A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Yielding, or Yelden (St. Mary)
YIELDING, or Yelden (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Stodden, union and county of Bedford, 4¾ miles (E.) from Higham-Ferrers; containing 320 inhabitants. This parish, in the Domesday survey called Ewelden, comprises 1912 acres, of which 836 are arable, 800 meadow and pasture, 10 woodland, and 177 common, roads, and waste. Many of the women and children are employed in lace-making. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 4.; net income, £317; patron and incumbent, the Rev. E. S. Bunting. The church is an ancient structure, and contains an interesting monument, but without inscription. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The moated site of an old baronial castle is still preserved.
YOCKLETON, a township, in the parish of Westbury, union of Atcham, hundred of Ford, S. division of Salop, 6 miles (W. by S.) from Shrewsbury. The tithes have been commuted for £175. 9. 6., of which £36. 8. 6. are payable to the impropriators.
Yokefleet, county York.—See Yorkfleet.
YOKEFLEET, county York.—See Yorkfleet.
YORK, a city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, and the head of a union, locally in the E. riding of York, of which it is the capital, 193 miles (N. N. W.) from London; containing 28,842 inhabitants. The origin of this ancient city, which in Nenuius' catalogue is called Caer Ebrauc, is involved in obscurity. According to Llwyd, the learned Welsh antiquary, it is identified with the city termed by the Britons Caer Effioc, and, among the towns mentioned by Ptolemy, with the Eboracum of the Romans. The latter name is probably a modification of the former, adopted when the place became the station of the sixth legion, sent into Britain by the Emperor Adrian. The early importance of the city must unquestionably be attributed to the Romans, who had a colony here, and who made this the metropolis of their empire in Britain. Adrian fixed his principal station in the city, in the year 124, while engaged in restraining the incursions of the northern hordes. In the reign of Commodus, the Caledonians having made a successful irruption into Britain, attacked and routed the Roman army, and laid waste the open country as far as York; but Marcellus Ulpius, who had been sent over from Rome, aided by the ninth legion, at that time stationed in the city, quickly routed them, and drove them back within their own territory. The Emperor Severus, in the fourteenth year of his reign, finding that the city of York was besieged by the northern Britons, came over into Britain, with his sons Caracalla and Geta, and a numerous army, attended by his whole court. The besiegers, on his approach, retired towards the north, and intrenched themselves behind the ramparts which his predecessor Adrian had constructed, to defend the inhabitants from assaults. The emperor, desiring his son Geta to administer justice in the city during his absence, advanced with Caracalla to give to the Britons battle, and, though from age and infirmity obliged to be carried in a litter, routed them with great slaughter. Then leaving Caracalla to complete his victory, and, as is commonly supposed, to superintend the erection of the strong wall of stone nearly 80 miles in length, which he ordered to be built near the rampart of earth raised by Adrian, as a more effectual barrier against incursions, he returned to York, where he spent the remainder of his days. The Caledonians again taking up arms, Severus sent out his legions with instructions to give no quarter, but to put men, women, and children indiscriminately to the sword.
During this period the city was in its highest degree of splendour. The residence of the court, and the resort of numerous tributary kings and foreign ambassadors, conferred upon it a distinction almost unsurpassed among the cities of the world, and obtained for it the appellation of a second Rome, to which city, in these respects more than in any resemblance of design, it might not unaptly be compared. Severus died in his palace here in 212, and his funeral obsequies were performed with great solemnity on the west side of the city, near Acomb: in the immediate vicinity of the spot are three natural sand-hills, called Severus' Hills, upon which the ceremony is supposed to have been performed. His remains were deposited in a costly urn, and sent to Rome, where they were placed in the sepulchre of his ancestors. Constantius Chlorus, another of the Roman emperors, who resided for some time in Britain, died also in this city, in 307. His son, Constantine the Great, who at the time of his father's death was at York, was proclaimed emperor by the army. Of the grandeur of the city during its occupation by the Romans, numerous vestiges have been discovered; and various remains of Roman architecture have been found. Among these, the principal are, a polygonal tower, with the south wall of the Mint yard; an inscription to the tutelar genius of the place; an altar dedicated to the household and other gods by Ælius Marcianus; and a cemetery without Micklegate Bar, in which many urns, containing ashes and burnt bones, have been dug up.
After the departure of the Romans from Britain, the city suffered greatly from the depredations of the Scots and Picts, by whom it was frequently assailed; and upon the arrival of the Saxons it experienced considerable devastation in the wars which arose between the Britons and their new allies, during the establishment of the heptarchy; and in the mutual wars of the several monarchs for the extension of their territories. By the Saxons the city was called Euro wic, Euore wic, or Eofor wic, all descriptive of its situation on the river Ouse, which, according to Leland, was at that time termed the Eure; and from these Saxon appellations its present name is most probably contracted. Edwin, King of Northumbria, made this place the metropolis of his kingdom, and upon his conversion to Christianity, soon after his marriage with Ethelburga, daughter of Ethelbert, King of Kent, in 624, erected it into an archiepiscopal see, of which he appointed Paulinus, Ethelburga's confessor, primate. This monarch founded a church, which he dedicated to St. Peter; and his example in embracing the Christian faith was followed by vast numbers of his subjects, who, under the influence of Paulinus' ministry, were converted to Christianity. On the death of Edwin, who was killed in battle in 633, while resisting an attack of the Britons under Cadwallo, assisted by Penda, King of Mercia, the city suffered severely from the ravages of the confederated armies, who devastated it with fire and sword, and massacred the inhabitants. Ethelburga fled into Kent, accompanied by Paulinus; and the newly-erected church, which was scarcely finished, lay neglected for some time, till it was restored by Oswald, Edwin's successor, who, collecting a small army, after a sanguinary conflict slew Cadwallo and the chief of his officers, and regained possession of his territories.
Upon the union of the several kingdoms of the heptarchy, York again became a place of importance, and in the ninth century was the seat of commerce and of literature, as far as they then prevailed in the country. During the Danish incursions it was reduced to ashes, and having been rebuilt, finally became one of the principal settlements of those rapacious invaders, the Danes, who kept possession of it till Atheistan demolished the castle which they had erected for their defence. In the peaceful times that followed, the city gradually recovered, and continued to flourish till the Conquest, at which time, according to the Norman survey, it contained six shires, exclusively of the archbishop's: one of these lay waste in consequence of the demolition of the castles; in the other five were 1428 houses, and in the archbishop's 200 houses. William the Conqueror placed strong garrisions in the two castles which remained, partly to overawe the inhabitants, and partly to protect the city from the attempts of the Saxon nobility, who, refusing to submit to his government, had gone over into Denmark to incite Sweyn, king of that country, to invade Britain for the recovery of a throne which had descended to him from his ancestors. In 1069, Sweyn sent his two sons, Harold and Canute, with 240 ships and a numerous army; and these chiefs arriving in the Humber, disembarked their forces and advanced to York, laying waste the country through which they marched. On approaching the city they were joined by Edgar Atheling, who, with a large number of the English exiles, had arrived from Scotland for the same purpose. The garrison, to prevent them from fortifying themselves in the suburbs, set fire to the houses; but the wind being high, the flames communicated to the city, and during the consternation of the inhabitants, the enemy entered and made themselves masters of it. The successful Danes then proceeded northward, and after subduing the greater part of Northumberland, finding their further progress arrested by the severity of the winter, returned to York, where they took up their quarters. William was unable, from the inclemency of the weather, to bring an army against them till the spring, when he encamped near the confluence of the rivers Humber and Trent, and, after a severe and obstinate battle, obtained a triumphant victory. Harold and Canute escaped, with a few of their principal officers, to their ships; and Edgar Atheling, with great difficulty, effected his retreat into Scotland. William, attributing the first success of the Danes to the treachery of the citizens, took signal vengeance on them, burnt the city, and laid waste the neighbouring country, which, from the Humber to the Tyne, remained for several years in a state of desolation.
From this signal calamity, however, York gradually recovered in the two succeeding reigns. Archbishop Thomas repaired the cathedral, for temporary use, by covering the remaining walls with a roof; and afterwards, finding that they had been essentially injured by the fire, he pulled them down and rebuilt the church. Though continually exposed to the assaults of the Scots, the city continued progressively to advance in importance; and in 1088, a splendid monastery for monks of the Benedictine order was erected, and dedicated to St. Mary, of which William Rufus laid the first stone. In the reign of Stephen, the city was almost entirely consumed by an accidental fire, which is stated to have destroyed the cathedral, the monastery, with some other religious houses, and 39 parish churches. In 1138, David, King of Scotland, whom Matilda had engaged in her interest by a promise of ceding to him the county of Northumberland, laid siege to York; but Archbishop Thurstan, though at that time confined to his bed by illness, assembled the nobility and gentry, who, under the conduct of Ralph, Bishop of Durham, his deputy, advanced against the Scottish king, and put him to flight with considerable loss. In the reign of Henry II., one of the first meetings distinguished in history by the name of Parliament was held here in 1169, at which William, King of Scotland, accompanied by all his barons, abbots, and prelates, attended, and did homage to Henry in the cathedral, acknowledging him and his successors as his superior lords. In the reign of Richard I., a general massacre of the Jews took place here, under circumstances of peculiar atrocity. The fury of the populace had first been excited against them for mingling with the crowd at the king's coronation in London; and in spite of a proclamation in their favour by the king, the same spirit of persecution manifested itself in many of the large towns, especially in York, where numerous victims, having taken refuge in the castle, after defending it for some time against their assailants, perished by their own hands, first putting their wives and children to death. In 1221, Alexander, King of Scotland, who the year before had met Henry III. at York, had another interview with that monarch here, when he espoused the Lady Joan, sister of the king; and at the same time Hubert de Berg married the Lady Margaret, sister of Alexander: these marriages were both solemnized in the city, in presence of the king. In 1237, Cardinal Otto, the pope's legate, negotiated a peace between the Kings of England and Scotland, who met here for that purpose; and in 1252, Alexander III., King of Scotland, came to York, attended by a large retinue of his nobility, and celebrated his marriage with Margaret, daughter of Henry III. Upon this occasion considerable festivities took place; the Scottish king, with his retinue, was lodged in a separate part of the city, appropriated to his use, and he and twenty of his attendants received the honour of knighthood.
In the reign of Edward I., a parliament was held here, which was attended by most of the barons and principal nobility; the great charter, with the charter of forests, was renewed with much solemnity, and the Bishop of Carlisle pronounced a curse upon all who should attempt to violate it. The Scottish lords, who were summoned to attend this parliament, not making their appearance, the English lords decreed that an army should be sent, under the command of the Earl of Surrey, to relieve Roxburgh, which the Scots were at that time besieging. After the battle of Bannockburn, in 1315, Edward II. came to York, and held a council, in which it was decreed to dispatch a force for the defence of Berwick, then threatened with siege by Robert Bruce. In 1322, the Earl of Hereford, who, with the Earl of Lancaster, had rebelled against the king, having been killed at Boroughbridge by Adam de Hercla, who had been sent against him, his body was conveyed to York, where also many of his partisans were hanged, drawn, and quartered. On the suppression of this rebellion, which had been excited to free the kingdom from the influence of the De Spencers, the king held a parliament in the city, in which the decree made in the preceding year at London, for alienating their estates was reversed, and the elder Spencer created Earl of Winchester. At this parliament the several ordinances enacted at different times were examined, and such of them as were confirmed were, by the king's command, directed to be called statutes; the clergy of the province of York granted the king a subsidy of fourpence in each mark, and Edward,. the king's son, was created Prince of Wales and Duke of Aquitaine. After the breaking up of the parliament, Aymer de Valence was arrested, on his return, by order of the king, and brought back into the city, on a charge of having secretly abetted the barons in their rebellion, and of having contributed to excite the late disturbances; but upon the intercession of several noblemen, he was released, on payment of a fine, and taking an oath of fidelity and allegiance to the king. This monarch, having collected an army to oppose Robert Bruce, who was then desolating the English border, was surprised by the enemy, and with difficulty escaped into the city.
Early in the reign of Edward III., the Scots having raised three armies to lay waste the English border, and take possession of the adjoining counties, the king collected an army, with which he marched to York, where he was soon after joined by Lord John Beaumont, of Hainault, with a considerable body of forces. Being informed of these preparations, the Scots sent ambassadors to York, to negotiate a treaty of peace; but the overture was not successful. Edward advanced against them with his army, and, inclosing them in Stanhope Park, in the county of Durham, had nearly made them prisoners; but by the treachery of Roger Mortimer, who opened a road for their escape, they withdrew their forces, and Sir William Douglas assaulting Edward's camp by night, nearly succeeded in killing the king: on the failure of his attempt, the Scots, after doing what mischief they could, retreated within their own territories. Beaumont, upon receiving an ample reward for his services, returned to his own dominions; and a marriage was soon after negotiated between his niece and the king, which was solemnized at York, in 1327. After the battle of Halidown Hill, in 1333, Edward retired to York, where he held a parliament, in which Edward Balliol, whose cause he had embraced in opposition to David Bruce, was summoned to attend him; but Balliol, having sent messengers to excuse his attendance, afterwards met the king at Newcastle. In 1335, Edward took up his residence in the monastery of the Holy Trinity in the city, and held a council, in which the Bishop of Durham, then chancellor, resigned the great seal, which the king immediately delivered to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who took the usual oaths of office in the presence of the council, and on the same day proceeded to the church of the Blessed Mary, where he affixed it to several deeds.
Richard II., while on his expedition against the Scots, in 1385, passed some time in the city; which he also visited in 1389, in order to adjust some differences that had arisen between the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. On the latter occasion the monarch took his own sword from his side, and presented it to William de Selby, the mayor, to be borne in all public processions before him and his successors, whom he dignified with the title of Lord Mayor. This title has been ever since retained, and is possessed by no other city, except London and Dublin. In the nineteenth year of his reign, Richard erected the city into a county of itself, and appointed two sheriffs, in lieu of the three bailiffs that previously formed a part of the corporation; he presented the first mace to the city, and a cap of maintenance to the sword-bearer. During this reign, Edmund Langley. fifth son of Edward III., was created the first Duke of York. Iu the time of Henry IV., the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph, who after the defeat of an insurrection against that monarch, headed by the Earl of Nottingham and the Archbishop of York, had retired into Scotland, raised some forces in that country, and made an irruption into the northern part of the kingdom. Sir Thomas Rokesby, however, sheriff of Yorkshire, having levied some forces, defeated them in a battle in which both the noblemen were slain; and the king, marching into York, found several of the earl's adherents in the city, of whom some were ransomed and others punished. The earl's head was severed from his body, and being sent to London was fixed upon the bridge.
During the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, the city was occasionally connected with the contending parties, and though not actually a seat of war, several battles took place in the neighbourhood. In the reign of Henry VI., Edward, Duke of York, who had raised an army in support of his claim to the throne, was killed in the battle of Wakefield, and his body being afterwards found among the slain, the head was struck off by order of Queen Margaret, and fixed upon the gate of York, with a paper crown upon it, in derision of his pretended title. In 1461, soon after the assumption of the regal power by Edward IV., Queen Margaret having levied an army of 60,000 men, made another effort to regain the throne, and advancing towards York, was met by Edward and the Earl of Warwick with 40,000 men, at Towton, when a sanguinary battle ensued, in which 36,776 men are said to have been slain. During the engagement, Henry and Margaret remained in the city of York; on hearing of the total defeat of their army, they fled with great precipitation into Scotland. After the restoration of Henry VI., Edward IV. landed at Ravenspur, in Yorkshire, in 1471, and proceeded to York without opposition. On his arrival he hesitated to enter the gates, for fear of treachery; but being informed by the mayor and citizens that, provided he sought only to recover his dukedom of York, and not to lay his hand upon the crown, he might enter with safety, he took up his abode here, after swearing to a priest who met him on his entrance, to treat the citizens with courtesy, and to be faithful and obedient to the king. Having remained for some time, he left a garrison in the city and marched towards London. Meeting with the army of the Earl of Warwick, near Barnet, a sanguinary battle took place, in which the earl, his brother, and several of his principal officers, were slain; and Edward, after this victory, was peaceably established on the throne. Richard III. arrived at York in the year 1483, and, it is said, was crowned with great solemnity and pomp in the cathedral, by Archbishop Rotherham. In the year 1503, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., visited the city, in which she remained for some days.
In the time of Henry VIII., the art of printing was first established in York, by Hugo Goes, the son of an ingenious printer at Antwerp. At the period of the dissolution of monasteries, during this reign, the city contained (besides the cathedral) forty-one parochial churches, seventeen chapels, sixteen hospitals, and nine religious houses, including the monastery of St. Mary: with the suppression of the monasteries, ten parochial churches were demolished, and their revenues and materials appropriated to secular uses. In consequence of these proceedings, the insurrection called the Pilgrimage of Grace originated in Yorkshire, and in a short time 40,000 men, headed by Robert Aske, and attended by priests with sacred banners, took possession of the city and of Hull. The Duke of Norfolk being sent against them, they were ultimately dispersed; their principal leaders were taken and executed, and Aske was brought to York, where he was hanged upon Clifford's Tower. After the suppression of this insurrection, Henry made a tour through the county, on the border of which he was met by 200 of the principal gentry, with 4000 yeomanry on horseback, who made their submission to the king, by Sir Matthew Bowes, their speaker, and presented him with £900. On his advance towards the city from Barnsdale, the abbot of York, attended by 300 priests, went out to meet him, and presented him with £600; and on his entering it, the lord mayor, with the mayors of Newcastle and Hull, who had repaired to York to meet the king, received him with great pomp and ceremony, and in token of their submission presented him with £100 each. Henry remained at York for twelve days; he established here a president and council, under the great seal of oyer and terminer, and after making several other arrangements, departed for Hull, where he threw up some new fortifications.
During the reign of Elizabeth, an insurrection to restore the Roman Catholic religion was headed by Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland; on the failure of which, Simon Digby, of Askew, and John Fulthorpe, of Iselbeck, Esqrs., who had been made prisoners, were taken from York Castle to Knavesmire, where they were executed. The Earl of Westmorland escaped out of the country, but the Earl of Northumberland, being taken prisoner, and attainted by parliament, was beheaded at York, and his head placed on the Micklegate Bar. James I. resided for some time at the manor palace in the city. In 1633, Charles I. visited York; in 1639, he held a council at the palace, and made the city the chief rendezvous of the troops destined to march against the Scottish rebels. During his visit, the king, who was then 39 years of age, ordered the Bishops of Ely and Winchester to wash the feet of 39 beggars, first in warm water, and afterwards with wine, which ceremony was performed in the south aisle of the cathedral: the king afterwards gave to each poor man a purse containing 39 silver pence, several articles of wearing apparel, and a quantity of wine and provisions. Before leaving the city, he dined with the lord mayor and corporation, and expressed his satisfaction at the hospitality with which he had been entertained, by conferring the honour of knighthood on the mayor and recorder. While Charles remained here, the Scots demanded an audience to express their grievances, and ultimately succeeded in obtaining a treaty of peace; after which the king disbanded his army, and returned to London.
Previously to the commencement of the Parliamentary War, the king, to avoid the importunity of the parliament, who petitioned for the exclusive control of the militia, and for other privileges, removed to York, and was received by the inhabitants with every demonstration of loyalty and affection. The parliament soon after appointed a commission to reside in the city, to strengthen their party, and watch the king's movements; and on their passing an ordinance for embodying the militia, the king ordered his friends to meet him in the city, whither he directed the several courts to be in future adjourned. The Lord-Keeper Littleton, being ordered by the parliament not to issue the writs, apparently obeyed; but on the first opportunity made his escape to York, and bringing with him the seal, joined the royal party; for which he was afterwards proclaimed by the parliament a traitor and a felon. On May 27th, 1642, the king issued a proclamation, dated from his court at York, appointing a public meeting of the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood, to be held at Heworth Moor, on the 3rd of June. This meeting was attended by more than 70,000 persons, who, on his Majesty's approach, accompanied by his son Prince Charles, and 150 knights in complete armour, and attended with a guard of 800 infantry, greeted him with the loudest acclamations. The king, in a short address, explained the particulars of the situation in which he was placed, and thanking them for their assurances of attachment, returned to the city. At length, after keeping his court here for more than five months, during which time every attempt at negotiation failed, he advanced to Nottingham, and there erected his standard. In 1644, the parliamentary army, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Earl of Leven, and the Earl of Manchester, besieged the city, then held by the Marquess of Newcastle; but hearing that Prince Rupert was approaching with an army to its relief, they raised the siege, and encamped on Marston-Moor, about six miles from York, where they awaited the arrival of the royalists. The armies, which were nearly equal in number, each consisting of about 25,000 men, met on July 2nd, when, after a long and sanguinary engagement, the royalists were defeated: the parliamentarians, on this signal victory, returned to the siege of York, which, having held out nearly four months, surrendered upon honourable terms. On Jan. 1st, 1645, the great convoy, under the conduct of Gen. Skipton, arrived at York with the sum of £200,000, which, according to treaty, had been paid to the Scots for surrendering up the person of the unfortunate monarch. After the Restoration, Charles II. was proclaimed here with triumphant rejoicings.
York was connected with several of the proceedings which led to the Revolution of 1688. James II. attempted to introduce the Roman Catholic religion into the city, and for this purpose converted one of the large rooms in the manor palace into a chapel, in which the service was performed according to the Romish ritual. This attempt, together with some arbitrary proceedings on the part of the court, gave great offence to the citizens; and in a general meeting appointed to vote a loyal address to the king, on the rumoured landing of the Prince of Orange, they resolved to add to their address a petition for a free parliament, and redress of grievances. On November 19th, the Duke of Newcastle, lord-lieutenant of the county, arrived in the city to preside at a county meeting in James's favour; but finding that several of the deputy-lieutenants had joined with the citizens in their petition, he retired the next day in disgust. The meeting took place in the guildhall, where a petition was framed in addition to an address; but during the proceedings, a rumour being raised of an insurrection of the papists, the party rushed from the hall, and, headed by some gentlemen on horseback, advanced towards the troops of militia, at that time on parade, crying out "A free parliament, the Protestant religion, and No Popery." The militia immediately joined them, and having secured the governor and the few regular troops then in the city, they placed guards at the several entrances leading into the town. On the following day they summoned a public meeting, passed resolutions, and issued a declaration explanatory of their proceedings. On the 24th they attacked, plundered, and destroyed the houses belonging to the principal Roman Catholics in the city, together with their chapels; and on December 14th, a congratulatory address was voted by the lord mayor and corporation to the Prince of Orange, who, and his consort, were proclaimed on February 17th by the title of King William and Queen Mary. During the rebellion in 1745, the inhabitants raised four companies of infantry, called the York Blues, for the protection of the city. In 1789, their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York visited the races, on the conclusion of which they entered Earl Fitzwilliam's carriage, and were drawn into the city by the populace, who took the horses from the carriage.
On February 2nd, 1829, the inhabitants were greatly alarmed by the appearance of smoke issuing from the roof of the cathedral, and, on inspection, had the mortification to find that the choir of that splendid structure was in flames. Every possible assistance was immediately obtained; but the beautiful tabernacle-work, the roof, and every thing combustible in that part of the church were destroyed, and several of the piers and much of the finer masonry materially injured. This lamentable event, which was regarded as a national calamity, was the work of a lunatic, who had secreted himself in the cathedral, after the performance of the evening service, and, under the influence of a fanatical delusion, set fire to the pile. Within a very short time, however, a sum of £50,000 was subscribed, principally within the county, and a large quantity of well-seasoned timber, of the value of £5000, was contributed by government from the royal dockyards, for the restoration of the building. Another, but accidental fire, broke out on the 20th May, 1840, which, within an hour, reduced the belfry to a mere shell, destroyed the roof of the nave, and caused other damage to the edifice; but these injuries, also, were soon afterwards repaired.
The City is pleasantly situated on the bank of the river Ouse, near its confluence with the Foss, and is nearly three miles in circumference. It is almost surrounded with walls, generally supposed to have been raised by the Romans, and restored in the reign of Edward I., but which were much damaged during the parliamentary war, and remained in a dilapidated state till 1831, when the walls on the south side of the river were repaired by subscription, and the walk along the top restored, forming at present a beautiful promenade. They are defended by four ancient gates, constituting the principal entrances, namely, Mick-legate Bar, to the south-west; Bootham Bar, to the north-west; Monk Bar, to the north-east; and Walmgate Bar, to the southeast. Terminating that part of the wall which extends from Walmgate Bar to the edge of the marsh formed by the waters of the Foss and other smaller streams, is the Red Tower, built of brick; the inner face of this part of the wall presents a series of arches, and the same is seen in other parts. In 1840, Walmgate Bar and Barbican were restored, at the expense of the corporation; and in 1842, the restoration of the walls between Walmgate and Fishergate, was completed by a public subscription, to which the corporation liberally contributed. Besides these chief gates, there were five posterns, or smaller entrances, which took their names from the streets and parts of the city to which they led, being severally called North-street, Skeldergate, Castlegate, Fishergate, and Layerthorpe posterns; but, with the exception of Fishergate postern, these have been removed. Of the several bridges, the principal, over the Ouse, was begun in 1810, and completed in 1820, at an expense of £80,000; it is a handsome and substantial structure of three arches, of freestone. A stone bridge was erected across the Foss, in 1811; and over the same river are four other bridges, affording communication with the suburbs. In 1847, an act was obtained for building a bridge over the Ouse, and for improving certain thoroughfares. The city has of late years undergone considerable improvement under a body of local commissioners; it is well paved, and lighted with gas. In 1846, an act was passed for a better supply of water.
It is progressively increasing in size. In the adjacent township of Fulford, a row of very superior buildings, called New Walk Terrace, has been erected, separated by a drain only from the city liberty; and in all probability the city will ere long extend itself at many points into the township. On the north-west, the continuous buildings stretch out of the borough a considerable distance into the township of Clifton, while on the northeast they nearly extend into the township of Heworth. Heworth Moor was inclosed in 1817, since which period a great number of substantial and excellent houses have been built in that neighbourhood, along the Malton road; and many market-gardens are cultivated in this thriving and populous district. Interspersed throughout the vicinity generally are numerous mansions of persons in affluent circumstances, which, with their gardens and pleasure-grounds, contribute materially to enrich the scenery. Of the castle, erected by William the Conqueror, there remains the mount, thrown up with prodigious labour, on which is an old circular building called Clifford's Tower, apparently the keep, which was reduced to its present ruinous condition, by an accidental fire in the year 1685. The ancient fortress, after it was dismantled by Cromwell, continued in a dilapidated state for several years; its site is now occupied by the county prison. The cavalry barracks, about a mile south-west of the city, were erected in 1796, at an expense of £30,000, including the purchase of twelve acres of ground for parade, and for performing the different evolutions. The buildings are handsome and commodious, and include arrangements for three field-officers, five captains, nine subalterns, and 240 non-commissioned officers and privates, with stabling for the requisite number of horses.
The Subscription Library was established in 1794, and contains a well-assorted collection in every department of literature, at present exceeding 16,000 volumes. A handsome building was erected for it in 1811, but this is now occupied by the Yorkshire Insurance Office and a subscription newsroom, the library having been removed to another building belonging to the corporation in St. Leonard's place. There are three other subscription newsrooms, all of which are well supported. The Philosophical Society was instituted in 1822, and in 1826 obtained from the crown a grant of three acres of land, part of the site of the venerable abbey of St. Mary, for the erection of a suitable building and the establishment of a botanic garden. Among other subjects it embraces the geology, natural history, and antiquities of the county. Its meetings are held, and the museum deposited, in a commodious building erected by voluntary subscription of the members, assisted by the noblemen and gentlemen of the county; the edifice is in the Grecian style, of the Doric order, and the garden is ornamented with shrubberies, pleasuregrounds, and plantations. The Yorkshire Central Agricultural Association was formed in 1832, under the auspices of the Earl of Harewood.
The Theatre was erected in 1769, and in 1822 was considerably enlarged, greatly improved, and elegantly fitted up. It is opened by the York company of comedians, in the first week in March, and continues open till the first week in May; the company also perform during the assizes and the race week. Concerts and Assemblies are held periodically duriug the winter season, in a suite of rooms in Blake-street, erected after a design by Lord Burlington, in 1730, upon a scale of sumptuous magnificence, unparalleled in any town in the kingdom. An elegant vestibule leads into the principal room, which is 112 feet in length, 40 feet wide, and 40 feet in height, ornamented in the lower part with a range of Corinthian columns and an enriched cornice, from which rises a series of the Composite order, surmounted by an appropriate cornice, and decorated with wreaths of fruit and foliage. This room is lighted by thirteen brilliant chandeliers suspended from the ceiling, each of which consists of eighteen branches. On the right of the large room is a smaller, for subscription assemblies, of which there are generally six or seven, and subscription concerts, of which there are generally four, during the season; exclusively of benefit concerts, and the assize and race balls, held in the larger room. The smaller room, which is 66 feet in length, and 22 feet wide, is elegantly fitted up, and the ceiling richly ornamented. There are other apartments and ante-rooms, forming altogether a splendid suite. The new concert-rooms, adjoining the assembly-rooms, were erected in 1824, at an expense of £9400, from the profits of the York musical festivals, and were opened to the public in 1828; the principal room is 92 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 45 feet high, and will afford accommodation for 1800 persons. The Musical Festivals have been liberally patronised, not only by the nobility and gentry resident in the county, but by families of the highest distinction in every portion of the kingdom. The nave of the cathedral is fitted up on these occasions for the performance of sacred music; the orchestra combines the talents of the metropolis with the professional skill of every other part of the country, and the performances rank among the most profitable and attractive of these periodical festivals. Miscellaneous concerts are held in the large concert-rooms, during the period of the festival; and the proceeds, after deducting the expenses, are appropriated to the York county hospital, and the general infirmaries of Hull, Leeds, and Sheffield. The Races take place in May and August, upon Knavesmire, about a mile from the town, on the road to Tadcaster: the grand stand, erected by subscription in 1754, is nearly 300 feet in length, with a balustrade projecting in front, supported on a rustic arcade. At Lendal tower, adjoining the water-works, is an establishment of hot, cold, tepid, and vapour baths.
The city is not much distinguished either for its commerce or manufactures; the trade principally arises from the supply of the inhabitants and the numerous opulent families in the neighbourhood. Several linen factories have been established, but they are not carried on to any great extent; the manufacture of glass was introduced in 1797, and is conducted upon a moderate scale. Carpets, worsted-lace for liveries, gloves, and combs, are made; and there are some chemical laboratories and iron-foundries. The river Ouse is navigable as far as the bridge, for vessels of 80 tons' burthen; and ships of 150 tons trade with London: the trustees for the Ouse have expended large sums in improving the navigation, and steamers now ply between York and Hull at any time of the tide. Great quantities of coal are brought hither in barges of 30 or 40 tons' burthen; and from the junction of the Foss with the Ouse is a navigable communication to the parish of Sheriff-Hutton, in the North riding. The York and North-Midland railway, proceeding southward, crosses the Leeds and Selby line, and unites it with the city. The Newcastle railway also commences at York, running northward, and crossing the Ouse at Poppleton by a viaduct 300 feet long; it is remarkably straight and level. A railway was opened to Scarborough in July 1845. In 1846 an act was passed for a direct railway to-London, 186 miles in length, exclusive of branches; and in the same year three other acts were passed, viz.: one for a railway to Knaresborough; another for a railway, 31 miles long, to Beverley, there to join the Hull and Bridlington line; and the third for a direct railway between York and Leeds. The construction of these lines will probably add greatly to the commerce of the city.
The market-days are Thursday and Saturday; the latter, which is the principal, is for corn. Fairs for cattle and horses, at which very large quantities of livestock are disposed of, are held every fortnight, and on Whit-Monday, St. Peter's day, Lammas-day, and some other festivals, in a spacious market-place without the city walls, near Walmgate Bar, in the construction of which, and in the erection of a handsome inn contiguous to it, the corporation expended upwards of £10,000. A fair for leather takes place every month; a fair for wool on Peaseholm Green every Thursday, from Lady-day to Michaelmas, which is well attended; a fair for flax on the Saturdays before Michaelmas, Martinmas, Christmas, Lady-day, St. Peter's day, Lammas-day, and WhitMonday; and a large horse-fair, without Micklegate Bar, in the week next before Christmas. In the session of 1833, an act was obtained for improving and enlarging the market-places in the city, and rendering the approaches to them more commodious; also for regulating and maintaining the several markets and fairs held within the city and its suburbs.
The earliest charter bestowed upon the inhabitants was that by Henry II., confirming all the liberties they held in the time of Henry I. Richard I., in the 1st year of his reign, granted them an exemption from toll and all customs in England and Normandy; and King John, in the first of his reign, gave them a charter ratifying all former privileges, and conferring the city on the inhabitants, subject to a fee-farm rent of £160, payable halfyearly into the treasury. Confirmatory charters were also granted by Henry III., Edward II. and III., and Richard II., which last monarch, by a second charter, erected the city, with the district adjoining it, into a county of itself, dignified the mayor with the title of Lord, and in lieu of the three bailiffs, appointed two sheriffs. Charters were subsequently obtained from Henry VI., Edward IV., Henry VII., Elizabeth, and Charles I. and II. The present corporation consists of a lord mayor, 12 aldermen, and 36 councillors, appointed under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; the city, formerly including only four, is now divided into six wards, and the number of magistrates is fifteen. The freedom is inherited by all the sons of freemen on their coming of age, and acquired by apprenticeship to a resident freeman. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 49th of Henry III., since which time it has regularly returned two members to parliament; the right of election was extended in 1832, to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, which contains 2805 acres: the sheriff is the returning officer. Courts of assize for the city and county of the city are opened by the judges on the Northern circuit, under a separate commission, on the same day as the assizes for the county; at these courts, which are held in the guildhall, the lord mayor takes the chair in presence of the judge, who sits on his right hand. Courts of quarter-session are held before the recorder, for all offences not capital. The lord mayor and one of the justices hold a petty-session twice in the week; and a court of record, that exists by prescription, for the recovery of debts to any amount, is held weekly before the recorder. To the corporation belongs the conservancy of the rivers Aire, Derwent, Don, Ouse, Wharfe, and some parts of the Humber.
The mansion-house, erected in the year 1726, for the residence of the chief magistrate, is a stately edifice, containing a splendid suite of apartments, and a large collection of well-painted portraits. Among the portraits are those of William III.; George II.; George IV., when Prince of Wales, presented by his royal highness to the corporation, in 1811; Lord Dundas, painted by Jackson, in 1822; Lord Bingley; Sir William Mordaunt Milner, Bart.; and Sir John Lister Kayc, Bart. The guildhall is a handsome structure in the later English style, erected in 1446; it is appropriated to the use of the courts, and for the transaction of corporate affairs and the election of members and officers of the corporation. The council-chamber, adjoining the guildhall, was erected in 1819, when the buildings anciently used for that purpose, and situated on the old bridge over the Ouse, were taken down; the upper room is assigned to the meetings of the mayor, aldermen, and councillors, and the lower to various public purposes. The Merchants' Hall is in Fossgate, and the Merchant Tailors' Hall in Aldwark; these are almost the only remains of the numerous guilds formerly incorporated for the regulation of the trade. A common gaol for the city and county of the city was erected in 1807, at the joint expense of the city and the district then called the Ainsty, the former contributing three-fifths, and the latter twofifths. It is a substantial stone building, consisting of three stories, surmounted by a cupola and vane; and is now considered the house of correction for the city, the county gaol in the castle being used as the common gaoL The house of correction for the city and county of the city, erected in 1814, at the expense of the city and Ainsty, has been taken down by the York and NorthMidland Railway Company.
The general assizes for the county, and the election of knights of the shire for the North Riding, take place in the city. The powers of the county debt-court of York, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of York. The site of the ancient castle, which, on its being dismantled after the parliamentary war, was converted into a prison, is at present occupied by the county hall and common gaol, forming three sides of a quadrangle, near the confluence of the Ouse and the Foss, now approached by a gateway and porter's-lodge in the new wall, fronting Tower-street, and near the northwestern side of Clifford's Tower. The county hall, which occupies the western range, is a handsome structure in the Grecian style, erected in 1777. with a noble portico of six lofty columns of the Ionic order, above which are the queen's arms, a figure of Justice, and other emblematical ornameuts. The hall is 150 feet long, and 45 feet wide; at one end is the crown bar, and at the other the court of nisi prius, each lighted by an elegant dome, supported on twelve pillars of the Corinthian order. On the east side of the quadrangle are the apartments of the clerks of assize, the office of the court of record, the indictment office, hospital rooms, and cells for female prisoners; this range, which is 150 feet in length, is fronted with a colonnade of the Ionic order. The old coxinty gaol occupies the south side of the quadrangle. In 1836 a very large addition, called the New Works, was completed, at an expense of £203,530, including a massive boundary wall, 32 feet high, with pierced battlements, recessed gateway, and projecting towers. The new prison, which stands on the north-east side of Clifford's Tower, comprises four radiating double wings, with eight airing-yards; and in the centre is the governor's house, which commands inspection over the whole. The buildings are fire-proof, being constructed entirely of stone and wrought-iron.
The city was constituted an archiepiscopal see by Edwin, King of Northumbria, who, on his conversion to Christianity, erected a church here, which he dedicated to St. Peter, and made Paulinus, the confessor of his queen Ethelburga, first archbishop. After the death of Edwin, who was killed in battle, Paulinus was compelled to abandon the province to the fury of the Britons under Cadwallo, and, accompanied by Ethelburga, found an asylum in the kingdom of Kent. During his absence the newly-founded establishment fell into decay, but it was restored by Oswald, the successor of Edwin, who, after a successful battle with the Britons, expelled them from the city, and recovered possession of his capital. Paulinus, dying in Kent, was succeeded in the government of the see and province by Cedda, who held it till the return of Wilfrid from France, whither he had been sent for consecration, and where he remained for three years. The establishment, under Wilfrid and his successors, remained upon its original foundation till after the Conquest, when Thomas, chaplain to William the Conqueror, being made archbishop, constituted the several dignitaries and prebendaries, and established the first regular chapter. After frequent disputes for precedency with the Archbishop of Canterbury, which were carried on for many years with the greatest animosity, it was ultimately decided in favour of Canterbury, the archbishop of that see being styled Primate of all England, as a superior designation to that of the Archbishop of York, who has the title of Primate of England.
The Archbishop of York, who is also lord high almoner to the queen, takes precedency of all dukes who are not of the blood royal, and of all the chief officers of state, with the exception of the lord high chancellor. He places the crown on the head of the queen consort at coronations; and, in the county of Northumberland, has the power and privileges of a prince palatine: he was formerly styled Metropolitan of Scotland. The province of York comprises the sees of York, Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Sodor and Man, Ripon, and Manchester: the diocese of York extends over the county of York, except such parts as have been included in the new diocese of Ripon. The ecclesiastical establishment consists of an archbishop, dean, chancellor, precentor, sub-dean, succentor, three archdeacons, four canons residentiary, twenty-four prebendaries, a chancellor of the diocese, a subchanter and four other minor canons, seven lay clerks, six choristers, an organist, and other officers. The Archbishop has the patronage of the archdeaconries, the chancellorships, precentorship, and prebends; the Dean and Chapter have the patronage of the minor canonries. The treasurership, erected in the year 1090, was dissolved and made a lay fee by King Edward VI., as were also the prebends of Wilton and Newthorpe, annexed thereto.
The Cathedral, originally founded by Edwin, after having been frequently demolished and restored, was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1137. It remained in a desolate state for some time, till Archbishop Roger in 1171 rebuilt the choir, and Walter de Gray in the reign of Henry III. built the south transept. In the beginning of the reign of Edward I., John le Romaine, treasurer of the church, built the north transept and a central tower; and in 1291, his son of the same name, who was made archbishop, laid the foundation of the nave, which forty years afterwards was completed by Archbishop William de Melton, who also built the west front and the two western towers. Arch bishop Thoresby, in 1361, rebuilt the choir in a style better adapted to the character of the nave, to which it was before greatly inferior; in 1370, the central tower was taken down, and in the course of eight years completely rebuilt. The whole edifice at present displays a regular series of the richest and purest specimens of the various styles of English architecture, with some remains of the Norman, of which the only portion now entire is the crypt, under the eastern part of the church. The distant view of this magnificent pile, towering above the churches and other buildings of the city, and equally unrivalled in the magnitude of its dimensions and the richness of its embellishment, is strikingly impressive. The cathedral is a cruciform structure, with the addition of two lateral projections between the central tower and the east end, which are called the light transepts. It is 524½ feet in length from east to west, and 222 in breadth along the principal transepts.
The West front, which is divided into three compartments by richly-panelled buttresses of four stages, terminating in boldly crocketed finials, is almost covered with a profusion of the most varied sculpture, comprising numerous canopied niches with statues. The central compartment contains the principal entrance, a beautiful pointed and richly-moulded arch, supported on a series of slender clustered columns, surmounted by a straight angular canopy with crocketed pinnacles, and ornamented with niches, in which are statues of the Archbishops Melton, Percy, and Vavasour. The arch is divided, by a slender clustered pillar in the centre, into two smaller cinquefoiled arches, forming a double doorway, and having the spandril decorated with a circular window of elegant tracery. On each side of the principal entrance are two series of trefoiled arches, with feathered canopies, terminating in crocketed finials; and above it is the beautiful west window, of eight lights, enriched with tracery, and surmounted by an acutely angular canopy and parapet, behind which is seen the gable of the roof of the nave. The entrances to the aisles are through plainer arches, above which are windows of three lights, with tracery, surmounted by canopies similar to that over the west window. The western towers, which are uniform and of graceful elevation, are strengthened with double buttresses at the angles, highly enriched with canopies and pinnacles at the offsets, and which, after diminishing in four successive stages, die away under the cornice that is carried round the upper part of the towers. The North and South sides of the cathedral have buttresses terminating in pinnacles, and a delicately pierced parapet is continued round the walls of the nave: the transepts, which are in the early English style, are nearly similar in design, though differing in the minuter details. The Central tower, which rises to the height of 213 feet, is a massive square structure, relieved on each of its faces by two large windows of three lights, separated and bounded at each side by enriched buttresses, terminating in crocketed finials; the arch of the windows is surmounted by a canopy, and the summit of the tower is wreathed with a pierced and embattled parapet. The East front, which is one of the finest compositions extant, is divided into three compartments by four octangular buttresses, terminating in crocketed pinnacles, and ornamented with niches. In these niches are, a figure of an archbishop seated, holding in his left hand the model of a church, and having the right hand raised; a statue of Vavasour, in tolerable preservation; and one, much mutilated, said to be of Lord Percy. The magnificent window, filled with intricate tracery, is surmounted by an enriched ogee canopy, above which is some highly elaborate and beautiful tabernacle-work, and in the centre, a square turret, with a crocketed finial.
On entering the cathedral from the west end, the vastness of its dimensions, the justness of its proportions, and the simplicity and beauty of the arrangement, produce an intense impression of grandeur and magnificence. The Nave is separated from the aisles by long ranges of finely clustered columns, of which the central shafts rise to the roof, which is plainly groined, and the others support a series of gracefully pointed arches, in the decorated style, chastely and appropriately enriched. The triforium consists of openings of five lofty narrow trefoiled arches, with acute angular canopies. The clerestory is a noble range of windows, divided by slender mullions into five lights, having in the crown of the arch a circular light, with geometrical tracery of beautiful design: the aisles are lighted by an elegant range of windows of three lights, with quatrefoiled circles and tracery; and the walls below them are decorated with panels and tracery, and with canopied niches having crocketed pinnacles. At the eastern extremity of the nave is the lantern tower, supported on four lofty clustered columns and finely pointed arches. Its windows diffuse a pleasing light over the transepts and eastern portion of the nave; and when viewed from this point, the nave derives increased effect from the great west window, filled with tracery of the most delicate and beautiful character. The Transepts, in the early English style, are dissimilar only in the minuter details and the arrangement of the ends. The choir is separated from the nave by a splendid stone Screen, sustaining the organ, and divided into fifteen compartments containing a series of canopied niches, in which are placed, on elegant pedestals, statues of the kings of England, from William the Conqueror to Henry VI. Nearly in the centre is the doorway leading into the choir, an obtuse arch supported on slender clustered columns, with an ogee canopy, terminated with a crocketed finial. Above the niches in which are the statues of the kings, are narrow shrines, richly canopied, and containing smaller statues, and above them a series of angels; the whole surmounted with bands of tracery, and adorned with the most elaborate sculpture.
The Choir, whose roof is loftier and more intricately groined than that of the nave, is a fine specimen of the later style of English architecture. The magnificent east window, of nine lights, occupies almost the whole of the east end, and is embellished with nearly 200 subjects from sacred history. The upper section of the window is occupied with tracery, elaborately wrought into a series of canopies, running up to the crown of the arch, and containing projecting busts; the outer border is enriched with small tabernacles, containing half-length figures. Behind the altar, to which is an ascent of fifteen steps, and separating it from the Lady chapel, is a beautiful stone screen, divided into compartments by slender panelled buttresses terminating with crocketed pinnacles. Each compartment contains, in the lower division, a triple shrine of niches; and in the upper, an open arch, formed by slender mullions into three divisions, surmounted by a square head, of which the spandrils are pierced in quatrefoil circles: above these is a delicate open embattled parapet. The intervals of this exquisitely wrought screen have been filled with plateglass, affording a view of the eastern portion of the choir, and of the magnificent east window. On each side of the choir, and on each side of the entrance under the organ, are the prebendal stalls, of oak richly carved, surmounted with canopies of tabernacle-work: at the east end are the bishop's throne and the pulpit, opposite to each other, both elaborately ornamented; and in the centre is the desk for the vicars choral, inclosed with tabernaclework, on the north side of which is a brass eagle on a pedestal. The pavement of the choir and nave has been beautifully relaid in mosaic. The Lady chapel is perfectly similar to the choir, of which it is only a continuation; and contains some beautiful monuments. Beneath the altar is the Norman crypt, with low massive circular columns with varied capitals, supporting a plainly groined roof; it was built with the materials of Archbishop Thomas' church, by Archbishop Thoresby.
On the south side of the choir are three chapels, or rather vestries, in which are several ancient chests. In the inner vestry, or council-chamber, is a large press, containing many of the records of the church, and a large horn of ivory presented by Ulphus, Prince of West Deira, with all his revenues, to the cathedral, and which, after having been lost and stripped of its gold ornaments, was restored to the church by Henry, Lord Fairfax. The lands that are held by this horn are situated a little eastward of the city, and are of great value. Here is also preserved a large and elegant bowl, edged with silver doubly gilt, and standing upon three silver feet, originally presented by Archbishop Scroope, in 1398, to the company of cordwainers of the city. Among the other curiosities are, a state canopy of gold tissue, given by the citizens in honour of James I., on his first visit to York; and a superb pastoral staff of silver, about seven feet long, with the figure of the Virgin and the Infant placed under the crook, given by Catherine of Portugal, Queen Dowager of England, to her confessor, on his being appointed to the archbishopric by James II., in the year 1689, and said to have been wrested from him by the Earl of Darnley, when he went in procession to the minster, and deposited in the care of the Dean and Chapter, in whose possession it has remained ever since. An antique chair, thought to be coeval with the cathedral, and in which several of the kings of England have been crowned, is placed within the altar rails when the archbishop officiates. The great bell, put up in 1845, weighs above twelve tons; it is 7 feet 7 inches in height, and 8 feet 4 inches in diameter.
The monument of Archbishop Walter de Grey, the tomb of Archbishop Godfrey, the monument of Archbishop Henry Bowett, and of Archbishop Thomas Savage, are highly worthy of notice. There are also several large stone coffins, some recumbent figures of knights, and numerous tombs of other archbishops, of which that of Archbishop Roger is the most ancient. In the north aisle of the choir is a recumbent figure in alabaster, commonly, but erroneously, said to be that of Prince William de Hatfield, second son of Edward III., under a rich and beautiful canopy; and in the north transept is the tomb of John Haxby, treasurer of the church, on which, according to ancient usage, payments of money for the church estate are still occasionally made. Among the other monuments and tombs in various parts of the church, are those of Sir William Ingram, Knt., commissary of the prerogative court; Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle; Frances Cecil, Countess of Cumberland; a statue of William Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, son of the minister of Charles I.; and a monument to William Burgh, LL.D., on which is an emblematical figure of Faith, finely sculptured by Westmacott.
From the north transept a passage leads to the Chapterhouse, a highly enriched octagonal structure in the decorated English style, with a lofty and elaborately groined roof of wood, without a central pier, profusely ornamented with sculpture in various devices. Seven sides of the octagon are occupied by large windows of elegant tracery, embellished with shields of armorial-bearings; below the windows are forty-four stalls of rich tabernaclework, of Petworth marble. The eighth side is solid, and has tracery corresponding with the windows. The arch forming the doorway is divided into two trefoiled arches by a clustered column in the centre, above which is a statue of the Virgin with the Infant in her arms, enshrined in a canopied niche. The vestibule is also of beautiful design. The building now used for the Library, once a chapel belonging to the archiepiscopal palace, is situated a short distance north-west of the cathedral, and having undergone complete repair, exhibits a good specimen of early Anglo-Norman architecture; it contains a valuable collection of works on theology and general literature. The recent removal of ancient buildings on the north of the cathedral has disclosed a series of very beautiful Norman arches, which formed part of the palace, and which, though greatly mutilated, are peculiarly fine in their details.
The churches are in general in the later English style, but several of them contain portions in the Norman and early English styles. That of All Saints on the Pavement is said to have been built on the site and with the ruins of the Roman Eboracum; it has an octagonal lantern-tower with large windows of elegant tracery, in which was formerly a lamp to guide travellers across the forest of Galtres. The chancel was taken down, in 1782, for the enlargement of the market place, but since the removal of the market the site has been added to the cemetery. The church of All Saints in North-street contains some old stained glass in the windows, and in the south wall the mutilated remains of a Roman sepulchral monument. The church of St. Crux has a square tower of brick, surmounted by a dome, and declining considerably from a perpendicular line. St. Cuthbert's church is a neat edifice in the later style, with some ancient portions: the windows were formerly embellished with stained glass, of which portions are remaining. Near the site many curious antiquities have been found, consisting of urns, pateræ, and part of the foundation of an apparently Roman building. The church of St. Denis in Walmgate, originally a spacious structure, has been much reduced by taking down the western part, which, from the insecurity of the foundation, was giving way; the spire, also, which was perforated by a ball during the parliamentary war, has been replaced with a square tower of indifferent character. Little now remains of the original architecture, except the entrance door, which belonged to an ancient porch that has been removed. In the interior are, a mural tablet with a female figure in the attitude of prayer, erected to Mrs. Dorothy Hughes; and an elegant marble monument to Robert Welbourne Hotham, Esq., sheriff of York in 1801: in the north aisle is a sepulchral chapel of the earls of Northumberland, in which Earl Henry, who fell at the battle of Towton-Field, was interred.
St. Helen's church, supposed to have been originally a temple of Diana, was rebuilt in the reign of Mary, and the ground of the churchyard, which had risen to an enormous height, was levelled and marked out as the site of St. Helen's square. The present structure, which has an elegant octagonal tower, has been much modernised, and most of the painted glass has been removed. Near the entrance is a Norman font, lined with lead, and ornamented with antique sculpture. There are several monuments, including two mural tablets to the memory of Barbara and Elizabeth Davyes, maiden sisters, who died in 1765 and 1767, each 98 years of age. The steeple of St. John's church was blown down in 1551, and has not been rebuilt; the edifice contains a monument to Sir Richard York, Knt., lord mayor of the city in 1469: the churchyard has been much curtailed by the improvement near Ouse-bridge. St. Lawrence's church was nearly destroyed during the siege of York, by the parliamentarian forces, and lay in ruins till 1669, when it was repaired; it consists only of a nave, with a square embattled tower. Over the altar is a large handsome window with some remains of stained glass; and the building contains some neat marble tablets to members of the Yarburgh family. The porch has been removed, but at the entrance is a fine Norman arch, with three mouldings ornamented with flowers; in the north wall of the church is a large gritstone, supposed to have been a Roman altar, and in the churchyard wall are two antique statues.
The church of St. Margaret in Walmgate is an old building of brick, with a steeple of the same material. Its only interesting feature is a Norman porch, removed from the dissolved hospital of St. Nicholas: at the entrance is a semicircular arch, resting on single columns, and having four mouldings ornamented alternately with the signs of the zodiac, emblematical representations of the seasons, and grotesque figures. This edifice has been repaired, and a gallery erected. The church of St. Martin in Micklegate is a neat ancient structure, with a steeple built in 1677; the windows contain portions of beautiful stained glass, and in the exterior of the church walls, and in the walls of the churchyard, are some remains of mutilated Roman sculpture. The church of St. Martin the Bishop, in Coney-street, is an elegant structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower; the interior is spacious, and appropriately arranged. Among the monuments are, one to Sir William Sheffield and his lady, with busts and the family arms; a plain marble tablet to Elizabeth, wife of Robert Porteus; and another of Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London. The church of St. Mary Bishopshill Senior contains portions in the early and decorated English styles, of which the details are very good. That of St. Mary Bishopshill Junior has a Norman tower, and some piers and arches in the early English style, with portions of a later date. The church of St. Mary-in-Castlegate has a very handsome and lofty spire, and contains several old monumental inscriptions. In digging a grave in this church a copper plate was found, which had been fastened inside the coffin of a priest who was executed for the plot of 1680. St. Maurice's church is a very ancient structure; the interior has been repaired, and modernised. The church of St. Michael-le-Belfry is a spacious and elegant edifice in the later English style, erected on the site of a more ancient church, which was taken down in 1535; the interior is handsomely arranged, with the exception of the altar, which is of the Corinthian order, and consequently inappropriate to the general character of the building. St. Michael's in Spurrier-gate is a very old structure; the west end is built of gritstone, in large masses.
St. Olave's church, adjoining the ruins of St. Mary's abbey, and a very ancient edifice, was destroyed during the siege of York, by the parliamentarian forces, who used the roof as a platform for their cannon; it was rebuilt in 1722, with stone taken from the abbey. The interior is neatly arranged; the east window contains excellent stained glass, and there are some mural tablets. The church of St. Sampson is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, on the west side of which is a sculptured figure of the tutelar saint, and on which may be perceived its perforation by a cannon-ball during the siege of the city. There were formerly three chantry chapels in this church. Most of the painted glass has been removed from the windows, and the monumental inscriptions have been defaced St. Saviour's is an ancient structure, with a handsome tower surmounted by a wooden cross: the interior is very neat; the windows contain considerable portions of stained glass, and there are several old monuments.
The church of Holy Trinity in Micklegate is principally in the Norman style, with portions of a later date; the tower preserves its original Norman character, but the church has been greatly mutilated. It belonged to the priory of the Holy Trinity, of which some ruined arches may be traced, and a gateway is still remaining in good preservation. The church of Holy Trinity in Goodramgate had three chantry chapels: over the altar is a fine window, containing beautiful specimens of stained glass; there are also some very old monumental inscriptions. The church of Holy Trinity (in Kings-court), usually called Christ-church, is an ancient edifice, to which there is a descent of several steps; it was considerably reduced at the east end in 1830, in order to widen Colliergate, and was then repewed. The Roman palace was situated near this church, on the side of which is a ditch still called King's ditch, that is supposed to have bounded the demesne. Besides the several churchyards, a public cemetery has been established on the Fulford road, comprising 8½ acres, beautifully laid out and inclosed at a cost of about £6000. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive and Association Methodists, Wesleyans, and English Presbyterians; also two Roman Catholic chapels.
The Free Grammar school in the Cathedral Close was erected in 1546, and endowed with £12 per annum by Robert Holgate, Archbishop of York. Another free grammar school was founded by charter of Philip and Mary, and endowed by the Dean and Chapter with the lands of St. Mary's hospital in the Horsefair, which was originally established in 1330, by Robert de Pykering, Dean of York, and the site and revenue of which, on its suppression, were granted to that body. The Blue-coat school for boys, held in an ancient building on Peaseholm Green, called St. Anthony's Hall; and the Grey-coat school for girls, for which an appropriate building was erected near Monkgate Bar, were established by the mayor and corporation, in 1705. They are supported by subscription, and the interest of donations vested in the funds, among which was a legacy of £4000 by Thomas Wilkinson, Esq., alderman, in 1820. A school was instituted in 1773, by William Haughton, who bequeathed £1300 for its erection and endowment, and £290 more, after the demise of certain annuitants, for the instruction of children belonging to the parish of St. Crux, near the church of which a commodious school-house has been erected; the income is about £180 per annum. The same benefactor left £500, directing the interest to be appropriated to the payment of the rents of widows in that parish; and £1000 to be lent without interest to 40 tradesmen; but this latter sum has been reduced to £232 by litigation, to establish the will of the testator. The Collegiate School, opened in February 1838, is a spacious and handsome building, in a healthy situation, without the walls of the city, and comprises a central hall, class-rooms, library, and boarding-house; it provides a systematic course of education for the sons of gentlemen, designed for the universities and for the learned professions. A school for the Blind was instituted in 1836, in memory of the late William Wilberforce, by subscription and donations. The Training-school, completed in 1846, in Lord-Mayor's Walk, for the dioceses of York and Ripon, cost several thousand pounds.
St. Catherine's hospital, formerly a house for the reception of poor pilgrims, has been converted into an almshouse. St. Thomas hospital, without Micklegate Bar, was originally founded for the fraternity of Corpus Christi: after its dissolution, it was repaired in 1787. and endowed with a portion of £2137 stock, by William Luntley, glover; with £25 per annum by Lady Conyngham; and with £100 by John Hartley. Trinity hospital was established in 1373, by John de Rawcliffe, for a priest, five brethren, and five sisters: the Merchants' Company, upon its dissolution in the reign of Edward VI., having obtained possession of the building, re-endowed it for ten aged persons of both sexes. The hospital founded by Sir Thomas Walter in 1612, and endowed by him with £3 per annum for a reader, and £2 per annum each to ten aged persons, has been reduced, there being at present only seven inmates. An hospital was founded by Alderman Agar, who settled upon it a rent-charge on lands now held by Lord Middleton, for six aged widows. The hospital at Bootham was founded in 1640, by Sir Arthur Ingram, alderman, who assigned to it £5 per annum each for ten aged women, and twenty nobles to a chaplain; the buildings consist of ten neat cottages, containing two rooms each, with a chapel in the centre. Anne Middleton, in 1655, bequeathed £2000 for the erection and endowment of an hospital for twenty widows of freemen, which bequest was augmented by a legacy of £200 from Thomas Norfolk, in 1780, and a donation of £100 from Jonathan Gray, in 1830. This hospital, situated in Skeldergate, was entirely rebuilt by the corporation, in 1829, at an expense of nearly £2000. The hospital in Castlegate was founded in 1692, by Sir Henry Thomson, for the support of six poor men: the original endowment, which produces an annual rental of £81, was augmented by bequests from Thomas Norfolk and John Girdler. An hospital was founded early in the last century, by Percival Winterskelf, who endowed it for six aged persons. Lady Hewley's hospital, at St. Saviour's gate, founded in 1708, comprises ten houses, for aged women. The hospital near Foss Bridge was founded by Mrs. Dorothy Wilson, who endowed it with land, for ten aged women; it was rebuilt a second time in 1812: a salary of £20 per annum is paid to a schoolmaster for teaching twenty boys. An hospital was established in 1717, by Dr. Colton and his wife, who endowed it with land, for eight aged women. Near Marygate is the Old Maids' hospital, founded in 1725, by Miss Mary Wandesford, who assigned to it an estate at Brompton-uponSwale, near Richmond, a mortgage of £1200, and £1200 South Sea stock, for ten maiden gentlewomen, members of the Church of England, and a reader. Mason's hospital was instituted in 1732, by Mrs. Mason, who endowed it for six aged widows. An almshouse in St. Denis lane, instituted by the Company of Cordwainers, having fallen into a state of dilapidation and decay, was rebuilt by Mr. Hornby at his own cost, for four decayed members of that fraternity.
The County Hospital originated in 1740, by the benevolence of Lady Hastings, who bequeathed £500 for the relief of the diseased poor of the county; other donations and subscriptions being subsequently obtained, the present edifice, in Monkgate, was soon afterwards erected. The City Dispensary, in New-street, for which a commodious building was erected in 1828, administers extensive relief, and is liberally supported by subscription. The Lunatic Asylum, without Bootham Bar, was established in 1774, and has received great additions; it is a commodious edifice, surrounded with gardens and pleasure-grounds. About, a mile from York, near the village of Heslington, is a similar institution, called The Retreat, opened in 1796, and which owes its foundation to the exertions of William Tuke, who, impressed with the belief that the then general treatment of persons of unsound mind was ill-adapted to the two great objects of cure and alleviation, induced the Society of Friends, of which he was a member, to engage in his experiment of pursuing a mild and persuasive system. The grounds attached are extensive, and appropriately laid out; the building, erected at an expense of £12,000, has been materially enlarged, and now forms a handsome quadrangular range. Among the most munificent benefactors to the poor of the city have been, the Countess Dowager of Conyngham, who bequeathed £20,000 for charitable purposes; and Mr. John Allen, who, with several other sums, bequeathed £140 per annum for the erection and endowment of an hospital for twelve aged men, who receive each £12 per annum. The late Dr. Beckwith, who bequeathed his ample fortune in aid of the several charities and public institutions of York, left to the Philosophical Society £10,000; to the Wilberforce School for the Blind, £5000; to the Dean and Chapter, for a new peal of bells, and the remainder to repair the chapter-house, £5000; for the foundation of a penitentiary, £5000; to the dispensary, £2000; the Blue-coat boys' school, £2000; the Grey-coat girls' school, £2000; St. Thomas' hospital, £2000; making, with other bequests, above £40,000. The union of York comprises 79 parishes or places, of which 31 are in the city, 14 in the East, 19 in the North, and 15 in the West, riding; altogether containing a population of 37,779.
Near the city are the beautiful ruins of the venerable abbey of St. Mary, founded in 1088 by William Rufus, who laid the first stone of the building, and amply endowed it for monks of the Benedictine order. It flourished till the Dissolution, at which time its revenue was £2085. 1. 5. Among other ancient remains is the crypt of St. Leonard's hospital, originally founded in the reign of William the Conqueror, and dedicated to St. Peter previously to the erection of a church in it (by King Stephen) dedicated to St. Leonard, by which name it was afterwards distinguished. At the Dissolution its revenue was estimated at £500. 11. 1.
Among the eminent natives have been, Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor that embraced Christianity; Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus, pupil of Bede; Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, son of the gallant Siward; and Thomas Morton, successively Bishop of Chester, of Lichfield and Coventry, and of Durham. Of those of more recent date may be noticed, Gent, an eminent printer; Swinburn, a distinguished lawyer and civilian; and Flaxman, the celebrated sculptor. York gave the title of Duke to Prince Frederick, second son of King George III.
YORKFLEET, a township, in the parish and union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York, 6¼ miles (S. E. by E.) from Howden; containing 206 inhabitants. It comprises about 1000 acres, including an allotment of Bishopsoil and Walling fen. The village is pleasantly seated on the north bank of the river Ouse, immediately opposite to the village of Qusefleet. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
YORKSHIRE, a maritime county, and by far the largest county in England, bounded on the south by the Humber, and the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, and Derby; on the south-west, for a short distance, by the county of Chester; on the west by Lancashire; on the north-west by Westmorland; on the north by Durham; and on the north-east by the North Sea. It extends from 53° 19' to 54° 40' (N. Lat.), and from 10' (E. Lon.) to 2° 40' (W. Lon.), and includes an area of 3,815,040 acres, or nearly 5961 square miles. The whole county contains 316,096 inhabited houses, 23,522 uninhabited, and 3079 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 1,591,480, of whom 788,793 are males, and 802,687 females. Of this population, there are in the East riding 96,018 males and 98,918 females; in the North riding, 100,482 males and 103,640 females; and in the West riding, 578,894 males and 584,686 females. The remainder are in the city of York.
The ancient British inhabitants of this part were the Brigantes, the most numerous and powerful of all the tribes that shared in the possession of Britain before its conquest by the Romans. The latter succeeded in subjugating the Brigantes about the year 71, after defeating them in several sanguinary battles, and ravaging the whole of their territory. The Caledonians having overrun a great part of the country north of the Humber, the Emperor Adrian arrived in Britain, in the year 120, to oppose them in person, and fixed his residence at Eboracum; on his approach the invaders retired, and the emperor, having made provisions for the future security of the province, soon returned to Rome. But no sooner had he departed than the Caledonians renewed their predatory inroads, which became more frequent and extensive, until, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, the Brigantes at the same time attempting to throw off the Roman yoke, that emperor sent Lollius Urbicus with strong reinforcements to suppress the commotions. This commander, having first reduced the revolted Brigantes, drove the Caledonians into the highlands of Scotland, and thus restored tranquillity. The northerns, however, renewing their irruptions, in the year 207 the Emperor Severus came over with a numerous army, and immediately advanced to York, thence marched northward, and expelled them. The barbarians again renewed their incursions, about the year 364, but were at length repelled by the Roman general Theodosius, in 368.
In the latter period of the Roman empire in Britain, the territory at present contained in Yorkshire was included in the division called Maxima Cæsariensis. After the accession of Honorius, one of the sons of Theodosius, to the empire of the West, in 393, the invasions of the Picts and Scots became incessant; and when the Romans, about the year 410, abandoned Britain in order to defend their continental dominions, the Romanized Britons fell into a state of anarchy, amidst which it is only known of Yorkshire, that it formed the greater part of a British kingdom named Diefyr, or Deira, the conquest of which by the Saxon chieftains was not completed until after a lapse of 111 years from the first arrival of Hengist in Kent. Bernicia, situated to the north of the Roman wall, having been subjugated by Ida about the year 547, Ella, another Saxon leader, about 560, penetrated southward from that territory, and effected the conquest of Deira. These two kingdoms, at different times forming one sovereignty, derived, from their situation north of the Humber, the name of Northumbria. In the beginning of the 9th century, the victorious Egbert made Northumbria a tributary kingdom, shortly after which it was seized upon by the Danes, who were the principal occupants of it until its final subjugation by Edred in 951. It was subsequently governed by a succession of earls or viceroys, who, like the ancient kings, had their residence at York.
The county is in the dioceses of York and Ripon, in the province of York, and forms the archdeaconries of York, the East Riding, Cleveland, Craven, and Richmond: the number of parishes is 604. The grand civil and military division of Yorkshire is into three ridings, West, North, and East, the term riding being corrupted from trithing, a third part. The West Riding comprises the wapentakes of Agbrigg (Upper and Lower), Barkstone-Ash (Upper and Lower), Claro (Upper and Lower), Morley, Osgoldcross (Upper and Lower), Skyrack (Upper and Lower), Staincliffe and Ewcross (East and West), Staincross, and Strafforth and Tickhill (North and South), with the liberty of Ripon and soke of Doncaster. By the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, the ainsty of York, also, was annexed as a wapentake to the West Riding. The North Riding is divided into the wapentakes of Allertonshire, Birdforth, Bulmer, GillingEast, Gilling-West, Hallikeld, Hang-East, Hang-West, and Ryedale, also Pickering Lythe, and the liberties of Langbaurgh and Whitby-Strand; and the East Riding into the wapentakes of Buckrose, Dickering, Harthill (Bainton-Beacon, Holme-Beacon, Hunsley-Beacon, and Wilton-Beacon, divisions), Holderness (Middle, North, and South), Howdenshire, and Ouse and Derwent; besides which it comprehends the borough and liberties of Beverley, and the county of the town of Hull. Yorkshire contains the city of York; the borough, market, and sea port towns of Hull, Scarborough, and Whitby; the borough and market-towns of Beverley, Bradford, Doncaster, Halifax, Huddersfield, Knaresborough, Leeds, Malton, Northallerton, Pontefract, Richmond, Ripon, Sheffield, Thirsk, and Wakefield; the market and seaport towns of Bridlington and Goole; and the markettowns of Askrigg, Barnsley, Bawtry, Bedale, Bingley, Boroughbridge, South Cave, Dewsbury, Guisborough, Hawes, Hedon, Helmsley, Howden, Keighley, KirkbyMoorside, Leyburn, Market-Weighton, Masham, Middlesbrough, Otley, Patrington, Penistone, Pickering, Pocklington, Reeth, Rotherham, Sedbergh, Selby, Settle, Sherburn, Skipton, Stokesley, Tadcaster, Thome, Wetherby, and Yarm.
On the disfranchisement of the Cornish borough of Grampound, the privilege of returning to parliament two additional members was granted to this large and populous county, which accordingly then sent four; and under the act passed to amend the representation in the 2nd of William IV., two more were added, making two for each Riding. Two citizens are returned for the city of York; and two burgesses for each of the boroughs, except Northallerton and Thirsk, which, under the act of the 2nd of William IV., were deprived of one; and except also Huddersfield, Wakefield, and Whitby, which are empowered to send only one each. The shire is included in the Northern circuit; the assizes are held at York, where is the county gaol. The quarter-sessions for the West Riding are held as follows: the Easter sessions at Pontefract; the Midsummer quarter-sessions at Skipton, whence they are adjourned to Bradford, and thence to Rotherham; the Michaelmas quarter-sessions at Knaresborough, whence they are adjourned to Leeds, and thence to Sheffield; and the Christmas quartersessions at Wetherby, Wakefield, and Doncaster. On the termination of each session there is an adjournment to Wakefield for the purpose of inspecting the prison, which generally takes place within a month or six weeks after that time. In pursuance of an act passed in the year 1704, the office for the registration of deeds, conveyances, and wills, relating to property within the West Riding, was established at Wakefield, where also are kept the records of the sessions. The quarter-sessions for the North and East Ridings are held respectively at Northallerton and Beverley, in each of which towns are also offices for the registration of all deeds relating to landed property within those ridings.
The West Riding, which, whether considered with regard to its extent and population, or to its trade and manufactures, is by far the most important, is bounded on the north by the North Riding; on the east by the river Ouse, to its junction with the Trent; and on the south and west, by the arbitrary limits of the county. Its greatest length, from east to west, is 95 miles; its extreme breadth, from north to south, 48 miles; and its circumference about 320 miles, including an area of 2450 square miles, or 1,568,000 acres. The surface of this portion of Yorkshire is much diversified, but may be divided into three large districts, gradually varying from a level and marshy to a rocky and mountainous region. The flat and marshy district, forming part of the extensive Vale of York, lies along the borders of the Ouse, and in most places extends westward as far as within three or four miles of an imaginary line drawn from Doncaster to Sherburn. Its general level is broken only by low sandy hills, which occur in the vicinities of Snaith, Thome, and Doncaster, and the altitude of which is seldom more than 50 feet above the level of the sea; so that the great rivers Ouse, Aire, and Don, which traverse this extensive tract, have often changed their channels. The middle parts of the Riding, as far westward as Sheffield, Bradford, and Otley, contain a variety of beautiful scenery, formed chiefly by noble hills of gentle ascent. Further westward the country becomes rugged and mountainous, scarcely any thing being seen beyond Sheffield, in that direction, but high black moors, which, running north-westward, join the lofty hills of Blackstone Edge, on the border of Lancashire. The north-western portion of the Riding, forming the western part of Craven, presents a confused heap of rocks and mountains, among which Pennygant, Wharnside, and Ingleborough are particularly conspicuous. The last of these, nearly in the centre of Ewcross, is one of the most majestic mountains in the country, rising to an elevation of 2360 feet from a base nearly 10 miles in diameter. The general appearance of this part is rugged, and the scenery barren, with little wood. The deanery of Craven, comprising East and West Staincliffe, part of Ewcross, and the Upper division of Skyrack, contains little arable land, being one wide expanse of luxuriant verdure, interspersed with tracts of wood, in which the prevailing timber is ash of spontaneous and stately growth, and abounding with beautifully diversified scenery in the vales of the Wharfe, the Aire, and the Ribble, whose sources are within its limits.
The North Riding, the next most extensive division, is bounded on the north by the river Tees; on the northeast and east by the ocean; on the south-east by the rivers Hertford and Derwent, which separate it from the East Riding; on the south by the river Ouse and the West Riding; and on the west by the county of Westmorland. Its greatest length is 83 miles, from east to west; its extreme breadth, 47 miles, from north to south; and it comprises an area of 1,311,187 acres, or about 2048 square miles. The face of the country along the coast, from Scarborough nearly to the Tees, is bold and hilly, the cliffs overhanging the beach being generally from 60 or 70 to 150 feet high; while Stoupe Brow, vulgarly "Stow Brow," about seven miles to the south of Whitby, rises to the stupendous height of 893 feet. From the ordinary elevation of the cliff the ground rises, in most places very rapidly, to the height of 300 or 400 feet; and the maritime tract thus formed, comprising about 64,920 acres, is tolerably productive. A little further inland, successive hills, rising one above another, form the elevated tract of the Eastern Moorlands. This wild and mountainous district, which occupies a space about 30 miles in length from east to west, and 15 in breadth from north to south, is intersected by numerous beautiful and fertile dales, some of which are rather extensive; but, rising to the height of more than 1000 feet, the general aspect of the tract is bleak and dreary, and the whole is destitute of wood, excepting only a few dwarfish trees among the scattered habitations in the valleys. On the roads leading from Whitby to Guisborough, Stokesley, and Pickering, at the distance of a few miles, commence dreary wastes, bounded only by the horizon. Some of the hills, however, near the edges of this rugged and mountainous region, command magnificent prospects. But the most remarkable object in the topography of these wilds is the singular peaked mountain called Rosebury-Topping, situated near the village of Newton, about a mile eastward of the road from Guisborough to Stokesley, and rising 1488 feet above the level of the sea: the view from its summit is celebrated for its great variety. The total extent of the Eastern Moorland district is 298,625 acres.
The Vale of Cleveland, situated to the north-west of these mountains, is a fruitful tract bordering on the river Tees, in the lower part of its course. In this county it comprises an area of 70,444 acres, under good cultivation, and lightly marked with gentle eminences. The extensive Vale of York is considered by Mr. Tuke, author of the General View of the Agriculture of the North Riding, drawn up for the consideration of the Board of Agriculture, to reach from the border of the Tees to the southern confines of the county, the northern portion of it only being in the North Riding. This northern part, bounded by the Eastern and the Western Moorlands, has a gentle slope from the river Tees, southward, as far as York, where it sinks into a perfect fiat. Its ordinarily level surface, however, is broken by several bold swells; and on the east it is separated from Ryedale by a range of hills called by Mr. Marshall, in his Rural Economy of Yorkshire, the Howardian Hills. This part of the vale, together with the hills, comprises an extent of 456,386 acres, of which about 15,000 are uncultivated. Ryedale (so called from its being traversed by the river Rye), and the East and West Marshes, form an extensive level, situated between the Eastern Moorlands and the river Derwent, and containing 103,872 acres, of which about 3000 are waste. The surface of its lower parts is flat, but towards the north it rises with a gentle ascent for three or four miles towards the foot of the moors; its lower levels are also broken by several isolated swells of considerable extent and elevation. The Marshes are separated from Ryedale by the Pickering beck. The Western Moorlands, occupying the rest of the North Riding, west of the Vale of York, and of far greater elevation than the Eastern Moorlands, resemble in general character the mountainous parts of Craven, and are, like them, intersected by numerous fertile dales. Their total extent is 316,940 acres.
The East Riding is bounded on the north and northwest by the little river Hertford, and by the Derwent as far down as the vicinity of Stamford Bridge, where an irregular boundary line commences, which joins the Ouse, about a mile below York: from this point it is bounded, on the west and south-west, by the Ouse. On the south it is washed by the Humber, and on the east by the North Sea. Its greatest length is 52 miles, from south-east to north-west; its extreme breadth is 42 miles, from south-west to north-east; and it includes an area of 819,193 acres, or nearly 1280 square miles. This division is far less conspicuously marked with the bolder features of nature than the other parts of the county. It may be distinguished into three districts, viz., the Wolds, and two level tracts, one of which lies to the east, the other to the west and north, of that elevated region. The Wolds are a magnificent assemblage of lofty chalk hills, extending from the banks of the Humber in the vicinity of Hessle, in a northern direction, to the neighbourhood of Malton on the Derwent, whence they range eastward, within a few miles of the course of that river, to the coast. They form the lofty promontory of Flamborough Head, and, near the villages of Flamborough, Bempton, and Specton, rise in cliffs to the height of 100, and in some places of 150 feet. The surface of the Wolds is for the most part divided into numerous extensive swells, by deep, narrow, and winding valleys; and occupies an extent of about 400,000 acres. Their eastern side, at Bridlington, sinks into a perfect flat, which continues for eight or nine miles southward. At the distance of about seven miles southward of Bridlington, begins the wapentake of Holderness, the eastern part of which, towards the sea-coast, is a finely varied country, containing Hornsea Mere, the largest lake in the county, being about a mile and threequarters long, and three-quarters of a mile across in the broadest part. The western edge of the wapentake is a fenny tract about four miles in breadth, and extending nearly 20 miles in length, southward to the Humber: the fenny lands are provincially called "Cars." The southern part of Holderness also falls into marshes, bordering on the Humber; and the county terminates south-eastward in the long low promontory of Spurnhead, the Ocellum Promontorium of Ptolemy. The Humber is known to have made considerable encroachments in former ages on the shores of Holderness; but in later times it has gradually receded from very extensive tracts. About the commencement of the reign of Charles I., an island, since called Sunk Island, began to appear in the Humber, nearly opposite Patrington. At first a few acres only were left dry at low water; but, as it increased in extent every year, it was at last embanked, and converted into pasture-ground; successive embankments were made, and large tracts each time secured, so that, at the present period, it comprises about 4700 acres of fertile land, and towards the west end is separated from the Holderness marshes only by a ditch a few feet broad. It is held on lease from the crown. The Holderness marshes have also been increased by the retiring of the Humber; and a large tract of land, called "Cherrycob Sands," which was left dry, and embanked in the same manner as Sunk Island, is particularly worthy of notice. The third natural division of the East Riding, which extends from the western foot of the Wolds to the boundary of the West Riding, is commonly called The Levels, and, though generally fertile, and interspersed with villages, is every where uninteresting.
One of the most important agricultural improvements in the county is the drainage of the cars and marshes of the East Riding, together with those in the North Riding, bordering on the course of the Derwent. The Holderness Drainage lies chiefly adjoining to and on the eastern side of the river Hull; it extends from north to south about eleven miles, and contains 11,211 acres. In 1762, an act of parliament was obtained for draining this level, much of which before that period was of small value, being usually covered with water for above half the year. The Beverley and Barmston Drainage, executed under the provisions of an act passed about the year 1792, lies parallel to the last, but on the opposite side of the river Hull, extending from the sea-shore at Barmston, a few miles south of Bridlington, along the course of that river nearly to Hull, a distance of about twenty-four miles. Its northern part contains more than 2000 acres, and has an outfall into the sea at Barmston; whilst the southern division, extending southward from Foston, contains upwards of 10,000 acres, and has its outlet into the river Hull at a place called Wincolmlee. The Keyingham Drainage, lying between Sunk Island and the main land, was originally completed under an act passed in 1722. A new act was obtained in 1802, under which the course of the drainage in some parts was altered, and an additional quantity of land included, making a total of 5500 acres. The management is vested in three commissioners, and on a vacancy occurring by death or resignation, another commissioner is elected by the proprietors. The Hertford and Derwent Drainage contains upwards of 10,500 acres, of which 4500 are in the East, and the remainder in the North, Riding. The act for this was obtained in the year 1800, and its execution was vested in three directors and three commissioners. The directors have power to levy an annual assessment, not exceeding an average of three shillings per acre, for the purpose of maintaining and repairing the existing works and drains, and of making such new works as may, from time to time, become necessary. Spalding Moor and Walling Fen, lying westward of the southern part of the Wolds, were drained, allotted, and inclosed, about seventy years since.
Every kind of agricultural crop is cultivated in the county; and the systems of tillage, owing to the diversity of soils and situations, are extremely various. Wheat is grown to a great extent on all the lower and more fertile lands; and no district in the north of England, in proportion to its size, is considered to produce so much of it, or of so good a quality, as Cleveland, whence large quantities are shipped to the southern coast of England, and much is conveyed to Thirsk and Leyburn, where it is bought up for the manufacturing districts. Rye is sometimes sown on the lighter soils, more particularly of the North Riding, where wheat is not unfrequently mixed with it: of this mixture, provincially called "meslin," the common household bread of that portion of the county is chiefly made. The quantity of land annually sown with Barley is no where remarkably great, except on the Wolds, the soil of which is peculiarly adapted to its culture: in the North Riding, in Ryedale and the dales of the Eastern Moorlands, are occasionally seen plots of the species provincially called big, which is six-rowed barley; and of bear, four-rowed. Besides being occasionally grown in other places, Oats are very much cultivated in all the arable parts of the North Riding, more particularly in Ryedale, which is as remarkable for the quantity and excellent quality of its oats, as Cleveland is for its wheat: two crops are here always taken in succession, and frequently three. In the western parts of the West Riding, too, this corn is the prevailing crop; and oaten bread is in common use in the manufacturing districts. Considerable quantities of Flax are grown in the West Riding, in the neighbourhood of Selby; in the East Riding, about Howden and on the eastern bank of the Derwent; and in the North Riding, a small quantity in Ryedale, and a few other situations. Woad, for dyeing, is cultivated near Selby, among red clover. In the vicinity of York, Mustard is a valuable article of cultivation; and fields of it are occasionally to be seen in different places in the northern and eastern parts of the county: that which is grown near York is prepared for use in mills at that city, and afterwards sold as Durham mustard. The wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, in the eastern part of the West Riding, is distinguished for an extensive growth of Teasel, which is also occasionally cultivated to a small extent in other places having a strong soil: it is purchased by the clothdressers, for the purpose of raising the nap on cloth, before it undergoes the operation of shearing. Sainfoin is grown in different situations.
The grass-lands are very extensive, for, besides the tracts included with the arable districts, the productive parts of the western side of the county are kept almost exclusively in grass, and from Ripley to its western extremity the whole country is employed in grazing; while corn, and that almost entirely oats, is raised only in very small quantities on the inferior moorish soils. The old pasture lands, forming by far the greater portion of the lands in grass, have remained in that state from time immemorial, and in the West Riding are frequently mown, producing hay held in great esteem. Some of them are, nevertheless, of a very mean quality, and, especially in the North Riding, are often covered with thistles, ant-hills, and occasionally furze: in the dales of the Western Moorlands, however, remarkable attention is paid to the meadows. The extent of natural meadow, namely, such as derives the whole, or the greater part, of its fertility from the overflow of rivers, is not very great: many of the old fields of this kind in the Vale of York and in Ryedale have been constantly mown for ages, and are still highly productive. The East Riding contains the smallest quantity of grass-land; its sheep pastures on the Wolds, for which it was formerly so distinguished, having been mostly brought under various courses of tillage. On the banks of the Derwent, above Malton, and again at Cottingwith, it contains low tracts of marshy meadows, occasionally overflowed by that river, and producing abundant crops of coarse flaggy hay, of which that obtained from the last-mentioned district is of a peculiarly nutritive quality. The whole of the West Riding is an eminent grazing district, where cattle and sheep of all kinds are fattened to great perfection, chiefly to supply the manufacturing parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire. For this purpose, great numbers of lean cattle and sheep are brought from Scotland and the northern counties contiguous to Yorkshire. It has also numerous small dairies, for the supply of its own manufacturing towns and those of Lancashire with butter; and some large dairies in the vicinity of the large towns, to which the milk is principally sold. In the North Riding, the pastures are for the most part appropriated to the dairy; though grazing is also practised in some parts of it, more particularly in the Vale of York: the butter produced in this riding is chiefly packed in firkins, and sold to factors, who ship it for the London and other markets. In the East Riding, grazing and fattening, also stall-feeding, are practised to a very considerable extent.
A great deal of oak and ash timber is produced in the West Riding, and great attention is paid to the management of the woods; the timber meets with a ready sale in the ship-building and manufacturing towns, and much is also used in the mines and collieries. The extent of the woodlands in the North Riding is estimated at about 25,000 acres, dispersed in all quarters, the Moorland and Cleveland having the smallest proportion: this division yields also a considerable quantity of timber in its hedge-rows, particularly in the Vale of York, on the Howardian hills, and in Ryedale. The spontaneous produce of the best woodlands, is oak, ash, and broadleaved or wych elm; of those in mountainous situations, chiefly birch and alder; and the produce of the hedgerows, various kinds of trees, for the most part of artificial plantation. In this riding it is the custom to sell the falls of wood to professed wood-buyers, who cut up the trees on the spot, according to the purposes for which the different parts of them are best calculated: the ports of Scarborough and Whitby consume most of the ship timber, excepting only such as grows towards its western extremity. The oak-timber grown in the greater part of the riding, though not large, is extremely hard and durable. The only peculiar application of the ash-timber, which grows abundantly and in great perfection, is in the manufacture of butter-firkins, in which it is chiefly consumed. Plantations have been made on the sides and summits of several of the Moorland and other barren hills, chiefly of Scotch fir, larch, and spruce. The East Riding is little remarkable for its timber. The natural woods are almost confined to the levels between the rivers Ouse and Derwent and the Wolds, where are also abundance of timber-trees in the hedge-rows of old inclosures: the only woods to the east of the Wolds are those of Rise and Burton-Constable. The fine elevations of the Wolds have been ornamented in different parts by plantations of Scotch and spruce firs, larch, beech, ash, &c, to the amount of several thousand acres; and various plantations have been made in the low country to the west of them.
The wastes, about the end of the last century, were calculated in the whole at 849,272 acres, but the amount has, since that period, been lessened by numerous inclosure acts, obtained both for the detached wastes and for parts of the Moorlands. The surface of some of the higher hills in the Eastern Moorlands is entirely covered with large freestones; while upon others are beds of peat bog, in many places very deep, frequently not passable, and never without danger: these are invariably overgrown with ling, in some parts mixed with bent and rushes. Near the old inclosures are considerable tracts of loamy and sandy soils, producing furze, fern (here called "brackens"), thistles, and coarse grass, with but little ling; but wherever ling is the chief produce, the soil is invariably black moor or peat. The subsoils of these extensive wastes are various. In some places a yellowish, in others a reddish, clay occurs. A loose freestone rubble, resting either upon a freestone rock or upon clay, is also very common; and in different other places is found a rotten earth of peaty quality (which produces very luxuriant ling, bent, and rushes), a hard cemented reddish sand, or a grey sand. The basis of the whole is freestone. The Hamilton hills, forming the western end of these wastes, have generally a fine loamy soil on a limestone rock, which produces great quantities of coarse grass and bent, in some places intermixed with ling, more particularly towards the south-western parts of them. The mountains of the western side of the county differ materially in their produce from the Eastern Moorlands. Some, instead of black ling, are covered with a fine sweet grass; others with extensive tracts of bent; and though the higher parts produce ling, it is generally mixed with a large proportion of grass, bent, or rushes. The soil on the lower parts is a fine loam, in many places rather stiff, resting upon a hard blue limestone. The bent generally covers a strong soil lying upon a gritstone or freestone rock; the black ling, a reddish peat upon a red subsoil, or, in many places, a loose grit rubble, beneath which is a gritstone rock.
Some of the lower tracts of the Eastern moors, the lower parts of the Western moors in general, and in certain instances the higher parts of the latter, are stinted pastures during the summer; and those who have the limited right in summer, have a right in winter of turning upon them whatever quantity of stock they choose. These pastures are chiefly stocked with young cattle, horses, and such sheep as are intended to be sold off the same year. The remainder of the moors is common without stint, and is stocked for the most part with sheep, though a small, hardy, and very strong kind of horse is also bred and reared upon the Western Moorlands, and chiefly sold to the manufacturing parts of the West Riding and of Lancashire. The Moorland sheep are remarkable for their wretched appearance and great activity; they are wholly supported on these mountain wastes, and their mutton is of a particularly fine quality. The wastes of the East Riding consist chiefly of low, sandy, barren, and moory tracts lying between the Wolds and the rivers Ouse and Derwent; their principal natural produce is short heath.
To the geologist Yorkshire affords interesting fields of study. All its strata, with slight variations, dip eastward, those which appear at its western extremities being of the oldest formation. The mineral productions are various and important, and have given rise, and afford support, to some of its principal manufactures; they consist chiefly of coal, iron, lead, stone of various qualities, and alum. The best coal is obtained in the West Riding, which comprises one of the most valuable and extensive coal-fields in the kingdom. This coal district is bounded on the east by a narrow range of magnesian limestone, extending from Tickhill northward by Doncaster, Ferrybridge, Wetherby, Knaresborough, and Ripon; and consists of a great number of alternations of sandstone, clay, shale, coal, and ironstone, which form the substrata of the most populous parts of the riding. Its surface is characterized by successive parallel ranges of high ground, extending from north to south: the ascent to these hills on their western sides is abrupt, while on the east they decline more gradually, each one to the foot of the next range, under which its strata dip. Next to the magnesian limestone and its subjacent sand, proceeding westward, appear, first, the blue shale and thin coal of the Vale of Went, and then the grit-freestone of Ackworth and Kirby, beneath which is found the swift-burning coal of Wragby, Shafton, Crofton, and other places in the great clay district of the Dearne below Barnsley, and of the Calder below Wakefield. These various measures rest upon the grit-freestone of Rotherham, Barnsley, Newmiller Dam, and East Ardsley, through which pits are sunk near Barnsley to several thick seams of hard furnacecoal, one of them as much as ten feet thick. The next great sandstone stratum forms high ground, and frequently projects beyond the general range into detached hills; it occurs near Sheffield, Wentworth Park, and Bretton Park, and forms the elevated land of Horbury and Dewsbury, and of Middleton near Leeds. Beneath it are found valuable beds of ironstone, which are worked at Rotherham, Haigh-bridge, Low Moor, and several other places, where an abundance of muscle shells is found in contact with them. Contiguous to this ironstone are several strata of excellent coal. Next in the series lies the sandstone of Wortley-Chapel, Silkstone, Elmley, and Whitley-hall, with the valuable bituminous coal of Silkstone and Flockton, the best seams of the whole formation. This rock, entering the West Riding from Derbyshire, and passing by Sheffield, Penistone, Huddersfield, Elland Edge, and the Clayton heights, afterwards takes its course parallel with the river Aire, by Idle and Chapel-Allerton, towards the magnesian limestone. In this part of the coal district, near Sheffield, Bradford, and Leeds, is dug the galliard stone, so much in request for making and mending roads. The coal-mines are most numerous in the tract between Leeds and Wakefield, and in the neighbourhoods of Bradford, Barnsley, and Sheffield.
Characterised by its irregular texture, its numerous quartz pebbles, and its frequently craggy surface, the millstone-grit, with soft alternations both above and below it, occupies the wide and barren moors to the west of Sheffield, Penistone, Huddersfield, Bradford, Otley, Harrogate, Ripley, and Masham. In the numerous alternations of this stone, thin seams of coal frequently occur, which in certain situations are worked with advantage. Of the millstone-grit, an excellent and almost imperishable building-stone, great quantities are sent down the rivers Don and Aire. Wharnside, Ingleborough, Pennygant, and other lofty mountains on the western boundary of the county, are crowned with coalmeasures, but their base consists wholly of limestone. The principal lead-mines in the West Riding are at Grassington, about ten miles west of Pateley-Bridge, in a limestone tract which occupies also a great part of Craven; but here the ores are far less abundant than in the vales of the Nid and the Wharfe. Howgill Fells, on the western boundary of the county, consist of the kind of slate called by geologists greywacke.
In the North Riding, seams of an inferior kind of coal, which is heavy, sulphureous, and burns entirely away to white ashes, are wrought in different parts of both the Eastern and Western Moorlands, at Gilling Moor on the Howardian hills, and in the Vale of York, between Easingwould and Thirsk. Cleveland and the coast of this riding abound, in all their hills, with inexhaustible beds of aluminous strata; and extensive works for the manufacture of alum are established in the vicinity of Whitby, where the art is stated to have been first introduced from Italy, in the year 1595. Alum is also found, but not worked, in the Eastern Moorlands and in the vicinity of Bradford. In the Western Moorlands are many Lead mines, some of which have been, and others still are, very valuable: these are situated in Swaledale, Arkendale, and the neighbouring valleys: their annual produce is estimated at 6000 tons, of which one-half is yielded by the mines of Swaledale. Veins of Copper have been discovered at Richmond and Middleton-Tyas, at which latter place the metal was worked about the middle of the last century; copper pyrites is procured in considerable quantities in all the alummines, and copperas was formerly extracted from it. Great quantities of Ironstone are found in Bilsdale, Bransdale, and Rosedale, in the Eastern Moorlands, where iron seems to have been extensively manufactured in ancient times; but Ayton is the only place where forges have been erected at a modern period, and these are now abandoned. The iron-ore found in the northern parts of the Eastern Moorlands is sometimes in detached pieces, but more frequently in regular strata, from six to fourteen inches thick, dipping towards the south. In the neighbourhood of Whitby, some of these beds are wrought, and their produce carried to the works in the north, where the ore is of great use in fluxing the more obdurate ores there obtained.
Freestone, or gritstone, of an excellent quality for building, is found in many parts of this riding, particularly on Gatherly Moor near Richmond, at Renton near Boroughbridge, in the neighbourhood of Whitby, in all parts of the Eastern Moorlands, of which it forms the chief basis, and in many parts of the Western. Nor is Limestone less abundant. The Western Moorlands in a great measure consist of it; the Hamilton and Howardian hills, almost entirely; and a narrow ridge, producing lime of a peculiarly excellent quality for agricultural purposes, extends for at least thirty miles along the southern edge of the Eastern Moorlands. Various isolated masses are also found in different situations. In Coverdale, one of the smaller valleys of the Western Moorlands, and at Pen-hill, between this and Wensleydale, a kind of Flagstone, used for covering roofs, is dug; and in Swaledale a kind of purple Slate, resembling that of Westmorland, but thicker and coarser, the use of which extends little beyond the spot where it is produced. Marble of various kinds, some much resembling that worked in Derbyshire, and some, in closeness of texture and distinctness of colours, superior to it, is found in many parts of the calcareous hills of the Western Moorlands; but it is only used for burning into lime, or mending roads. Some of the limestone on the northern margin of Ryedale also greatly resembles the marble of Derbyshire, and is susceptible of nearly an equal polish. In the vicinity of the small river Greta, and in other places in the north-western extremity of the county, large blocks of a light-red Granite are found scattered over the surface, and in some places a light-grey kind of the same stone. Gypsum, or alabaster, is found in the North Riding portion of the Vale of York, and in some parts of the levels in the East and West Ridings. Near Thornton-bridge, on the Swale, where it is worked for the use of plasterers, it lies in strata several feet thick, and in some places not more than four feet from the surface.
The principal mineral productions of the East Riding are, the chalk of the Wolds, which is occasionally used in building, and frequently for burning into lime; and the coarse hard limestone of the vale of Derwent, which is of little value either for building or burning. The springs in the chalk are remarkably powerful, and many of them breaking out through the gravel at the eastern foot of the Wolds, combine to form the river Hull. In the gravel beds resting on the chalk, to the east of where this substance appears next the surface, very perfect remains of large animals are found: vertebræ, eighteen feet in length, and from eight to ten inches in diameter, have here been exhumed; as are frequently teeth, measuring from eight to ten inches in circumference. Great quantities of remarkable crystals of gypsum selenites and prismaticum are discovered in a bed of clay at Knapton.
The strata of the West Riding contain few fossil remains except at Bradford, where, in a stratum of sandstone, are found beautiful impressions of euphorbium, bamboo cane, and other tropical productions. At a little distance from Knaresborough exists a bed of strontian earth, which is very rare in this kingdom. Various remarkable petrifactions of animals have been discovered in the alum rocks in the vicinity of Whitby, in the North Riding; as also cornua ammonis, or snake-stones. Some of the strata in the same neighbourhood contain petrified cockle, oyster, and scallop shells, jet, and petrified wood; also trochitæ, or "thunderbolts," as they are vulgarly called, which are singular conical stones, from half an inch to an inch and a half in diameter at the base, and from two to five or six inches long.
The Manufactures, the most valuable and extensive of which are confined to the West Riding, are of the highest degree of importance to the kingdom, as well as to the multitudes to whom they afford subsistence. The two distinguishing manufactures are those of woollen goods and cutlery: the seat of the former is the district including the towns of Leeds, Halifax, Huddersfield, Bradford, and Wakefield; and that of the latter, Sheffield and its vicinity. The principal inducement for the establishment of these great works in the situations which they now occupy, was the plentiful supply of water and fuel for giving motion to machinery, and for the various other purposes of their several departments. The river Aire is the eastern boundary of the clothing district, which extends over the county thence to the mountain ridge bordering on Lancashire. The bulk of the woollen manufactures consisted formerly of the coarser kinds of cloth; but at present "Yorkshire cloth" no longer conveys the exclusive idea of inferiority, as the manufacturers now produce also great quantities of black and blue superfine cloths of distinguished merit. Until of late years, when numerous extensive factories have been erected (in which the whole process of making cloth, from the first breaking of the wool to the finishing of the piece ready for the consumer, is completed), the first stages of the manufacture were carried on in villages and hamlets, where the wool underwent the respective operations of spinning, weaving, and fulling. This is now only partially the case; the cloth from these scattered establishments is sent in its unfinished state to the cloth-halls in the towns, where it is sold to merchants, who have it dressed under their own direction. Besides broad and narrow cloths of various qualities, serges, and kerseymeres, the woollen manufactures of the West Riding include great quantities of ladies' cloths, such as pelisse-cloths and shawls; stuff goods of various kinds; camlets, shalloons, tammies, duroys, everlastings, calimancoes, moreens, shags, baize, &c. Carpets much resembling those of Scotland are manufactured on a very extensive scale at Dewsbury, where is one of the largest factories for this article, and for woollen cloths and blankets, in the kingdom. Several factories have been established for spinning flax for canvass, linen, sacking-thread, &c.; an extensive branch of the Manchester cotton trade is also carried on, and at Barnsley the manufacture of linen prevails. There is a considerable trade in the spinning of worsted-yarn, and the manufacture of wool cards and combs. The Leeds pottery enjoys a good reputation both in the British dominions and in foreign countries: the wholesale tobacco trade is likewise pursued to a great extent in that town, where are mills for preparing the raw material. Sheffield has, from a remote period, been famous for its manufacture of cutlery, which, however, was of very small extent until the early part of the 17th century, when it began gradually to increase. There are also several foundries for iron, brass, and Britannia metal; and extensive works for refining steel: the iron-works at Rotherham are particularly celebrated, and produce all kinds of articles in cast-iron, and much wrought-iron, in bars, sheets, and rods, together with tinned plates and steel. At Sheffield is also a minor manufacture of hair-seating, with a more considerable one of carpets.
In the dales of the Eastern Moorlands, and in Cleveland, some coarse linens are manufactured by the small farmers; and at Crathorne in Cleveland, and various places near the Hamilton hills, are bleaching establishments. The dales of the Western Moorlands have long been famous for their manufacture of knit worsted and yarn stockings; but this has been, in a great measure, superseded by the spinning of worsted for the manufactures of the West Riding. Cotton-mills have been erected in Wensleydale, at Easingwould, and at Masham; at the last place is also a worsted-mill, and in its vicinity shalloons and shags are produced to a small extent. York and the East Riding have various isolated manufactures, which are mentioned under the heads of the places where they are carried on. In the vicinities of York and Hull a kind of coarse earthenware is made, as are bricks and tiles; and on Walling Fen, near Howden, great quantities of white bricks are made from a blue clay found there, which are exported in different directions, being in great demand for superior buildings, on account of their beauty of colour, accuracy of form, and durability. Almost every town in the North Riding, and many in the other parts of the county, have tanners and tawers, who manufacture the hides and skins produced in their respective neighbourhoods. To this enumeration of manufactures may be added ship-building, which is carried on to a considerable extent at Hull and Whitby, and in a minor degree at Scarborough and Thorne. At the three first-mentioned places are manufactures of sailcloth and cordage.
The chief port of the county is Hull, which may be deemed the fourth in England. Besides this, it possesses, of a smaller class, the ports of York, Selby, Goole, Thome, Bridlington, Scarborough, and Whitby. The commerce is of a very extensive and diversified character: the foreign and coasting trade is centred in the above-mentioned ports, more particularly in that of Hull, through which is poured an immense quantity of manufactured goods, coal, stone, &c., from the West Riding, and of cotton-twist and manufactured cottons from Lancashire. Hull and Whitby share in the Greenland fishery; and their imports of timber, deals, hemp, flax, &c., from the Baltic, are very considerable. The internal commerce of the West Riding is extensive, and is greatly faciliated by an excellent system of artificial navigation. Corn is exported from Hull, Bridlington, and Scarborough, to London, and the collieries of the north; and from the principal markets of the East and North Ridings, great quantities of grain are sent by water-carriage into the western division of the county, from which the East Riding receives in return coal, lime, flagstones, bricks and tiles, and sundry other articles. A large quantity of hams and bacon is sent from the eastern parts of Yorkshire to the metropolis and other populous districts of the kingdom.
The principal Rivers are, the Northern Ouse (so called to distinguish it from the Ouse of Buckinghamshire), the Swale, the Ure, the Wharfe, the Derwent, the Aire, the Calder, the Don, the Hull, the Tees, and the Esk; all of which, except the two last, pour their waters through the great estuary of the Humber. The Humber is navigable up to Hull for ships of the largest burthen; the Ouse up to the newly-formed port of Goole, for vessels drawing not more than sixteen feet of water, and to York, for vessels of 140 tons' burthen. Above that city the Ouse is navigable for barges of 30 tons, as also is the Ure past Boroughbridge to Ripon, and the Swale for a very few miles: the spring tides would turn the current of the Ouse to a little above York, were they not obstructed by locks about four miles below the city. The Wharfe is navigable as far as Tadcaster. The Derwent is navigable for vessels of 25 tons' burthen to Malton, above which town the navigation has been continued to Yeddingham Bridge, a further distance of about nine miles. The Aire becomes navigable at Leeds, and a few miles lower, near Castleford, is joined by the Calder, which is navigable up to SalterHebble, near Halifax. The Don having been joined by the powerful stream of the Rother, unites with the Ouse at Goole; the lower part of its channel, from the vicinity of Snaith, is artificial, and usually called the Dutch river. In 1751, this river was made navigable to Tinsley, three miles below Sheffield, and under the provisions of an act of parliament passed in 1815, the navigation has been continued by a cut, called the Tinsley canal, to Sheffield. The Hull falls into the Humber at the town of Hull, where its mouth forms a secure but narrow haven: this river is navigable to Frodingham Bridge, several miles above Beverley (with which town it communicates by means of a short cut), whence the navigation is continued by a canal to Driffield. Another canal extends eastward from the river Hull to Leven, a length of about three miles. The Tees is navigable for vessels of 60 tons to a short distance above Yarm, where the spring tides rise about seven feet: below Stockton it spreads into the fine estuary of Redcar, three miles broad.
The Canals are nearly all within the limits of the West Riding. Under this head, however, may be classed the small navigable river Foss, the channel of which is believed to have been originally formed by the Romans, to effect the drainage of an extensive level tract lying between the Ouse and the Howardian hills. It rises near the western extremity of these hills, and thence takes first a south-eastern, and then a southern, course to the Ouse, at York. The navigation was made perfect from York to Sheriff-Hutton, a distance of about fourteen miles, under the provisions of an act of parliament passed in the year 1793. Market-Weighton and Hedon, which are both situated in the East Riding, and are considerable markets for corn, have each the advantage of a navigable canal to the Humber. The canals of the West Riding, in alphabetical order, are as follows. The Barnsley canal commences in the navigable channel of the river Calder, a little below Wakefield, and, taking a southern direction, unites with the Dearne and Dove canal near Barnsley. Its length is only fifteen miles, but it is of great importance, as forming part of the line from Sheffield to Barnsley, Wakefield, Leeds, Huddersfield, Manchester, and Liverpool. The Bradford canal, which is three miles in length, commences in the Leeds and Liverpool canal at Windhill, in the parish of Idle, and terminates at Bradford, where extensive tramways connect it with the collieries and iron-works of LowMoor and Bowling. The Dearne and Dove canal commences in a side cut from the river Don, between Swinton and Mexborough, and, passing north-westward, terminates in the Barnsley canal, at Eyming's Wood, after a course of nine miles. Together with the Barnsley canal, it forms a line connecting the navigable channel of the Don with that of the Calder. From the newlyformed commercial docks at Goole a canal passes westward to the river Aire, at Ferrybridge, and thus completes the water communication between that rising port and the manufacturing districts of the West Riding, together with the counties of Lancaster, Chester, and Stafford. The Huddersfield canal, nineteen miles and a half long, commences in Sir John Ramsden's canal, on the southern side of that town, and, proceeding westward, passes near Saddleworth, through the range of mountains on the borders of Yorkshire and Lancashire, by one of the largest tunnels in the kingdom, being nearly three miles and a half in length. It terminates in the latter county in the Manchester, Ashton, and Oldham canal. The Leeds and Liverpool canal enters this county from Colne in Lancashire, whence it proceeds by Skipton, Keighley, and Bingley, and across the river Aire, near Shipley, to Leeds, where it terminates in the Aire navigation. This extensive and important canal connects the port of Liverpool with the large manufacturing town of Leeds, and forms part of a line of water communication between Liverpool and Hull. The Ramsden canal, four miles in length, commences in the Calder and Hebble navigation at Cooper's-Bridge, and terminates in the Huddersfield canal at the King's Mills, near Huddersfield; thus completing, in conjunction with the Huddersfield canal, the important line of water communication between Manchester and the great manufacturing towns of Yorkshire. The Rochdale canal, entering from Rochdale in Lancashire, terminates in the Calder and Hebble navigation at Sowerby-Bridge, two miles from Halifax. The Stainforth and Keadby canal, partly in this county and partly in the Isle of Axholme, in Lincolnshire, branches from the Don navigation at Fishlake, near Stainforth, and, passing by Thome, terminates in the Trent at Keadby, after a course of fifteen miles.
Of the railways, the Leeds and Selby line was one of the first commenced; it is connected with the Hull and Selby railway, and from Hull a line runs to Beverley and Bridlington. The Manchester and Leeds railway enters the county at Langfield, and passing near Halifax, Dewsbury, and Wakefield, joins the Midland and the York and North-Midland railways near Normanton, and thence proceeds to Leeds. A short railway has been formed between Sheffield and Rotherham, which is connected with the Midland railway close to the latter town. The Midland line enters the county to the south of Rotherham, and runs northward, east of Barnsley, as far as Normanton. The York and North-Midland railway commences at the city, and proceeds to the river Wharfe, over which it is carried by a bridge 274 feet in length; then, after passing through a tunnel, it crosses the river Aire by a bridge of three arches, and joins the Midland line near Normanton. The Manchester and Sheffield railway enters the county between two branches of the river Don, west of Penistone, and passing close to the north of that town, proceeds to Sheffield. The Whitby and Pickering railway connects these towns, thus establishing a communication for the transport of the produce of the latter to the sea. Another great undertaking is the York and Newcastle railway, which proceeds nearly in a straight line north-west-by-west from York to the vicinity of Darlington, in Durham, and in its course passes close to the towns of Thirsk and Northallerton. It has a branch to Richmond. The Leeds and Bradford railway connects those two important towns, and has an extension to Bingley, Keighley, Skipton, and Colne, the last place being in Lancashire. The York and Scarborough railway passes by the town of Malton, near which it forms a junction with the Whitby and Pickering line; a branch leaves it near Scarborough, for Filey and Bridlington. There is also a railway between Middlesbrough and Redcar, at the mouth of the Tees.
Besides the great station of Eboracum, at York, the chief seat of the Roman power in Britain, this county contained also, in the West Riding, the stations of Isurium, at Aldborough; Legiolum, a little below the junction of the rivers Aire and Calder; Danum, at Doncaster; Olicana, at Ilkley; Cambodunum, at Slack, near Halifax; and Calcaria, at Tadcaster. In the North Riding were Cataractonium, at Catterick; and Derventio, at Stamford-Bridge, or at Alby, a mile further northward; and in the East Riding, Delgovitia, at Londesborough; and Prcetorium, at Patrington. The most durable of the works of this people were the roads they constructed in order to facilitate the communication between their military stations; several of these traversed Yorkshire in different directions, the common centre from which they diverged being Eboracum. The great road since called the Watling-street, which ran the whole length of England, from the coast of Kent to the wall of Severus, enters from Nottinghamshire in the vicinity of Bawtry, and passes through Doncaster, Barnsdale, Pontefract Park, Castleford, Tadcaster, York, Aldborough, and Catterick, into the county of Durham at PierseBridge. Another military road entered from Manchester, and passed through the vicinity of Halifax, by Wakefield, to the Watling street. A similar road, from Chesterfield, on the north-western confines of Derbyshire, passed by Sheffield, Barnsley, Hemsworth, and Ackworth, to the Watling-street, at or near Pontefract. A vicinal way also appears to have passed through Pontefract, in a southern direction, to the villages of Darrington, WTentbridge, Smeaton, Campsall, and Hatfield. From York a Roman road ran to Malton, and seems to have there divided into two branches, one, now commonly called Wades Causeway, leading to Dunsley bay, in the neighbourhood of Whitby; the other to Scarborough and Filey. Another road passed from York, by Stamford-Bridge, Fridaythorpe, and Sledmere, across the Wolds, to Bridlington bay, called by Ptolemy Gabrantovicorum Sinus Portvosus, or Salutaris. Further south was a Roman road from York, by Stamford-Bridge and Londesborough, to Patrington. From Londesborough, a branch of this, formerly styled Humber-street, passed in a straight line southward to the village of Brough on the Humber.
The most remarkable antiquities are the remains of castles and religious edifices; but there are also several specimens of military and other works of a more remote period. The three gigantic obelisks of single stones, vulgarly called The Devil's Arrows, situated near Boroughbridge, are by some thought to be Druidical, and by others of Roman origin. Traces of Roman encampments are found in several places, and the remains of Roman roads are more particularly conspicuous on the Eastern Moorlands, where the ancient road from Malton to Dunsley bay, now called Wade's Causeway, is in excellent preservation, being twelve feet broad, in some places raised more than three feet above the surface, and paved with flint pebbles; and on the Wolds, where the Roman road from York to Bridlington bay may be traced for many miles. The only remains of Roman structures now to be seen in York, the site of the ancient Eboracum, are the polygonal tower and the south wall of the Mint yard. A vast variety of Roman antiquities has at different times been found in York and its vicinity, such as altars, sepulchral and other urns, sarcophagi, coins, signets (both cameos and intaglios), fibulæ, &c.; and Roman urns, coins, &c, have been discovered in several other situations near the stations and roads of that people. Many tumuli are discernible in various parts of the county, particularly on the Wolds; and besides the Roman encampments, others of the Saxons and the Danes may be traced in the North and West Ridings. The remarkable assemblage of rocks called Bramham Crags, about nine miles north-west of Ripon, are supposed, from the marks of rude sculpture which some of them exhibit, to have been a Druidical temple.
The number of Religious houses was about 106, including seven alien priories. The ruins of several of them are amongst the most beautiful and picturesque in the kingdom. The principal ruins of abbeys are those of St. Mary's at York; of Fountains, Kirkstall, Roche, and Selby, in the West Riding; and Byland, Rivaulx, Easby, Eggleston, and Whitby, in the North Riding: and of priories, those of Bolton and Knaresborough, in the West Riding; of Guisborough, Mountgrace, and Wykeham, in the North Riding; and Bridlington, Kirkham, and Watton, in the East Riding. The most distinguished remains of ancient Fortresses, besides Clifford's Tower at York, are those at Cawood, Conisbrough, Harewood, Knaresborough, Pontefract, Great Sandall, Skipton, and Tickhill, in the West Riding; at Helmsley, Malton, Mulgrave, Pickering, Richmond, Scarborough, Sheriff-Hutton, and Skelton, in the North Riding; and at Wressell, in the East Riding. The most remarkable old Mansions are, Temple-Newsom, near Leeds; and Gilling-Castle, near Helmsley, formerly the seat of the ancient family of Fairfax. Several others in different parts of the county are now occupied as farmhouses. Yorkshire contains a great number of elegant seats of more modern erection, belonging to the nobility and gentry who possess estates within its limits: some of those particularly worthy of mention in the West Riding are, Wentworth House, Wentworth Castle or Stambrough Hall, Methley Park, Thundercliffe Grange, Sandbeck Park, Newby Hall, Harewood House, Scarthingwell Hall, Allerton-Mauleverer, and Bishopthorpe, near York, the archiepiscopal palace; in the North Riding, Hornby Castle, Stanwick, Castle-Howard, and Mulgrave Castle; and in the East Riding, Londesborough.
The chalybeate and sulphureous springs of Harrogate, discovered in 1571, are of great celebrity, and have rendered that once obscure hamlet one of the principal watering-places in the north of England. Askerne, about eight miles north of Doncaster, has of late years become much noted for its medicinal waters, which resemble those of Harrogate, both in smell and taste, but differ from them in their mode of operation. The chalybeate and saline springs of Scarborough, discovered early in the 17th century, have long been celebrated. In 1822, a mineral spring was discovered a mile southeast of Guisborough, which is greatly resorted to by persons labouring under different complaints; the waters are diuretic. There are, besides, mineral springs of various qualities at Aldfield, Boston, Gilthwaite, Horley Green, Ilkley, and Knaresborough, in the West Riding; and a chalybeate spring at Bridlington Quay, on the coast of the East Riding. At Knaresborough is the celebrated dropping and petrifying well; and at the bottom of Giggleswick Scar, near the village of Giggleswick, is a spring which ebbs and flows at irregular periods. On the Wolds, and near Cottingham on their eastern side, are periodical springs, which sometimes emit very powerful streams of water for a few months successively, and then become dry for years. Some of the most remarkable Waterfalls are, Thornton Force, formed by a small stream which is driven down a precipice about 30 yards in height, situated near the village of Ingleton, in the West Riding, and in the vicinity of Thornton Scar, a tremendous cliff about 300 feet in height; the cataract of Malham Cove, which is 300 feet high; Aysgarth Force; Hardrow Fall; High Force or Fall, on the Tees; Mallin Spout; Egton; and Mossdale Fall. Among the natural curiosities of the county must also be enumerated its caves. The principal of these, situated among the Craven mountains, are Yorclas Cave, in a mountain called Greg-roof, and Weather cote Cave, both of them in the vicinity of Ingleton, and in the latter of which is a cataract of twenty yards' fall; Hurtle-pot and Ginglepot, near the head of the subterranean river Wease, or Greta; and Donk Cave, near the foot of Ingleborough. At the foot of the mountain Pennigant, in the same neighbourhood, are two frightful orifices, called Hulpit and Huntpit Holes, through each of which runs a brook, passing underground for about a mile, and then emerging, one at Dowgill Scar, and the other at Bransil-head.
Youlgrave (All Saints)
YOULGRAVE (All Saints), a parish, partly in the hundred of Wirksworth, and partly in that of High Peak, union of Bakewell, N. division of the county of Derby; containing, with the chapelries of Birchover, Elton, Stanton, and Winster, and the township of Middleton with Smerril, 3727 inhabitants, of whom 1060 are in Youlgrave township, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Bakewell. Here are numerous lead-mines, which, though formerly more productive than at present, are still in active operation; and stone of good quality for building, and for walls for fencing, is extensively quarried: various fossils are found in the quarries. About a mile southwest of the church is a handsome stone mansion, erected in 1844, by Thomas Bateman, Esq., and containing a variety of antiquities. The scenery is mountainous and romantic. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 7.; net income, £220; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Devonshire. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1815; the glebe comprises 100 acres, with a house. The church is a very handsome structure, partly Norman, and partly in the later English style, and contains several ancient monuments. There are chapels at Winster, Elton, Birchover, and Stanton; also places of worship for Calvinists, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans.
Youlthorpe, with Gowthorpe
YOULTHORPE, with Gowthorpe, a township, in the parish of Bishop-Wilton, union of Pocklington, Wilton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 5¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Pocklington; containing 102 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1350 acres: its small village is situated on a bold eminence. The tithes of Youlthorpe were commuted for land in 1769, and the small tithes of Gowthorpe in 1810.
YOULTON, a township, in the parish of Alne, union of Easingwould, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 6½ miles (S. S. W.) from Easingwould; containing 74 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1000 acres, of which the manorial rights belong to University College, Oxford: the hamlet is much scattered. James I. halted at a house here on his route from Scotland.
Yoxford (St. Peter)
YOXFORD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 23½ miles (N. E.) from Ipswich; containing 1251 inhabitants. It comprises 2681 acres. The village is situated in a remarkably pleasant and genteel neighbourhood, on the road from Ipswich to Yarmouth, and consists principally of one well-built street of modern houses, with two commodious inns. Cockfield Hall, the seat of Sir Charles Blois, Bart., is a handsome mansion of the time of James I. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 14. 2.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Robert Firmin; impropriators, the Earl of Stradbroke and Sir C. Blois. The great tithes have been commuted for £284, and the vicarial for £194; the glebe contains 5 acres. The church has been lately enlarged by subscription, aided by a grant of £140 from the Incorporated Society; it contains some good monuments.
Yoxhall (St. Peter)
YOXHALL (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Lichfield, N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 7½ miles (N. N. E.) from Lichfield; containing 1535 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 4795 acres. It includes within its limits the hamlets of Hadley-End, one mile south-west; Longcroft, three-quarters of a mile east; Morry, one mile west; Olive-Green, one mile and a half west; and Woodhouses, about half a mile east, from the village of Yoxhall. The village is pleasantly situated on the road from Buxton to Bath, about a mile from the river Trent. The weaving of tape affords employment to 150 persons, many of whom are children. Fairs are held for cattle on the 12th of February and 19th of October. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 6. 8., and in the gift of Lord Leigh: the tithes have been commuted for £290, and the glebe comprises 193 acres. The church exhibits various styles, from the Norman to the later English. There are a place of worship for Primitive Methodists, and a Roman Catholic chapel; also a school founded in 1695 by Thomas Taylor, and endowed with various bequests producing about £20 per annum. The parish possesses about twentyfour acres of town-lands, let for upwards of £50 a year, and which have been regularly applied by the parochial authorities, for the benefit of Yoxhall, for more than two centuries: there are likewise church lands comprising 10a. 3r. 2p. In levelling a piece of ground, about forty vessels containing ashes and human bones, were taken up, some years since.