A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ADLINGTON, a township, in the parish of Prestbury, union and hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Macclesfield; containing 1159 inhabitants. Adlington Hall, a very ancient and curious structure with a garden of cut yew hedges, which has long been the residence of the family of Legh, was garrisoned for Charles I. in the civil war, and taken by the parliamentarian forces on the 14th of Feb. 1645, after a fortnight's siege: in the south-east angle is a small domestic chapel, handsomely fitted up, licensed by the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in the 25th of Henry VI. The township comprises 4019 acres; the soil is clayey, and there are some valuable mines of coal, and quarries of flagstone. A manorial court is held in May and December, at which debts under 40s. are recoverable.
ADLINGTON, a township, in the parish of Standish, union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (N.) from Wigan; containing 1130 inhabitants. The Adlington family held lands here in the reign of Edward II., and for many subsequent generations: the Aughtons, also, resided here for several centuries; and, latterly, the knightly family of Clayton were lords of the manor. The village is about midway between the Preston and Wigan and the Preston and Bolton railways; and the road from Wigan to Chorley, and the Leeds and Liverpool canal, also afford means of communication. The townships of Adlington, Anderton, Duxbury, and Heath-Charnock, in the parish, form a district chapelry; and a church, a neat structure in the Norman style, has been erected by Her Majesty's Commissioners, containing 629 sittings, of which 331 are free: the living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £150, in the gift of the Rector. The tithes have been commuted for £120. 14.
Admarsh, Lancaster.—See Bleasdale.
ADMARSH, Lancaster.—See Bleasdale.
ADMASTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Blithfield, union of Uttoxeter, hundred of South Pirehill, N. division of Staffordshire, 7½ miles (S. S. W.) from Uttoxeter; containing 59 inhabitants. It lies about a quarter of a mile east of the church; and contains a few houses, and the free school, founded by the Bagot family in 1729.
ADMINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Quinton, union of Shipston, Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 6¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Chipping-Campden; containing 197 inhabitants.
Admiston, or Athelhampton
ADMISTON, or Athelhampton, a parish, in the union of Dorchester, hundred of Piddletown, Dorchester division of Dorset, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Dorchester; containing 74 inhabitants. This place is said to have been the principal residence of the Saxon kings of Wessex, but there is no satisfactory evidence of the truth of that opinion. The living is a rectory, with that of Burleston annexed, valued in the king's books at £2; net income, £200; patron, the Earl of Mornington. The church is a small edifice, repaired by Sir Robert Long in 1740, before which it contained an apartment supposed to have been anciently inhabited by a rector or custos.
Adstock (St. Cecilia)
ADSTOCK (St. Cecilia), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 3 miles (N. W.) from Winslow, on the road to the town of Buckingham; containing 419 inhabitants. This parish consists of 1128 acres of cultivated arable and pasture land, inclosed under an act of parliament passed in 1797, when an allotment was awarded to the incumbent in lieu of tithes. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 3.; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln; net income £235, arising from 300 acres of land. In the time of the plague, in 1665, the contagion having extended to Buckingham and Winslow, a market was held at this place.
ADSTONE, a chapelry, in the parish of CanonsAshby, union of Towcester, hundred of GreensNorton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 6¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Towcester; containing 196 inhabitants. Mention occurs of the monks of CanonsAshby as owners of land here, in the reign of Henry III.: in the time of Edward II. the king granted them the liberty of free warren in all their demesne lands in Adstone, and from this period the monastery seems to have held the manor until the Dissolution. The chapelry comprises by computation 1400 acres of land, about equally divided in arable and pasture; it is partially undulated, and watered by a stream which falls into the river Tow. Good sandstone is quarried for building. The living is a donative; patrons, the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy, who have estates here, and who, with Worcester College, have given a small endowment to secure permanent duty. The chapel, dedicated to All Saints, is remarkable for the simplicity and dignity of its architecture, and is supposed to have been dependent on Canons-Ashby, at which place the inhabitants still continue to bury. In 1813 the corporation repaired the chapel, and in 1843-4 restored the dilapidated parts of the building, adding a chancel.
Advent, or St. Adven
ADVENT, or St. Adven, a parish, in the union of Camelford, hundred of Lesnewth, E. division of Cornwall, 1¾ mile (S.) from Camelford; containing 291 inhabitants. It comprises 4222 acres, of which 2400 are common or waste; the surface is hilly, and the soil slaty, and interspersed with large granite stones: the river Camel flows on the northern boundary. The living is a rectory, not in charge, annexed to that of Lanteglos cum Camelford.
Adwell (St. Mary)
ADWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Lewknor, county of Oxford, 1¾ mile (S. by E.) from Tetsworth; containing 46 inhabitants. It comprises about 500 acres of land, bounded on the north-east by the road between Oxford and High Wycombe. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 9., and in the patronage of Mrs. F. Webb: the incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £111, and £9 are payable to the Dean and Canons of Windsor; there are about 15 acres of glebe. Here is an ancient intrenchment called Adwell Cop, supposed by Dr. Plot to have been constructed by the Danes, about the year 1010.
Adwick-Le-Street (St. Lawrence)
ADWICK-LE-STREET (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Doncaster, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York; containing 554 inhabitants, of whom 120 are in the township of Hampole, and 434 in that of Adwick-leStreet, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Doncaster. This place, which is said to derive the adjunct to its name from its situation on a Roman road, is intersected by the great northern road, and contains 1543a. 3r. 22p.; 595 acres are grass, 924 arable, and 24 wood and plantation. The village is pleasantly situated on a declivity, and watered by a stream that flows eastward to the Don. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4.; net income, £364; patron, John Fullerton, Esq.: the glebe consists of 8 acres. The church is a neat structure, with a nave, chancel, north aisle, and tower, and has several ancient altar tombs, richly carved, erected in memory of the Fitzwilliam, Washington, and other families. A spring of pure water, in the parish, is in some repute for healing weak eyes.
ADWICK-upon-Dearne, a parish, in the union of Doncaster, N. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Doncaster; containing 108 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1105a. 1r. 22p., of which 704 acres are arable, 385 meadow and pasture, 8 acres homesteads and orchards, and 6 canal; the surface is varied, and the surrounding scenery richly diversified. The village is beautifully situated on the southern acclivity of the picturesque vale of Dearne, and near it run the Midland railway and the Dearne and Dove canal. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the vicarage of Wath-upon-Dearne. There was a church at an early period, which in the former part of the reign of Henry I. was given to the monastery of St. Oswald of Nostell, then newly founded: this edifice, which is the present parochial church, retains its primitive simplicity, and is the purest specimen remaining in the deanery of Doncaster of the original village churches; it has a nave and chancel, with a little shed in which two bells are hung. A powerful chalybeate spring was discovered on the glebe land in 1820.
Aff Piddle or Puddle
AFF PIDDLE or PUDDLE, a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Hundred's Barrow, Wareham division of Dorset, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Dorchester; containing, with Bryant's-Puddle tything, and the hamlet of Pallington, 507 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3541 acres, whereof 1130 are common or waste. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 14. 9.; patron and impropriator, J. Frampton, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £354, and the vicarial for £46. 10.; the glebe consists of 1½ acre. The pulpit in the church bears date 1540, and is beautifully ornamented with carvings.
AGDEN, a township, in the parish of Malpas, union of Wrexham, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (S. E.) from Malpas; containing 97 inhabitants. It comprises 508 acres of land, the soil of which is clay. The tithes have been commuted for £63.
AGDEN, a township, partly in the parish of Rosthern, but chiefly in that of Bowdon, union of Altringham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 5½ miles (N. N. W.) from Nether Knutsford; containing 95 inhabitants. The manor was held by a family of the same name: a moiety of it passed by female heirs to the families of Daniel and Venables; the other moiety, by purchase, to the Savages, who sold it to the family of Venables in 1619. William Venables married the heiress of the Daniels; and in 1727 the heiress of George Venables was married to Sir T. P. Chetwode, Bart., in whose family the property continues. The township comprises 500 acres; the soil is chiefly loam. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes through. The tithes of that part in the parish of Bowdon have been commuted for £16. 13., payable to the Bishop of Chester, and £16 to the vicar.
Agelthorpe, or Agglethorpe
AGELTHORPE, or Agglethorpe, a township, in the parish of Coverham, union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 3¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Middleham; containing 195 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1090 acres, and includes within its limits the places called Ashgill, Tupgill, Brackengill, Giles Alley, Scotescue Park, Bird Ridding, and Coverham. The Cover river, which has its source near the great Whernside mountain, here passes on the south, and flows north-eastward to the Ure. The monks of Coverham had land here, valued at £1. 6. 8. per annum; and the village, which is situated on the northern acclivity of the romantic Coverdale, is remarkable for its ancient Hall, now a farmhouse, which once belonged to the Topham family, and afterwards to the Chaytors.
AGLIONBY, a township, in the parish of Warwick, union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3¾ miles (E.) from Carlisle; containing 137 inhabitants
AGNES (ST.), a market-town and parish, in the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of Pyder, and of Cornwall, 8½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Truro, and 263 (W.) from London; containing 7757 inhabitants. This place, formerly called Breanic, or Bryanic, is situated in an extensive mining district, on the northern coast of the county, and is hilly and barren, the town consisting principally of cottages inhabited by miners. The rocks on this part of the coast are precipitous, and the character of the scenery for the greater part boldly picturesque. On a pyramidical rocky eminence, 664 feet above the level of the sea, is St. Agnes' beacon, formed out of an ancient cairn or tumulus, and which, during the late war with France, was kept constantly in readiness to communicate intelligence in the event of any invasion: it has since that time been greatly diminished by the removal of the stone for repairing the fences in the neighbourhood. At the base of the hill are vestiges of a strong vallum, supposed to have been constructed by the Romans, and which anciently extended for nearly two miles in a circular direction. The district was formerly worked only for tin, of which the principal mine, called "Seale Hole," after having produced an immense quantity of ore, was discontinued some years since. Coppermines were subsequently opened, and have been worked with very great success. The port, which is a member of that of St. Ives, carries on a trade principally with Ireland and Wales, in the exportation of copper-ore and fire-clay, and the importation of coal, iron, machinery, limestone, and grain. After many fruitless attempts, a pier of moorstone, here called "Trevannance," was constructed by a company in 1794; and the harbour has been improved within the last few years: it affords safe anchorage to about eight or ten vessels of one hundred tons' burthen, but can only be entered at high water. A pilchard fishery was established in 1802, which gives employment to about forty men. The market is on Thursday; a fair takes place on the 30th of April, and courts for the duchy are held here in October, at which constables and other officers are appointed.
The parish comprises 8294 acres, of which 3633 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of Perranzabuloe: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £265, and the appropriate, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, for £250. The church is an ancient structure, built chiefly of granite, with a small spire of the same material. A church district named Mount Hawke was formed in 1846, by the Ecclesiastical Commission, out of the parishes of St. Agnes and Illogan; and another, named Mithian, was formed out of St. Agnes' and three other parishes: the living of each is in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop alternately. There are places of worship for Bryanites, Independents, and Wesleyans. The free school, founded by the Rev. St. John Elliott in 1760, has a small endowment, arising from funds bequeathed by him for charitable uses; and another school is endowed with £5 per annum. Near the site of an ancient chapel, in a dingle called Chapelcomb, was the famous well of St. Agnes, of which many miraculous stories are recorded. Opie, the celebrated painter, was born in the parish in 1761; he died in the year 1807.
Aigburth, or Aigburgh
AIGBURTH, or Aigburgh, a district chapelry, in the township of Garston, parish of Childwall, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 4 miles (S. E.) from Liverpool; containing 1031 inhabitants. In the reigns of Elizabeth and James the family of Brettargh possessed this place; in that of Charles I. it was held by the Tarletons. It afterwards passed to various hands, among others to the Tarletons again, and more recently, by purchase, to the family of Alderman Porter, of Liverpool. Aigburth is a wealthy and fashionable district extending along the banks of the Mersey, and studded with the noble mansions and splendid villas of the Liverpool bankers and merchants, the salubrity of the air and the delightful scenery inviting their residence here. The land is beautifully undulated, and there are fine views of the river, the Welsh mountains, the county of Chester, and the ocean. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of certain Trustees; net income, £200. The chapel, dedicated to St. Anne, was erected in 1837, at a cost of £4000, and is a good edifice in the Norman style, with a highly decorated interior; the east window is of stained glass, representing Christ healing the Leper: the tower is 65 feet high, with a richly ornamented battlement. A Roman Catholic chapel, dedicated to St. Augustine, was built in 1837, at an expense of £1800; it is in the early English style, with a neat interior, and adjoining are a school, and a house for the priest, the Rev. Samuel Day. A school for boys and girls in connexion with the Established Church, is supported by subscription. There is a curious mausoleum erected by the well-known Dr. Solomon, who had a residence in the chapelry.