and 100 Swizers for her guard. The pope, 'tis sayd, wil now receiv the Portugal ambassador, but demands the revenues of al the vacancyes in that kingdom since it's revolution, which wil amount unto a vast sum abov 10 millions of crownes. This makes a demur on king John's syd; and 'tis questioned, whether hi wil purchase his ambassador's admittance at so dear a rate; yet som think hi wil: of so great use is the papacy for monarchical government. The Spanish ambassador at Rom labours very hard with the pope, to bring the princes of Itally into a league with the hous of Austria. I am,
Leghorn, May 19, 1656. [N. S.]

Right honorable, your faithful servant,
Charles Longland.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to the senate of that city.

Vol. xxxvii. p. 747.

Right honourable,
I Am sorie it soe falls out for the reasons formerly given you in my severall letters by the wekely posts, that I cannot send over now along with mr. Townley the charge against him, with the proosses to make it good, which, God willinge, I shall not faile to doe, as soone as the commission, or a speciall order from the lords of the councel comes to my hand for me to examine witnesses upon othe, or an order to the witnesses, to give in their testimony under their hands, as they will hereafter make othe thereof if they be required; and that such testimony onely will be judged sufficient, which I thought fit to signify to the councel heere inclosed, which I pray your honour to present.

This gentleman, mr. Guntor, whom doctor Goodwin at the request of the well affected heere sent over to them, beinge now to returne for his health's sake; (but truly I with those heere that have received much comfort and benefite by his labour in the ministery, doe beleeve, as wee have just cause, that the discouragements he hath received from Dor. Elborrowe's froward and unchristian dealinge with him, together with the turbulent and malicious actings of mr. Townley and his faction, hath wearied him, though he makes little shewe thereof heere to us:) I could not omit to present you my service by him, who is able to give his highnes and your honor an impartiall accompt of his observances heere since his cominge amonge us, which may fall in to satisfie his highnes and the councel in a great measure, that I have not wronged mr. Townley and his dissaffected party in what I have represented concerninge them, and as the prooffes heereafter shall more fully manyfest.

This day at a very thin assembly held by those onely of mr. Townley's party in favour of him, they have considently ordered, (as if they were competent judges in a businesse, that the councel have declared concernes his highnes, as well as his resident, without any knowledge of myne,) that every man of them shall bringe in under his hand, what testimony he can give to the late passages betwixt mr. Townley and me; for which the councel have required his appearinge before them; and that he may carry over with him what they of his party thinke fit to say, presumeinge, that the first testimony, how sleight soever, and disorderly done without any command given by the councel for it, and by such men as have (at least some of them) excused themselves to me from giveing any thing under their hands, till they were called upon their othes, would make an impression, and helpe mr. Townley much. And his servant Cambridge, of whose late insolencies I gave you an accounte in my last letter, had the impudence to say in the open assembly (as I am told by him, that sayth he will take his othe of it) that none but a knave could or would give it under his hand, that mr. Townley had affronted the resident; which indeed suites with his former late behaviour in that kinde, and which I presume will be taken notice of, that I and other men be not suffered to be called knave in an open assembly for declaring the truth in behaulse of the states: which insolent behaviour of his doth yet methinks strike higher, for he heard his master Townley declare in the assembly (such as it was, consistinge onely of aboute ten persons, and those of the cheese sticklers for mr. Townley) that the councel had commanded him to appeare before them, to answer for his assrontinge the resident; at which tyme Townley read an abuseive and reflectinge paper of his owne drawinge upp to his party, to stir them up to doe what he had designed for them; which I hope, when he comes to his answer, you will please to move the councel to command him to produce, beinge he did not cause it to be registered, as the manner of the company is with all papers, that are publiquely read at a court or assembly.

Sir, by the carriage of this senate and company heere (for under that notion mr. Townley and his faction would sayne have themselves understood) you will sufficiently see, what a busslinge they have made to gayne Townley some countenance and abettors to mayntayne him in what he hath done, if they can; and therefore it's noe wonder, if the well affected desire not to give evidence, till they be specially commanded, liveinge amonge such men as these are. And because I beleeve, that Townley carryes over with him a resolution to hold out salsities to weaken the strength of the charge, when it comes, if he can, and to beget some helpe or countenance from his party in the company at London; I doe heere inclose you a true and impartiall narration of all that passed that day 'twixt mr. Townley and me, to which I am able to make othe, if thereunto required, that to the best of my remembrance I have not added or diminished ought; and that if either hee or any of his party for him shall offer the contrary, they witnesse untruly therein; out of which narrative I have drawne sourth the mayne of the charge, which hereafter I shall send, together with the proosses to make it good. I have put my hand thereunto, though I suppose there will be noe use of it till the charge and proosses come together. I am ashamed to give your honour thus much trouble; but I hope the occasion of such longe letters will be removed ere longe; and that you will excuse the present necessity. I have onely to ad my request, that you will be pleased to accept the small annuall tribute of a reg of sturgeon, and a cup of Renish wyne, which my servant Hudson will deliver your honour; and for which I also beg your pardon, professinge my selfe,
Hamburgh, May 9, 1656.

Your honnour's very humble and faithfull servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

I have writt to his highnes by mr. Guntor, and inclosed a copie of the narrative or charge now sent you more concisely drawne up.

Advice from Koningsberg, of the 19th of May, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 221.

What I find to be worthy of your knowledge of what hath happened here since my last of the 12th current, is chiesly the joy they have of the king of Sweden's safe arrival, beyond all expectation, in Prussia. I am certainly told, that when certain news was brought to the duke of Brandenburgh of his arrival at Elbing, that he should say, now all things will go well. This joy is more and more encreased by reason of the confirmation of the news we have here of the deseat of the Poles under the command of Charnitsky near to Brombergh, a small town in Pomerania, some 6 miles distant from Thorn. But the news out of Sameyten and Littauw are not so good: the Swedes themselves write from thence, that the revolts of the nobility and common people in those provinces do encrease daily, so that they all rise as one man, and put themselves under their nobility and great men, and knock all on the head they meet with, that are of a foreign nation, whom they know by their cloaths and hair upon their head, they wearing no hair.

They have saln upon two or three small places possess'd by the Swedes, and put them all to the sword. We cannot yet learn, what the Muscovite embassador here hath negotiated with the duke of Brandenburg; it is believed, that the Muscovites will declare themselves enemies to the Swedes, which is much seared by them.