A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Finchampstead (St. James)
FINCHAMPSTEAD (St. James), a parish, in the union of Wokingham, hundred of Charlton, county of Berks, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Wokingham; containing 530 inhabitants, and comprising 3926a. 20p. Henry VI. granted a charter for a fair on Whit-Monday and the two following days, which has fallen into disuse; but at West-court, in the parish, a fair for cattle is held on April 23rd. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 9. 4½.; net income, £500; patron and incumbent, the Rev. H. E. St. John.
Finchingfield (St. John the Baptist)
FINCHINGFIELD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Braintree, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Thaxted; containing 2262 inhabitants. This extensive parish is bounded on the west by the river Pant; the surface is generally low, and the soil varies from a deep rich loam to light gravelly pasture-land bordering on the river. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18; patron, the Rev. J. Stock; impropriator, R. Marriot, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £1506. 5., and the vicarial for £733. 10.; the glebe comprises nearly 3 acres. The church, pleasantly situated on a hill, is a substantial edifice of stone, with a tower, formerly surmounted by a spire, which was blown down in 1702; the chancel contains two chapels, in which are some ancient and interesting monuments. A chapel has been erected at Cornish-Hall End, in the parish, the patronage of which is vested in the Bishop of London; it is dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, and the net income of the incumbent is £100. There is a place of worship for Independents. William Bendlowes, in 1576, founded an almshouse for four widows; and Ann Cole, in 1730, gave the fourth share of a farm now let for £60 per annum, for instructing and apprenticing children.
Finchley (St. Mary)
FINCHLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Barnet, Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from London, on the great north road; containing 3664 inhabitants. This place was long celebrated for an extensive common, now inclosed, which comprises about 1010 acres, partly in the adjoining parishes of Fryern-Barnet and Hornsey; General Monk, in 1660, drew up his army on it, while engaged in negotiations for the restoration of Charles II., and it was subsequently the frequent resort of large bodies of troops for exercise. The parish contains by computation 2792 acres, of which 350 are arable, 90 woodland, and the remainder meadow and pasture; the soil is a strong deep loam. Since the inclosure of the common, the neighbourhood has been greatly improved, and several handsome detached mansions, and numerous pleasing villas, have been erected for the residence of opulent and respectable families: the village is well built, and is connected with the western portion of the metropolis by a new road from St. John's Wood, Paddington. A market, chiefly for pigs, is held on Monday. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20; net income, £417; patron, the Bishop of London. The tithes were partly commuted for land, under an act of inclosure, in 1811, and the remainder have been recently commuted for a rent-charge of £100; the glebe comprises 36 acres. The church is a stone edifice in the later English style, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, and containing several ancient monuments. At Whetstone is a district church; and at East End is a church dedicated to the Trinity, the first stone of which was laid by the late Mr. Byng, in October, 1845; it has a bell-turret surmounted by a spire rising eighty feet above the ground. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. In 1489, Robert Warren gave land at Finchley for charitable uses, which, with property arising from other benefactions, produces about £280 per annum, applied in repairing the church and highways, relieving the poor, and for other purposes.
FINDERN, a chapelry, in the parish of Mickleover, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Derby; containing 416 inhabitants. It comprises 1622a. 2r. 22p., and has a village that extends round a green of about two acres. The manufacture of velvet and silk is carried on. The Trent and Mersey canal, and the Birmingham and Derby railway, pass through the township. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints. There is a place of worship for Unitarians. John Allsop, in 1714, bequeathed land now producing £50 a year, for the maintenance of a schoolmaster. It is said traditionally that this place belonged to Lord Findern in the time of Richard III., and was confiscated after the battle of Bosworth-Field.
Findon (St. John the Baptist)
FINDON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Thakeham, hundred of Brightford, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Shoreham; containing 589 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Horsham to Worthing, and comprises 4349a. 2r., of which 1477 acres are arable, 517 pasture, 150 woodland, and 2136 open down. Fairs are held on Holy-Thursday for pedlery, and on September 14th for sheep. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 3. 9.; patrons and impropriators, the President and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £555, and the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is in the early English style, with later insertions. On the hill called Tor Mur, several Roman urns were discovered immediately under the turf; and in the grounds of Cissbury, several unbaked urns containing coins of the Lower Empire were found, one of which is in the British Museum.
Finedon, or Thingdon (St. Mary)
FINEDON, or THINGDON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wellingborough, hundred of Huxloe, N. division of the county of Northampton, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Wellingborough; containing 1378 inhabitants. The manor and principal part of the parish have belonged, for more than two centuries, to the Dolben family, whose ancestor, Sir Gilbert Dolben, son of an archbishop of York, was the first baronet. The parish is intersected by the road from Peterborough to Northampton, and consists of 3547a. 2r. 1p. The population, with the exception of a few employed in the making of shoes, and some females in the manufacture of lace, are engaged in agriculture. There are several quarries of stone, which is raised for building, burning into lime, and for the roads. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 17. 1.; net income, £843; patron, incumbent, and impropriator, the Rev. S. W. Paul. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1806; the land contains between 600 and 700 acres. The church is a large and handsome edifice, mostly in the decorated style; the tower, battlements, and spire, are fine specimens of later English architecture: the font is a large cubical mass of stone, with the angles sloped off, so as to make the upper face octagonal. Here are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. Richard Walker in 1580 founded and endowed a school, the bequest to which now produces £60 per annum, for the instruction of boys; and there is an endowment in land, producing £50 for girls.
Fineshade (St. Mary)
FINESHADE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Uppingham, hundred of Corby, N. division of the county of Northampton, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Oundle, containing 55 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from Kettering to Stamford, and consists of about 670 acres. The living is a donative, in the patronage of C. Kirkham, Esq. On the ruins of Castle-Hymel, which was demolished in the reign of John, a priory of Black canons was founded by Richard Engain, Lord of Blatherwycke, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £62. 16.
Fingall (St. Andrew)
FINGALL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Akebar and Hutton-Hang, and the chapelry of Burton-Constable, 458 inhabitants, of whom 133 are in the township of Fingall, 6½ miles (W. N. W.) from Bedale. The parish comprises by computation 3835 acres, of which 1437 are arable, 1939 meadow and pasture, and 460 woodland; the surface is boldly undulated, and the village situated on a considerable eminence. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 18. 4.; net income, £342; patron, Marmaduke Wyvill, Esq. The tithes of Fingall township have been commuted for £76, and the glebe consists of 83 acres. The church is a small ancient structure, about half a mile from the village.
Fingest, or Finghurst (St. Bartholomew)
FINGEST, or FINGHURST (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Henley-on-Thames; containing 379 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 7. 11.; and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Wells: the tithes have been commuted for £186, and the glebe comprises 26 acres. The church exhibits remains of Norman architecture; the font is circular, and enriched with arches. There is a bequest in land, producing £15 per annum, by the Rev. Francis Edmunds, for teaching and clothing children.
FINGLAND, a township, in the parish of Bowness, union of Wigton, Cumberland ward, E. division of the county of Cumberland, 6½ miles (N.) from the town of Wigton; containing 187 inhabitants.
Fingringhoe (St. George)
FINGRINGHOE (St. George), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, hundred of Winstree, N. division of Essex, 4¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Colchester; containing 581 inhabitants. The parish is nearly surrounded by water, and comprises about 3000 acres, chiefly fertile land: the river Colne is navigable on the east, and the Geetons on the south. The village is pleasantly situated on the road from Maldon to Colchester. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 7. 0½., and in the patronage of the Rev. J. M. Leir; net income, £140. The church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a tower of flint and stone.
Finmere (St. Michael)
FINMERE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 8 miles (N. E. by N.) from Bicester; containing 387 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Ouse, and comprises about 1500 acres: the soil is generally of inferior quality, and the surface elevated, and broken into hills. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 9. 4½., and in the gift of the Duke of Buckingham: the tithes have been commuted for £443, and there are 43 acres of glebe.
Finningham (St. Bartholomew)
FINNINGHAM (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (N. W.) from Thwaite; containing 480 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 10. 5., and in the gift of the family of Frere: the tithes have been commuted for £440, and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower: the east window has been embellished with stained glass, at the expense of the Rev. Edward Frere; there are monuments to Sir John and Lady Fenn, and the font is elaborately sculptured.
Finningley (St. Oswald)
FINNINGLEY (St. Oswald), a parish, in the union of Doncaster, partly in the Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, and partly in the soke of Doncaster, W. riding of York, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Bawtry; containing, with the townships of Aukley and Blaxton, 1209 inhabitants. The township of Finningley comprises by estimation 2340a. 2r. 25p.: the village is large, but irregularly built. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 4. 9½.; net income, £600; patron, J. Harvey, Esq. The waste lands of the parish were inclosed in 1774; and in 1778 an allotment was assigned to the rector in lieu of all tithes, except those of 300 acres having no common right, which have recently been commuted for a rent-charge of £44. 10. The church is an ancient structure, with a square embattled tower and a Norman porch. There is a chapel of ease at Aukley, erected by Mr. Harvey, T. W. Childers, Esq., and the Rev. G. H. Woodhouse. In the village is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
FINSBURY, one of the newly-enfranchised metropolitan boroughs, comprising parts of the Finsbury and Holborn divisions of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, with some places of exempt jurisdiction; the whole containing 265,043 inhabitants. It sends two members to parliament, under the provisions of the Reform act: the right of election is vested in the £10 householders, and the returning officer is annually appointed by the sheriff.—See Islington, Clerkenwell, &c.
FINSTHWAITE, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Coulton, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 8½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Ulverston. It is bounded on the north-east by the outlet of Windermere lake. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £76; patrons, the Landowners. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, was consecrated and made parochial in 1725; it has been enlarged, and 30 free sittings provided. There is a small endowment for a school, by James Dixon, in 1729.
FINSTOCK, a hamlet, in the parish of Charlbury, union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Banbury, county of Oxford, 4¼ miles (N.) from Witney; containing 534 inhabitants. A church has been built.
FIRBANK, anciently Frithbank, a chapelry, in the parish of Kirkby-Lonsdale, union of Kendal, Lonsdale ward, county of Westmorland, 10½ miles (N.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale; containing 199 inhabitants. The chapelry is bounded on the east by the river Lune, which separates it from Yorkshire; and comprises 3017 acres, of which 1200 are waste land or common: it is chiefly pasture. The Lancaster and Carlisle railway passes through a small portion. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80, with a glebe-house; patron, the Vicar of Kirkby-Lonsdale, whose tithes have been commuted for 18s., and the impropriate for £24, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge. The chapel and burying-ground were on the edge of an extensive moor; but the chapel has been pulled down, and a new edifice erected in the vale, and a burial-place attached; the chapel is in the pointed style, and commands one of the most beautiful and extensive views in the neighbourhood. There is a day school.
Firbeck (St. Peter)
FIRBECK (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Worksop, S. division of the wapentake of Upper Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Tickhill; containing 191 inhabitants. It comprises 1258a. 1r. 31p., of which 775 acres are arable, 266 meadow and pasture, and 193 woodland. The soil, though chiefly thin, is, owing to the use of bonemanure and to good cultivation, exceedingly productive; the surface is varied, and the scenery picturesque. Limestone of excellent quality abounds; and in the north-west part of the parish, adjoining the famed Roche Abbey grounds, the rock partakes of the quality of the white limestone so valuable to statuaries, called "Roche Abbey stone." Firbeck Hall, the seat of the late Henry Gally Knight, Esq., M.P., is a handsome residence in a well-wooded demesne. The village is beautifully situated in a sequestered vale, watered by a rivulet. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the living of Letwell annexed, in the patronage of the Chancellor of the Cathedral of York, with a net income of £60, and a glebe-house and 13 acres of land: the tithes have been commuted for £200. The church, a neat structure in the early Norman style, was built in 1820 at the expense of Mr. Knight, aided by a grant of £120 from the Incorporated Society: in the churchyard are head-stones to two persons who attained the respective ages of 109 and 111 years.
FIRBY, a township, in the parish of Westow, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Malton; containing 36 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north and west by the river Derwent, and comprises 490 acres of land. The Hall is a neat mansion, situated on a gentle acclivity, and encompassed by well-wooded grounds.
FIRBY, a township, in the parish and union of Bedale, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 1¼ mile from Bedale; containing 54 inhabitants. It is situated on the south side of the Bedale rivulet, and comprises 629a. 2r. 4p. Firby or Christ's hospital, founded in 1608 by John Clapham, for a master, six brethren, and 24 single men, of the parish of Bedale, stands near the village.
Firle, West (St. Peter)
FIRLE, WEST (St. Peter), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Totnore, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Lewes; containing 722 inhabitants. This parish, which is on the road from Lewes to Eastbourne, comprises by measurement 3208 acres, exclusively of woodland; 1108 are arable, 1326 meadow, 769 down, and 5 gardens. Firle Park, the seat of Viscount Gage, is a spacious and handsome residence, situated in a well-wooded park, within the limits of which is the church. The village is pleasantly seated under the South Downs, whose summit here, called Firle Beacon, has an elevation of 120 feet above the level of the sea, and commands beautiful views. The living is a vicarage, united to that of Beddingham, and valued in the king's books at £13. 9. 4½. The church is chiefly in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower: on the north of the chancel is the sepulchral chapel of the Gage family. The poor law union comprises eight parishes, and contains a population of 2449.
Firsby (St. Andrew)
FIRSBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Wold division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Spilsby; containing 196 inhabitants. It comprises 1066 acres by measurement: the soil of the arable grounds is a stiffish clay; there are some good pastures, and a considerable portion of inferior meadow and marsh, recently much improved by draining. The Steeping river flows through the lands. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Great Steeping united, valued in the king's books at £12. 0. 2.; patron, the Rev. Joseph Walls; impropriator, J. Maddison, Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £19. 10., and the rectorial for £182. 10.; the glebe comprises 11 acres. The church is a neat structure. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The sum of £12. 13., arising from three bequests of land by unknown benefactors, is annually distributed among the poor. Near the church is a spring, slightly chalybeate.
Firsby, East (St. James)
FIRSBY, EAST (St. James), a parish, in the E. division of the wapentake of Aslacoe, parts of Lindsey, union and county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S. E.) from Spital; containing 87 inhabitants, of whom 47 are in the township of West Firsby. The parish is on the road from Lincoln to Barton, and comprises 535 acres by measurement. The living is a discharged rectory, united to the vicarage of Saxby, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13: 4. The church has fallen into ruins.
Fishbourn, New (St. Peter and St. Mary)
FISHBOURN, NEW (St. Peter and St. Mary), a parish, in the union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 1¼ mile (W.) from Chichester; containing 295 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by Chichester harbour. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £176. 16.; the glebe comprises 14 acres, and the Dean and Chapter of Chichester receive a sum of £10. 14. per annum. The church is in the early English style. The remains of a Roman bath with a tessellated pavement were discovered in 1812, near the site of the Roman road here.
FISHBOURN, OLD, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Bosham, union of Westbourne, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 2 miles (W.) from Chichester; containing 90 inhabitants.
FISHBURN, a township, in the parish and union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 9¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Durham; containing 239 inhabitants. The family of Fishburn, who assumed the local name, were the earliest proprietors on record of the vill and manor; and among other landowners of whom mention occurs, have been the families of Bulmer, Widdrington, and Conyers. The township comprises 2082 acres, chiefly arable land, and is bounded towards the south by the river Skerne. The village is scattered along a dry swell of limestone, considerably to the north of the burn or beck which has given it name. Divine service is performed each alternate Sunday afternoon in a schoolroom, by one of the clergymen of the parish church, the rector of which has a glebe here of 69 acres, and tithes that have been commuted for £215. 8. 6. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.