A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ADBOLTON, formerly a parish, now a hamlet in the parish of Holme-Pierrepoint, union of Bingham, S. division of the wapentake of Bingham and of the county of Nottingham, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Nottingham; containing 25 inhabitants. The living, a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 13. 9., was in 1707 consolidated with the rectory of Holme-Pierrepoint: the church is in ruins.
Adderbury, East (St. Mary)
ADDERBURY, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Banbury, hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Deddington; containing, with the township of West Adderbury, and the hamlets of Barford St. John, Bodicot, and Milton, 2525 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book called Edburgberie, probably derived that name from St. Edburgh, to whom many religious establishments in this part of the country were dedicated. In the court rolls of New College, Oxford, to which the lordship belongs, the name is written "Ebberbury;" and Henry de Knyghton relates that, by a council of bishops held at Oxford, a blasphemous impostor, condemned for assuming the office and pretending to the wounds of Christ, was crucified at "Abberbury," now Adderbury. The Parish comprises about 5900 acres, of which 1120 are in West Adderbury, 1240 in Bodicot, 800 in Milton, and 700 in Barford St. John. In the eastern part of the village stood a magnificent ancient mansion, belonging to the Duke of Argyll, afterwards the residence of the Earl of Rochester, and the remains of which are now incorporated with a modern seat.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21. 4. 9½.; net income, £818; patrons and appropriators, the Warden and Fellows of New College. The church, situated on elevated ground, is a handsome cruciform structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a massive square tower strengthened by angular buttresses, and crowned with a pierced parapet, from within which rises an octagonal spire, having at the base four octagonal pyramids surmounted with vanes. Between the north transept and the east end of the chancel is an octagonal turret, crowned with battlements. The chancel, of beautiful proportions, and built by William of Wykeham, is lighted by windows of elegant design, lately restored: part of the ancient rood-loft, of exquisite workmanship, is remaining; also some fine tracery; and the whole of the interior is replete with rich details, interspersed with grotesque ornaments. In the hamlets of Bodicot and Barford St. John are other churches, both ancient structures, supposed to have been erected in the fourteenth century; and the old parsonage, now a farmhouse, retains much of its original character. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
ADDERBURY, WEST, a township, in the parish of East Adderbury, union of Banbury, hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, 2 miles (N.) from Deddington; containing 442 inhabitants.
Adderley (St. Peter)
ADDERLEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Drayton, Drayton division of the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of Salop, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Drayton; containing 404 inhabitants. It is situated on the Liverpool and Shrewsbury road, and the Chester and Ellesmere canal; and comprises 3750a. 1r. 23p., of which 962½ acres are arable, 2493½ pasture and meadow, and 294 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 6. 0½., and in the patronage of the Rev. H. C. Cotton, for the next turn; afterwards, of Richard Corbett, Esq., of Adderley Hall. The tithes have been commuted for £666. 16.; and there are about 19 acres of glebe, with a glebe-house, rebuilt in 1800. The parish has sundry donations for doles of bread to widows each Sunday, and for a distribution of money on St. Thomas's day; also an alternate turn with Muckleston, of money to place six poor boys at school, and two as apprentices.
ADDERSTONE, a township, in the parish of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Bambrough ward and of Northumberland, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Belford; containing 302 inhabitants. The manor was possessed by the ancient family of Forster, from whom it came, in 1763, to John William Bacon, Esq., by whom the present handsome mansion, which stands near the site of the old hall, on the west bank of the Warn, was erected, and whose successor sold the estate to J. Pratt, Esq.
Addingham (St. Michael)
ADDINGHAM (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Kirk-Oswald; containing, with the townships of Gamblesby, Glassonby, Hunsonby and Winskel, and Little Salkeld, 735 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river Eden, and the Roman road called Maiden-way may be traced here in many parts of its course: there are some quarries of red freestone. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 7.; net income, £253; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. The church is situated in the township of Glassonby: at Gamblesby are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; also one for the latter at Hunsonby; and there are well-endowed free schools at Hunsonby and Maughamby. At Little Salkeld is a remarkable monument supposed to be Druidical, commonly called 'Long Meg and her Daughters," consisting of 67 stones varying in shape and height, which form a circle about 350 feet in diameter; and in the same township was anciently a chapel, the site of which, according to tradition, was at a village called Addingham, on the eastern bank of the Eden, where human bones, crosses, and other remains, have been dug up. Dr. Paley, the celebrated theological writer, held the living.
Addingham (St. Peter)
ADDINGHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Skipton, partly in the E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, and partly in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Skipton; containing 1753 inhabitants, of whom 1527 are in the township of Addingham. It is situated on the western side of the river Wharfe, and within the liberty of Clifford's Fee, and comprises about 4000 acres, of which 900 are open common: the soil is fertile, and the surface varied and pleasing; freestone of good quality is abundant, and extensively quarried. Farfield Hall, in the parish, is a handsome mansion in the Italian style, originally built by the Earl of Burlington, and is finely situated, commanding beautiful views of the river and of the picturesque valley through which it flows. The village, which consists of irregularly detached houses, extends nearly a mile in length: a portion of the inhabitants are employed in cotton and worsted mills, and in hand-loom weaving. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 7. 8½.; income, about £400, with a glebe-house beautifully situated; patron, the Rev. William Thompson. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £197, and the glebe consists of 20 acres. The church, which was rebuilt in 1757, is a neat structure with a square tower, and is seated on an eminence overlooking the river; it contains 450 sittings. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. On Counter Hill, about a mile from the village, are the remains of a Roman encampment, and some traces of a Roman road. A massive and antique ring of gold was found in the churchyard some years since.
Addington (St. Mary)
ADDINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 1¾ mile (W.N.W.) from Winslow; containing 84 inhabitants. It comprises about 1500 acres; the surface is in general level, and the soil good pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 9. 7.; net income, £200; patron, John Poulett, Esq.: the glebe consists of 100 acres. On the border of the parish is a place called "Gallows Gap," where, in the reign of Edward III., a gallows was erected by the family of Molines, who, as lords of the barony, possessed the power of trying and executing capital offenders.
Addington (St. Margaret)
ADDINGTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Malling, hundred of Larkfield, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Maidstone; containing 208 inhabitants. The parish comprises 942 acres, whereof 70 are under wood. Here is one of those land springs very common in the eastern part of Kent, called the Ailbourn, which breaks out with great impetuosity once in seven or eight years, directing its course into a trench dug for its reception, till it arrives at the Leybourn rivulet, the trout in which, at other times white, it turns to a red colour. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 8.; net income, £160; patron, the Hon. J. W. Stratford: the glebe consists of 26 acres. The church is pleasantly situated in the midst of foliage on rising ground within a valley, near which are remains, supposed to be Druidical.
Addington (St. Mary)
ADDINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Croydon, First division of the hundred of Wallington, E. division of Surrey, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Croydon; containing 580 inhabitants. The manor is held by the singular tenure of making and presenting to the king, at his coronation, a mess of pottage called mewpergynon; subject to the performance of which, a carucate of land here was granted to Tezelin, cook to William the Conqueror. The parish comprises by admeasurement 3635 acres, 500 of which are under wood or uncultivated. The village is situated at the foot of a range of hills to which it gives its name; and adjacent to these hills also is Addington Place, which, in 1807, was purchased by Dr. Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury, with the funds arising from the sale of the archiepiscopal palace at Croydon. The mansion was originally erected by Alderman Trecothick, on the site of an ancient edifice said to have been a hunting seat of Henry VIII.; it was improved by Dr. Sutton, and has been rebuilt with the addition of wings, and the grounds much extended, by Dr. Howley. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 16. 5½.; patron, the Archbishop; impropriators, the landowners. The great and small tithes have been commuted, the former for £559. 18. 6., and the latter for £208. 4.; and there is a small glebe. The church, consisting of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with a low, square, embattled tower, was thoroughly repaired in 1843: in the chancel lie the remains of Archbishop Sutton. Near the church is an eminence called Castle hill, on which it is said a castle anciently stood; and on the brow of the hill adjoining Addington common, and now in the park, are several low tumuli, in which urns have been found.
Addington, Great (All Saints)
ADDINGTON, GREAT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Thrapston, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4½ miles (S. W.) from Thrapston; containing 266 inhabitants. It is situated on the left bank of the navigable river Nene, and comprises 1233a. 3r. 31p.; the surface is pleasantly diversified with hill and dale, and the soil runs through many varieties. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 12. 8½.; net income, £315; patron and incumbent, the Rev. James Tyley. The tithes were commuted for 327 acres of land and a money payment, under an inclosure act, in 1803.
Addington, Little (St. Mary)
ADDINGTON, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thrapston, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3¼ miles (N.) from Higham-Ferrers; containing 299 inhabitants. The parish is bounded by the river Nene, and consists of 1104a. 3r. 29p. of a moderately productive soil. On the opposite side of the Nene runs a branch of the London and Birmingham railway, from Northampton to Peterborough, with a station at a convenient distance from this place. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the great tithes, and valued in the king's books at £7. 12.; net income, £245; patron, G. Capron, Esq. The tithes of the parish were commuted for land and a money payment, under an inclosure act, passed in the year 1830.
Addle, or Adel (St. John the Baptist)
ADDLE, or Adel (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York; containing 1121 inhabitants, of whom 785 are in the township of Addle-cum-Eccup, 5¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Leeds. This place, anciently called Adhill, from the Ada of the Saxons, and in some documents Adel, was the site of the Roman station Burgodunum, of which some traces, with many inscribed stones, fragments of urns, and the remains of an aqueduct, were discovered in 1702 on an adjacent moor. Near this moor are still the vestiges of a camp 120 yards in length, and 90 yards in breadth, in which Roman altars, numerous coins, and various other relics, have been found. The parish is bounded on the north by the river Wharfe, and comprises by computation 8000 acres; the surface is varied, and the scenery generally of pleasing character. The hamlet of Eccup, which is near the site of the camp, abounds with springs of excellent water, from which the Leeds new water-works are supplied. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 3. 4.; net income, £623; patron, W. T. Carruthers, Esq.: the glebe comprises 164 acres, with a good house. The church is a venerable structure of Norman design, and one of the most perfect specimens of that style in the kingdom; the south doorway is highly enriched, and many of its details are of great elegance. Thos. Kirk, Esq., in 1701, bequeathed to the poor the sum of £800, which has been laid out in the purchase of two houses and 82 acres of land.
ADDLESTONE, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish and union of Chertsey, Second division of the hundred of Godley, W. division of Surrey; containing about 2000 inhabitants. The lands were inclosed in 1808, and include a considerable extent of meadow; the dwellings are much scattered, and interspersed with several seats and villas. A church in the early English style, dedicated to St. Paul, and affording accommodation for 800 persons, has been erected at an expense of about £3000, raised by subscription; it has been endowed with £2000 by Miss Wightwick, whose family has long resided in the parish, and the patronage is vested in the Bishop of Winchester. The consecration took place in Jan. 1838; and the benefice was augmented in 1841 by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to £150 per annum. Near the west end of the church is a parsonage-house, built by subscription at a cost of £970. An ancient and venerable tree here, called the Crouch oak, is stated by tradition to have in former ages marked the boundary of Windsor Forest, in this direction; and Queen Elizabeth is said to have dined beneath its shadow: the girth, at two feet from the ground, is 24 feet.
Addlethorpe (St. Nicholas)
ADDLETHORPE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Marsh division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 9½ miles (E. S. E.) from Alford; containing 238 inhabitants. It contains about 2000 acres of land, on the coast, and is subject to encroachments of the sea, against which it is necessary to maintain an embankment at a considerable expense. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 10. 2½., and in the gift of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £140, and the glebe consists of about 7 acres. The church is a fine specimen of the perpendicular style, and consists of a nave, north and south aisles, and a tower. There is a place of worship for Methodists.
Adforton, with Stanway, Payton, and Grange
ADFORTON, with Stanway, Payton, and Grange, a township, in the parish of Leintwardine, union of Knighton, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 8½ miles (W. S. W.) from Ludlow; containing 288 inhabitants, and comprising 1565 acres. The surface is boldly undulated, and the southern portion well wooded. On an eminence at the northern extremity are the remains of a Roman encampment called Brandon camp. The road from Leintwardine to Wigmore passes through the village of Adforton.
ADGARLEY, a township, in the parish of Urswick, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Dalton; containing 45 inhabitants.
Adisham (Holy Innocents)
ADISHAM (Holy Innocents), a parish, in the union of Bridge, hundred of Downhamford, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 2¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Wingham; containing 372 inhabitants. It lies a little to the east of the high road from Canterbury to Dover, and comprises 1815 acres, of which 189 are in wood. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Staple annexed, valued in the king's books at £28. 3. 1½., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £747, and there are about 13 acres of glebe, with a house. The church is a large cruciform edifice with a low tower, in the early style of English architecture, except the large window of the transept, which is in the decorated style; the altar-piece is embellished with curious paintings on wood of the Four Evangelists.
Adlestrop (St. Mary Magdalene)
ADLESTROP (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Stow-on the-Wold, Upper division of the hundred of Slaughter, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Stow; containing 200 inhabitants. It is bounded on the southeast by the road from Stow to Chipping-Norton, and on the south-west by the river Evenlode; and is situated on the borders of Oxfordshire, not far distant from the southern extremity of the county of Warwick. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to that of Broadwell: the tithes were partially commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1775. The church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt in 1764.
Adlingfleet (All Saints)
ADLINGFLEET (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Goole, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York; comprising the townships of Eastoft, Fockerby, and Haldenby; and containing 448 inhabitants, of whom 199 are in the township of Adlingfleet, 9½ miles (S. E.) from Howden. This parish is situated on the borders of Lincolnshire, between the rivers Ouse and Trent, and contains 4580 acres, forming a continuation of the great level of Hatfield Chase; the soil is chiefly clay, and, though the surface is flat, the scenery is pleasing. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 11., and has a net income of £280; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the impropriation belongs to Catherine Hall, Cambridge. The tithes for the townships of Adlingfleet, Fockerby, and Haldenby, were commuted for land and a money payment, under an inclosure act, in 1767. The church, which is a small edifice, was repaired in 1828 at an expense of £500. There are two places of worship for Methodists; and at Fockerby is a free grammar school.