State Papers, 1657: May (5 of 6)

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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'State Papers, 1657: May (5 of 6)', A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658, (London, 1742), pp. 304-314. British History Online [accessed 23 June 2024].

. "State Papers, 1657: May (5 of 6)", in A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658, (London, 1742) 304-314. British History Online, accessed June 23, 2024,

. "State Papers, 1657: May (5 of 6)", A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658, (London, 1742). 304-314. British History Online. Web. 23 June 2024,

In this section

May (5 of 6)

An intercepted letter of mr. J. Johnson's to mr. Jos. Ashe.

Vol. l. p. 221.

The sudden appearance of the French army on our borders caused the prince of Condé to leave the court of Brussells, and endeavour succoring and supplying of his owne garrisons of Chattellet and Rocroy; which to effect, he was sayne to drawe out most of the forces quartered in the adjacent garrisons; of which mareschal Tureyne having intelligence, he presently drew together a body of horse, and some few foote, and intrenched before the great citty of Cambray: but before the French had compleated their line, the prince of Condé very desperately and opportunely broake through one of their quarters, and relieved the towne, which otherwise would sure have been lost; for there was not in it above 300 souldiers. In this action the said prince hath lost good part of his men, and some principall commanders, as the marquis de Conyach, the lieftenant of his life guard, and others. The French are retired from the siedge, but remayne masters of the field; and 'tis probable will contineu soe this whole campagne, if the 6000 foot sent them by Cromwell prove faithfull to them. The English were not come to them, when this action happened, nor that part of their army, which is comanded by mareschal la Ferte Senneterre; soe that unless some recruits come to us from Germany, of which there is little hopes as the present conjuncture of affaires there now stand, the French will either force us into garrison, and soe ravadge and plunder the greatest part of our country, or else set down before some great important place. The landing of these English in France, which they say now are to be compleate 10000 men effective, doth so much pussle the Spaniard, that they know not well what to do, having always been made to believe, that Cromwell would never have adventured to send over soe great a body into France, soe long as they entertayned the king here amongst them; whom now they begin to court in good earnest, as knowing his interest to be very greate amongst his subjects; and these being in a sorrayne country, with good woords and promises, they hope he will endeavour to reduce them to their duty and allegiance. But our court absolutely told them, that unless they will resolve to take better care of these that are come over already, it will not be for the king's interest to medle therin; for that none can be ignorant, how ill the English here have been treated, having not received one month's pay since raysing; but if they will speedily take care to supply them with monys and other necessaries, he will send them into the field under the command of his brother the duke of Yorke, and try what may be done. Whereupon the Spaniards have delivered into the king's owne hands a month's pay for all his regiments, and 1000 crownes for each colonell for their equipage, and have assigned the duke of Yorke 150 good horse for his life-guard, which young sir Charles Barckly is to have the command of, whose uncle sir John some say the duke will needs introduce againe at court, notwithstanding the endeavours of his back friends to the contrary. Soe soon as the king's little body have refreshed themselves, they are to drawe into the field, and then wee doubt not but to have good store of our countrymen on the other side to come over to us, some of their captains haveing taken the employment by our advice and consent. Our last letters from Spayne bring us little of consequence. The siedge of Olivenza in Portugall goes on very slowly, as all other affaires doe, that are transacted by that court: noe hopes of any moneys from thence, till the silver come from the Canaries; which to procure is now the chief care at court, the great preparations against Portugall having quite drained them. Wee are yet in suspence, what will become of the differences between Holland and France, both sydes still insisting on their first demands. If it come to a warre betwixt them, 'tis more than probable (being wrote from the Hague by good hands) that the Hollander will assist us here on termes allreaddy agreed on, with 1000 men against the French, to counterballance those, that Cromwell hath sent into France. However it is, this is certayn, that the Hollander continues raysing great forces both for sea and land. The protector's refusing the parlement's offer of the kingly title and dignity makes us hope, there is not soe good an understanding between him and the army as himselfe believed there was, when he set the businesse first on foote; and, that he is not soe absolute, but, that there is a party still, whom he stands in feare of, who wee expect will take this occasion to administer matter of farther trouble to him, out of which some benefit may possibly accrew to us on this syde.

I am, yours,
John Johnson.

Antwerp, June 2 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. xlviii. p. 173.
[Paragraph contains cyphered content — see page image]

When the cardinal shew me his last intelligence 182 183 100 179 from Flanders, it mentioned that there was a treaty 198 298 224 betwixt Ch. Stewart and L. of which no further account can be given, save that Ch. Stewart is oblydged to keep 403 secret 143 198 283 364 what shall be agreed upon in that businesse to himself 79 384 The person employed by L. hath given 100 jealousy of Hyde, saying he or some belonging to him is of in telligence 181 100 179 with the Protector. I hope there is no trouble in this, but in all such cases its of inexpressible importance that the worst be feared.

I am
Your most humble and obedient servant,
W. Lockhart.

Amiens, June 2, 1657. N. S.

A proposition of the French embassador to the states-general.

Vol. l. p. 223.

Le subsigné ambassadeur de France, après avoir lû & relû, & bien examiné la response faite à sa proposition du 25e du passé, & qu'il y en a esté en conference avec messieurs les deputés de L. S. à conferé sur icelle response les ordres du roy son maistre, se trouve obligé, pour satisfaire à son devoir & à sa charge, de leur declarer, qu'il parsiste dans les conclusions de sadite proposition, & par tant qu'il prie L. S. de luy donner une response precise, & non interlocutoire, sur la restitution réelle des deux vaisseaux de guerre de sa majesté, la Regine & le Chasseur, equipages, officiers, & matelots; lesquels vaisseaux, par la cognoissance que l'on a à present du particuliere de l'action, ont esté pris par une pure hostilité commise par leur vice-admiral, ou par surprinse, ou par mauvaise volonté, puisque lesdits vaisseaux dépuis que l'embarquement à Toulon, qui fut le 5e Fevrier, jusqu'au 28, qu'ils furent rencontrés, n'avoyent abordé ny parlé à aucun vaisseau en mer, de sorte que tout ce que l'on a dit au contraire a esté faux & calomnieusement supposé & inventé par les vrais ennemis de la France & de cet estats, puisque leurs intentions ne pouvoient aller, qu'à faire venir en rupture un grand royaume & une puissante respublique, dont les interests dépuis sa glorieuse naissance ont esté si joint, & si unis ensemblement. Et cela estant ainsy, comme l'on n'en peut plus douter, ledit ambassadeur ne peut qu'il n'estoit surpris d'un grand estonnement de voir le retardement, que l'on apporté à l'execution de la restitution desdits vaisseaux, y ayants aujourd'huy cinque semaines, que ledit ambassadeur en fit sa premiere instance, puisque non-seulement cette restitution en soit & raisonnable, & ne se peut refuser en justice; mais qu'elle produit en consequence une si grande & sensible utilité, comme est la mainlevée de toutes choses saisies en France à ce subject, laquelle mainlevée restablit le commerce & la consiance, qui se trouve alterée & par cette prise de vaisseaux & par cette saisie, qui a esté faite en consequence.

Et pour l'asseurance de cette mainlevée, ledit ambassadeur ne croit pas que l'on en veüille doubter, puisqu'il promet en son nom, après l'actuelle restitution, & qu'il demeure auprès de L. S. pour estre guarant de sa parole & de sa promesse, l'intention de sa majesté n'ayant esté par cette saisie, comme il a desja declaré, que de se faire justice de l'hostilité qui venoit de luy estre saite, & des autres, qui pouvoient estre continués par les mesmes vaisseaux, que commande leur vice-admiral, lequel dans tout son procedé a assez temoigné sa mauvaise volonté, qui veritablement nous doit moins surprendre, puis qu'incontinent après il a esté capable de manquer de respect & obeissance envers ses superieurs & souverains, ayant sait une vente de l'un desdits vaisseaux, sans ordres, & sur de mauvaises raisons, & qui a aussy esté desavoüé hautement par L. S. qui en ont donné part audit ambassadeur si sincerement, & de si bonne grace, en luy ayant voulu apporter par deputation la deliberation, dans laquelle ce desadveu avoit esté resolu, & les ordres si precis & si exacts, pour le recouvrement desdits vaisseaux. Après donc la restitution des vaisseaux & la mainlevée ensuite, quelle chose peut estre plus avantageuse, que de penser serieusement & sans relâche au traité d'alliance, qui fermera pour tousjours la porte à toute sortes des plaintes, puisque l'on y fera entrer un bon reglement de marine, que sa majesté ayant que de vous declarer de pouvoir & vouloir faire, que conjointement avec ledit traité de l'alliance, toutes les choses provisionelles, n'ayants jamais la mesme force & authorité que les definitives; & le pouvant dire, qu'il y a la mesme difference, que celle, qui se trouve entre un tréve, qui n'a qu'un temps, & une paix durable & perpetuelle.

Pour les procès particuliers & differents, qu'ont les subjects de cet estat en France, outre que l'on sçait que les tribunaux de justice y sont ouverts à un chacun, & que l'on y pursuit son droit avec plus de liberté & de facilité, qu'en autre estat de l'Europe, ledit ambassadeur ne doute point, & il y employera ses offices les plus efficacieux, que sa majesté ne departe literalement aux particuliers interessés toute sa protection, pour leur faire avoir la plus prompte & la plus favourable justice qui se pourra. Et pour les difficultez, que l'on fait peut faire pour les precautions necessaires, à ce que pendant que l'on traitera sous le bon plaisir de sa majesté, il ne survienne quelque incident, elles seront très-aisés, quand on agira de bonne foy.

Et comme ledit ambassadeur est très-persuadé de celle de leurs seigneuries, il croit aussy qu'ils luy feront bien cet honneur & cette justice, de ne doubter pas de la sienne, & des sinceres intentions & inclinations, qu'il a pour contribuer à leur toutes les defiances, & à restablir & asseverer une bonne amitié, ferme, constante, & impenetrable à tous artifices & à toutes les surprises de ceux, qui n'ayment ny la France, ny cet estat. Fait à la Haye, ce samedy, 2 Juin 1657. Signé,
De Thou.

Capt. Witter, governor of Dunstaffnage, to general Monck.

Vol. li. p. 71.

May it please your lordship,
I Received your lordshipp's order of April the 21st, and shal be carefull to bring the prisoners downe with mee; and I shal not make any contract for provisions for the garrison of Inverloughye. I received your lordshipp's order of May the 6th; and shal be carefull, that no assistance be given to lord Argyle by these garrisons, against the tutors of Mc Cleane. My lord, the inclosed is a copye of a letter sent mee from an intelligeable hand; and the cause of my not being at Leith before this, is, that I might procure notice of what is designed by my lord Argyle's several meeteings, which he hath appoynted. One meeteing lord Argyle was to have had with the Clann Leans at Inverraray upon the 15th day of this instant, which was not kept by the tutors of Mc Cleane, soe that the lord Argyle was disappoynted of that meeteing. Another meeteing lord Argyle had appoynted with the Clann Bennoks and the Mc Clouds, upon the 28th of this instant at Donnolick, which is two miles of the garrison; about which tyme the lord Argyle hath a meeteing with the ministers of this shire at Killmore, it being five miles from this garrison. This meeting is to be kept in the manner of a provential assembly. The tutor of Mc Cleane hath been lately with mee, and sayeth, that one of his bailiffs, that receives in his dutyes, whose name is Hector Mc Cleane of Torrlosh, hath in his hands about 300 l. sterling, which should be paid in to the tutor; but the said bayliff refuses to pay it unto him, and sayeth he will keep it for my lord Argyle, which hath hindered the tutor paying of the moyety payable in April last. The tutor hath promised to pay the money in July next, which I believe will be performed; and if your lordshipp be pleased to order mee to cause the tutor's bailiff to be accountable unto him, and pay unto the tutor's all Mc Cleane's duties, I question not, but that your lordshipp will be fully payd by the tutor, in November next, all the money, that the tutor is engadged for unto your lordshipp. I shall humbly waite upon your lordship e'er long, who will ever remain,
May it please your lordshipp,
Your lordshipp's most faithfull servant,
Joseph Witter.

Dunstaffnage-castle, May 23, 1657.

I humbly desire, that a recruite of bedds and bedd-clothes may be sent for my company, proportionable to what is sent for the companies at Inverloughye; for our want of such things is as great, considering our number.

An intercepted letter.

London, 23d of May 1657.

Vol. l. p. 181.

I AM glad to find all mine come safe to you, nor shall I omit any opportunity, if in town. Mr. Westbury hath a great desire to go into Holland, but being disappointed of the whole quantity of tobacco, he is loth; yet truly sometimes he is of the opinion it might be much to mr. Cross's service in other concerns, which he is watchful of. For what I said concerning the Turkish trade, I send by word of mouth, that may be with you soon after this, perhaps sooner; and sorry I am it was no sooner understood. I am only deferred till the next term for the tobacco, not denied. Our fleet is abroad, but do nothing; though some will have it the Dutch are out, and an engagement near, which I believe nothing of, as supposing rather the Dutch will fight us at the latter end of the summer, than now that we are in heart. Your king's minister is likeliest to carry it here, but two and the men of Bourdeaux have had. We are still divided here for government, one week for a king; but if the general should have a thought of it, it might be his ruin, the generality of the army being against it. Somewhat is likely to be resolved on very suddenly, which makes mr. Westbury very loth to leave this place as yet. Pray give a particular account of mr. North's motions.

To mr. Desmond, à l'hotel de Provence at Paris.

The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.

Vol. l. p. 225.

My lord,
Our last to your lordship was of the 30th of the last month, since which here are come several express letters from the duke of Holstein, in which he maketh very serious instances, to the end the treaties with Sweden may be resumed, with sufficient promises, that he is able to prevail with the king of Sweden, that he shall give full satisfaction therein to this crown. The proposition of the envoy of France, who had audience the day before yesterday, doth tend to the same end, offering a mediation in the behalf of the king his master; and the lord embassador of the duke of Brandenburgh (who hath taken a new house, with an intent to continue a while longer here as it seemeth) doth continue from time to time in his former endeavours, to recommend the peace; but he hath little encouragement given him here all this while. We are certainly informed, that the resident of Sweden had precise order in his instruction, not to agree any thing to this crown, whereby any alteration should be made in the treaty of Bromsbroo, or in the affairs established by the treaties; and not to grant any restitution of the pre-occupied lands now in the possession of Sweden. And that which the said resident was authorized to do for the satisfying of this crown, was concluded in the power for the adjusting of the passage of the Sound, provided it were done without any alteration of that, which was agreed upon at Bromsbroo. And it is very credible, that thereupon his majesty and the lords of the kingdom were of opinion, that there would not be much to be got by treaties; and that the reassuming of the treaties would but delay so much the longer the necessary esteemed evacuation of Prussia, since that here at this time there doth seem to be great hopes, not only to effect by their arms the re establishment of Prussia, but also that they shall be able to recover all what places were taken from this crown in the last war, and an abolition of the Swedish freedom in the tolls of the Sound; which, as far as we can penetrate, are the chiefest aims, which do induce this crown to begin a war. It is also to be presumed, that this crown will make some engagements with those, who have a war with Sweden: and although we are told by the lords, that therein will be used great moderation and prudence, yet no doubt is to be made, but there will be somewhat concluded with the kings of Poland and Hungary, and with the duke of Muscovy. They do seem here to be well assured of the Muscovites. The lord Rosenwinge is expected from Koningsbergh; and before he took his leave of the duke of Brandenburgh, upon the order sent him from hence, he advised him of the rupture, which was like to happen between this crown and Sweden; and used once more very serious instances to him, that he would be pleased to shake off the interests of Sweden by a particular accommodation with Poland; but the same hath not produced any great matter of alteration in the said duke; yet it is believed, that the instance, which the king of Hungary doth make to the said duke by his express envoy, will for certain prevail with him, he offering to re-establish the said duke in a part of Pomerania. It is thought this mediation and offer will not be altogether fruitless, the rather, in regard the duke will consider, that a war between Denmark and Sweden will go near to cause some alteration in the Swedish designs. There is still remaining the former inclination to agree with their H. and M. L. if so be they think fit, about further means to help secure to the said duke of Brandenburgh his lands in Prussia, by way of accommodation with Poland; but they would be glad to have their full content, that the said duke should join his arms with those of this crown.

The manifesto, wherewith this crown doth intend to justify their war against Sweden, is said to be ready, and will be shortly published. In the mean time the king's army in Holstein doth begin to move, and it is probable, that they will march through Mecklenburgh, to make an invasion in Pomerania, although we cannot as yet write any thing of a certainty of this. In Norway there will be two little armies: several officers are sent from hence thither to command those forces. Some of the ships equipped here go for Gottenburgh, to intercept the Swedes, that go to that part.

Two Holland ships, the one called the Pellican and the other the Angel Gabriel, going from Sweden to Hamburgh, the one laden with 200 pieces of ordnance, and there with iron and other commodities, are detained in the Sound, under pretence, that the said guns and goods belong to the Swedes, and that the said guns are to furnish some places, which belong to the Swedes. We having had advice thereof yesterday, we made complaint about it to the lord rycksshosmaster, since it did appear by the charter-parties, that the ships belonged to the Hollanders, and were freighted by Hollanders, and both bound for Hamburgh; and thereupon, after we had our application to the king about them, they were presently released. We did seriously recommend, that good order may be taken, that the like inconveniencies do not happen for the future: and we were thereupon so courteously used, with such an ample declaration of his majesty's affection to their H. and M. L. subjects, ships and goods, as we could well desire, provided the effects follow.


Copenhagen, 3 June 1657. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence from col. Bamfylde from Paris.

Vol. li. p 193.

You will, I presume, receive so good intelligence of all affayres, which concerne this place, from those hands, whoe have contributed to my undoeing, to make way for theyr owne credit with you, that to avoyde the troubling of you unnecessarily, and the offending of them, I shall only tell you, that the siedge of Cambraye is raised by the prince of Condye's throwing himselfe with 4000 men into that guarison. The French army not being yet fixed upon any other designe, the mareschall de Gramont parts hence in 12 dayes for Germany in great equipage, and with very great trayne. If I were sure my former letters had come to your hands, and you thought them worth the reading, if they have, I should acquaint you of more touching this negotiation than is convenient for me to doe in the great uncertainty, wherein I am at present. I can goe alonge with him, if you think it necessary; and thereby find great advantages of being serviceable to you in advertising you of all passages at the diet, and of the temper and designes of the several princes, to whome he is to address himselfe before that assembly meets; besides, I am already known to the duke of Brandenburgh, and can be recommended more closely to him by count Maurice of Nassawe, whoe is his kinsman, and commands for him (during his absence) in the dutchy of Cleve, and sways much in all his proceedings. I am also very well knowne to the prince elector, and to prince Rupert; all which together may enable me (if I am not very defective in my understanding) to give you noe ill information of the affayres of those parts, which I should conceive were as necessary for your knowledge, as any proceedings now in Christendome. During the continuance of the diet, at least I would conceal my haveing any truste from (or correspondence with) you, till I could discover the tempers of the parties there, and how their affayres were likely to succeed. I would only pretend to mareschall Gramont, and to all else for the present, my having entirely quitted the royal interest; and that not being well with the present government in England, I had an inclination to see * * and to seeke employment in the warrs in those parts: by which for the present I might arrive at the knowledge of more * * * * * * * * * my resolution of going to Callaice, which * * * * upon the advertisement of the army's * * * * * * me with a lyne or two, I shall * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * the inclosed note. If you think me capable of serving you, and will trust me in this business, which I have mentioned, I shall desire I may have your commands with all convenient expedition, that I may not lose the oppertunity of going with monsieur de Gramont, which will render me capable of doing you more services than any other means can which relate to this affayre. I am desirous of some employment, that I may subsist, and recover your good opinion, if it be possible, and of this, as such a one as hardly admits of any room for suspicion, and will free me from the prejudice that sir William Lockhart has contracted agaynest mee, and will pursue me with, whilst I remayne in this place. I have noe more to say for the present, but to assure you of my being,
June 3, 1657. [N. S.]

Sir, Your

The direction inclosed.

A Monsieur,
Monsieur Barry, marchand chappillier a l'ensigne du grand Chaneaux sur le pont nostre dame à Paris.

Within that cover.

A Monsieur, Monsieur la Marine.

The commissioners of the admiralty of Amsterdam, to the states-general.

H. and M. lords,
We have received your H. and M. L. letter of the first of this month, besides an inclosed memorandum presented to your H. and M. L. by the lord Appleboom, resident of the king of Sweden, upon which you are desiring our advice, wherein to satisfy your H. and M. L. We cannot (after enquiry made) learn any thing more, but that the three ships of the city, mentioned in the said memorandum, are hired to particular merchants dwelling in this city, without knowing to what end. And forasmuch as concerneth the raising of men by land and sea, which should be for the service of the king of Denmark, we cannot hear, that any such thing is done publickly, not knowing what may be done under-hand in so populous a city as this is; which is almost impossible to prevent. Wherewith, hoping to have satisfied your H. and M. L. good pleasure, we remain, &c.

Amsterdam, 5th June 1657. [N. S.]

The commissioners of the admiralty.
J. De Wildt.

Mr. Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. l. p. 183.

Right Honorable,
Haveinge taken an opportunity yesterday by a ship, which went hence for Lubeck, to write to your honor, which I hope will come to hands before this post can arrive, theise are onely to certify and give your honor notice of my safe arrivall (through God's blessinge) before this cittie of Riga, which I am forthwith to enter in the barge of grave Magnus de la Guardie, brother-in-law to his majestie of Sweden, and generall-governour of this province of Livonia, whome I find very respectfull to his highnesse, and rejoycefull of my haveinge arrived here; hopeinge, that his highnesse's interposition between his kinge and the great-duke will prove very advantageous towards the reunitinge of theise two provinces. I forbeare to give your honor farther trouble for the present, haveinge no newes of importance to import unto you, and beinge also just ready to enter the barge, and goeup to the towne. Per next your honor may expect a more particular account of my reception by this towne. I rest in hast,
From before Riga, the 25th May 1657.

Your honor's very humble servant,
Rich Bradshaw.

The protector's speech to the parliament, in the painted-chamber, on monday 25th May1657, upon his acceptance of the government, and the title of lord protector.

In the possession of mr. Theophilus Rowe of Hamstead in middlesex.

Mr. speaker,
I Desire to offer a word or two to you, and it shall be but a word. I did well bethink myself, before I came hither this day, that I came not as to a tryumph, but with the most serious thoughts that ever I had in all my life, to undertake one of the greatest taskes, that ever was laid on the back of an humane creature. And I make no question, but you, with all men, readily agree with me, that without the support of the Almighty, I shall necessarily sink under the burthen of it, not only with shame and reproach to myself, but with that, that is a thousand times (and in comparison of which, I and my family are not worthy to be mentioned) with the loss and prejudice of these three nations: and so I must ask your help, and the help of all those that fear God, that by their prayers I may receive assistance from the hand of God. His presence going along, will enable to the discharge of so great a duty and trust as this is, and nothing else. Howbeit, I have some other things to desire of you, I mean of the parliament, that seeing this is but as it were an introduction to the carrying on of the government of these nations; and forasmuch as there are many things, which cannot be supplied for the enabling the carrying on of this work without your help and assistance, I think it is my duty to ask your help in them, not that I doubt; for I believe, the same spirit, that hath led you to this, will easily suggest the rest to you. The truth is, I can say it in the presence of God, nothing would have induced me to have undertaken this insupportable burthen to flesh and blood, had it not been, that I have seen in this parliament all along a care of doing those things, that might truly and really answer the ends that we have been engaged for. You have testified forwardness and readiness therein very fully already. I thought it my duty, when your committee, which you were pleased to send to me, to give the grounds and reasons of your proceedings, to help to inform my conscience and judgment; I was then bold to offer to them several considerations, which were received by them, and have been presented to you; in answer to which the committee did bring me several resolves of yours, which I have by me. I think these are not yet made so authentic and authoritative as was desired; and therefore though I cannot doubt it, yet I thought it my duty to ask it of you, that there may be a perfecting of those things. Indeed, as I said before, I have my witness in the sight of God, that nothing would have been an argument to me to have undertaken this, but (as I said before) I saw such things determined by you, as makes clear for the liberties of the nations, and for the interest, liberty, and preservation of all such as fear God under their various forms; and if God make not these nations as thankful to you for your care therein, it will fall as a fire on their heads. And therefore I say, that hath been one main encouragement. I confess there are other things, that tend to reformation, to the discountenancing of vice, and the encouragement of good men, and vertue, and the compleating of those things also, concerning some of which you have not yet resolved any thing, save to let me know by your committee, that you would not be wanting in any thing for the good of these nations: nor do I speak it, as in the least doubting it; but I do earnestly and heartily desire, to the end that God may crown your work, and bless you and this government, that in your own time, and with what speed you judge sit, these things may be proceeded for.

General Monck to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. l. p. 185.

I Receaved yours of the 19th instant, and am glad to hear that the parlament have soe farre complyed with his highnesse, in altering the title of a kinge to a protector; and I hope, all that are for a settlement will accord in that thinge. As concerning the petition you write to mee about, there are none of them att all come downe, butt one petition, which was sent to a bookseller (which I shall gett) and this came downe before the messenger; butt heere is noe more come into this country as yett; butt to suppresse any such thinges, that may come to private hands; I have written to the chef officers commanding each regiment, that they will have a special care to acquaint mee with such as doe bring them, or to whome they are sent, that I may take some course about itt, whereof I doubt nott of their diligence; and I make noe question, butt I shall prevent any mischief they can doe in these partes. And for the letters, I have searcht them two posts, and finde none. I am glad to heare our men are safely landed in France. I remayne
Dalkeith, 26th May 1657.

Your very humble servant,
George Monck.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
The parliament haveinge thought fitt to change the name of kinge to that of protector, and againe to present their advise to his highnesse under that title for his consent, his highnesse has pleased, yesterday morneinge, to give his consent thereunto, in the painted chamber. The words, which are inserted into the advise, as to the name, are these, (as I remember) viz. That your highnesse would be pleased under the name, stile, and dignitie of lord protector of the common-wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories thereunto belongeinge, to exercise and hold the office of the cheife magistrate of these nations, and to governe the same accordinge to this humble petition and advise, and the matters and thinges therein conteyned, and in all other thinges accordinge to the laws, and not otherwise. There were very various oppinions about this clause. It was first offered by some of us (and as wee thought by agreement) that the power of the protector should be referred to that of the kinge, expressinge it, that he should exercise the same powers and noe other, that any kinge of England might lawfully doe. But this would by noe meanes please those gentlemen, who were against kingeship, when once the name was altered by the house, and beinge urged, that there was noe other way to bound that office, and that without some such boundary, he would be looked upon only as a military officer, and without all bounds and limitts, and that he would take to hymselfe all the priviledge of a kinge, but yet avoyd all that, which the lawe enjoyned respectinge the libertye of the people; it was then offered, that he might be bounded by particulers, as makeinge it a new office; but that appearinge to be an endlesse buissines, it was then deserted by themselves, and somethinge to the purpose aforesayd was propounded by some of their owne, to avoyd the act of reference to the kinglye office, wherein they were divided one amongst another. Lambert, Sydenham, and others, spake very earnestly against it, and very few of the souldiers pleased with it, soe farre as could be perceived. However, the house passed it in the manner abovesayd; and soe at length is his highnesse and parlament agreed upon a governement. What acceptance it will have abroad, I knowe not. There appeares very little yet; and except it be generall Desbrow and the deputy, I doe not perceive, but take the whole together, it goes downe with the generality of those, who opposed kingship, very difficultlye, and is much against the haire. The Lord can bringe light out of this darknesse, and heale the great divisions, which are amongst us. And this is all the account, which I can give of our affaires here. I perceive men, who are contrary-minded to what the parlament endeavoured to restore this nation to, speake freely in Ireland, and soe they doe heere, as to the persons of those, who have engaged themselves in this worke; but that matters not. Some of us can say, wee care not for man's judgment, nor man's day, if wee have acted in sinceritie before the Lord, and with an eye to the good of this nation, and the people of God therein of all judgments, wee shall have wherewith to rejoice before God; and seeinge providence hath disposed the matter thus, wee can alsoe be content, and be thankfull to God, that there is this step made towards the freedome of this nation, although all that might be wished cannot be arrived at at one tyme.

Our letters from sir William Lockart and sir John Reynolds say, that the English are treated and used with all manner of civilitye and respect. They were marched as farre as Montreuille in their way to Cambray, which the French had set downe before; but before they could cast a lyne about it, the prince of Condé broke through into the towne with 3000 horse, which will necessitate the French armye to raise their seige, and to enterprize somethinge else; and to that purpose the march of the English to that place was stopped, untill somethinge else could be resolved upon. It is certeyne, that the French army is very stronge; and if God be with them, they may doe somthinge this springe very considerable.

The difference betweene the French and Dutch is not yet composed; it lookes rather on the increasinge hand. The French continue the arrest and seisure of all the Dutch shipps and goodes in France, and to demand restitution of their shipps taken by de Ruyter in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, the Dutch have ordered all the French harbors to be block'd up, and the takeinge of all their men of warre at sea, great and small, and doe consider, wheither they should not take the merchant men too; but that the province of Zealand opposeth. De Ruyter, instead of restoreinge the prizes taken from the French, he hath sold the bigger of them to the Spanyard. It's true, his masters have disowned him in this, and have ordered him to procure the shipp to be restored for the money he sold it for. This shewes; they have some inclination to compose the difference. The kinge of France offeres the referringe this difference to the decision of his highnes, but the Dutch seeme not forward to doe that; however, they expresse great confidence in his highnes. There is lately a very vile booke dispersed abroad, called Killinge noe murder. The scope is, to stirre up men to assassinate his highnes. I have made search after it, but could not finde out the spring-head thereof. The last night there was one Sturgeon, formerly one of his highness's life-guard, a great leveller, taken in the street, with two bundles of them under his arme. The same fellow had a hand in Syndercombe's buissines, and fledd for it into Holland, and is now come over with these bookes. I have sent your lordship one of them, though the principles of them are soe abominable, that I am almost ashamed to venture the sendinge it to your lordship. I remeyne.
Your lordship's most humble and faithfull servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

Whitehall, 26 May 1657.

At the Council at Whitehall.

Tuesday, 26th May 1657.

Vol. li. p. 4.

Whereas by an order of his highness and council, of the 30th of April last, for the granting of a further time to the creditors of the excepted persons in Scotland, whose estates are overcharged with debts, for paying in of fourty thousand pounds by way of fine, towards the satisfaction of the donatives, and in full of the monies already charged upon the fines in Scotland, in pursuance of a former order of the 13th of November last 1656. The Moiety of the said fourty thousand pounds was so paid into the re ceipt of his highness's exchequer in Scotland, on or before the first day of June 1657, and the second moiety, the first of October next following.

Ordered, by and the council, that out of such monies as are yet unsatisfied for the sines in Scotland, and such monies as shall remain of the said forty thousand pounds, after the several sums payable unto such persons, who have donatives, or are purchasers, are satisfied according to the said order of the 13th of November last, and such other sums as are already charged upon the said sines, or upon the remainder of the said forty thousand pounds, shall be paid the sum of four thousand pounds unto collonel Timothy Wilkes, to be disbursed by him, upon account, to, for and towards the carrying on of the cittadel, now erecting at Leith; and that his highness's council in Scotland doe take order for payment thereof to the said colonel Timothy Wilkes accordingly.

Maynard the English consul at Lisbon, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. l. p. 239.

Right Honourable,
I HOPE your honour hath intelligence long since of the good successe God was pleased to give general Blake against the Spanyard in the Canaries, where he destroyed 16 fail of galleons and other shipes, which came from the West-India: moste of them had a greate parte of their loadinge aboarde them, which perished all with the shipes. General Blake in his returne from thence stopt in Cascais roade, with 18 of the shipes under his command, and 6 he sente directly for the bay of Cadix. Three dayes after his beeinge here, he sente away the vice admiral with eight shipes more; and after eight dayes stay here, havinge refreshed himselfe, and fitted his shipes, he departed for the bay of Cadix with the rest of his fleete, where he now is. Since his beeing there he mett a ship loaden with oyles, which he surprised. Whilst the general was here in Cascais, the queen sente him a present, viz. 12 oxen, 100 sheepe, 400 henns, 40 turkies, 20 pipes of wyne, 8 canasters of sweet-meats, and 24 canasters of fallettinge and green pease, and the like, which the general presently reparted amongst his fleete. The Rainebow and the James, which were the two greate shipes that plied off the North-cape, came in to the general, whilst he was in Cascais-roade, which he took alonge with him to the bay; so now there remaines noe more but the Providence at the North-cape. Three or four frigotts will doe good service in that station, for the securinge trade, and to surprize such of the enemies shipes as goe for Galitia and Biskay; and the Hollanders will now be employed to bringe of the plate and other riches, which the Nova Spaina fleete landed in the Canaries; but if they be well watch'd in the Channell, and about the North-cape, they will be prevented of theire exportations. The Yarmouth and Kent frigotts arryved lately from Inglande, and in their waye (aboute the Cape) they mett with five shipes, which they brought into this place, viz. two Hollanders laden with salt for the kinge of Spaine, and bounde from Cadix to Galitia, which the general ordered to be sett free, not thinking them worth sending home. Another Holland shipe loaden with iron-worke bound from St. Sebastian to Cadix, which the purser-general hath disposed of, some to the fleete, and some he solde here; the other were two Inglish shipes lately taken by a Dunkirk man of warr, one goeinge to the Barbadoes, the other cominge from Barmudas, which are restored to the masters.

The last intelligence from Cadix saies, that the losse of those shipes in the Canaries goes neare their heartes; they thinke it a greater losse to them than the galleons with the plate taken formerly; for the consequence of this losse will be greate, in respect they are wholly disappointed of furnishinge the West-India with such necessaries as they wante; for those shipes were designed to have gone from thence in few daies, if general Blake had not prevented them; so now they are driven to theire laste shifte to freight Hollanders, and sende them some, and some for the India. There are 17 galleons in Cadix sitted to goe to sea; but 'tis given out, they will not departe untill September, when they will sende out there whole fleete, and make there way for the West-India, notwithstanding all opposition of the Inglish; but in the meane time, if they can finde an oppertunity to slipp by his highnes's fleete, no question but they will take hold of it.

I have writ to your honor in a former, that Olivenza, a garrison of this kingdom, was besieged by the Spaniard, which the 30th of May, N. S. was delyvered to them, notwithstandinge they had men and provisions to have defended it six months longer. The governour is imprisoned by the queen's order. Whilst it was besieged, the Portuguezes made several attempts to relieve it, but were still beaten by the Spaniard: then they made an attempt on Badejoz, thinkinge the Spaniard would have removed the siege from Olyvenza; but all in vaine, for the garrison of Badajoz fallied out, and killed aboute 1000 Portuguezes, which caused them to retreate with there whole army this syde the river Godiana with shame. In the north of Portugall the Spaniard made another inroade with 8000 horse and foote: they made an assault on Valentia, a towne belonging to this kingdome, which lyes on the river Mynho, but they were repulsed with the losse of 300 men; on which they retreated, and paste the river againe into Galitia; but 'tis feared wee shall speedily heare from them againe. I believe the Spaniards have found the defect of the Portugueze, whoe have not a commander, that knowes how to lead an army; and if the queene doe not open her eyes, and take some course for better commanders, shee will loose her kingdome, through the indiscretion and pryde of the nobillity; and what is more to be feared, is the affection, which the clergy, and some of the nobility beare the Spaniard. Since the takinge Olivenza, wee heare of noe motion the Spanish army is upon. 'Tis feared the next newes will be, they are satt downe before Elvez, the strongest place in Portugall.

I make bold to continue my petition to your honor, for a letter to the queen of Portugall, to stirr her up to pay the debts she owes to the Inglish nation, whoe are extremely prejudiced by the unjust keeping their estates from them. The Lord ever blesse and prosper your honor (as I have all the reason in the world) shall still be the praiers of
Your honor's most faithfull servant,
Tho. Maynard.

Lisbon, 6th June 1657. [N.S.]

Our ambassador is preparinge for his journey for Ingland, but they are slow in their motions. He tells me, he will depart about 20 dayes hence; but I believe it will be longer. Your honor will find him more a soldier then a statesman, and yet he is thought a fitt person for the command (general of the horse) which is fallen to him, rather by his longe service then any considerable action he hath ever been in. I have to doe with many disaffected and turbulent spiritts; but hitherto I have kept them in such awe, that not any of them durst appeare with thire malicious reports publickly. If your honor would be pleased to countenance mee with two lynes to the queen, that I might not be disturbed in sendinge one or two prissoners for Ingland, it would make them more calme, and prevent many fraudulent reportes, which are thrown abroade; and these people are apt to beleeve, novelties, which was a reason they stood so longe off from ratifyinge the peace, and doe now delay the payinge those vast sumes they owe some marchants. I tooke occasion to tell the secretary of state, that thire facillity in beleeving the reports of disaffected people hath coste them deare, and may yett be a thorne in thire sydes. It was on occasion of givinge him a relation of general Blake's victory over the Spaniard, he told me he was assured from some of our owne nation, that the Spaniards loste but three shipes; and I beleeve the greatest parte of the courte doe not beleeve a jott the victory was so compleate as it was, and all by meanes of some malignants of our nation.

Your honor's humble servant,
Tho. Maynard.

The admiralty in Zealand to the states-general.

Middleburgh, 6 June 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. l. p. 1241.

H. and M. Lords,
We are advised by several skippers of Middleburgh and Flushing, how that they going with convoy from this city to Ostend, laden with salt, were detained by the English ships of war lying upon the French coasts, who plundered some of them, and afterwards, at their request, suffered them to return to Flushing, from whence they set sail; whereupon the captain, John Thyssen, who convoyed them, coming on board of the English commander, he read unto the said captain his commission, how he was not to suffer any ships to frequent the Flemish ports and habours, of what nation soever they be, but to send them for England; and in regard we are daily sollicited by the people of this nation for convoy to the said Flemish harbours, we could not omit advising your H. and M. L. hereof, to know of you, how we are to behave our selves towards the said proceedings of the English, against the inhabitants of this state; there being no reason why one nation, through the quarrel of another, should be hindred and prejudiced in their commerce; besides, the English were not kept from carrying their goods to the Spanish harbours during our war with Spain, though we had our men of war upon the Flemish coasts.

We are also informed, that one of the salt-ships detained by the English, and afterwards released by them, was presently after met by a French ship of war, and taken and brought into Calais.

Capt. Manley to mr. Tho. Rogers, from Dantzick.

Vol. l. p. 243.

Dear Sir,
Wee expect dayly other officers out of Holland to releive us here, and I have got libertie to returne, which I should doe as soone as the other come, if it were not, that I will expect yet once more to heare from you. I want no invitations to stay here in the towne-service, which I should probably accept of, if it were not to serve a particular place; and therefore would rather goe to the Swedes or Danes. I pray advise mee in this particular; and if you study my good, send me recommendations, where you would have me to goe; let me likewise know what is become of the cloth, which I much want. Our newes followes: The Swedes, if wee beleeve them, have after two dayes siege taken Brazil, the garrison for the most part having served under the Brandenburgher, and prince Radzivil, formerly, and now taken service a-new under them and the Sweede. The place is put into Ragotzki's hands, who is thence gone to besiege Samos, and the king is upon his returne, having sent his brother and Sultzbach orders to meet him at Plotsko, where they are to make a bridge over the Wyssel. 'Tis thought his majesty will go in person against the Dane, who have already begun the warr by siezing of his shipes in the Sound. Sapiha is retired deeper into Livonia, and joyned with Gonzioski, and Luburnerski is returned into Great Poland. The Swedish treatie with Muscovy doth not go on. Yesterday the Polish foot, which the king left here, together with their cannon and other warlike equipage, quitted us, and are gone with their horse, which came to fetch them, towards Poland; the cavalleire of this garrison convey them some part of the way. The Polish horse in their way hither fell upon a Swedish convoy, whom they beat; the bootie is valued at 100000 dollers: 'tis certainly great. This is all, save my being,

Sir, yours entirely

6 June 1657. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence from colonel Bamfylde, directed to mr. Simon Tanner, merchant in London.

Vol. l. p. 245.

Not being advertised either from your selfe, or any else, that those many letters I have written to you since my arivall in France have been received, I have of late forborne to acquaint you with some things, which have come to my knowledge of absolute importance to your service. I have likewise fownde meanes to intercept some letters goeing to 13 30 43 22 37 90 5 146 962. They are of concernment to you. The great oppertunity, which offers itselfe to mee of serving you in the business of Germany, by the favour and confidence of the embassadour, with whom I can goe, and be very well, makes me soe unwilling to loose such an advantage for restoringe my selfe to your good oppinion agayne, as peradventure I may not easily meet with, that I am I feare too importunate with you concerning it, especially since I consider, that your embassadour here will never want will nor matter to suggest things to my prejudice, whilest I remayne in France; and if I goe to the army to sir John Reynolds, and serve there in the condition of a private soldier, 'twill be withoute all the hopes of preserment, while James Stuart commands in the Spanish army; and if any disorders should arise amongest your soldiers, I shall still be suspected as the author of them, notwithstanding the uttermoste integrity and circumspection that I can comport my self with; though otherwise I am confident I might be very serviceable to sir John Reynolds in his present employment. Mareschall de Grammont begins his journey the end of this month for certayne; soe as if you will favour mee herein, I assure I shall serve you with perfect sidelity and industry, and I beleeve with answerable success. Pray doe not imagine, that I have begunn my letter with intimations of haveing something of importance to informe you of, to incline you to this employment for me, in the mangement of which if you doe not thinke me faithfull, and proper, I shall not sollicit you further in it, but shall advertise you of what I have to say, when you let me knowe, that my letters will come to your hands, though you should never trust me in any negotiation, as if you doe not in this, I shall never expect it in any other, who am,
[Paris] June 6, 1657. [N. S.]

Your moste humble and most faithfull servant.