Brechin - Byth (New)

A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

'Brechin - Byth (New)', in A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, (London, 1846) pp. 151-163. British History Online [accessed 19 April 2024]

In this section


BRECHIN, a burgh, market-town, and parish, in the county of Forfar, 8 miles (W. by N.) from Montrose, and 66 (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Trinity-Muir, 7560 inhabitants, of whom 2986 are in the late East quoad sacra parish, and 120 in the village of Little Brechin. This place derives its name, of Gaelic origin, from its situation on an acclivity rising from the banks of the river South Esk; it is of very considerable antiquity, and was formerly the seat of a diocese, the cathedral of which is now the church of the parish. During the wars between the Scots and the English, in the reign of Edward I., Sir Thomas Maule, lord of Brechin Castle, defended it, for some time, against the assaults of the English whom that monarch had sent to reduce it, till, being killed by a stone slung from an engine by the besiegers, the garrison capitulated, and surrendered the castle to the English. A battle took place in the vicinity, in 1452, between the forces of the Earl of Huntly, and those of the Earl of Crawford, in which the latter were defeated, and which, from the proximity of the spot whereon it was fought, has been invariably called the battle of Brechin. In 1573, Sir Andrew Gordon, an adherent of the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots, and who was then besieging the Castle of Gleubervie, hearing that a party of the king's friends were assembled at this place, attacked them early in the morning, and surprised and cut off the whole of the force. The castle of Brechin, a place of great strength, and, from its situation on the summit of an abrupt precipice, regarded, before the use of artillery, as impregnable, had been long the baronial seat of the family of Maule, afterwards created earls of Panmure; this title was forfeited on the rebellion of 1715, but was revived by William IV., at his coronation, who granted the title of Baron of Panmure to their descendant. The building is of various dates and styles of architecture, and the demesne abounds with romantic and beautiful scenery, commanding a fine view of the river.

Burgh Seal.

The town is situated on the rising banks of the South Esk river, over which there is a very interesting bridge of stone, supposed to be the most ancient structure of the kind in the kingdom; it is neatly built, consisting of several well-formed streets, and a spacious market-place, nearly in the centre. A handsome building in the Elizabethan style, with a tower 80 feet high, has been recently erected at the entrance of the town, by Lord Panmure, for the use of a literary and scientific institution; it contains a lecture-room and library, and many valuable paintings, presented by his lordship. The streets are macadamized, and the approaches have been levelled, to render the place easier of access. The trade arises principally from weaving, and the several handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood; there are two mills for spinning flax, in which about 300 persons are engaged, and from 1200 to 1500 of the inhabitants are employed in weaving coarse linens. About sixty are employed in heckling, and from seventy to eighty in bleaching; two distilleries for making whisky from malt, have been erected in the vicinity, which are conducted on an extensive scale, and are in full operation. There are two fishing stations on the South Esk, within the parish, where salmon are taken in considerable numbers. The post-office has a daily delivery, and every facility of intercourse is afforded by good roads; a bridge has been built at Stannachy ford, to continue a new road from Arbroath to Dundee. The Forfar and Arbroath railway passes through the southern extremity of the parish, and about six miles from the town; and it is in contemplation to lay down a railroad to Montrose, which, if carried into effect, will greatly contribute to the prosperity of the inhabitants of the district. The market, which is abundantly supplied with corn and agricultural produce, and numerously attended by the farmers of a widely-extended district, is held weekly on Tuesday, and there are weekly marts for horses and cattle, from the last Tuesday in February till the last Tuesday in March. Fairs are held at Trinity-Muir, about a mile from the town, four times in the year, of which that on the second Wednesday in June, for cattle, horses, and sheep, continues for three days, and is one of the most considerable in the county. From time immemorial the town has been a royal burgh, and the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a council of eight burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, and other officers. There are six incorporated trades, viz. the hammermen, glovers, bakers, shoemakers, weavers, and tailors, all of whom, except the weavers, have the exclusive privilege of carrying on trade within the burgh. The provost, bailies, and dean of guild are magistrates, by virtue of their office, and their jurisdiction extends over the whole of the royalty; they hold a bailie-court every Wednesday, for the determination of civil pleas to any amount, and also for the trial of criminal cases, in which they are assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as assessor. The burgh is associated with those of Arbroath, Bervic, Forfar, and Montrose, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the elective franchise, previously vested in the corporation of the town, was extended, by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., to resident £10 householders within the parliamentary boundary. The provost is the returning officer. The town-hall, situated nearly in the centre of the town, was built in the year 1789; it is a neat structure, containing, on the first story, a good hall, with smaller apartments for the meetings of the council, and below them a court-room and a prison.

The Parish comprises about 15,840 acres, of which 9840 are arable, 3260 woodland and plantations, and 2740 rough pasture and waste; the surface is generally level, rising in some parts into gentle undulations, and the only eminence that deserves the name of a hill, is that of Burghill, to the south of the town. The prevailing scenery is agreeably diversified, and enlivened with numerous thriving plantations; and from several points of view, the Grampian hills form a conspicuous feature in the distant landscape. The soil, though various, is mostly fertile; the chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the lands are well drained, and every recent improvement in husbandry has been adopted, under the auspices of the Eastern Forfarshire Farming Association, established here in 1814, under the patronage of Lord Panmure, and which has its meetings in spring and autumn, when cattle-shows are held on Trinity-Muir, and prizes are awarded to the most successful competitors. The utmost attention is paid to live stock; the sheep are of the black-faced breed, but a very small number is kept; the cattle are of the Angus breed generally, with, of late, an occasional intermixture of the short-horned or Teewater. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,563, including £7960 for the burgh. In the vicinity of the town, are three nurseries, comprising together about 25 acres, well stocked with forest-trees, for supplying the plantations of the district, and with fruittrees of various kinds, and ornamental shrubs and evergreens; there are also several orchards. The substrata are chiefly the old red sandstone, with limestone, and also sandstone of a greyish colour, of good quality for building, and susceptible of a high polish; of this stone, the tower and spire of the old cathedral were built. The limestone is extensively quarried for manure, and there are at present three lime-works in operation; also several quarries of freestone.

The parish is the seat of the presbytery of Brechin, in the synod of Angus and Mearns; the church, formerly cathedral, has two ministers, respectively of the first and second charges. The stipend of the first charge is £283. 3. 10., and the minister resides in a house erected about fifty years since, in lieu of the episcopal palace, by the exchequer, and to which is attached about an acre of garden ground; the stipend of the second charge is £274. 16., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church is the nave of the ancient cathedral, and is situated nearly in the centre of the parish; it is in good repair, and adapted for a congregation of 1500 persons. A church containing 864 sittings, was erected by an act of the General Assembly, in 1836, for a district of the parish called East-Church, and the minister derived his income, £150, from seat-rents and collections. Since the recent secession from the Church of Scotland, however, the church has ceased to be used in connexion with the Establishment; and no quoad sacra parish now exists. Places of worship have been built at different times for members of the Free Church and the United Secession, Antiburghers, and members of the Relief Church; and an Episcopal chapel, erected about twenty years since, has been recently enlarged and beautified, and is a handsome edifice, the western gable of which is surmounted by a cross, and flanked at the angles with minarets. There are parochial and burgh schools, together with a grammar school; the parochial teacher has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with fees, and £10 paid by the magistrates from the burgh funds, in lieu of a house and garden. The rector of the grammar school is appointed by the corporation, and is also preceptor of the hospital of Maison Dieu, of which he enjoys the revenue, amounting to £50 per annum. There is a parochial library, containing about 600 volumes; and circulating libraries are kept by the booksellers in the town. The hospital, formerly attached to the cathedral establishment, affords weekly a small allowance to the poor; there is also a society of ladies, for the relief of the indigent, and a dispensary was established some years since, with the proceeds of a bequest by Mrs. Speid, of Ardovie. Some remains yet exist of the ancient chapel called Maison Dieu; and a round tower nearly adjoining the cathedral, and supposed to be of Pictish origin, is still entire, and an object of much interest. It is a lofty slender column of very ancient character, and in high easterly winds is observed to vibrate in a slight degree. The remains of the cathedral consist chiefly of the nave and tower; the western entrance is of beautiful design, and the interior is lighted by a spacious window above the doorway, and the roof supported by a range of clustered columns and pointed arches; the choir was destroyed at the Reformation. At the eastern extremity of the parish, is a cemetery, which is still called St. Magdalen's chapel, the only memorial, perhaps, of an edifice of that name. Dr. John Gillies, historiographer for Scotland to His Majesty; and his brother, the Honourable Adam Gillies, one of the senators of the College of Justice, were natives of the parish, as was also Maitland, the laborious historian of London and Edinburgh.

Bressay, Burra, and Quarff

BRESSAY, BURRA, and QUARFF, a parish, in the county of Orkney and Shetland; containing 1798 inhabitants, of whom 904 are in the island of Bressay, and 870 in the late quoad sacra parish of Burra and Quarff. These three ancient parishes, now united, comprehend six islands and a part of the tract called Mainland; the district of Bressay is to the east of the mainland, and consists of the islands of Bressay and Ness, separated from each other by Ness Sound, and from the mainland by Bressay Sound. The island of Bressay, which is nearly six miles long, and varies in breadth from two to three miles, exhibits a highly-diversified surface, especially in the western portion, where the rugged features of the coast, the tracts of arable land stretching from south to north, and sloping to the sea, interspersed with cottages, with lofty hills rising in various directions, contribute to form a scene marked, to a considerable extent, by beauty and grandeur. Among the elevated ridges running in irregular directions through the island, and the spaces between which are covered with a mixture of pasture and peat-moss, is a dorsal eminence, on the eastern side, called St. Andrew's, or Ander hill, upwards of 400 feet in height. At the southern extremity, is a lofty elevation called the Ward; also Beacon hill, rising 724 feet above the level of the sea, and which, being covered with peat-moss and various kinds of short grass and heath, becomes, on account of its sable hue and majestic height, a striking object in the scenery. The coast is everywhere rocky, abounding with fissures, caverns, and headlands, the last chiefly in the southern portion of the island; and there are twelve lochs, which, however, are of very inconsiderable dimensions, only two or three having the extent of half a mile in length or breadth, but some of them are celebrated for their fine trout.

The parish contains several sounds or channels, formed by, and taking their names respectively from, the islands to which they are adjacent; the chief is Bressay Sound, long known as a superior harbour, which expands into a fine bay towards Quarff, on the south, where its waters deepen, and afford excellent anchorage for vessels in stress of weather. Many hundreds of Dutch boats, in time past, resorted hither, to fish for herrings; but the sound has derived its greatest celebrity from the Earl of Bothwell, who, being pursued in his adversity by Kirkaldy of Grange, with great difficulty escaped, by sailing out at the northern entrance, in which direction his enemy, attempting to follow him, was wrecked on a very dangerous rock, since called the Unicorn, after the name of the ship. The other channels are, Ness Sound, less than a quarter of a mile broad, supposed to be about twenty feet deep, and dangerous to pass with an easterly wind; Cliff Sound, not quite half a mile broad, with about nine or ten fathoms of water, and of difficult navigation in stormy weather; and Stream and Burra Sounds, the latter of which is the safest and most tranquil of the whole, and peculiarly adapted to small vessels. The quantity of land under tillage is small, compared with the waste, and employed chiefly in the cultivation of oats, bear, and potatoes, the two first being sown in alternate years, and potatoes once in four or five years. The grounds are manured with a compost of sea-weed, dung, and mossy earth, and with the garbage of herrings, the last being held in high repute for enriching the soil. Some improvements in agriculture have been made within these few years, chiefly in rebuilding, in a superior manner, the farm-cottages; but various obstacles, the want of leases, the state of the roads, and especially the poverty of the inhabitants, and their extensive occupation in fishing, repress all systematic attempts to establish agriculture on a good footing. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1527. The rocks in Bressay and Ness are the old red sandstone; in Quarff, clayslate and mica-slate; and in the isles of House, Burra, and Halvera, of the primitive formation. At Bressay, flag and slate quarries are in operation, the material of which is shipped to different parts of the country, and sometimes sent to the south; and in Quarff and Burra, several species of limestone of inferior quality are found.

The lands appear once to have been better wooded than at present, trunks of trees, of some bulk, being found among the mosses. The only plantations recently made are in the vicinity of the mansion-house, and consist of willow and ash, the former the most flourishing; and near these, of older growth, are aspen, elm, laburnum, poplar, and plane trees, which appear to be in a thriving condition. A large proportion of the male population is engaged in the fisheries, the principal of which are those of ling, cod, and herrings; though various other kinds of fish, such as tusk, halibut, skate, whiting, and flounders, are taken at different times; and sillocks, on which the inhabitants live to a considerable extent, are taken throughout the whole year. Oysters, also, are found at Burra, in abundance. The ling-fishing employs about thirty boats, carrying generally six men each; the cod-fishery, beginning about Whitsuntide, occupies numerous sloops of between fifteen and twenty tons' burthen, and at the termination of this fishing, that for herrings commences, usually in the month of August, in which the same boats are employed as those engaged in the ling-fishing, with some of larger size. About thirty women and children are employed in Bressay, during the season, in curing herrings; and the manufacture of herring-nets has recently excited much interest among the inhabitants: nearly every female in Quarff above six years of age, is occupied in knitting woollen-gloves, and those in Burra in knitting stockings. The parish is in the presbytery of Lerwick and synod of Shetland, and in the patronage of the Earl of Zetland; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., with a manse, rebuilt in 1819, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, which is conveniently situated, was erected in 1815, and contains 370 sittings. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; and also a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £25. 13., and teaches writing, arithmetic, and book-keeping.—See Burra, Ness, &c.


BRIDEKIRK, Dumfries.—See Brydekirk.

Bridge Of Allan.

BRIDGE OF ALLAN.—See Allan, Bridge of. And all places having a similar distinguishing prefix, will be found under the proper name.


BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of Kilarrow, district of Islay, county of Argyll, 3 miles (N.) from Bowmore. This village is situated at the north-eastern extremity of Loch Indal; and there is a good road to Port-Askaig, distant, in a north-eastern direction, about eight miles. A branch post-office has been established under Bowmore, and a justice-of-peace court is held here. The grounds of Islay House are almost in contact with the village.


BRIDGEND, a hamlet in the parish of Lentrathen, county of Forfar; containing 31 inhabitants. It is situated a short distance from the parish church.


BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of Ruthven, county of Forfar; containing 172 inhabitants.


BRIDGEND, a burgh of barony, in the parish of Kinnoull, county of Perth; containing 1737 inhabitants. This village, which forms a suburb to the city of Perth, derives its name from the erection of a bridge over the Tay, connecting the parishes of Perth and Kinnoull, between which, all communication since the destruction of the old bridge in 1621, had been by a ferry, till the completion of the present structure, in 1771. Prior to this date, the village consisted only of a few cottages, inhabited by the boatmen employed on the ferry; but, from the greater facility of intercourse with Perth, it has rapidly increased in extent and importance, and at present contains nearly three-fifths of the population of the parish. The streets are regularly formed, and lighted with gas; the houses are substantially built, and along the banks of the river, and on the rising ground, are numerous elegant villas, surrounded with scenery richly diversified. The village was erected into a burgh of barony, in favour of the Earl of Kinnoull, by charter, which also conferred the privileges of a weekly market and several annual fairs, now fallen into disuse.


BRIDGEND, or Kendrochad, a hamlet, in the parish of Kenmore, county of Perth; containing 68 inhabitants. In the vicinity of the hamlet is a small school.


BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of Rosskeen, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 413 inhabitants. This place is also called the Bridgend of Allness, it being considered as part of the village of Allness, of which the other part is in the parish of that name, the river Allness dividing it in nearly equal portions; a market, chiefly for cattle, is held here monthly. At Mossfield, in the vicinity, is a school, established in 1824.

Bridgend, South

BRIDGEND, SOUTH, a village, in the parish of Muthill, county of Perth; containing 118 inhabitants.

Bridgend, West

BRIDGEND, WEST, a village, in the parish of Cardross, county of Dumbarton; containing 799 inhabitants. It is a suburb of the town of Dumbarton; and the Relief Congregation have a place of worship in it.


BRIDGENESS, a village, in the parish of Carriden, county of Linlithgow, 1 mile (E.) from Bo'ness, containing 89 inhabitants. It is situated on the south shore of the Frith of Forth, and its population is engaged in the works in the vicinity. There is an excellent pier here, which, some years since, was extended about 150 feet further into the sea, in order to improve the accommodation, by securing a greater depth of water for the vessels by which the harbour is frequented, chiefly for the export of coal and salt, and the import of manure and limestone. As many as 300 coasters, varying from twenty to one hundred tons' burthen, annually enter from different ports in Scotland; and about ten foreign ships, of greater tonnage, yearly take in coal at this place. Formerly, chemical-works were established here, for the manufacture of vitriol and sulphuric-acid; but they have been for some time relinquished.


BRIDGETOWN, a village, in the parish of Redgorton, county of Perth; containing 97 inhabitants.


BRIDGETON, lately a quoad sacra parish, consisting of part of Barony parish, in the suburbs of Glasgow, county of Lanark; containing 3583 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from its vicinity to the bridge over the Clyde leading to Rutherglen, is partly indebted for its origin to Mr. John Walkinshaw, who, in 1705, purchased some lands to the eastward of the city, which he divided into building lots, for the formation of a village, then called Barrowfield. In 1724, however, he had let only nineteen small portions, and the land was subsequently purchased by the corporation, in conjunction with the Trades' House, who, in 1731, conveyed it to Mr. John Orr, merchant, of Glasgow, who, being more successful in disposing of the ground, may be regarded as the founder of the present town. This now flourishing village contains, according to the last census, above 14,000 persons. It is on the north side of the river, to the south-east of Calton, and, like that place, consists of several spacious and well-formed streets; a few houses are built of brick, and roofed with tiles, for the manufacture of which, clay of excellent quality is found in the immediate vicinity. The population are chiefly employed in the cotton manufacture, and other works in the neighbourhood of the city; and there are numerous shops, for the supply of the inhabitants with groceries and various kinds of merchandise. The parish was formed by act of the General Assembly: the church is a neat structure, erected by the Church Building Society of Glasgow, who are the patrons, and contains 1024 sittings. It is now rented by members of the Free Church, and in the village is also a place of worship in connexion with the Relief Church.


BROADHAVEN, a village, in the parish of Wick, county of Caithness, 1 mile (E.) from Wick; containing 170 inhabitants. This village is situated at the head of the haven from which it takes its name, and extends along the northern shore of the bay of Wick; it is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in the fishery. The haven, which affords good shelter for vessels, is formed by the head of Wick on the south, and the headland of Papigo on the north, both of which extend considerably into the Moray Frith.


BROADSEA, a village, in the parish of Fraserburgh, district of Deer, county of Aberdeen; containing 326 inhabitants. This is a fishing village, situated a short distance west of the town of Fraserburgh, in a small bay near Kinnaird Head.

Brocklehurst, Old

BROCKLEHURST, OLD, a hamlet, in the parish of Mouswald, county of Dumfries; containing 39 inhabitants.


BRODICK, a village, in the Isle of Arran, parish of Kilbride, county of Bute; containing 163 inhabitants. It is seated in a semicircular bay of the same name, on the eastern coast of the island, defended at its entrance by the islet of Lamblash, or Holy Island; and to the southward is a light-house. The castle of Brodick is on an eminence above the bay, and is a place of much antiquity. One of the parochial schools is situated in the village.

Broomknoll, Lanarkshire

BROOMKNOLL, Lanarkshire.—See Airdrie.


BROOMLANDS, a village, in the parish of Inchinnan, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 79 inhabitants.


BRORA, a village, in the parish of Clyne, county of Sutherland, 5 miles (N. E.) from Golspie; containing 123 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern coast, at the mouth of the Brora water, a fine stream which rises in the highlands, and pursues a course of some miles, in a south-eastern direction, to this place, where it falls into the sea. There is a tolerable harbour for boats and small vessels, constructed by the Duke of Sutherland, who has here considerable salt, coal, and brick works, with which a railway is connected; lintspinning has also been introduced into the village. Brora lake, a few miles westward, is a beautiful and extensive piece of water, within which is an islet 140 feet in length, and 70 in breadth, surrounded by a wall, built so close to the water's edge that no boat can land, except at one spot, where there are steps. On all sides of the lake, are lofty hills, interspersed with pleasant villages and plantations.—See Clyne.

Brother Isle

BROTHER ISLE, in the parish of Delting, county of Shetland. It lies in Yell Sound, westward of the island of Yell, and is inhabited by a very few persons.


BROUGH-HEAD, Elgin.—See Burgh-Head.

Broughton, Glenholm, and Kilbucho

BROUGHTON, GLENHOLM, and KILBUCHO, a parish, in the county of Peebles; containing 929 inhabitants, of whom 294 are in Glenholm, 361 in Kilbucho, and 274 in Broughton, including 85 in the village of Broughton, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Rachan Mill. This parish is bounded on the east and south by the river Tweed, and consists of the whole of the ancient parishes of Broughton and Glenholm, and the greater portion of that of Kilbucho. It is about nine miles and a half in length, and three miles and a half in average breadth, and comprises about 20,000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, of which not more than 1000 are capable of cultivation, meadow land and hill pasture. The surface is greatly diversified with hill and dale, and intersected by mountainous ridges and fertile valleys. Rachan Hill, in the district of Glenholm, is a detached eminence, rising precipitously from the plain, on the side towards the Tweed, and sloping by a gentle declivity towards the Holms water; it is covered with verdure to its very summit, and forms an interesting feature in the landscape. A chain of mountainous heights, extending for nearly three miles, from north to south, intersects the parish, separating Broughton from the parishes of Stobo and Kirkurd. Another extending for nearly five miles, in a direction from north-east to south-west, separates Glenholm from Kilbucho and the parish of Culter; a third range stretches for nearly three miles parallel with the Tweed; and there are some others, of which one passes through the district of Broughton. The highest points of these ranges, which in general are precipitous, are, Culterfell, Cardon, and Chapelgill, of which the first has an elevation of 2430 feet above the sea, and the others are very little inferior in height. Between the ranges of hills, are several beautiful valleys, of which the vale of Glenholm, extending for nearly four miles, is strikingly picturesque, and is enlivened by the Holms water; the Biggar water, which forms a boundary between the district of Broughton and those of Glenholm and Kilbucho, receives various rivulets, among which are the Holms water and the Broughton and Kilbucho burns, and falls into the Tweed near Drummelzier. At Rachan are two small lakes, studded with islands, richly wooded, and of which one abounds with trout, and the other with perch; among the hills are several springs, of which the water is intensely cold, and in the old glebe land of Broughton, is a well possessing some medicinal properties.

The soil, in the upper parts of the valleys, is rather inclined to moss, and in the lower parts, is a deep rich loam; near the confluence of the Biggar with the Broughton burn, the land is extremely fertile. The chief crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is in an advanced state; the woods contain but little old timber, and most of the plantations are of comparatively modern growth. The rateable annual value of Broughton is £1579; of Glenholm, £2625; and Kilbucho, £3230. The chief substrata are, greywacke, limestone, and slate, which were once quarried in Glenholm; sand of a remarkably fine quality is found in the district of Broughton, and there are numerous pits of good gravel. Of the various houses in the parish, Rachan, Mossfennan, and Broughton Place are the principal; the mansion of Broughton was burnt by an accidental fire in 1774, and rebuilt with the old materials, on a smaller scale. The village was once a considerable market for cattle; but a fair only is now held, on the 3rd of October, principally for hiring servants, and for the sale of various wares. The road from Edinburgh to Dumfries passes through the parish. Broughton is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of William Renny, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £231. 1. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £64. 14. 9. per annum. The church, which is situated in the district of Kilbucho, and nearly in the centre of the parish, is a plain substantial edifice, erected in 1804, and adapted for a congregation of 500 persons. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. There are three parochial schools, one in each of the three districts; the master of each has a salary of £32, with a house and garden, and the fees for Broughton amount to about £25, for Glenholm to £30, and for Kilbucho to £31. Numerous remains may be traced of circular camps, one of which, called Macbeth's Castle, was surrounded with a double intrenchment. Some stone coffins, also, containing human skeletons, have been found near the confluence of the Biggar and the Tweed, in a tumulus; one of the bodies was of gigantic size, and the arms were encircled with bracelets of gold or yellow metal.


BROUGHTY-FERRY, a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Monifieth, and partly in the burgh of Dundee, county of Forfar, 4 miles (E.) from Dundee; containing about 2200 inhabitants. This place, a small part only of which belongs to the parish of Dundee, at the close of the last century consisted merely of a few fishermen's huts; but the proprietor having begun to feu it about the year 1790, a large addition was quickly made to its population, and it has been since regularly increasing. It is a neat, clean, and thriving fishing and sea-bathing village, having an interesting and picturesque appearance from the river; the gentle acclivity behind, studded with numerous pleasing and elegant villas, greatly heightening the general effect, and improving the scenery. Many persons from Dundee and other parts resort hither, in the season, for the benefit of bathing, and find ample accommodation of every kind, a considerable proportion of the inhabitants letting their houses in lodgings for visiters. Thirteen boats are regularly employed, and in summer many more, in the white-fishing, upon which upwards of fifty families depend for support; and the fish taken, comprising cod, haddock, soles, ling, whiting, plaice, flounders, and many others, valued at £5000 per annum, constitute the principal supply of the town of Dundee. About 400 cod are also prepared weekly, for exportation, at a curing establishment here, and among several other branches of manufacture and trade, are two rope-works, a foundry, breweries, &c. Small vessels are occasionally built, opposite to those parts where the depth of water offers the necessary facility for launching them; and the circumstance of the railroad from Dundee to Arbroath passing along the brink of the river, has originated the idea of the importance of constructing a regular harbour here, for the improvement of the general traffic of the locality. A chapel of ease was built in 1826, containing 755 sittings, and the attached district was formed into a quoad sacra parish, in 1834; the minister, who is elected by the male communicants, receives about £140 per annum, derived from seat-rents and collections. An excellent school has been formed in connexion with the Establishment, of which the master has a salary of £9. 18. 6., and there are places of worship belonging to the United Associate Synod and the Free Church. Some remains exist of Broughty Castle, formerly a key to the navigation of the river, and much connected with historical events.


BROWNFIELD, a quoad sacra parish; consisting of part of the parish of St. George, in the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark; and containing 2525 inhabitants. This place, which forms part of the suburb of Anderston, is situated on the north bank of the Clyde, and to the west of the Broomielaw Quay. The church is a neat structure.


BROXBURN, a village, in the parish of Uphall, county of Linlithgow, 2 miles (E.) from Uphall; containing 725 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated on the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and on the banks of the Union canal, near a rivulet of the same name. Through the exertions of the late Earl of Buchan, the proprietor, it has very much increased in extent and population, and a fair for cattle is held on the Friday after the second Tuesday in September. The parochial school is situated in the village, and there is a place of worship in connexion with the Free Church.


BRUNTON, a village, in the parish of Creich, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 90 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated, is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in agriculture, and in hand-loom weaving for the linen manufacturers of Cupar, under the inspection of a resident agent who furnishes the materials. Previously to the introduction of machinery, several of the females were employed in spinning yarn; but, at present, there is only one spinning-wheel in operation.


BRYDEKIRK, lately a quoad sacra parish; consisting chiefly of part of the parish of Annan, and partly of portions of the parishes of Cummertrees and Hoddam, in the county of Dumfries; and containing 881 inhabitants, of whom about 400 are in the village of Brydekirk, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Annan. The parish forms a section of the vale of Annandale, about five or six miles above the entrance of the beautiful river Annan into the Solway Frith; the scenery is remarkably rich, varied, and extensive, rising on either side of the Annan, of which the banks are finely wooded, to a considerable elevation, and embracing, from different positions, the whole sweep of the surrounding country. The greater portion of the soil is under cultivation, in the usual routine of farming; and the remainder, to a large extent, is covered with timber and plantations. The village, which is connected with the burgh of Annan by a handsome stone bridge of three arches, is pleasantly situated on the western bank of the Annan, and is neatly built, and intersected by the road from Annan to Lockerbie; the woollen manufacture was established in 1824, but the spacious building for the purpose erected at the east end of the bridge, has been recently converted into flour-mills. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries: the church, erected in 1835, chiefly at the expense of Mrs. Dirom, of Mount Annan, and her friends, is a neat structure, standing at the western extremity of the village, and contains 370 sittings. The minister's stipend, £55, is derived from the seat-rents, augmented by donations from the proprietor of Mount Annan, and a handsome house has been erected for his residence; the patronage is vested in the subscribers, managers, and male communicants, being seat-holders. There is a branch here of the parochial school, of which the master has a salary of £10, in addition to the fees, together amounting to about £40; and a parochial library is under the superintendence of the minister.


BUCHANAN, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 1 mile (N. W.) from Drymen; containing 754 inhabitants. The name of this place was originally Inchcaileoch, which it received from an island in Loch Lomond, its western boundary; but a detached portion of the parish of Luss having been annexed to it, in 1621, containing the Buchanan estates and chapel, and the inhabitants finding this religious edifice more convenient than the church, regularly attended at the former, in consequence of which the parish assumed the name of Buchanan. This name is of uncertain origin; but the family who used it in consequence of having, at a very early period, obtained a grant of the lands so called, sprang from Anselan, a native of Ireland, who is supposed to have located himself here in the 11th century. From this ancient race, always more celebrated for literary than political or military fame, descended the poet and historian George Buchanan, born in 1506; Dr. Buchanan, author of works on the civil and natural history of India; and Dr. Claudius Buchanan, whose writings, designed to awaken the British nation to a sense of the necessity of extending education and religious instruction in India, are well known. The parish is situated at the western extremity of the county, bordering on Dumbartonshire, and is bounded on the south by the river Endrick; it is about twenty-four miles in length, and five in breadth, and comprises 76,800 acres, of which 1500 are arable, 69,750 natural pasture and waste, 4250 woods and plantations, and the remainder pleasure-grounds, &c. It contains a portion of lowland, several islands in Loch Lomond, and a mountainous ridge belonging to the highlands, stretching along the eastern bank of the loch, and terminating the Grampian hills on the west. This last is altogether a dreary barren tract, consisting chiefly of sheep-pasturage, used formerly, as is supposed, for the purpose of hunting, and now abounding in grouse, black game, and other fowl. The largest island is Inchmurrin, which is two miles in length, and about half as broad, and contains a considerable number of deer, the property of the Duke of Montrose; at the western limit, on a hill, are the ruins of a castle built by the ancient earls of Lennox, and near the same place is a lodge of modern date erected by the same family.

The loch, the rich and magnificent scenery of which is perhaps unrivalled, and which has been so often described, is twenty-four miles in length, and about seven at its greatest breadth, and is twenty-two feet above the level of the sea; it contains salmon, pike, eels, &c., and a fish called powans, somewhat similar to a herring. On the east, it is joined by the river Endrick, and the Leven quits it on the south, and, running into the Clyde, affords to boats the means of communication with Glasgow, Greenock, and other places; a steam-boat, in the summer season, plies upon this beautiful expanse of water chiefly for the accommodation of visiters. Within the parish is the lofty mountain of Ben Lomond, the highest point of the Grampians, rising 3000 feet above the sea, and commanding from its summit, which is of conical form, a prospect, on the north, of an interminable range of mountains rising in succession, one above another, and, on the south, of all the rich and varied scenery in the tract from the Western Isles to the Frith of Forth. It is one of the most striking and commanding objects in the country, and never fails to excite the admiration of every beholder. The soil, on the bank of the Endrick, is for the most part alluvial; and the land, towards the mountains, comprises clay, gravel, and moss, the last supplying abundance of peat. The chief agricultural produce is barley and oats, the latter of which are raised in by far the larger quantity; potatoes and turnips are also grown, but the principal wealth of the parish arises from its sheep and black-cattle, grazed on the mountainous tracts; the sheep are of the black-faced breed, and of small size. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6400. The rocks mostly consist of various kinds of slate, but the quarries formerly wrought have been discontinued; the natural wood contains about 3000 acres; the plantations, chiefly oak and larch, were for the most part formed by the late Duke of Montrose. Buchanan House, the summer residence of the duke, is situated in the lower district, and surrounded by extensive and well laid-out grounds; the body of the edifice is ancient, but the wings are comparatively of modern date. At Balmaha is a manufactory, for the preparation of pyroligneous acid, where 700 tons of small wood are annually used, and the acid and dye-stuffs extracted from it are sold to the proprietors of print-works in the vicinity of Glasgow. The parish is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Duke of Montrose; the minister's stipend is £156. 12. 8., of which above a third is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, situated in the lower portion of the parish, is a neat edifice, built about 1764, and contains 300 sittings: a small part of the ruins of the old church remains, in the island of Inchcaileoch. The master of the parochial school receives a salary of £30, with fees; and at Salochy, in the higher district, is a school, the master of which has £15 per annum, paid by the Edinburgh Society, and a house, with a piece of grassland, given by the duke. A library was formed some years since.


BUCHANHAVEN, a village, in the parish of Peterhead, district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 1 mile (N.) from Peterhead. This village is situated on the east coast, to the north of the haven of Peterhead, and near the mouth of the river Ugie, which here flows into the German Sea. The inhabitants are engaged in the white and herring fisheries, both of which are successfully carried on, at no great distance off the coast, and five boats are employed in each, for the accommodation of which a small harbour has been recently constructed.


BUCHANTY, a hamlet, in the parish of Fowlis Wester, county of Perth; containing 48 inhabitants.


BUCHANY, a village, in the parish of Kilmadock, county of Perth, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Doune; containing 113 inhabitants. This village, which is on the road from Doune to Callander, and near the picturesque burn of Annat, is inhabited by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits, or employed in the manufactories in the vicinity. The mansion of Cambus Wallace is beautifully situated on an eminence immediately above the village, commanding an extensive view of the river Teith, the town and castle of Doune, the pleasure-grounds of Blair-Drummond, and Stirling Castle. On the acclivity of the hill, are vestiges of a camp said to have been the resort of Sir William Wallace, from which circumstance the mansion derived its name; the house is surrounded with a well-wooded park, embracing great variety of scenery.


BUCKHAVEN, an extensive village and fishing station, in the parish of Wemyss, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (E.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 1526 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the Frith of Forth, consists of an irregular range of houses, extending along the shore, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the fisheries, of which it is the principal station on this part of the coast of Fife. A library has been founded, which is well supported by subscription, and contains a good collection of volumes; and a savings' bank has been opened, with every prospect of success. The fishery here has been long established, and is gradually increasing; it affords employment to nearly 200 persons, and about 150 boats of various tonnage are regularly engaged during the season, which generally commences about the end of June, when they sail to the herring-stations of Fraserburgh, Wick, and Helmsdale, returning to this place with their cargoes about the beginning of September. The value of the boats, which all belong to Buckhaven, is more than £8000, and, including the nets, nearly £20,000, in the aggregate. The harbour, which is safe and commodious, has been recently improved by the erection of a new pier, at an expense of more than £4000, of which the Board of Fisheries contributed £3000; and from its very advantageous situation, which renders it easy of access, it is well adapted to afford shelter to vessels of considerable burthen, in stress of weather. A number of the inhabitants are employed in the weaving of linen, and an extensive factory has been established.


BUCKHOLMSIDE, a village, in the quoad sacra parish of Ladhope, parish of Melrose, county of Roxburgh; containing 396 inhabitants. This place is situated on the east side of the river Gala, and, though within the parish of Melrose, is more properly an appendage of Galashiels, with which town it is connected by a stone bridge, and in the manufactures of which the greater part of the population is employed. There is a school in the village, for which a comfortable house has been built by the heritors.


BUCKIE, a post-village and lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Rathven, county of Banff, 4 miles (E.) from Speymouth; containing 2420 inhabitants, of whom 2165 are in the village. This place is at the mouth of the burn of Buckie, where it empties itself into the Moray Frith; the portion called the Sea-town has been a fishing-station for nearly 200 years, but the New-town portion, though also a fishing-station, is of much more recent origin. There is a small harbour, used principally by fishermen; but, in calm weather, coal and salt are occasionally landed. The white-fishing is prosecuted by thirty-two boats and above 300 men; seven houses have been established for curing haddock; and in 1844 not less than 154 boats went from this shore to the herring-fishery. A chapel accommodating 800 persons, was built in Easter Buckie, in the year 1835, at a cost of £800, raised chiefly by subscription; a clergyman was ordained in 1837, who had a stipend of £80 per annum, and a quoad sacra district attached, comprehending the whole of the village, and a small part of the parish southward. There are also a Roman Catholic, and an episcopal chapel.


BUCKLERHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Murroes, county of Forfar; containing 48 inhabitants.


BUCKLYVIE, lately a quoad sacra parish; consisting of part of the parish of Drymen, county of Stirling, and part of that of Kippen, in the counties of Perth and Stirling; and containing 963 inhabitants, of whom 381 are in the village, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Kippen. It is situated on the road from Kippen to Drymen, and is a burgh of barony, and entitled to hold five fairs. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish were under the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling: the church was built in 1835, by subscription, at a cost of £600, and contains 352 sittings. The stipend of the minister was £70, with a small allowance for communion elements, derived from seat-rents and collections. There are now open only places of worship for members of the Free Church and a United Secession congregation.


BUITTLE, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcud-bright, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Castle-Douglas; containing, with the village and port of Palnackie, 1059 inhabitants. This place is of great antiquity, and there are still some remains of its castle, supposed to have been the principal seat of the ancient lords of Galloway. The parish, of which the name is of very uncertain derivation, is bounded on the east by the river Urr, and on the south by the bay of Orchardton, in Solway Frith; it is about eight miles in length, and nearly three in average breadth. The surface is diversified by hill and dale; in the middle and lower districts it is broken with numerous rocky knolls, covered with furze and broom, but in the upland districts the ground is more uniformly level, and better adapted for the plough. The soil is various, and, on the arable lands, generally fertile; the chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is improved; the lands have been extensively drained, and large tracts of moss have been brought into profitable cultivation. Great attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are all of the Galloway breed, except on two or three of the dairy-farms, where those of the Ayrshire breed are preferred; the cattle are usually sent to the English markets when three years old. Considerable numbers of sheep are reared, and fed upon turnips, and mostly sent to Liverpool. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7757.

The plantations, which have been greatly extended within the last few years, now comprise about 960 acres. They consist chiefly of oak, ash, larch, and Scotch fir; and on some of the lands planted at an earlier date, are remarkably fine specimens of luxuriant growth; though many of the larches, after flourishing vigorously for a few years, degenerate. The substratum is chiefly granite, of very excellent quality, of which an extensive quarry was opened some time since, at Craignair Hill, and afforded employment to about 200 men; blocks weighing from seven to eight tons were, for some years, shipped for Liverpool, but the quarry, at present, is only wrought to a very limited extent, for home use. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway; the minister's stipend is £231. 6. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, situated in the centre of the parish, and erected in 1819, at an expense of £1000, is a handsome structure in the early English style, containing 400 sittings, and, from the height of the walls, well adapted for the erection of galleries, if additional seat room should be required. In the churchyard, are the walls of the ancient church, covered with ivy, and forming a beautiful ruin. There are two parochial schools, the masters of which, respectively, have salaries of £28 and £23, with dwelling-houses, and the fees average about £25. On a farm called Castlegower, on the north-west border of the parish, are the remains of a vitrified fort. There are two wells, formerly held in high repute, and one of which was celebrated for the cure of diseases peculiar to cattle; but they are now totally disregarded.


BULLERS-BUCHAN, a village, in the parish of Cruden, district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen; containing 91 inhabitants. This is a small fishing village, seated on the eastern coast, in the neighbourhood of the stupendous rocks of the same name, where is a circular basin about 150 feet deep, into which a boat can sail, under a long vaulted arch. The view from the sea is peculiarly striking; two hideous cliffs present themselves, and the vault in general, where most confined, is thirty or forty feet in height, and the tide rushes in tumultuously, and produces a boiling motion round the sides of the pit. "No man," observes Dr. Johnson, "can see the Buller with indifference, who has either sense of danger or delight in rarity: if I had any malice against a walking spirit, instead of laying him in the Red Sea, I would condemn him to reside in the Buller of Buchan." Above the surface of the water, are several caverns of unknown extent.


BUNDALOCK.—See Dornie.

Bunkle and Preston

BUNKLE and PRESTON, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Dunse; containing 648 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the Celtic word bon, signifying the foot or base, and kill, a cell or chapel; the word Preston, if of Saxon origin, would signify Priest-town, or the town of the priests, but some derive it from the Gaelic term Preas, a thicket, and tun, a town or farm. The manor was formerly possessed by Sir Alexander de Bunkle or Bonkle, by whom it was transferred, in 1288, to Sir John Stewart, on his marriage with the only child of Sir Alexander. The property passed from Sir John Stewart, by an heiress, to a different branch of the Stewarts, one of whom was created Earl of Angus and Lord de Bonkle, and a grand-daughter of this earl, by her marriage with William, Earl of Douglas, carried the property to the family of Douglas. The ancient castle of Bunkle, of which a ruin only now remains, was the residence of the Stewarts. The parish contains 9300 acres; the surface, in the southern division, is tolerably level, sloping gently towards the south-east; the northern part is traversed by the Lammermoor hills, the southern ridge of which, called Bunkle Edge, is 700 feet above the sea, but not more than half that altitude above its own base, showing the site of the parish to be of considerable elevation. The river Whiteadder runs along the southern and western boundary of the parish, and, by its width, its beautiful meanderings, and picturesque valleys, forms an interesting object; it abounds with salmon and trout, and is frequently visited by the lovers of angling.

The Soil, on the hills, is thin and poor, but, in the lower parts, especially in the vicinity of the Whiteadder, a rich fertile loam. The cultivated land comprehends 7280 acres, one-half of which is usually in tillage, and the other half in pasture, and of the former, about two-thirds produce white crops, and the rest potatoes and turnips. Little wheat is raised, and only a sufficient quantity of hay for domestic use; about 1600 acres are moorland or heath, and about 420 planted, chiefly with Scotch fir, of recent growth. The rotation system of husbandry here adopted, consists of two or three years of pasture, followed by three years of tillage, but the farmers give their chief attention to the rearing of sheep, there being, on some farms, no less than 1500 or 1600, principally of the Leicester breed. Considerable improvements have been made, within the last half century, and nearly all the waste land capable of cultivation has been reclaimed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8833. There are three distinct classes of rocks, the transition series, the old red sandstone, and the new red sandstone: on the Hoardwell estate, close by the river, is a copper-mine, the property of Lord Douglas, worked about sixty years since by an English company, but abandoned as unprofitable in a few years afterwards; in 1825, it was again wrought, and again relinquished on the same account. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, Lord Douglas; the stipend of the minister is about £250, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £46. When the ancient parishes of Bunkle and Preston were united, about the year 1714, public worship was performed in each alternately, till, at length, both churches needing repair, that of Bunkle was chosen, as most suitable for the joint population; it is a neat edifice, rebuilt in 1820, on the old site, and capable of accommodating 400 persons. There is a parochial school, where the usual branches of education are taught, the master receiving the maximum salary, with £26 fees, a house, and garden. Dr. James Hutton, born at Edinburgh in 1726, and author of a Theory of the Earth, resided in the parish, and greatly promoted agricultural improvements in this part of the country; and Dr. John Browne, the celebrated medical theorist, and author of the system called from him the Brunonian, was born here in 1735.


BURGH-HEAD, a village and district, in the parish of Duffus, county of Elgin, 9 miles (N. W.) from Elgin; containing 829 inhabitants. This place is equidistant from Elgin and Forres, and is seated on the north of a fine bay of the same name, said to be one of the best roadsteads on the east coast north of Leith. The harbour, which is commodious, was formed about 1811, and as many as 400 vessels now enter it in the course of the year; twelve vessels, of the aggregate burthen of 738 tons, belong to the port, and there is, by these traders, and by steam-ships, a regular communication with London, Liverpool, Leith, and Aberdeen. The greatest length of the district is five miles, and its greatest breadth, three; the village is very thriving, and has several good houses, an excellent inn, a public reading-room, and convenient baths for the accommodation of summer visiters, who frequent it in great numbers. A chapel of ease was built in 1832, and in 1834 was slightly altered, to increase the number of sittings, which are now 414; the minister's stipend is £70, paid partly by seat-rents and partly by two societies, with a house rent-free. The members of the Free Church, and the United Secession, have each a place of worship, and a school is supported by the General Assembly. On the promontory of Burgh-Head, are considerable remains of a regular Roman or Danish insulated fortification; the works were divided into two parts, a higher and a lower, and presented four strong ramparts, built with oaken logs, directed towards the small isthmus upon which the village now stands. A deep well, of extreme regularity in its construction, and much too carefully formed to allow of its being supposed to be Danish, was lately discovered on the spot, and adds another link to the chain of evidence adduced by General Roy, in his learned work on Roman antiquities, to show that Burgh-Head was a Roman station of very considerable importance.


BURNBANKS, a village, in the parish of Nigg, county of Kincardine; containing 60 inhabitants. It is a small village, lying contiguous to two others, on the eastern coast, and is occupied by fishermen, who have two boats engaged in the white-fishery, and three boats which proceed yearly to the herring-fishery on the north coast.


BURNBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Muiravonside, county of Stirling; containing 67 inhabitants. It lies in the east part of the parish, where the river Avon separates the county of Stirling from Linlithgowshire.


BURNESS, county of Orkney.—See Cross.


BURNHAVEN, a village, in the parish of Peterhead, district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (S.) from Peterhead. This village is situated near the mouth of the burn of Invernettie, from which it has its name, and consists of about thirty houses, erected by George Mudie, Esq., and inhabited by fishermen, who employ seven boats in the herring-fishery. The houses are on the acclivity of the sea-shore, nearly level with the high-water mark; and a small but convenient harbour for the fishing-boats, has been constructed by Mr. Mudie, at an expense of £300.


BURNS, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Markinch which formed the quoad sacra parish of Milton of Balgonie, county of Fife; containing 28 inhabitants.


BURNTISLAND, a parish, burgh, and sea-port town, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Kirkcaldy, and 9 (N. by E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Kirkton, 2210 inhabitants, of whom 1572 are in the burgh. This place, once called Bertyland, is said, but erroneously, to have derived its present appellation from a small island in the harbour, originally inhabited by a colony of fishermen, whose dwellings were destroyed by fire. The harbour appears to have been selected as a landing-place for his forces, by the Roman general Agricola, who, with his fleet, explored this part of the coast of Britain; and on the summit of an eminence in the parish, called Dunearn Hill, are the ruins of a fortress in which his army was stationed. Few events of historical importance are recorded: the town belonged to the abbey of Dunfermline, previously to the middle of the 16th century, when James V. exchanged it for other lands, and erected it into a royal burgh, soon after which it became a place of considerable trade, and its harbour was the chief port of an extensive line of coast including the ports of Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, Dysart, Wemyss, Leven, Elie, St. Monan's, Pittenweem, Anstruther, Crail, St. Andrew's, and South Queensferry. In 1601, a meeting of the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland was held in the town, at which James VI. was present, and recommended a revision of the common translation of the Sacred Scriptures, and of the version of the Psalms of David. During the parliamentary war in the reign of Charles I., the town was assaulted by the forces of Cromwell, to whom the inhabitants surrendered it, on condition of his repairing the streets, and improving the harbour, which remained for a considerable time in the state in which he placed them in fulfilment of the contract. During the disturbances in 1715, the town was taken possession of by the Earl of Mar's forces, who, by commanding the harbour, insured the arrival of stores and auxiliaries from abroad.

Burgh Seal.

The town, which is situated on the shore of the Frith of Forth, is neatly built, and amply supplied with water, which was first introduced by the magistrates and council, at an expense of £1000, defrayed from the funds of the burgh; a subscription library, containing about 600 volumes, has been established, and there is a regular daily post. A fair is held on the 10th of July; and from the favourable situation of the place, and the facilities of bathing this part of the coast affords, the town is much frequented during the summer months. The port formerly carried on an extensive trade, for which it was chiefly indebted to the convenience of its harbour, which, for its great security and facility of access, obtained the appellation of Portus Gratiæ; and in many old documents, it is mentioned by the designation of Portus Salutis. The trade, which consisted mainly in the exportation of coal and salt, and the importation of wines from France, and timber from Norway, declined greatly after the union, and was almost discontinued for a considerable time; but it afterwards revived, and at present consists principally in the curing of herrings, which are taken in the fishery established here, and exported to the neighbouring towns. The number of herrings annually cured and exported amounts, on an average, to about 18,000 barrels; there are eight establishments for curing, which together employ from seventy to eighty boats, having about 400 men. The season commences in July, when these boats set sail for Wick, Fraserburgh, and Rosehearty, where they remain for nearly two months; and between this place and the several fishing-stations, about ten sloops are constantly engaged in taking out cargoes of barrels and salt, and in bringing home the fish that have been caught at each place, to be cured for exportation. The whale-fishery was established here, but only for a few years, by a company who annually sent out two vessels, of the aggregate burthen of 700 tons, and each a crew of fifty men. During the period from 1830 to 1835, the quantity of oil procured was 1200 tons, and more than fifty tons of whalebone, the preparation of which afforded employment to thirty persons, of whom nearly one-half were oil-coopers, and the remainder women who were occupied in cleansing the bone. The building and repairing of ships were formerly carried on extensively, and at present engage more than 100 persons; but the largest vessel built has not exceeded 450 tons' burthen. A distillery at Grange, in the parish, consumes annually about 11,000 quarters of malt, in the production of nearly 190,000 gallons of whisky; and the amount of duty payable exceeds £36,000. In connexion with this establishment, the buildings of which are situated half a mile from the town, about 700 head of cattle are annually fed, producing to the proprietors a considerable income; and the whole concern affords employment to about 100 men and fifty horses.

The harbour is capacious and easy of access, and, from its depth, affords shelter to vessels of great burthen; the pier, on which a light-house has been erected, is commodious, and its extension, with the improvement of the ferry, would render this by far the most secure harbour in the Frith. A dry-dock has been constructed, in connexion with the harbour; it is about 200 feet in length, and seventeen feet in depth, at high water, and is capable of receiving vessels of 1000 tons. The road-stead affords good anchorage, and is much frequented in stormy weather; the bottom is deep, even near the shore, and the high grounds on the north, and a sandbank extending considerably into the sea on the east, provide shelter for vessels in distress. A regular communication with Newhaven, about five miles distant, is maintained by steam-boats and sailing vessels, the latter principally for carrying goods; and there are about eight vessels belonging to the port, the aggregate burthen of which is 900 tons. At Starly burn is a small harbour, from which is shipped the limestone found on the lands belonging to the Carron Company, and where also ships frequently touch, to take in a supply of fresh water; there is also a pier to the east of the town, chiefly used for the shipping of lime for neighbouring districts. The town was, in 1541, erected into a royal burgh, by James V., whose charter was confirmed by his successor, James VI., with additional grants; and a new charter was bestowed upon the inhabitants by Charles I., under which the government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, procurator-fiscal, and a council of twenty-one, assisted by a town-clerk. The provost and bailies, with all the other officers, are elected by the council, who are chosen by the resident householders. The magistrates exercise jurisdiction within the burgh, and the bailies hold courts for the trial of civil cases to any amount, and for the decision of criminal offences, chiefly misdemeanours; there is also a court of guild, under a dean of guild chosen by the council. The trading companies consist of the hammermen, tailors, weavers, fleshers, shoemakers, and bakers. The burgh unites with those of Kirkcaldy, Dysart, and Kinghorn, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident householders occupying premises of the value of £10 per annum.

The parish is bounded on the south by the Frith, and comprises about 3000 acres, of which 500 are meadow and pasture, 100 woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable land. The surface is exceedingly irregular, being broken into parallel ridges of various eminence, and, throughout the whole of its extent, is finely diversified with hills and dales; the highest of the hills is Dunearn, which rises to the height of 700 feet above the level of the sea, commanding a most extensive and richly-varied prospect, embracing portions of nearly fourteen counties. The soil is very various, consisting of rich deep loam, of great fertility, with lighter loam, gravel, sand, clay, and moss; the principal crops are, wheat, barley, oats, beans, and potatoes, with the usual green crops. Great improvement has taken place in draining the lands, and the system of agriculture is in a very forward condition; the cattle are of the old Fifeshire breed, and the sheep generally of the Cheviot. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8846. The plantations are but of modern growth, and there is comparatively little ornamental timber, though the soil seems well adapted to hard woods of every kind. The substrata are chiefly limestone, sandstone, iron-stone, clay-slate, shale, greenstone, trap-tuffa, and basalt; and coal is supposed to exist, though none has hitherto been wrought: in the strata of sandstone, limestone, and shale, are various fossils, and amethysts, agates, and chalcedony are found in great variety. Limestone and sandstone are extensively quarried. Collinswell, Grange, and Newbigging, all handsome edifices, are pleasantly situated in grounds tastefully embellished.

The parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £185. 17. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £50 per annum. The church, a substantial edifice, with a low square tower, and situated near the shore of the Frith, was erected by the inhabitants, in 1592; it is adapted for a congregation of 900 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and United Secession Church. The burgh school affords instruction under a master appointed by the council, who pay him a salary of £26; he also receives a fourth part of the rent of lands bequeathed in the year 1689, by John Watson, Esq., provost of Burntisland, and now producing in the whole £63 per annum, of which the remaining three-fourths are divided among widows, under the direction of the magistrates and council. There are several vestiges of the fortifications of the town; and on the south side of the harbour, are portions of the walls of an ancient fort. On a knoll projecting boldly into the sea, at Lamberlaws, are traces of an encampment said to have been occupied by Cromwell; and on an eminence overlooking the harbour, are the remains of Rossend Castle, built in the fifteenth century; it has been greatly improved within the last few years, and forms a pleasant residence, surrounded with gardens and plantations. There are several tumuli in various parts, in one of which were found coffins, of rudely squared stones; on an eminence in the north-west of the parish, are some remains of the fort called Knockdavie, and about a mile to the east of it, of another of similar construction.

Burra and Quarff

BURRA and QUARFF, late a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Bressay, county of Orkney and Shetland; containing 870 inhabitants. The district of Burra lies west of the Mainland, from which it is separated by Cliff Sound, and comprehends the isles of House, Burra, Halvera, and Papa, the two last of which are of very small extent. Halvera, situated two miles south from Burra, is a precipitous elevation, approached by a creek, and tenanted by only a few families; and Papa, a mile north from Burra, merely affords a residence to two families. House or the eastern isle, which is about half a mile from Quarff, and Burra or the western isle, which is mostly the same distance from House, are each formed principally of a hilly ridge, of rugged and irregular appearance, the former about five miles in length, and the latter about six. In one place, the isles nearly touch each other, the communication being carried on by means of a small bridge, consisting of beams of wood resting on two piles of uncemented stones: the coast of both islands is rocky. Quarff district, situated between those of Bressay and Burra, and forming part of the Mainland, is six miles south-west from Bressay, and consists of a valley, which is about two miles long, and half a mile broad, and is inhabited and cultivated; together with a tract of natural pasture on the north, and another on the south, about a mile each in length. The whole forms a pleasingly rural picture, ornamented with cottages on each side of the winding valley, skirted by the mountains, and separated from each other by verdant meadows, with the advantage of an interesting bay on the east and west. The southern part of the valley is defended by the Cliff and Coningsburgh hills, which here unite in a ridge, and the northern part by those of Tingwall and Lerwick, the highest point of which is estimated at 500 feet. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lerwick and synod of Shetland; the patronage belongs to the Crown, and the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse. There are two churches, of which that of Quarff is the principal, service being only occasionally performed at Burra; the church of Burra, situated near the southern extremity of the western isle, was built in 1804, and accommodates about 200 persons; that of Quarff was erected in 1830, by government, and made the chief place of worship, and contains about 300 sittings. A place of worship has been built for members of the Free Church.—See Bressay.


BURRAY, an island, forming part of the ancient parish of St. Peter, island of South Ronaldshay, South isles of Orkney, and containing 532 inhabitants. This is a low island, bounded on the south by Water Sound, and on the north by Holm Sound, and is about four miles in length, and one in breadth; the soil, which affords good pasturage, is in general a light dry sand, mixed, in a few places, with some coarse clay: fishing is the employment of a large portion of the population. Across Water Sound is a ferry, a mile broad, to the island of Ronaldshay.


BURRELTOWN, a village, in the parish of Cargill, county of Perth; containing 485 inhabitants. Here are a chapel of ease, unendowed, supported by subscription, and a small school; also a place of worship for members of the Free Church.


BUSBY, a village, partly in the parish of East Kilbride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, but chiefly in the parish of Mearns, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 902 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the river White Cart, of which the sides, abruptly precipitous and rocky, are thickly wooded, and display much variety of scenery. The inhabitants are employed chiefly in a print-field and a factory in the immediate neighbourhood; the print-field is in the parish of East Kilbride, and the cotton-factory, which was established in 1780, in that of Mearns. A penny-post has been instituted here, under the office of Glasgow.


BUSHYHILL, a village, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 393 inhabitants.

Bute, Isle Of

BUTE, ISLE OF, in the county of Bute; comprising the parishes of North Bute, Kingarth, and Rothesay, and containing 8078 inhabitants. It is in the Frith of Clyde, and separated from Cowal, a district of Argyllshire, by a narrow channel; its length is eighteen, and its breadth between four and five, miles. The northern parts are rocky and barren, but the southern extremity is more fertile, well cultivated and inclosed, and in some places finely wooded; and it is said that no part of Scotland has made more rapid progress in agriculture than this island, within the last twenty years. The climate is remarkably mild, especially in winter and spring, and, during these seasons, is much resorted to by invalids. The coast is rocky, but is indented with several safe harbours, in which a number of small craft are fitted out for the herring-fishery, which is the principal occupation of the male inhabitants: the chief port is Rothesay. The rateable annual value of the island is £17,777. There are several remains of antiquity; and in particular, near Rothesay, are the ruins of an ancient castle, with a fort, barracks, and drawbridge, once the residence of the kings of Scotland; there are also several Danish towers, and fragments of fortifications on some of the hill-tops.

Bute, North

BUTE, NORTH, a new civil parish, consisting of part of the old parish of Rothesay, isle and county of Bute, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Rothesay; containing, with the island of Inch-Marnock, 765 inhabitants. This place, which comprises about half of the island of Bute, owes its origin to the erection and endowment, by the Marquess of Bute, of an elegant church, in 1835, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the northern portion of the parish of Rothesay. The church is pleasantly situated in a valley between Kames bay on the east, and Etterick bay on the west; and the erection and endowment, and building of the manse, with other expenses attendant on the completion of the marquess's design, are estimated at £8000: the stipend of the minister is £150, with an allowance of £12 in lieu of glebe. The Gaelic church in Rothesay is dependent upon North Bute, the clergyman officiating there being the assistant of its minister. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and a parochial school is situated, but rather inconveniently, at Etterick, and supported by a salary from the marquess, and by the fees.


BUTESHIRE, a county, on the western coast of Scotland, consisting of the isles of Bute, Arran, InchMarnock, and Great and Little Cumbray, in the Firth of Clyde; separated on the north from Argyllshire by the straits called the Kyles of Bute, and on the west, from the peninsula of Cantyre, by Kilbrannan Sound. It lies between 55° 26' and 55° 56' (N. Lat.), and 4° 54' and 5° 23' (W. Long.), and comprises an area of about 257 square miles, or 164,480 acres; 3067 inhabited houses, and 97 uninhabited; with a population of 15,740, of whom 7155 are males, and 8585 females. The island of Bute, at a very early period, became the property of Sir John Stuart, a son of Robert II., and was confirmed to him by his brother, Robert III., and is still the property of his descendant, the Marquess of Bute; that of Arran was granted by James III. to Sir James Hamilton, whose descendant, the Earl of Arran, was regent of Scotland during the minority of Mary, Queen of Scots, and it now is the property of the Duke of Hamilton. The civil business of the county is transacted at the royal burgh of Rothesay, which is the only town; and under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county returns a member to the imperial parliament.

The surface is various: the island of Bute, in the central parts, is diversified with hills affording excellent pasturage, and with valleys of rich arable land in excellent cultivation; Arran is rugged and mountainous, interspersed with glens of moss, through which several streams, descending from the heights, flow into the sea. The highest of the mountains in Arran, is Goat-Fell, which has an elevation of 3500 feet above the sea; and from its summit is an extensive view, embracing England, Ireland, and the Isle of Man. In both islands there are numerous lakes; and the coasts are indented with fine bays, of which the chief in Bute are, Kilchattan, Rothesay, and Kames, on the east, and Dungoil, Stravannan, Scalpsie, St. Ninian's, and Etterick, on the west; the bays in Arran are, Lamlash, which is accessible in every wind, Whiting, and Brodick, on the east, and Druimadoun and Machry, on the west. Opposite to St. Ninian's bay, is the island of Inch-Marnock; and at the entrance of Lamlash bay, is the Holy Island. Freestone, limestone, slate, and an inferior kind of coal, are the prevailing substrata; and near the shore, are some beds of coral and shells of great thickness. The rateable annual value of the county is £30,976. The chief seats are, Brodick Castle, at the head of the bay of that name; and Mount Stuart, situated on an acclivity opposite to the entrance of the Clyde. The island gives the title of Marquess to the ancient family of Stuart.


BUTTERGASK, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Ardoch, parish of Dunblane, county of Perth; containing 65 inhabitants. It is situated in the eastern part of the parish, on a stream tributary to the Allan, and a short distance from the roab between Auchterarder and Dunblane.

Byth, New

BYTH, NEW.—See Newbyth.