Cabrach - Carnoustie

A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.

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'Cabrach - Carnoustie', in A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, (London, 1846) pp. 163-185. British History Online [accessed 11 April 2024]

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CABRACH, a parish, partly in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, but chiefly in the county of Banff, 12 miles (W.) from Clatt; containing 827 inhabitants. This parish, which is about twelve miles in length, from north to south, and four in breadth, from east to west, is covered to a considerable extent with moss and fir, and derives its name from certain Gaelic terms signifying "the timber moss." The portion in the county of Aberdeen consists of a deep excavation in the form of a basin, surrounded by hills; and that in Banffshire of winding valleys, skirted on each side by lofty eminences, and stretching along the course of the Blackwater and Doveran streams. The surface is exceedingly rugged, and the entire district bleak, wild, and mountainous, spread over, to a great extent, with tracts of peat-moss, affording an inexhaustible supply of fuel; large moors abounding with grouse, partridges, hares, and almost every kind of game; and waste land incapable of cultivation; the parts under tillage bearing a very small proportion to the aggregate number of acres. Green crops, and grass for hay, thrive better than grain; oats and bear, which are chiefly sown, seldom coming to maturity in the higher district except in fine seasons. The inhabitants, however, engage in agricultural pursuits with great spirit, having introduced most of the improvements of the southern parts; the cattle are the black native breed, large numbers of which are reared, with many sheep, and some of the former are sent to the markets in the south, in a lean condition, for sale, as well as to the surrounding districts. A considerable extent of waste has been brought under tillage within the present century, and inclosures of various kinds are in progress; but the bad state of the roads, and the want of sufficient capital for their repair or enlargement, render agricultural improvement difficult. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1632 for the Banffshire portion, and £830 for the Aberdeenshire portion. The district abounds with limestone; and a small grey slate is occasionally dug up, and used chiefly for building, within the locality. The mountain streams supply abundance of trout; the Doveran, which rises here in several heads, contains excellent salmon, and in addition to the game upon the moors, the forests of Glen-fiddich and Blackwater are well stocked with fine deer. There were till lately two establishments for the distillation of malt spirits, producing annually 10,000 gallons. An annual market is held on the Thursday after the third Tuesday in July (O. S.), and another on the Monday before the second Tuesday in October (O. S.), chiefly for the sale of blackcattle bred here. The parish is in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Duke of Richmond; the stipend is £158. 6. 7., of which nearly half is received from the exchequer; there is a manse, built in 1802, with about 28 acres of glebe, valued at £10 per annum. The church is a plain edifice, erected about 1786. The parochial schoolmaster receives a salary of £32. 2., with a few pounds derived from fees; and another school has a small endowment from the Duke of Richmond. On the farm of Shenwell, at a place called "King's haugh," is an ancient ruin, traditionally reported to have been the residence of Malcolm Canmore; and near Lesmurdie, on the north bank of the Doveran, are the remains of a chapel and burial-ground.

Cadder, or Calder

CADDER, or CALDER, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Kirkintilloch; containing, with the village of Auchinearn, the hamlet of Bishopbridge, and the late quoad sacra district of Chryston, 4425 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation in the midst of a district abounding with wood and water, of which its appellation in the old British language, Calder, is significant. It appears to have owed its origin, as a parish, to the foundation of a church by St. Patrick, who was born in the immediate vicinity, and who, towards the close of the 5th century, founded numerous other churches in the neighbourhood, which were subsequently endowed by Convallus II., with lands for the maintenance of their respective clergy. The parish is about fourteen miles in length, and four in breadth, and the surface, which is generally undulated, is diversified with lakes, and by various tributary streams, which fall into the river Kelvin, the parish boundary on the north and west. Of the former, the most important were, Auchinloch, nearly in the centre of the parish, from which, on its being drained some years since, a stream was conducted to the Kelvin; Loch Grog, drained in 1844; and Robroyston loch, in the western part, now almost reclaimed into arable land. Johnston loch, in the eastern part, is about a mile in circumference, and is employed by the Forth and Clyde Company, as a reservoir for supplying their canal, for which purpose, also, they have appropriated the Bishop's loch, of which a small portion is within this parish.

The soil is extremely various; in some parts, a rich black loam; in others, mossy; on the banks of the various streams, chiefly alluvial; and in some parts, sandy. Several of the mosses, all of which abound with peat, have been reclaimed, affording excellent crops. About 9000 acres of land are in cultivation, about 300 deep moss, and there are something more than 500 acres in plantations, of which the principal, on the Cadder estate, contains many trees of ancient and luxuriant growth: there are several extensive dairy-farms, mostly stocked with cows of the Ayrshire breed. The crops are, oats, wheat, potatoes, barley, rye, and turnips, in the production of which the improved system of agriculture is adopted. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,941. The substratum is chiefly whinstone, many seams of which, in different parts, rise above the surface; freestone is also found in abundance, alternating with the whinstone, and large quantities of it are sent to Glasgow. Limestone is prevalent; and coal exists in the parish, at a considerable depth, but the quality is not sufficiently good to remunerate the labour of working it. There are some extensive tracts of clay, used for pottery and bricks; of the former, various elegant specimens of vases have been produced, and fire-bricks and crucibles of excellent quality are made of the latter. Ironstone abounds, and is wrought to a considerable extent by the Carron Company. The Forth and Clyde canal intersects the western portion of the parish, passing in a line nearly parallel with the river Kelvin; the Kirkintilloch railway, opened in 1826, crosses its eastern extremity, and the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway, opened in 1831, passes on the south side, for several miles. In 1842, the line of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway was carried through the parish. The village, formerly extensive, contains at present only sixty-four inhabitants, employed on the lands of its proprietor, whose mansion, recently enlarged, forms the principal object of interest in the place.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is in the heritors and Kirk Session, and the stipend of the incumbent is £280.8., with a manse, and a glebe of about ten acres. The church, erected in 1830, is a neat edifice of stone, in the early English style, with a square tower, and is adapted for a congregation of about 800 persons. There are three parochial schools, situated respectively at Cadder, Chryston, and Auchinearn; the master in Cadder has a salary of £25. 13., and the fees amount to more than a sum of £55; the master at Chryston has £17. 2., with £56 fees, and the master of Auchinearn has £8. 10., with £12 fees, and the interest of 1000 merks bequeathed by the Rev. James Warden. Another school, in the village of Auchinloch, is endowed with £300, bequeathed by Patrick Baird, Esq. There are some remains of the ancient Roman wall, near the glebe. In 1813, a gold coin of Antoninus Pius was discovered, in a very perfect state, in clearing out the pond of Cadder; and in levelling the lawn before the house, the foundations of the old tower appeared, in which was found a vessel containing more than 300 gold coins, of the size of a shilling, with the inscription Jacobus.


CAERLAVEROCK, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Dumfries; containing, with Sherrington, Bankhead, Glencaple-Quay, and Blackshaws, 1297 inhabitants. Different opinions exist in regard to the derivation of the name of this parish, some interpreting the words of which it is composed, "the castle with the buttress jutting out," and others, "the castle close upon the sea," referring to the most prominent historical memorial in the place, the singularly formed and strong fortress called Caerlaverock Castle. It stands near the shores of the Solway Frith, and is of triangular figure, having a double moat, with portcullis after portcullis, to defend the entrance; there is also a provision for the discharge of a torrent of molten lead on the heads of the besiegers. The existing castle is the second building, the first, which has long been totally destroyed, having nothing left but the foundations, which are visible about 300 yards from the more modern structure, and indicate the old castle to have been somewhat smaller than the present, but of the same form. The original castle is said to have been founded in the 6th century, by Llywarch Og, and to have been the chief seat of the ancient and illustrious family of Maxwell, in the days of King Malcolm Canmore; it was attacked and taken by King Edward I., who afterwards passed several days here. The exact time when the second castle was built, has not been ascertained, but is known to have been before the year 1425; in 1570, it was ruined by the Earl of Sussex, who had been sent with an English army, to support James VI., after the murder of the regent. It was, however, reinstated in its former strength, by Robert, first Earl of Nithsdale, in 1638; and during the troubles of Charles I., its owner, who had supported the royal cause with all his energies, was ordered by that monarch to yield it up, on the best terms he could obtain. After the siege by Cromwell, it was found to contain eighty-six beds, forty carpets, and a library worth £200.

The parish is six miles long, and about two broad, containing 5800 acres, and is bounded on the south by the Solway Frith; on the east, by the Lochar; and on the west, by the river Nith, which separates it from the county of Kirkcudbright. The Solway, in this part, is about twelve miles wide. The Nith is affected by the tide as far as Dumfries, but at low water is easily fordable; it forms about six miles of the boundary line of the parish. The Lochar, on the other side, flows through an extensive moss, which prevents all communication in that quarter, except in the driest months of summer, and then it is passable only by pedestrians. The soil, to some extent, is mossy, but its general character is that of light loam, and the worst soil is, in this district, usually in the valleys: 4323 acres are cultivated, and produce all kinds of white and green crops; 126 acres are under wood, 75 are moss and river, and 252 marsh. The cattle are of the Galloway breed, with a few Ayrshire cows, and the sheep are the Leicesters; the best system of agriculture is followed, and the improvements recently made in every department have been considerable. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4495. The rocks almost throughout consist of red sandstone, which is easily wrought, and durable, and is used for many purposes. At Glencaple-Quay, the chief village, large vessels bound for Dumfries unload, when unable, from their burthen, to reach their place of destination. There is a salmon-fishery connected with the parish, valued at £100 per annum, and a white-fishing is valued at £40. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dumfries and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Marquess of Queensberry. The stipend of the minister is £177, with a manse, built in 1838, by the heritors, and a glebe of nearly 20 acres, valued at £32 per annum. The church, built in 1781, contains 470 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which mathematics, the classics, and all the usual branches of education are taught, and the master of which has the maximum salary, with fees, and £40 a year from the Hutton bequest. Two other schools are supported out of bequests, and there is a parochial library, instituted in 1833. Dr. John Hutton, first physician to Queen Anne, was born here, and after realizing a handsome fortune by his profession, became a munificent benefactor to his native parish, and left a valuable library to the presbytery of Dumfries, comprising the prayer-book used by the unfortunate King Charles when on the scaffold. This prayer-book, however, was some time ago abstracted, and sold at an auction in London for a large sum.


CAIRNBEDDIE, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Martin's, county of Perth; containing 44 inhabitants. It is situated a very short distance north of the village of St. Martin's.


CAIRNBULG, a village, in the parish of Rathen, district of Deer, county of Aberdeen, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Rathen; containing 406 inhabitants. This is a fishing village, situated on the north-eastern coast of Fraserburgh bay, called Cairnbulg Point, and closely adjoining Inverallochie, another village, of which the inhabitants are also fishers. Here are the ruins of an old castle, which seems to have been of considerable strength, and was formerly the seat of the predecessors of Lord Saltoun. It was called Philorth, until sold by Sir Alexander Fraser, in 1613, to Fraser of Durris, when its name was changed to Cairnbulg, Sir Alexander transferring that of Philorth to another mansion, about a mile westward, which has ever since been the residence of the lords Saltoun.


CAIRNEYHILL, a village, in the parish of Carnock, district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 3 miles (W.S.W.) from Dunfermline; containing 516 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the banks of the burn of Pitdennies, consists of one long street of neat houses, on the road from Dunfermline to Alloa. It is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the manufacture of table-linen, and of table-covers, for the wholesale houses at Dunfermline, which is carried on by hand-loom weaving, at their own dwellings; a considerable number are also engaged in the adjacent collieries. A library has been established for many years, and is supported by subscription. There is a place of worship for members of the United Associate Synod.


CAIRNIE, a parish, chiefly in the district of Strathbogie, county of Aberdeen, but partly in the county of Banff, 4 miles (N. W.) from Huntly; containing 1638 inhabitants. This place once formed part of the lordship of Strathbogie, which was granted to Sir Adam Gordon, by King Robert Bruce, after the defeat and attainder of Cumin, Earl of Badenoch, and was the original estate of the family of Gordon, whose property, since that period, has become very greatly extended. The surface is hilly, and comprehends 48 square miles, of which extent 8000 acres are in tillage, and 2600 acres were planted in the year 1839 with 6,700,000 trees, by the Duke of Richmond, who is proprietor of nearly the whole of the parish; the soil in the vicinity of the streams is fertile, and the husbandry on a respectable footing. Extensive lime-works are in operation at Ardonald, which, in the twenty-three years previous to 1842, produced a revenue of £69,770. The mosses supply part of the fuel consumed, and the remainder consists of coal brought from the coast, eighteen miles distant; the substrata comprise granite, clay-slate, greenstone, and a few other varieties. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5145. The black-cattle and dairy-produce, which are the principal marketable commodities, are taken for sale to Huntly, or sent to the coast; and facilities of communication are afforded by the road from Aberdeen to Inverness, which passes through the parish. Cairnie is in the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Duke of Richmond; the minister's stipend is £210. 0. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum. The church, which stands in a central situation, was built at the beginning of the present century. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £18. 16., with sixteen bolls of meal, and £15 fees; he also shares in the Dick bequest.


CAIRNIE-HILL, Perth.—See Carnie-Hill.


CAIRNRYAN, a village, in the parish of Inch, county of Wigton, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Stranraer; containing 196 inhabitants. It is seated on the east side of Loch Ryan, and has a safe harbour, with good anchorage, affording shelter to vessels entering into, or coming from, the Frith of Clyde, in adverse weather. The village is well situated for foreign trade, and also adapted for ship-building; there is a place of worship for members of the Free Church.


CAITHNESS-SHIRE, a county in the north-east of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Pentland Frith; on the east and south-east, by the German Sea; and on the west and south-west, by the county of Sutherland. It lies between 58° 10' and 58° 40' (N. Lat.), and 3° and 3° 65' (W. Long.), and is about forty-three miles in length, and thirty miles in breadth; comprising an area of 618 square miles, or 395,520 acres; 6965 inhabited houses, and 216 uninhabited; and a population of 36,343, of whom 17,135 are males, and 19,208 females. On account of its remote situation, it had little intercourse with the principal parts of the country, and is consequently connected with few historical events of importance, except occasional hostilities with the Danes and Norwegians, of which there are some memorials in various monumental relics. From ancient records, it appears to have been erected into an earldom, in 875; the title, after being for a long period in abeyance, was revived in favour of William Sinclair, a descendant of Robert II., in 1455. Many of the men of Caithness attended James IV., at the battle of Flodden Field, under the Earl of Caithness; but scarcely an individual of the number survived that fatal conflict. Previously to the Reformation, this county, jointly with Sutherland, constituted a diocese, of which the cathedral and episcopal palace were situated at Dornoch; it is, at present, in the synod of Sutherland and Caithness, and comprises one presbytery and ten parishes. For civil purposes, it is divided into the districts of Wick and Thurso, where the quarter-sessions and other courts are held alternately; and it contains the royal burgh of Wick, which is the county town, the town of Thurso, and a few inconsiderable villages.

The surface is generally level, with the exception of some mountainous tracts on the borders of Sutherland, and a few eminences in other parts; the chief mountains are, the Ord of Caithness, which has an elevation of 1250 feet, the Scarry hills, 1876 feet, and the Maiden Paps, an elevation of 2000 feet above the sea. The principal valleys are those of Berriedale, at the base of the last ridge of mountains, and the plain of Caithness, extending to the Pentland Frith, and comprising about four-fifths of the lands, though interspersed with detached hills, some of which are of considerable height. There are numerous lakes, but none of any great extent; and of the various streams which intersect the county in many parts, those only that approach the resemblance of rivers, are the Forrs and Thurso waters in the north-west, and the Wick and Berriedale waters in the south-east. The coast is bold, rocky, and precipitous, indented with numerous bays, and marked by lofty promontories. Along the shore of Pentland Frith, are caverns in the rocks, from which the agitated waters, ascending with prodigious force, overspread the neighbourhood with incessant foam; and about four miles to the north of the coast, and nearly in the centre of the Frith, is the island of Stroma, which is annexed to the county. The bays are those of Sandside, Thurso, Dunnet, and Gills, on the north; and Duncans, Freswick, Sinclair, and Wick, on the east: the most prominent headlands are, Holburn, Dwarrick, Dunnet, Duncans, Skirsa, Noss, and Wick. Little more than a fifth part of the land is in cultivation, consisting chiefly of tracts near the rivers, and the slopes of the various eminences; the remainder is mostly moor, some parts of which are nearly 300 feet above the sea. The rateable annual value of the county is £65,869. The principal seats are, Barogill Castle, Thurso Castle, Dunbeath, Freswick, Hempriggs, Ackergill, Barroch, Forrs, and Sandside. The herring-fishery off the east coast is extensive and lucrative, indeed the most important in Britain; there are several harbours for the vessels engaged in the fisheries, and considerable quantities of grain, cattle, and wool are shipped. The county gives the title of Earl to the ancient family of Sinclair.


CALDER, Inverness and Nairn.—See Cawdor.


CALDER, county of Lanark.—See Cadder.

Calder Bank and Braes

CALDER BANK and BRAES, a village, in the parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 1064 inhabitants. It is seated on the banks of the river Calder, and south of the high road from Airdrie to Glasgow; the Calder here, flowing on the south, separates the parish from that of Bothwell.

Calder, East

CALDER, EAST.—See Kirknewton.

Calder, Mid

CALDER, MID, a parish, situated in the county of Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Bells-Quarry, 1456 inhabitants, of whom 550 are in the village of Mid-Calder, 12 miles (W.) from Edinburgh. This place, which formed part of the extensive district of Calder, obtained the appellation of Calder-Comitis, from its having been the property of the earls of Fife, in the twelfth century; the barony afterwards became part of the ample possessions of Sir James Sandilands, whose descendant, Lord Torphichen, is the present proprietor. The large parish of Calder-Comitis was, by the presbytery of Linlithgow, divided, in 1645, into the two parishes designated Mid and West Calder. Mid-Calder is about seven miles in length, and from two to three miles in breadth, comprising 12,339 acres, of which about 200 are woodland and plantations, and of the remainder, about one-third is arable, and two-thirds are meadow and pasture. The surface is generally an extensive plain, bounded on the south by a ridge called the Cairn Hills, forming a continuation of the Pentland range, and of which the highest has an elevation of about 1800 feet above the sea, commanding an unbounded view of the Frith of Forth, with the adjacent country towards Stirling, the coast of Fife, and the Ochils. The principal streams are, the river Almond, and the Murieston and Linhouse waters, which two latter unite their streams, and flow into the Almond a little to the north of the village. The scenery is pleasingly varied, and enriched with wood; the ancient forest of Calder has been greatly diminished, in the progress of cultivation, but there are still considerable remains of stately timber, and also extensive modern plantations, consisting of common and spruce firs, larch, oak, ash, beech, and elm.

The soil, along the banks of the river and its tributary streams, is a rich, dry, and fertile loam, and, in some parts, clay, which has been greatly improved by draining and the use of lime. The arable lands produce favourable crops of grain; but the principal reliance of the farmers is on the dairies, which are well managed; and on many of the farms, a considerable number of sheep are pastured. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7667. The substrata are chiefly freestone, limestone, and whinstone, all of which have been extensively wrought: a quarry of limestone has long been in operation, on the lands of Easter Murieston. In Calder Wood, is a quarry of freestone, excellent for every kind of building; there are quarries of freestone underneath the Cairn hills. Ironstone is found in the beds of the rivers, but not in sufficient quantity to remunerate the labour of working it. Lead-ore has been discovered on several parts of the Harburn estate, but has not been wrought; and seams of coal have been met with, in the upper districts of the parish, one of which is nearly four feet in thickness. Calder House, the seat of Lord Torphichen, is a spacious and elegant mansion, beautifully situated on the bank of the Murieston water, near its confluence with the river Almond, in an ample demesne, richly embellished with stately timber. In the more ancient part of the structure, the walls are seven feet in thickness, and in the old hall, now the drawing-room, John Knox, for the first time after the Reformation, publicly administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the Protestant form; in this room are portraits of the Reformer, and Mary, Queen of Scots. In the centre of the kitchen, is a deep draw-well, from which is a subterraneous passage to the village. Murieston Castle, another seat, has been repaired and partly rebuilt by the proprietor; and the ancient mansion of Linhouse, now Burnbrae, is an embattled structure, with towers in good preservation. The village is pleasantly situated on the road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, on an eminence between the Almond and the Linhouse water, and under the shelter of Calder Wood. There are two paper-mills; and fairs are held on the second Tuesday in March, and the Friday after the second Tuesday in October, for the sale of cattle and horses, and for hiring farm servants.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale and presbytery of Linlithgow. The minister's stipend, including £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, is £158. 6. 8., of which £88. 17. 10. are paid by the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of forty-three acres, valued at £64 per annum; patron, Lord Torphichen. The church, an ancient structure in the early English style, contains 438 sittings. There is a place of worship for Seceders. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees, &c., average £65; he also receives the proceeds of a bequest for teaching music, amounting to £11. The ancient castle of Cairns, of which there are some remains, consisting of a tower, is supposed to have been founded by Sir William Crichton, lord high-admiral of Scotland, in 1440. In the south-west part of the parish, on the summit of an eminence called Castle Grey, are tolerably perfect remains of a Roman camp, in which various Roman coins have been found. There are also numerous tumuli on the banks of the river Almond, and artificial mounds, of which four, on its south bank, point out the field of a battle between the Picts and Scots.

Calder, West

CALDER, WEST, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 16½ miles (W. S. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 1666 inhabitants, of whom 434 are in the village. This parish is of triangular form, in the south-western extremity of the county, and bounded on the north-west by Linlithgowshire, from which it is separated by the Breich water, a stream tributary to the river Almond; on the north-east, by the parish of Mid Calder; and on the south, by Lanarkshire. It is about ten miles in length, and five and a half in average breadth, comprising about 20,000 acres; the surface bordering on Lanark, is elevated and hilly, attaining a height of 700 feet above the sea, and, though greatly improved by recent plantations, has still a bleak and cold appearance. The soil is chiefly a black mossy earth, naturally moist, lying on a till bottom; and there are some extensive tracts of moor, interspersed with arable land of moderate fertility. The system of agriculture has, of late, been much improved, and the soil, which in many parts is very wet, has been rendered much more productive by draining. The crops raised here are, oats, wheat, barley, flax, peas, turnips, and potatoes. The hills afford good pasture for sheep and cattle, of which large numbers are reared; of late, great attention has been paid to the management of dairy-farms, and excellent butter and cheese are sent to the Edinburgh market. The farms are generally of moderate extent; and most of those which are chiefly arable, contain a considerable portion of moorland. The plantations, principally of fir, and which were formerly confined to the lands around the houses of the proprietors, have been much extended; indeed, a general improvement in the appearance of the district has recently taken place. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7090.

The chief substrata are limestone and coal, of which the former is generally more adapted for building purposes than for manure; a seam for burning into lime is wrought on the estate of Handexwood, and is of a good kind. Coal is worked in various places within the limits of the parish; ironstone has, for many years, been wrought at Handexwood, by the Wilsontown Iron Company, and, for the last three or four years, on the estate of Muldren, by the Shotts Company, though not to any very great extent. The principal houses are, Hermand, erected by the late Lord Hermand, in 1797; Limefield and Harburn, in 1804; and Hartwood, in 1807. The high road from Edinburgh to Ayr passes through the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the jurisdiction of the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale and the presbytery of Linlithgow; patron, John Drysdale, Esq. The minister's stipend, by augmentation from government, is £158. 6. 8., of which above two-thirds are received from the exchequer; the manse, rebuilt in 1837, is a handsome residence, and the glebe comprises 24 acres, valued at £24 per annum. The church was built in 1643; in 1844 a place of worship in connexion with the Free Church was erected, and there is a meeting-house for the United Secession. The parochial school is attended by about 85 children; the master has a salary of £34, with an excellent house and a good garden, and the fees average about £16. On the lands of Harburn, at the south-eastern extremity of the parish, are vestiges of an ancient castle, said to have been fortified by Oliver Cromwell, to check the depredations committed by the moss-troopers; and on the summit of a hill colled Castle Craig, are the remains of a Roman camp of small extent, near which several Roman coins have been found.


CALF, an island, in the parish of Kilninian and Kilmore, district of Mull, county of Argyll. This island, which is of extremely small extent, lies off Tobermory, in the north-eastern part of the parish, and is in that portion of the Sound of Mull which borders on Loch Sunart; its length is about three times as great as its breadth, and it stretches in a direction parallel to the coast of the main land.


CALLANDER, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the village of Kilmahog, 1665 inhabitants, of whom 1107 are in the village of Callander, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Port of Monteith. This place derives its name, of Gaelic origin, from an ancient ferry across the river Teath, the principal road to which lay within its limits. The parish is about eighteen miles in length, and varies greatly in breadth, being in some parts scarcely a mile, and in others nearly ten miles. It is bounded on the north and north-west by a branch of the Grampians; and the scenery is boldly varied by hills and mountains, of which the most prominent is Ben-Ledi, which has an elevation of 2863 feet above the sea, and forms a boundary of the valley that contains the village. A hill near the village forms also a very interesting feature in the landscape, being richly clothed with flourishing plantations, formed some years since, by Lady Willoughby de Eresby; the hill called the Crag of Callander bounds the vale on the north, and in the vicinity flows the Teath, adding, with its lofty wooded banks, materially to the beauty of the scenery. This river is formed by the union of two streams which issue, respectively, from the north and south sides of Ben-Ledi, and over it is a bridge, at the village, from which the view in every direction is strikingly picturesque. Another river, named the Keltie, forms a boundary to the parish, on the eastern side, and, after a devious course, falls into the Teath; across it, is a bridge at Brackland, which is an object of great interest, and much admired. There are also various lakes, some of which are caused by the natural obstructions that the rivers find in their course; Loch Venachoir, on the south of Ben-Ledi, is about four miles in length, and connected with it are the lakes of Auchray and Katrine, both rich in picturesque beauty, and described in the article on Aberfoyle, an adjoining parish.

The lakes, as also the rivers, abound with trout and other fish, among which are, eels, pike, perch, char, and salmon; and the former are frequented by different kinds of aquatic fowl. The parish is well wooded, and extensive plantations have been formed; the timber is principally oak, ash, alder, birch, larch, hazel, and willow; the oak is much cultivated, and a considerable quantity of bark is sold to the tanners. The soil varies greatly; little more, even of the low lands, is cultivated than is sufficient for the supply of the inhabitants, who are chiefly attentive to the rearing of cattle and sheep, for which the hills and vales afford excellent pasturage. The system of agriculture, as far as it is practised upon the few arable farms in the parish, is improved; and the crops are, oats of various kinds, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The breed of black-cattle is much attended to; the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds of sheep are pastured on the low lands, and the black-faced on the hills. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7200. The substrata are, limestone, slate, freestone, and pudding-stone; the limestone is of good quality, and is worked, not only for the supply of this parish, but for many others, and considerable quantities of lime are sent to distant parts. The slate is of a brownish colour, and was formerly quarried on several lands; the freestone, which is grey, is very excellent, and extensively quarried for building. The proprietor of Gart has erected a spacious and handsome residence on the north bank of the Teath; the grounds are tastefully embellished, and command some highly interesting views.

The village, which is on the great road from Stirling to the Western Highlands, consists chiefly of one spacious street; the houses are well built of stone, and roofed with slate, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, which is conveyed by leaden pipes. There is a subscription library. A considerable trade is carried on, and great quantities of wool are sent to Bannockburn, Glasgow, and Liverpool, for the use of carpet manufacturers. A daily post has been established under Stirling. A market is still held; and fairs occur in March and May, for black cattle, sheep, and horses, and some smaller fairs for lambs, hiring of farm servants, and other business. There is also a spacious inn, for the accommodation of the numerous parties who frequent this place, to view the many interesting spots in the neighbourhood. The parish is in the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling; the minister's stipend is £197. 14. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £38 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, a neat edifice, with a tower and spire, was erected in 1773, and is adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school affords a liberal education; the master has a salary of £34, with £36 fees, and a house and garden. About a mile from the village is a hill rising perpendicularly 300 feet, and having, on the summit, the remains of an ancient fortification, from which the height takes the name of "Dun-bo-chaistil;" the gateway, and several traces of ditches and mounds, are distinctly visible, and within the inclosure is a well, which has been filled in, to prevent accidents to the cattle that feed there. In the plain immediately around it, is a mound of earth, strengthened with stones, which may probably have been an outpost; but the history of this relic of ancient times is not known. Near the manse, are the remains of Callander Castle, once a building of great strength; and on the lands of Auchinlaich, are those of an ancient fort, in good preservation, and nearly entire. There is a circular mount of considerable height, near the churchyard, called the Hill of St. Kessaig; and a fair is held there annually in March, called the festival of St. Kessaig. About half a mile to the west of it, is a similar tumulus, called Little Leney, where was anciently a chapel.


CALTON, a manufacturing district and late a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Barony, county of Lanark; included within the parliamentary boundary of Glasgow, and comprising Old and New Calton. These villages, formerly part of the barony of Barrowfield, were, by royal charter, in 1817, erected into a burgh of barony, containing about fifty-three acres, of which twelve are attached to Old, and forty-two to New Calton; the houses are neatly built of brick, and roofed with tiles, for the manufacture of which clay of good quality abounds in the immediate vicinity, and the streets, especially those of the latter village, are regularly formed. A handsome mechanics' institution has been erected. The population is chiefly employed in the cotton manufacture, and in hand-loom weaving, which are carried on to a very considerable extent; the manufacture of thread affords employment to several hundreds of men and women, and there are numerous shops for the supply of the inhabitants with groceries and other articles of merchandise. The government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, of whom one acts as dean of guild; they are all elected annually, with the exception of the elder bailie, who holds his office for two years; the provost is chosen by the burgesses generally, as are likewise the bailies and the treasurer. The burgesses have no exclusive privileges, nor can any inhabitant be compelled to be a burgess; those who choose to become burgesses pay a fee of £2. 2. on admission. The magistrates and council have the privilege of a weekly market, which is held on Saturday, and of which they receive the tolls and customs. Their jurisdiction extends, in civil cases, over the territory of the burgh, and, in criminal cases, over the whole of the police district; they hold a court for the recovery of debts not exceeding 40s., and a police court, in which a town-clerk, appointed by the superior of the burgh, acts as assessor. The number of £10 householders is 264, of whom thirty-two are resident burgesses. The late quoad sacra parish of Middle Calton, containing 7185 inhabitants, and comprised within the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, was formed in 1834; the minister's stipend is £250: the church, built in 1793, as a chapel of ease, at an expense of £1495, and since repaired and enlarged, is a neat structure, and contains 1400 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Relief Church, and Wesleyans; a burgh school, in which are 140 children, is taught by a master who has a house rent-free, and £10, in addition to the fees, and there are numerous other schools.


CAMBUS, a village, in the parish of Alloa, county of Clackmannan, 2 miles (W.) from Alloa; containing 287 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the river Devon, is inhabited chiefly by persons who are employed in an extensive distillery, which is minutely described in the article on Alloa. A small fishery for salmon, in the Devon, is carried on with considerable success; it is the property of Lord Abercromby, under whom it is held on lease, at £20 per annum. Michael Stirling, who lived in the village, invented the threshing-mill, upon which many improvements have been subsequently made.

Cambus, Old

CAMBUS, OLD.—See Cockburnspath.


CAMBUSBARRON, a village, in the parish of St. Ninian's, county of Stirling, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Stirling; containing 676 inhabitants, who are chiefly engaged in wool-spinning, and in the manufacture of tartans and shawls. A small school here has an endowment of £10 per annum, arising from a bequest.

Cambuskenneth, or Abbey

CAMBUSKENNETH, or ABBEY, a village, in the parish of Stirling, but locally in the county of Clackmannan, 1 mile (E.) from Stirling; containing 227 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on a peninsula formed by the winding of the river Forth, takes its name, signifying "the field of Kenneth," from some ancient event not distinctly recorded, in which one of the Scottish kings of that name is supposed to have been concerned. A monastery for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, was founded here in 1147, by David I., who richly endowed it with lands in various parts of the kingdom; and the endowment was augmented by many of his successors. This establishment, of which the abbots were frequently styled abbots of Stirling, continued to increase in importance; it was the place of interment of James III. and his queen, and the scene of many transactions connected with Scottish history. The buildings were extensive and magnificent; but, soon after the Reformation, they were demolished by the lords of the congregation, who had taken possession of Stirling; and of the once splendid structure, only one solitary tower is remaining. The church was dedicated to St. Mary, from which circumstance, the street leading to it from the town of Stirling was called St. Mary's Wynd. On the dissolution of the monastery, the lands were granted to the Earl of Mar, with whose descendants they remained till the year 1737, when they were purchased by the corporation of Stirling, on behalf of Cowan's hospital. The village is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in agriculture, and in the woollen manufactures in the vicinity; there is a ferry here over the river Forth; and a school is supported.


CAMBUSLANG, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Glasgow; including the villages of Bushyhill, Chapelton, East and West Cotes, Cullochburn, Howieshill, Kirkhill, Lightburn, Sauchiebog, Silverbanks, and Vicarland; and containing 3022 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name from its situation on the banks of the Clyde, which in this part of its course, winding round the northern part of the parish, separates it from Old Monkland. The barony in which the greater portion is included, and which was anciently called Drumsargart, belonged, in the reign of Alexander II., to Walter Olifard, justiciary of Lothian, and subsequently became the property of the Morays, of Bothwell. The castle and barony afterwards passed into the possession of the Earl of Douglas, who had married the daughter of Sir Thomas Moray, and remained in that family till 1452, when it was transferred to James, Lord Hamilton, in the possession of whose descendants it still continues, though its name was, during the 17th century, changed from Drumsargart to Cambuslang, the name of the parish. There are no other remains of the ancient castle of Drumsargart, than the mere site, from which it is supposed to have derived its name, significant of its situation on a circular mount, at the extremity of a long ridge of ground about thirty feet above the surface of the surrounding plain. The Parish is bounded on the east by the river Calder, which is a tributary of the Clyde; and comprises 3507 acres, all arable and pasture land, with the exception of about 200 in plantations, roads, and waste. The surface, though generally level, is varied with rising grounds and ridges, of which the principal are Turnlaw and Dechmont, in the south-west; the latter, having an elevation of 600 feet above the sea, commands an extensive prospect, comprehending the Tweeddale and Pentland hills, Ben-Lomond, and several of the hills of Cowal and Breadalbane. The adjacent scenery is beautifully picturesque, embracing the windings of the Clyde, in its course from Lanark to Dumbarton, with its richly-wooded banks, interspersed with villages and gentlemen's seats, the plantations of Hamilton, the romantic ruins of Bothwell Castle, and the cathedral and city of Glasgow, which are here seen with peculiar and striking effect. The Clyde is about 250 feet in breadth; and the Calder, of which the banks are ornamented with pleasing villas, and finely wooded, is about forty feet wide.

The soil is generally good, and, in the low lands near the Clyde, extremely rich and fertile. The principal crops are oats and wheat, of which latter the cultivation has been, for sometime, progressively increasing, under an improved system of agriculture; peas, beans, and potatoes are also raised in considerable quantities, and a small proportion of barley. There are several large dairy-farms, the produce of which is chiefly butter, of excellent quality, sent to the Glasgow market, where it finds a ready sale; the cows are the Ayrshire. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,555. The substratum is mainly argillaceous freestone, lime and ironstone, and coal, all of which are wrought, affording employment to many of the population. The freestone is of good quality, and much esteemed for ornamental building; and the limestone, which is peculiarly compact, and susceptible of a high polish, is, under the appellation of Cambuslang marble, wrought into mantel-pieces of great beauty. The ironstone is found in several places, but is worked only to a very limited extent. The coal lies at various depths, and in some few places rises nearly to the surface; the field in which it is found forms part of the coal district of the Clyde, and the seams vary from three to five feet in thickness; the mines in this parish are the property of the Duke of Hamilton, and are partly held on lease. The weaving of muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers, formerly carried on to a much greater extent, at present affords employment to about 500 persons; and there are corn-mills on the Clyde and Calder. The principal seats are, Newton, a handsome modern mansion; Calder Grove, also recently erected; and Gilbertfield, an ancient turreted edifice. The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, the Duke of Hamilton; the minister's stipend is £281. 11. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, erected in 1743, a plain building, being much dilapidated, has been rebuilt on a larger scale, for a congregation of 1000 persons; it is a handsome structure in the Norman style, with a lofty spire. There are places of worship for members of the Congregational Union, and the United Secession Church. The parochial school affords education to nearly 100 pupils: the salary of the master is £34, with £40 fees, and a good house and garden. On the summit of Dechmont Hill, the foundations of ancient buildings have been discovered; and within the last fifty years, considerable remains existed, but they have been removed, for the sake of the materials, which have been employed in repairing the roads, and for other purposes. Among them were the remains of a circular building, about 24 feet in diameter, of which the site is supposed to have been occupied anciently as a signal station, and is a place of security in case of irruption from an enemy. At Kirkburn, was formerly a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which appears to have subsisted till the Reformation; but the only memorial preserved of the building, is the name of the land on which it stood, still called Chapelton. Spittal Hill was the site of an hospital which has long since disappeared. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, author of Researches in India, was a native of the parish.


CAMBUSNETHAN, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Bonkle, Stane, and Stewarton and Wishawton; the whole containing 5796 inhabitants, of whom 485 are in the village of Cambusnethan-Kirk, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Carluke. The name is derived from the Gaelic word Camus, signifying a "bay" or "curve," applicable to the remarkable windings of the river Clyde; and from Nethan, the name of the celebrated saint whom Archbishop Usher styles "religiosissimus et doctissimus Nethan," and to whom the church was dedicated. The history of the place is chiefly connected with the families of Stewart, Sommerville, Hamilton, and Lockhart, all of whom have been long located here, as large landed proprietors; the most remote occupation of the soil, however, of which we have any account, was by a family of the name of Baird, to whom the valuable barony of Cambusnethan belonged, at a very early period. The parish is about twelve miles long, from east to west, and a little more than four miles broad, and contains 26,000 acres. The surface is tolerably level in the western extremity, near the banks of the Clyde, but gradually rises eastward to about 120 feet, forming a tract about a mile in breadth, consisting of a rich and fertile soil, which is well cultivated, and celebrated for the number and quality of its hares. Another acclivity succeeds this, rising to a height of about 250 feet, the larger part of which is covered with orchards; and still further to the east, the lands, in many parts, rise to an elevation of 900 feet, and command some very extensive views of the surrounding country. The castle of Edinburgh, Loudon-hill, Dumbarton Castle, and the hills of Argyllshire may be distinctly seen from Knownowton; and from the church, the prospect embraces the cathedral of Glasgow, with at least fifteen country churches. Besides the Clyde, there are several streams running through the parish and upon its boundaries, the peculiar character and flexures of which greatly improve its interesting scenery. The South Calder, rising in Linlithgowshire, forms about nine miles of the boundary line between this parish and Shotts; and for some miles before its approach to the Clyde, into which it falls, its banks are steep, exhibiting specimens of highly ornamental scenery, and adorned with several beautiful varieties of wood and garden. The Water of Auchter, which rises in the parish of Carluke, after flowing for more than a mile, on the boundary of that parish and Cambusnethan, enters the latter, and, passing for about three miles in a meandering route, falls into the South Calder at Bridgend. Of these rivers, the Clyde is said to contain twelve different species of fish; the chief is the salmon, which latterly has been abundant.

The prevailing soil is clayey, resting upon a stiff and tenacious subsoil of till; in the more elevated parts, it is much mixed with gravel and dark sand, and in the vicinity of the Clyde, the haughs are a moist alluvial compost, yielding, when well cultivated, fine crops. About 10,000 acres are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; about 6000 are in woods, roads, quarries, &c.; 160 acres in orchards, and a very considerable quantity waste. Good grain of all kinds is raised, and fruit forms a prominent article in the produce; numerous improvements have been made in agriculture within the last few years, especially in draining, which is required to a large extent, on account of the wet clayey nature of the soil. Thriving hedges and plantations have also been raised in many parts; and dells and ravines, formerly the beds of broom, furze, and heath, have been planted with larch, or formed into orchards. The rateable annual value of the parish is £32,016. The subterraneous productions are chiefly iron-stone and coal, which may be procured in very large quantities; the district is included in the great coal-field of Lanarkshire, and the coal is extensively wrought. In the neighbourhood of Headlecross, in the eastern part of the parish, and on the grounds of Coltness and Allanton, the blackband iron-stone is found of superior quality, and, in various places, good sandstone is met with; in several directions, also, plentiful supplies are obtained of excellent clay, about ten feet in thickness, and used for the manufacture of drain and roof tiles.

Among the principal seats is Cambusnethan House, an elegant structure on the model of a priory, erected about twenty years ago, upon the site of a mansion which had been accidentally destroyed by fire; it stands in a romantic situation, and the grounds have been much improved, within the last few years, especially the orchards. Wishaw House, in the north-west corner of the parish, upon the bank of the Calder, is an extensive structure in the castellated style; the front is noble and commanding, varied by a number of different-sized and well-proportioned towers. The apartments are enriched by several portraits, among which are, one of John, Lord Belhaven, who so zealously opposed the Union; and a very costly portrait, by Vandyke, of Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon, king-of-arms in the reign of Charles I. The House of Coltness is an elegant and commodious building, between the dining and drawing room of which, runs a gallery nearly 200 feet long, hung round with ancient portraits of the family of Stewart; it stands in the midst of very extensive and well laid-out grounds. Allanton House is a majestic structure, wrought up, by various additions and improvements, from the old castle of Allanton; it is ornamented with an artificial lake of large dimensions, and containing several islands, so covered with wood that, from no part of it, is its extent capable of being seen. Muirhouse is also an old structure, in a commanding situation.

The population are employed partly in manufactures; two tile-works are in operation upon the estate of Wishaw, and one at Coltness. The Shotts iron-works, on the borders of the parish, have caused an increase of population, to the amount of about 2000, one-third of whom reside at the village of Stane, and the rest in Shotts; and near Wishawton, in the westerly quarter of the parish, a very extensive distillery has lately been erected, by Lord Belhaven. A road from Edinburgh to Ayr traverses the parish. The monks of Kelso anciently held the tithes and other ecclesiastical rights of Cambusnethan, by grant, in the twelfth century, from William Finemund, lord of the manor; in the following century the church was transferred to the bishops of Glasgow, with whom it continued till the Reformation. The ecclesiastical affairs are now subject to the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; there is a manse, with a glebe of four acres, and the stipend is £278. 15. 1.; patron, Robert Lockhart, Esq. The church is a plain and uncomfortable building, erected in 1640, in lieu of a more ancient edifice, part of which is still standing: a third church, to supersede the present, was begun in June, 1839, and is a handsome edifice with a tower, but not yet completed or opened for public worship. There are places of worship for the Relief body, Reformed Presbyterians, and members of the United Secession; also a parochial school, at which are taught all the usual branches of education, the master receiving the maximum salary, and about £20 fees. Two subscription libraries are supported, the books in which are chiefly historical and religious.


CAMELON, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, county of Stirling, 1½ mile (W.) from Falkirk; containing 1340 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the turnpike-road to Glasgow, is sometimes called New Camelon, in contradistinction to the ancient city of that name, supposed to have been a Roman station, and, at one time, a very considerable sea-port town. The probability of this supposition is corroborated by numerous vestiges of Roman antiquity, that may still be traced on the line of the Roman road leading from the Wall of Antonine; and by the discovery of foundations of buildings, and the traces of various streets, which, not many years since, were distinctly apparent. There is also sufficient evidence, that the river Carron was formerly navigable for vessels, far above the site of the ancient city, where, in 1707, several antique boats, and the fragment of an anchor, were found imbedded in the soil; and the name of the adjacent district called the Carse, implying lands reclaimed from the sea, and their slight elevation above the level of the Frith of Forth, by which, within the last fifty years, they have been inundated, afford strong confirmation of the truth of that opinion. The inhabitants are partly employed in the Carron iron-works, and in the manufacture of nails, which was originally introduced here by Mr. Cadell, of Carron Park, and for which there are now two establishments, affording occupation to 250 persons; two distilleries are also carried on, upon a moderate scale. A handsome church has been built by subscription near the western extremity of the village, on ground given by Mr. Forbes, of Callander, who also contributed largely towards the expense of its erection; it was opened on the 23rd of August, 1840, and contains 660 sittings. A school, for which an appropriate building has been erected, is also supported, by subscription.


CAMERON, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from St. Andrew's; containing 1167 inhabitants. This place, which formerly was included in the parish of St. Andrew's, appears to have derived its name from the lands on part of which the church was erected on its separation, by act of parliament, in 1645. The parish is nearly six miles in length, from east to west, and about four miles in breadth, and comprises 7144 Scotch acres, of which 4686 are arable, 1767 meadow and pasture, 476 woodland and plantations, and 214 rough pasture and waste. The surface rises in gentle undulations, from north to south, but not to any considerable height; and an eminence to the north-west, called Drumcarro Craig, is the only hill. The general scenery is agreeably diversified with wood and water; between the rising grounds are small intervals of level land, in which flow some pleasing streams; and the various plantations, consisting chiefly of larch, spruce, and Scotch firs, add greatly to the appearance of the district. The soil is, in some places, clay; in others, a rich black loam, varying in depth from two inches to more than two feet; and in other parts of the parish, light and dry, resting upon gravel and whinstone rock. The chief crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual green crops; the system of agriculture is in a highly improved state; the lands have been well drained and inclosed. Considerable attention is paid to the rearing of live stock; the cattle are principally of the Old Fifeshire breed, which has recently been introduced, and is found to be better adapted than the Teeswater, formerly prevalent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8219. The substrata are mostly whinstone, trap, freestone, limestone, and coal; the limestone is quarried on the lands of Radernie and Winthank, and from the former place a railroad has been constructed, for conveying the limestone to the kilns. Coal is wrought on the lands of Drumcarro, of good quality; the whinstone is quarried for repairing the roads; and at Hazzleden is a quarry of freestone. The only seat is Mount Melville, a handsome mansion, with a well-planted demesne. The parish is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £199. 12. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and built in 1808, is adapted for 600 persons. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod. The parochial school is under good regulations; the master has a salary of £34, with £12. 10. fees, and a house and garden.


CAMLACHIE, lately a quoad sacra parish, including the village of Parkhead, in the parish of Barony, suburbs of Glasgow, county of Lanark; containing 3654 inhabitants, of whom 2152 are in the village of Camlachie, 1½ mile (E.) from Glasgow. Camlachie comprises, besides the villages, a rural district containing a few acres of well-cultivated land; it is pleasantly situated on the north of the Clyde, but the houses are in general indifferently built. On the bank of the river, are the handsome mansions of Belvidere and Westthorn, both of modern erection, and commanding fine prospects. The art of letter-founding was introduced, and brought to great perfection, by Mr. Alexander Wilson, afterwards professor of astronomy in the university of Glasgow, who, removing from St. Andrew's to this place, established a foundry here, which was subsequently transferred to Glasgow. The population are almost exclusively employed in hand-loom weaving, and in the manufacture of muslins; and in the immediate vicinity, are several coal-mines, of which, however, one only is in operation, for the supply of the district. In the village of Parkhead, is a penny-post office, under Glasgow. The parish was formed in 1838; the church is a neat structure, erected by the Church Building Society of Glasgow.


CAMPBELLTOWN, a burgh and parish, in the district of Cantyre, county of Argyll; containing with the villages of Dalintober and Drumlemble, 9634 inhabitants, of whom 5028 are in the burgh, 60 miles (W. S. W.) from Glasgow. The name of this place was once Dalruadhain, from its being the seat of the ancient Celtic Scots, and subsequently Lochhead, from its situation at the inland extremity of the loch of Kilkerran. Prior to the commencement of the eighteenth century, it was merely an inconsiderable fishing village; but it was erected into a royal burgh, through the interest of the Duke of Argyll, in 1700, and then assumed its present name, in compliment to the family of its patron. The town, which, since that period, has greatly increased in extent and importance, is beautifully situated on the southern shore of the lake or inlet now called Campbelltown bay, along which it extends in the form of a crescent. It consists of several spacious and well-formed streets, diverging to the east and west from the central or main street, which leads from the old quay to the Castle hill, formerly the seat of the ancient lords of the Isles, and now the site of the church. Parallel with these, to the south, are various streets, of which Argyll-street, leading to the grounds and mansion of the duke, is intersected at right angles by several others, of which one extends from the new pier to the Gaelic church. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are supplied, though scantily, with excellent water, conveyed from a spring in the neighbourhood, at the expense of the burgh. There are two circulating libraries, which are furnished with journals and periodical publications. The immediate environs abound with handsome seats and villas, the residences of numerous respectable families, ranged along the north and south shores of the bay, which is nearly two miles in length, and about one mile in breadth, and is enlivened with gentlemen's pleasure-boats, and by the frequent arrival and departure of the steamers navigating the Clyde.

Seal and Arms.

The trade of the town arises chiefly from its distilleries, and fisheries, which are carried on to a very great extent. There are not less than twenty-five distilleries, which together, in 1842, consumed 303,711 bushels of barley, and 79,508 bushels of bear; producing 747,502 gallons of whisky, of which 12,978 gallons were shipped for England, 3413 to Ireland, 4346 to foreign parts, and the remainder, 58,760 gallons, principally to Glasgow. The trade of the port consists mainly in the exportation of whisky, malt, black-cattle, sheep, horses, beans, potatoes, turnips, and other agricultural produce, with butter, cheese, and fish; and in the importation of barley, yeast, coal, timber, iron, and general merchandise. The fish taken off the coast are of the usual variety of white fish, and, till recently, were caught by single lines, in great numbers; but the quantity has been greatly increased by the introduction of lines of great length, floated on the surface of the water by buoys, and to which are appended numerous single lines, of length sufficient to reach the depth at which the fish are most generally found. About 500 families are employed in this fishery. The herring-fishery is extensively carried on, during the months of June, July, and August; and in 1843, 150 boats, of four men each, were engaged in this fishery, in the sound of Kilbrandon. Cod, haddock, and ling are also taken in abundance, and are partly sent in a fresh state to Glasgow, whence they are conveyed to the neighbouring towns, and partly dried for the purpose of exportation to distant markets.

The number of vessels registered, as belonging to the port, is thirty-three, chiefly sloops and schooners in the coasting trade; this is exclusive of the number of fishing-boats, which is very considerable, and there is also a vessel of 515 tons, employed in the timber trade with Canada. In 1842, 646 vessels entered inwards, and 365 cleared outwards, two of which were in the foreign trade. The custom-house department is under the superintendence of a collector, comptroller, and two tide-waiters; and the excise-office has a collector, two clerks, three supervisors, and fifty officers. The harbour is sheltered on the north and south by lofty hills, and on the south-east by the isle of Devar, with which it is joined, on the south side, by a bar of sand nearly half a mile in length, which is visible at low water, and, by intercepting the violence of the waves, renders the anchorage peculiarly safe. The entrance is from the north, by a narrow channel of great depth; and the harbour, which has generally from three to fifteen fathoms water, has two boldly projecting piers, of which the eastern, called the new pier, is of recent formation. The quays are well adapted for the loading and unloading of vessels, and every requisite accommodation has been provided, for facilitating the trade of the port. The market, which is on Thursday, is amply supplied with grain and agricultural produce; and fairs are held for cattle, horses, and various kinds of merchandise, at Whitsuntide, Lammas, Michaelmas, and Candlemas. In the market-place, which is in the centre of the main street, is an ancient cross, richly sculptured with foliage, and supposed to have been brought from Iona.

By a charter of William III., the town, which was previously a burgh of barony, was erected into a royal Burgh, and the government vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve councillors, who are elected under the provisions of the Municipal Reform act. The burgesses have no privileges beyond the freedom of carrying on trade within the burgh; the fees of admission are, to a stranger, as a merchant burgess, £3. 3., and as a craftsman, £2. 2., and to the sons, sons-in-law, or apprentices of burgesses, one-half of those sums. The magistrates hold courts for civil matters, to any amount; in criminal cases, their jurisdiction is confined to misdemeanours and offences against the police, in which they are assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as their assessor. The town-house, situated in the central part of the town, is a neat building, with a handsome spire, and contains two councilchambers for the transaction of public business, and a spacious hall in which the courts are held. Above these, is the prison for debtors, consisting of two apartments; and on the ground-floor, are three cells for criminals, all badly ventilated and lighted, and of which two are damp. The burgh is associated with Ayr, Irvine, Inverary, and Oban, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the parliamentary boundaries extend beyond those of the royalty of the burgh, including the populous villages of Dalintober and Dalaruin. The number of householders of the rent of £10 and upwards, within the royalty, is 165, of whom seventy-four are burgesses; and beyond the royalty, but within the parliamentary boundary, forty.

The parish forms a portion of the peninsula of Cantyre, including the ancient parishes of Kilkivan, Kilmichael, and Kilchonsland, which were united about the time of the Reformation. It is bounded on the east by the sound of Kilbrandon, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and is about thirteen miles in length, and from six to ten in breadth, comprising an area of 87½ square miles; two-thirds of the land are arable, and the remainder pasture, heath, and waste. The surface is diversified with hills, rising both from the north and south shores of the bay of Campbelltown, and varying from 800 to 1000 feet in height. Of these, the highest is Bengaillin, about a mile from the town, and commanding an extensive prospect, embracing, to the north-west, the islands of Islay, Jura, and Gigha; to the north-east, the isles of Arran, Bute, and Cowal, with the Frith of Clyde; to the south, the lowlands as far as Loch Ryan, with Ailsa Craig; and to the south-west, the coast of Ireland, with the isle of Rathlin. Between the town and the bay of Machrihanish, which indents the western shore, is a tract of level ground, about four miles in length, and nearly three in breadth, called the Laggan of Cantyre, having an elevation of nearly forty feet above the sea, and of which the soil has the appearance of being alluvial. The soil of the parish is extremely various, but, in many parts, of considerable fertility; the principal crops are, bear, oats, barley, potatoes, which are raised in large quantities, and beans. The system of agriculture is improved, and much of the waste land has been drained; the hills, of which some are cultivated on the acclivities, afford pasturage for black-cattle and sheep, the latter of the native breed. The substrata are chiefly sandstone, limestone, and ironstone, and the rocks are composed of mica-slate, porphyry, greywacke, and trap; some beautiful varieties of green, brown, and other porphyry, occur on the island of Devar. Coal is found within three miles of the town, but of inferior quality; and there are several mines in operation, formerly wrought by a company, for the supply of the town, to which the coal is conveyed by a canal. Several plantations, chiefly of ash, elm, plane, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, are in a very thriving state.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cantyre, of which Campbelltown is the seat, and the synod of Argyll; there are two ministers, of whom one officiates in the Gaelic, and the other in the English language. The minister of the first charge, which is the Gaelic, has a stipend of £146. 15. 10., whereof about one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and three glebes, valued at £92 per annum; and the minister of the second charge has a stipend of the same amount, with a glebe valued at £26. 10. per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The Gaelic church, which had been, for some time, in a dilapidated condition, was rebuilt in 1803, and contains 2000 sittings; the English church, which occupies the site of the ancient castle of the lords of the Isles, was built in 1780, and contains 1200 sittings. A chapel of ease has been proposed for the village of Coalhill, near the town; and in the burgh are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief and Secession Synods, Independents, and Roman Catholics. The parochial school is consolidated with that of the burgh; the master, who is appointed by the town-council, subject to the approval of the presbytery, has a salary of £34. 4. 4., paid by the heritors and the burgh, together with a house adapted for the reception of boarders, and an excellent garden; his fees average about £150 per annum, out of which he has to pay an assistant. Miss Campbell, of Govan Bank, built two schools at Dalintober, at an expense of £1150; and for their endowment, she bequeathed to the Kirk Session, the sum of £4600. The same lady left £600 to the female school of industry, £300 towards the support of a parochial missionary, £300 to the Sabbath schools, £600 to the Female Benevolent Society, and £500 to the poor of the parish.


CAMPBELTON, a village, chiefly in the parish of Ardersier, county of Inverness, 6 miles (W.) from Nairn; containing, with the garrison of Fort George, 1200 inhabitants, of whom 944 are in the village. This place, which is indebted for its origin to the establishment of the garrison, takes its name from the Campbells, earls of Cawdor, upon whose lands it is built, on the eastern shore of a bay in the Moray Frith. The houses are neat, and there are numerous well-stored shops, containing wares and merchandise of all kinds for the supply of the garrison; a subscription library has been established, and there are several good inns. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the herring-fishery, which is carried on with spirit and success; and not less than sixteen boats, of twelve tons burthen, sail to the fishing-stations of Helmsdale and Burgh-Head, each boat taking, during the season, about 200 barrels, valued at 13 shillings each. The fishermen of Campbelton are also employed in the white-fishery off the coast; the fish usually taken are, haddock, cod, skate, whiting, flounders, and occasionally turbot, halibut, and soles; the produce, after supplying the parish, is sent to Inverness, for which purpose, during the summer, there are lightly-built and fast-sailing vessels. A little coasting trade is also carried on, in which three vessels of 100 tons, belonging to a family in the village, are employed, chiefly in the trade with Sunderland. The post-office has a daily delivery; and facility of communication is afforded by the great road from Inverness to Aberdeen, and the military road from Fort George to Perth, which pass through the village; and by a ferry from Fort George to Chanonry Point, in the county of Ross. A court for the recovery of small debts is held every month; and there is a fair, called the Lammas Market, annually on the 12th of August, for lambs, sheep, milch cows, a few horses, cheese, and various wares, and for the hiring of servants.

Fort George was erected soon after the Rebellion in the year 1745, with a view to keep the Highlanders in subjection, and was completed under the superintendence of General Skinner, at a cost of more than £160,000; it is situated on the point of Ardersier, which projects far into the Frith, and commands the entrance of that channel. The buildings, which occupy an area of fifteen acres, form an irregular polygon, defended by six bastions, each named after some distinguished general of the time, and mounting, respectively, 18 twenty-four-pounders, 25 eighteen, 22 twelve, and 4 six-pounders. On three sides, the ramparts rise almost from the sea, which, at any time, may be let into the ditch; and on the land side, the fortress is defended by a broad ditch, a covered way and glacis, two lunettes, and a raveline mounting eight twelve-pounders. The north and south curtains are bomb-proof, and contain each twenty-seven apartments, fifty-two feet in length, and twelve feet wide; the grand magazine, which is also bomb-proof, will hold 2472 barrels of gunpowder, and at the eastern extremity are two smaller magazines, containing ammunition for immediate use. The barracks, which are towards the land point, comprise apartments for a governor, lieutenant-governor, fort-major, chaplain, eight field-officers, 22 captains, 56 subalterns and 2090 non-commissioned officers and privates; there are also a chapel, brewhouse, bakehouse, and an inn, within the walls. The fortress is now garrisoned generally by depôts of foreign regiments, and, at present, contains only about 256 inhabitants.


CAMPMUIR, a hamlet, in the parish of Kettins, county of Forfar; containing 45 inhabitants.


CAMPSIE, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 3½ miles (E.) from Strathblane; containing, with the villages of Birdstone, Haugh-head, Lennoxtown, Milton, Torrance, and the Clachan, 6402 inhabitants. This parish, previously to the year 1649, was much larger than at present, and, on account of its isolated situation, arising from its natural boundaries, was distinguished by many peculiarities and singular customs; but, at the period named, its southern extremity was erected into a new parish called Baldernock, and its eastern extremity united to Kilsyth. It now extends in length about seven miles, and six in breadth, comprising 13,500 Scottish acres, of which about 6000 are hills, 6000 arable, 400 wood and plantations, and the remainder lakes, &c. The surface consists of two ranges of hills, and the intermediate valley, running nearly from east to west; the highest eminences are those forming the northern boundary, called Campsie fells, rising, at their greatest elevation, 1500 feet above the sea, and intersected with numerous glens of exquisite beauty, exhibiting a profusion of romantic scenery on their rocky sides. In that called Kirktoun glen, artificial terraces have been cut, shrouded with ferns, lichens, and all kinds of wild flowers; and numbers of persons resort to it in fine weather, to witness the variety and grandeur of the prospect. The southern range, called the Brae, is a continuation of the braes of Killpatrick, and rises about 700 feet. The valley is covered throughout with a succession of undulations, reaching to the precipitous sides of the northern fells, whence several burns pour down, three of which, uniting their streams, form the river Glassert, which, after traversing a considerable extent of ground in the parish, falls into the Kelvin near Kirkintilloch.

Near the base of the fells, which are clothed to their summit with rich verdant pasture, the soil is chiefly a light clayey earth, and the subsoil tilly, and exceedingly tenacious; the hillocks and undulations in the strath are frequently a light earth, resting on sand and gravel, and in several places loamy. The southern brae is all under tillage, with the exception of about 400 acres of heath, and 200 of wood, and has a clayey soil, on its side towards the Kelvin, which is succeeded by lower grounds of a sandy, gravelly, alluvial, and mossy character, reaching to the neighbourhood of the river. On account of the proximity of the parish to Glasgow, dairy produce forms a leading object; other branches of husbandry, however, share much attention, and all kinds of grain, pulse, and green crops are raised, under the best system of management, and of excellent quality. The Ayrshire cows are used exclusively; the cattle grazed on the hills, are mostly West Highlanders, and the sheep the black-faced breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £18,140. The mineral contents of the district are extensive and valuable, consisting of most of the varieties of the trap rocks, and coal, with the layers of which latter, beds of freestone, aluminous clay-slate, ironstone of the argillaceous kind, and limestone, are found alternating. About 35,000 tons of coal, and large quantities of lime, are every year produced; alum is obtained from a schist found in the coal strata, and ironstone has been partially wrought lately, and is abundant. The plantations comprising larch, Scotch fir, spruce, sycamore, oak, and ash, have been much increased since the close of the last century, especially in the vicinity of Woodhead. In the same neighbourhood, stands Lennox Castle, on the acclivity of the south brae, 500 feet above the level of the strath, and commanding extensive views. This splendid mansion was finished in 1841, in the Norman style, and nearly opposite is situated the mansion of Craigbarnet, and a little eastward that of Balancleroch; besides which, the parish contains those of Kincaid, Antermony, Glorat House, and Auchinreoch.

The inhabitants are partly employed in weaving, and in mills for cotton-printing, and bleachfields, the operations of which have been greatly extended, on account of the large supply of coal and of water. At Lennox-mill, employing 700 persons, every description of cotton fabrics is printed, from the coarsest to the finest, and about 250,000 pieces are every year finished, partly for home use, and partly for exportation. The other establishments are, Clachan bleachfield, commenced in 1819, for preparing various kinds of muslins for exportation; Kincaid, established in 1785, for bleaching and printing cottons; Lillyburn, commenced in 1831, for the printing of linen and calico shawls and handkerchiefs; and Glenmill, begun in January, 1831, chiefly for bleaching book muslins. There are also works for the manufacture of alum, copperas, prussiate of potash, Prussian blue, &c. A turnpike-road from Strathblane to Kilsyth passes through the parish, from east to west, and another crosses this, and runs over the fells, from Glasgow to Fintry and Kippen; the Glasgow road, also, to Stirling, by Kilsyth, passes the south-east corner, and the Forth and Clyde canal on its southern extremity. The parish is in the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £285. 3. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 15. per annum. The church formerly stood at the Clachan, but the present edifice was built in 1829, on a far more convenient spot, at Lennoxtown; it is a handsome structure, capable of accommodating 1550 persons, and cost nearly £8000. There is a place of worship for the Relief persuasion. The parochial school affords instruction in all the ordinary branches of education; the master has a salary of £30, with £18 fees, and the interest of £270, left by Robert Blair, Esq., of Glasgow. Two other parochial schools are supported by the heritors, at Craighead and Torrance, the master of the former of which, in addition to the salary of £41. 5. 11., receives £20 per annum from Messrs. Inglis, who, in connexion with Mr. Lennox, have rebuilt the premises on a much larger scale. There are also two subscription libraries. The remains of two forts, of native construction, are visible at the base of the Campsie fells; and Roman urns, and coins of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., have occasionally been dug up.


CANISBAY, a parish, in the county of Caithness; including the island of Stroma, a small part of the late quoad sacra parish of Keiss, and the detached townships of Auckingill, Duncansbay, Freswick, Gills, Huna, Brabster, and East and West Mey; and containing 2306 inhabitants. The name of this place has generally been supposed to be a corruption of the term Canute's bay, from some Norwegian chief who arrived here; but others think it comes from Canna, the name of a plant once abundant in the district. In ancient times, the parish was portioned into several parts, in each of which there was a religious edifice; and at Freswick, are the ruins of an old castle, called Bucholie Castle, which is of great antiquity, and is said to have been inhabited, in the 12th century, by a Danish nobleman of the name of Suenus Asteilf. From certain entries in the session records, it is probable that Oliver Cromwell, or some of his officers, were in the parish in the year 1652. Canisbay is situated in the north-east corner of Scotland, and is the most remote parish in the country; it measures about eight miles in length, from east to west, and its mean breadth is about six miles, the whole containing upwards of 32,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by the Pentland Frith, and on the east by the German Ocean; the coast on the north side is in general level, but on the east bold and precipitous. The chief headlands are, Grey-head, Skirsahead, St. John's or Mey head, and the beautiful promontory of Duncansbay head, which last is about two miles in circumference, and is indented with several large ravines. Near it are two rocks, surrounded by the sea, called the Stacks of Duncansbay; they are of oval form, and shoot up fantastically to a great height, attracting, in the spring and summer, swarms of seafowl, and on the top of the larger stack, the eagle has its habitation. The bays are, Freswick bay, on the east, and Duncansbay and Gills bay, on the north, the beaches of which consist principally of sand and shells. In the interior, the land is remarkably level, the ward or watch hill being the only considerable elevation, rising about 300 feet above the sea; the loch of Mey, in circumference about a mile and a half, is the sole loch in the parish, and among the few small streams, the burn of Freswick is the principal.

Heath and deep moss, with a little coarse grass, cover nine-tenths of the surface; and the soil, in the cultivated grounds, consists in general of a light black loam, with an intermixture of moss. The moor and pasture comprehend about 28,800 acres, in a state of undivided common, and open to the cattle and sheep of all the parishioners; the arable land consists of about 3200 acres, the produce of which is bear and oats, with potatoes, turnips, &c. The sheep and cattle, with the exception of a few reared by the large proprietors, are the native breed, in its worst and most deteriorated state; agriculture is at a very low ebb, the rotation system being unknown among the people in general, and the crops, for want of manure and good husbandry, are of a very inferior kind. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3675. The prevailing rock is red sandstone; there is also some greywacke, and a tolerable supply of limestone is obtained. The three chief proprietors have all good mansions; that of the Earl of Caithness is Barrogil Castle, an ancient and venerable pile, and the two others are Freswick and Brabster Houses. Several boats are regularly engaged in obtaining lobsters for the London market, and there are thirty large boats employed in the herring-fishery, the value of the fisheries being estimated at £1650 per annum. Cod are plentiful on the coast, and coal-fish, or, as they are here called, Cuddens, at certain seasons, are taken in immense quantities, and not only serve the poorer classes for food, but supply plenty of oil for light. The people in the parish rely principally upon fishing for their subsistence: there are post-offices at Mey and Huna, the latter of which is seventeen miles and a quarter from Wick, and a turnpike-road runs from Thurso to Huna. Two small fairs for the sale of horses, cattle, and swine, are yearly held, the one in February, at Freswick, and the other in December, at Canisbay. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Caithness and synod of Caithness and Sutherland; patron, William James John Alexander Sinclair, Esq.; the stipend is £205, and there is a manse, with a glebe worth £6 per annum. The church was thoroughly repaired in 1832, and accommodates 512 persons. A parochial school is supported, the master of which has the maximum salary, with the legal accommodations, and £5 fees; there are also two schools maintained by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and a parochial subscription library. About a mile and a half to the west of Duncansbay-head, stood the celebrated John o' Groats House, of which nothing but the site remains.


CANNA, an island of the Hebrides, forming part of the parish of Small Isles, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll; and containing 255 inhabitants. This island is about thirty miles distant from that of Eigg, and is computed to be four miles in length, and one in breadth, containing about 1900 acres; it is partly high and rocky, but affords excellent pasture, and tolerable tillage. The harbour is accounted one of the best among the Hebrides, though difficult of approach in stormy weather, owing to the narrowness of the entrance, and the sunken rocks that lie near it. On the south-east side of Canna, is Sand Island, separated by a channel which is dry at low water.


CANNESBURN, a hamlet, in the parish of New Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton, 1 mile (S. by E.) from New Kilpatrick; containing 33 inhabitants. It is seated on the road from Glasgow to Drymen.

Canobie, or Canonbie

CANOBIE, or CANONBIE, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 6 miles (N.) from Longtown; containing 3032 inhabitants. An ancient priory here is supposed to have given the name to this place, Canobie being probably derived from the Saxon Bie, or By, signifying "a station," and thus interpreting the word " the residence of the canons." How long before the year 1165, when a grant of land was made by William the Lion, this religious establishment existed, is uncertain. In the year 1533, Henry VIII. claimed it, as having belonged at one time, as well as the whole parish, to England, upon which pretence he ordered hostilities to be commenced upon the Scottish borders; and about the end of the reign of James V., in 1542, after the surrender of the Scottish army at Solway Moss, the English soldiers, upon the same pretext, pillaged and laid in ruins both the monastery and church. The church was dedicated to St. Martin, and was often called the Church of Liddel, from the river near which it stood; in the reign of David I., Turgot de Rossedale founded a canonry in connexion with it, which afterwards came into the hands of the monks at Jedburgh, but was dissolved at the Reformation. On account of the exposure of the parish to the English borderers, many places of defence were formerly erected, the vestiges of some of which still remain. At a place called Gill-knocky, near the eastward of Hollows bridge, stands the tower of Hollows, the reputed castle of John Armstrong, a famous chieftain in the reign of James V., and styled John of Gill-knocky; he was the terror of the western marches of England, and forced the inhabitants of Cumberland, Westmorland, and a great part of Northumberland, to become his tributaries, or pay him annually blackmail. Not far from Penton Linns, on the banks of the Liddel, was the strong tower of Harelaw, formerly the residence of Hector Armstrong, the famous freebooter, who, by bribery, betrayed the Earl of Northumberland into the hands of the regent Murray.

The parish is nine miles long, and six broad, and contains 23,177 acres, 2 roods, 14 perches, of which 11,774 are in tillage, 10,522 in pasture, and 881 in wood; it is bounded on the south and east by county Cumberland, from which it is partly divided by the river Liddel. The district may be considered as the low grounds of Eskdale; the surface, however, is uneven, and diversified by a variety of ridges, with the exception of the land on the banks of the Esk, which is generally level. This river, flowing through the middle of the parish, from north to south, receives the Liddel nearly at the southern boundary, and falls, at the distance of about seven miles, into the Solway Frith: along its course, parallel with which passes the great road from Edinburgh to London, by Langholm and Carlisle, is a succession of the most varied scenery to be met with in this part of Scotland. The Liddel runs between banks beautified with natural woods and plantations, and is especially celebrated for the beauty of its course near Penton Linns, where the stream rushes through a narrow channel formed by the projection of precipitous and lofty rocks on each side, overgrown with copsewood. The soil, on the holm-land in the neighbourhood of the rivers, is chiefly light loam, and produces early and rich crops of all kinds, being much favoured by the shelter of a profusion of wood; on the higher grounds, it is mossy, wet, and clayey, but, if well limed, produces good crops, especially in dry seasons. A large part of this land has been brought into general cultivation, by draining and fencing. The sheep are the Cheviots, the largest of which are often crossed with the Leicester; some of the cattle are the Teeswater, but the Galloway breed is preferred. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9095. Limestone, sandstone, and coal abound, the last in hollows of the transition rocks. There are extensive corn-mills at Hollows, near the banks of the Esk. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Langholm and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch; the stipend is £236. 12. 6., with a manse, and a glebe of twenty acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church is an elegant sandstone building with a tower, erected in 1822, at an expense of £3000, and contains sittings for upwards of 1000 persons. There is a parochial school, in which Greek, Latin, French, and all the usual branches of education are taught, and the master of which has a salary of £31. 6., with the legal accommodations, and fees amounting to about £30. A subscription library, two friendly societies, and a savings' bank, are also supported. Among the numerous ruins of defence-towers, the most perfect and the most famed is that of Johnnie Armstrong, sixty feet long, forty-six broad, and seventy-two high; it has two round turrets, with loop-holes at the east and west angles, and was, in former times, a place of great strength. About one mile to the east of this, are the remains of a Roman station, supposed to be the first in the chain from Netherbie to Castle-Over, the upper camp, in the parish of Eskdalemuir. Dr. Russell, author of the History of Modern Europe, who died in 1793, and Mr. Benjamin Bell, the celebrated surgeon, were natives of the parish.


CANONGATE.—See Edinburgh.


CAOLVALLOCK, a hamlet, in the parish of Weem, county of Perth; containing 50 inhabitants.


CAPUTH, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Craigie, Fungarth, Kincairnie, Meikleour, and Spittalfield, 2317 inhabitants, of whom 178 are in the village of Wester Caputh, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Dunkeld. This place, called in ancient records Keapoch, was in former times the site of a Pictish town of great strength, named, according to Boetius, Tuline or Tulina, and the inhabitants of which, who were very numerous, burned and deserted it, on the approach of the Romans. It was situated at a place called at present Inchtuthil, "the island in the flooded stream," and is supposed to be the station described by Tacitus, to which Agricola led his troops, after the famous battle with Galgacus. Caputh is mentioned in Mylne's Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, as originally forming a portion of the parish of Little Dunkeld, and as having been erected into a distinct parish, in the year 1500, by Bishop Brown, who built, at his own cost, a quire, with painted ceiling and glazed windows, and gave, for the support of the minister, a vicarage which had been formerly united to his see, four acres of glebe land, and some rising ground, called the Mute-hill, for the erection of a church. This author also informs us, that the parish of Dowally was once a part of Caputh, and that the same bishop built and endowed a church in honour of St. Anne, among the woods of the church lands of that district, in consequence of having heard that the Irish language was spoken in the Highland parts of Caputh.

The parish is situated on the northern bank of the river Tay, which forms its boundary for ten miles, from the bridge of Dunkeld, on the west, to its confluence with the Isla, on the east; the latter river forms its boundary on the south-east, and the Lunan separates it, on the north-east, from Blairgowrie. It measures about thirteen miles in length, from east to west, and varies in breadth from two to seven miles, comprising 16,000 acres, which form the principal part of the plain of Stormont, a continuation of the vale of Strathmore, towards the foot of the Grampians. The surface is considerably diversified; the portion towards the south-east is nearly level, and consists of rich and well-cultivated tracts, while the northern and north-western parts are hilly, and present many beautiful varieties of Highland scenery, enlivened by refreshing streams, traversing the verdant dales. The river Tay, on which, as well as the Isla, are extensive salmon-fisheries, here varies in width from 150 to 200 yards, and is distinguished for its striking scenery. Towards the northern boundary, the burn of Lunan, which rises in the Grampians, falls down a precipitous and thickly-wooded glen two or three miles long, and reaches the loch of Craiglush; adjoining this, is the fine piece of water called Lows, about two miles north-east of Dunkeld, and not far off, is the loch of Butterstone. After passing through all these waters, and connecting them in a chain, the Lunan runs eastward, and falls into the Isla, seven miles from Caputh church.

The soil, near the rivers, is a rich alluvial earth, and is much indebted for its fertility to deposits conveyed by the frequent overflowing of the streams; in the lower and level grounds, it is in general light and dry, and in the higher parts cold and wet, though, where well cultivated, very fertile. The husbandry is on a superior footing, and excellent crops are raised; bone manure has been extensively applied, and, in some parts, very beneficially as a top-dressing to the pasture. The cattle formerly bred were the Angus dodded sort; but these have been latterly much improved by crosses with the Teeswater and Ayrshire, and the sheep, which are of various kinds, are gradually improving by the intermixture of Leicester stock. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,426. The chief rocks are limestone and clay-slate, and the former, which is of good quality, has been extensively quarried for some years, and burnt in kilns the construction of which obtained, some time since, a premium from the Highland Society; at Newtyle, a quarry of dark blue slate, of firm texture, has long been in operation, and the material is in great demand. The mansions are, Delvine House, a plain but pleasant residence, nearly three miles east of the church; Meikleour House, beautifully seated on the north bank of the Tay; Snaigow House, an elegant mansion in the old baronial style, two miles north of the church; and Glendelvine, a modern residence, similar in style to that of Snaigow. Cattle-fairs are held at Meikleour, on the fourth Friday in June, the second day in July, third Friday in August, and fourth Friday in October. The parish is in the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £232. 15. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £22. 10. per annum. The church, built in 1798, is a plain commodious edifice, situated on an eminence near the southern border, and contains sittings for 800 persons; it has lately been extensively repaired, and improved by the erection of a new porch at each end. The parochial school is in the village of Spittalfield, and affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and £30 fees. A savings' bank was established in 1815. Remains exist of a Roman camp at Inchtuthil, supposed to have been the station of Agricola; it is situated on the north-eastern part of a piece of table-land covering upwards of 200 acres, steep on all sides, and elevated about sixty feet above the plain on which it stands. It measures about 500 yards square, and the walls, now almost levelled by the plough, were nine and a half feet thick, and built with stones brought from a quarry two miles distant; on the south-eastern side, are two tumuli, and a redoubt. There are also in the parish numerous Druidical circles and cairns, one of the latter of which, called Cairnmure, or the Big Cairn, is the largest in the county, being 456 feet in circumference, and 14 feet in height.


CARA, Argyll.—See Gigha and Cara.


CARDROSS, a parish, in the county of Dumbarton; including the villages of West Bridgend and Renton, and the hamlet of Geilstone-Bridge; and containing 4416 inhabitants, of whom 51 are in the hamlet of Cardross, 3¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Dumbarton, on the road to Helensburgh. The name of Cardross is derived from a compound word in the Celtic language, signifying "the moorish ridge point," used in reference to the peculiar situation and aspect of the parish. It appears to have escaped those bloody feuds which were formerly so common in the surrounding country, not from any security in its position, but from the peaceful disposition of its inhabitants, who, though sometimes visited by predatory bands, furnished no pretext, by a sanguinary resentment, for the renewal of hostilities. It was the seat of the retirement of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, during the last years of his life, when he frequently indulged in the pleasures of the chase. On the first mile of the road leading from Dumbarton, some knolly ground, covered with wood, still bears the name of Castlehill; and though no remains are now to be seen of any building, it is probable that he was located in a castle once standing here, in which he ended his days, in 1329. The Parish, which is situated on the northern bank of the Clyde, is eight miles in extreme length, and varies in breadth from one and a half to three miles; it contains about 9600 acres, of which one-half are cultivated, and about 150 acres are under plantation. The surface rises from the Clyde, by a gentle ascent, till it reaches its highest elevation, at the summits of the Kiliter and Carman, in the northern extremity of the parish, about 900 feet above the sea. The shore is marked by the prominent headland of Ardmore, which rises in the Clyde to a height of forty feet, and is connected with the parish by an isthmus running from the flat piece of land by which the rock is surrounded.

The soil, on the banks of the Clyde, which is between one and two miles wide, and in the interior, is generally a light thin mould; on the higher grounds, it has a greater depth, and rests chiefly on a tilly subsoil. In the vicinity of the vale of the river Leven, in the southeastern division, is a rich loam, with alluvial deposits. On the estates of Dalquhurn and Camis-Eskan, are plantations of larch, fir, and oak, in a flourishing state; and the lands of Mildovan, Kilmahew, Kipperminshock. and Ardoch, have infant plantations of promising appearance. The progress of agricultural improvement, during the present century, has been very considerable; much waste land has been reclaimed, and that under cultivation has been benefited by draining and manuring. The live stock consists principally of cattle and sheep, purchased in the Highlands, and which graze upon the extensive tracts of moorland. In the lower parts of the parish, tillage and dairy-farming, to a great extent, are united, the latter branch having been much encouraged by the introduction of the best Ayrshire cows, and by the cultivation of the most approved bulbous-rooted green crops. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,375. The prevailing rock is freestone, which, in the eastern district, is reddish and crumbling, but, in other places, of a light grey cast, and better consistence, and mixed with breccia. The promontory of Ardmore is dark red breccia, with pebbles of quartz, and in the neighbourhood of the Kiliter range, are beds of jasper, lying between breccia and sandstone; in some of the glens, limestone is found, but the sand and magnesia with which it is mixed render it unfit for agricultural use, although it has been occasionally wrought to a small extent.

The mansions in the parish include the ancient houses of Ardoch, Kilmahew, and Camis-Eskan; the more modern structures are, Keppoch, Ardmore, and Bloom-hill. At Dalquhurn works, in the vicinity of Renton, calico-printing, bleaching, and dyeing are carried on, affording employment to between 250 and 300 persons. There is an inconsiderable salmon-fishery on the river Leven, and trout and salmon are taken at Ardmore and Colgrain; but the Yair fisheries on the Clyde, once so celebrated, and confirmed by several royal charters, are now almost unproductive. A fair is held on the first Wednesday in June, for black-cattle, horses, and sheep. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £155. 8. 9., with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £30; the patronage is in the Crown. The church, a very neat structure, was built in 1827, and accommodates above 800 persons. There is a missionary station at Renton, connected with the Established Church; also a meeting-house belonging to the Original Burgher Synod; and places of worship have been erected in the parish, in connexion with the Free Church and Relief Synod. A parochial school is supported, in which Latin is taught, with the usual branches of education; the master has a salary of £34, with about £20 fees, and £15 from a piece of ground, granted in the seventeenth century, by the family of Napier; also five and a half bolls of barley, and the interest of £100. There are two public subscription libraries, one in Renton, containing 1000 volumes, and the other at Geilstone, with 400 volumes; also a Sunday-school library, with 200 volumes. The poor have about £220 per annum, left by Mrs. Moore, and now under the management of the heritors and the Kirk Session. Near Renton, stands the ancient house of Dalquhurn, the birthplace of the celebrated Dr. Tobias Smollett, author of many popular works; and near the house, a Tuscan column has been erected, which contains an elegant Latin incription, in memory of the doctor, who died at Leghorn, in 1771.


CARESTON, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Brechin; containing 218 inhabitants. This place, originally Caraldstone, of which its present appellation is simply a contraction, derived that name from a stone erected over the grave of Carald, a Danish leader, who was slain here, in his flight from the battle of Aberlemno, in the reign of Malcolm III. The parish is about three miles in length, and one mile in average breadth, comprising 2056 acres, of which 1422 are arable, 280 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface rises in gentle undulations, from its southern boundary, towards the north, and, near its termination in that direction, declines gradually to the confines of the parish of Menmuir. The rivulet of Noran, which has its rise in the Grampians, flows with a rapid current through the lands, and very shortly falls into the South Esk, which also intersects the parish, and forms part of its southern boundary. The soil is chiefly a rich black loam, interspersed with some small tracts of moor; the chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is improved, and draining has been extensively practised. The farm-buildings are generally commodious, and on two of the farms are threshing-mills, of which one is driven by water; the lands are inclosed, partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn. The cattle are generally of the native black breed; there are few sheep pastured on the lands; considerable attention is paid to the dairy, and large quantities of butter and cheese are sent to the Brechin market. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2717.

The principal substrata are of the old red sandstone formation, interspersed with beds of lias; in the higher lands, large blocks of trap rock are frequently found, with boulders of granite, basalt, and green stone. The plantations, which are in a thriving state, are chiefly pine and larch, with birch, elm, beech, and Scotch and spruce firs; and on the demesne of Careston Castle, are lime, ash, poplar, plane, and Spanish and horse-chesnut, of which some have attained a considerable growth. Careston Castle, mainly erected by one of the earls of Crawfurd, in the fifteenth century, is a spacious mansion, with two boldly projecting wings, connected by a corridor in front; the west wing, which is the more ancient, is supposed to have been added by one of the Carneggy family, and the eastern by Major Skene, soon after he purchased the property. The mansion has a stately grandeur of appearance, and contains numerous elegant apartments, elaborately decorated. Above the mantel-piece in the drawing-room, are the royal arms of Scotland, which appear to have been granted to the first Earl of Crawfurd; in the dining room are the armorial bearings of the Earl of Airlie, and over what was formerly the grand entrance to the castle, are those of Carneggy of Balnamoon. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £158. 7. 6., of which one-half is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patron, the Earl of Fife. The church, erected in 1636, and repaired in 1808, is a plain structure, conveniently situated, and contains 200 sittings, all free. The parochial school affords instruction to about sixty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £12. The late David Skene, Esq., bequeathed £250, in aid of the funds of the Kirk Session.


CARGILL, a parish, in the county of Perth, 7½ miles (N. by E.) from Perth; containing, with the villages of Burreltown, Wolfhill, and Woodside, 1642 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, signifies a village with a church, originally formed a portion of the parish of Cupar-Angus, from which, according to ancient records, it was separated prior to the year 1514. It was for many generations the chief seat of the family of Drummond, of whom Annabella, daughter of Sir John Drummond, was married to Robert III., King of Scotland, and crowned with that monarch, at Scone, in 1390; she was the mother of James I., from whom descended the royal family of Stuart. Stobhall, the seat of the Drummonds, now almost in a ruinous state, came into the possession of the family by the marriage of Sir John Drummond with Lady Mary, eldest daughter of Sir William de Montifex, lord justiciary of Scotland. The ancient mansion, which appears to have been built at different periods, is romantically situated on a narrow tongue of land, on the banks of the river Tay.

The parish, which is in the valley of Strathmore, is about six miles in length, and four in average breadth; the surface is diversified, and bounded on the west and north-west by the Tay, and on the north by the river Isla, which flows into the Tay about half a mile above the village of Cargill. The land rises, by a gradual ascent, from the margin of the river, for nearly a mile, till it attains an elevated plain, varied with occasional eminences interspersed with small glens; the Sidlaw hills form the eastern boundary. The scenery is pleasingly enriched with plantations, chiefly of Scotch fir, with coppices of birch and oak; the native woods, which were formerly extensive, and afforded secure concealment to Sir William Wallace and his adherents from the pursuit of their enemies, are greatly diminished. The soil, along the banks of the river, and on the lower lands, is a humid clay, but fertile, producing abundant crops of grain, and gradually inclines, as the ground ascends, to a rocky marl; towards the base of the hills, it is a light dry gravel, and, on the summit of the elevated plain, partly loam and moorland. The system of agriculture is in an improved state, but much yet remains to be done. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7786. The Tay is navigable to Perth; it abounds with salmon, of which there is a valuable fishery, and with trout and pike, and is a favourite resort for anglers; near the west end of the parish, it flows over a rugged basaltic dyke, where it forms a picturesque fall called the Linn of Campsie.

The substratum is chiefly freestone, of good quality, and of excellent colour, which has been extensively wrought; limestone is also found, but is not much in operation, and rock marl of a reddish colour is abundant, and might be rendered available to the improvement of the moorlands in the upper parts of the parish. The only manufacture carried on, is the weaving of linen for the Dundee manufacturers, which affords employment to a few families. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling; the patronage is in the Crown, and the minister's stipend is £224. 16., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14. The church is a neat and well-arranged structure, erected in 1832, and situated on the sloping bank of the river Tay. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15, to which Lady Willoughby de Eresby adds £10, for teaching the poor gratuitously. There were traces, till within the last few years, of a Roman station and road; but under the extension and improvements in agriculture, they have been almost entirely obliterated. Near the Linn of Campsie, was an ancient cell dependent on the abbey of CuparAngus: but only very slight vestiges of it can be traced. Stobhall gave the title of Baron to the earls of Perth, who were lords Drummond and Stobhall, till the forfeiture in 1746.


CARLAVEROCK, Dumfries.—See Caerlaverock.


CARLOPS, a village, in the parish of Linton, county of Peebles; containing 153 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated, is irregularly built on the banks of a rivulet falling into the North Esk; it is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in weaving cotton for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. Coal and lime are wrought in the immediate neighbourhood. Carlops is a popular abbreviation of Carling's Loups, localities in the vicinity so named in allusion to acts of a witch of former times, who is said to have furnished to Allan Ramsay the character of Mause in the Gentle Shepherd, the scenery of which poem is in the neighbourhood. Near the village is a rock of freestone, impending over a narrow glen; it is called Harbour Craig, and, in this sequestered place, has a strikingly romantic appearance.


CARLUKE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Braidwood, Kilcadzow, and Yieldshields; and containing 4802 inhabitants, of whom 2090 are in the village of Carluke, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Lanark. The name appears to have been derived from the word Caer, signifying " a hill," and Luac, "Luke," in reference to the dedication of the church, and to the elevated site of the parish. The first historical traces of the district are connected with the reign of David I., when the founder of the Lockhart family, whose descendant is still the principal heritor, came into Scotland with some other Norman families, and settled here. The lands of Kirkton, in the parish, anciently belonged to the abbey of Kelso, and were erected into a barony in 1662, by Charles II., in favour of Walter Lockhart, a cadet of the family of Wicketshaw, at that time the proprietors. By a charter of Robert I., that monarch granted to the monks of Lesmahago ten merks yearly from the revenue of his mills at Mauldslie, in Carluke, for supporting the expense of lights at the tomb of St. Macute; and in a subsequent charter of the 8th of March, 1315, ten merks yearly were bestowed upon the same monks, from the mills, to supply eight wax lights for the tomb on Sundays and festivals. In this reign, also, the church, with all its rights, was given by the king to the monks of Kelso, who performed its duties by a curate, and continued in the possession of its revenues till the Reformation.

The parish is about eight miles long, from east to west, and about four and a half broad, containing 15,360 acres; it is bounded on the south-west by the Clyde, and on the west by Garrion Gill. The surface is considerably diversified, consisting of level ground, acclivities, hills, and valleys, clothed in many parts with luxuriant pasture, and ornamented with picturesque scenery, interspersed with numerous neat and comfortable cottages, and elegant mansions, and enlivened and irrigated by the beautiful meanderings of the Clyde. Close to this river is a long narrow tract of sloping ground of rich quality, after which the land rises in an easterly direction, 400 or 500 feet above the sea. From the highest point of this land, along which runs a ridge of sandstone, a level is continued as far as the village, terminating in an extensive hill called the Law of Mauldslie; and at the back of the village, the surface again rises towards the east, and terminates in a wild moor. The principal hills are, Kilcadzow, Lee, King's, and Mauldslie, the last of which is the most lofty, rising upwards of 800 feet above the level of the sea. The most interesting view of the district is from the Lanark and Glasgow road, on the opposite side of the Clyde, from which point are seen the banks of the river, adorned with fruit and forest trees, and the numerous rills issuing from the concealed and romantic glens and ravines, and eventually falling into the Clyde.

In the neighbourhood of the river, the soil is a rich loam; generally, it is various; in some parts, light and sandy, and famed for its large crops of apples and pears. The whole rests on a subsoil of clay, of widely different appearance and quality; grain to a large amount is produced, and potatoes, turnips, and hay are likewise raised. The system of husbandry here followed, on account of the peculiar character of the soil and other circumstances, is somewhat different from that generally used in other districts. The rotation of crops is not much approved; the course preferred, except upon the rich tracts near the Clyde, is to convert the land into permanent pasture, breaking it up only every fifth or sixth year for a crop of oats. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,437. The rocks consist of limestone, sandstone, and ironstone, which, with various kinds of coal and clay, are found in large quantities; the limestone, with one exception, all lies under the coal, which latter is quarried to a very great extent, and is of excellent quality. Between the coal and limestone, the beds of sandstone occur, which, with numerous layers of freestone, supply the best materials for building; a ridge of trap runs eastward, from Hillhead to Bashaw, and quartz and agate are both found in the old red sandstone. One of the chief mansions is Mauldslie Castle, built in 1793, by the Earl of Hyndford, an elegant structure, ornamented with turrets, and situated in a well-wooded park, through which the Clyde flows for about a mile. The mansion of Milton-Lockhart, lately built, stands upon a point of land projecting into the valley of the Clyde, and beautifully skirted with deep glens and thick woods; the proprietor has built a bridge of three arches over the river, after the model of Bothwell bridge. Braidwood House stands on an eminence above the same vale, and is a handsome and commodious structure. Carluke was erected in 1662 into a burgh of barony, under the name of Kirkstyle, with the privilege of holding a weekly market, and a fair twice in the year; a tax of sixpence in the pound, on house-rent, is levied for the support of constables, and for cleaning and lighting the streets. The population of the town, a few years ago, was insignificant; but there is now a variety of good shops, and a post-office has been established under Lanark. The inhabitants of the parish are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in quarrying freestone, limestone, ironstone, and coal: fairs are held, one on the 21st May, and another on the 31st October, at which there is a very considerable traffic in milch cows. The Stirling and Carlisle turnpike-road, and the road between Glasgow and Carnwath, run through the parish.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is exercised by Sir N. M. Lockhart, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £262, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, which is a substantial building, containing 1000 sittings, was built in 1799, at an expense of £1000. There are places of worship for members of the Relief and Associate Synods; also a parochial school, in which Latin is taught, with all the usual branches of education, and the master of which has a salary of £34, and £50 fees, with a house and garden. A parochial library was founded in 1827, and a society for the promotion of useful knowledge in 1836; there is also an agricultural society, instituted in 1833, for the purpose of encouraging improvements in the breed of cattle. The great Roman road, through Clydesdale, to the wall of Antoninus, passed through the parish; not far from it, at Cairney Mount and at Law, several coffins have been found, constructed of large stones, and containing urns and ashes. Flint arrow-heads, hatchets, and numerous coins, both silver and gold, of Roman origin, have been also found, at Burnhead and Castlehill. In a dell in the parish, is a very ancient tower called Hallbar, fifty-two feet high, and twenty-four feet square on the outside, having a vault beneath, and three apartments, the uppermost of which has an arched roof; it is supposed, from mention of it in a deed dated 1685, to have been attached to the barony of Braidwood. At Hang-hill, near Mauldslie Castle, is an old burial-ground of several acres in extent, covered with large trees sixty or seventy feet high, and in which the two last earls of Hyndford were interred. On the estate of Milton-Lockhart, part of an ancient fort still remains, in which the celebrated William Wallace once found refuge from the pursuit of his enemies. Major-General Roy, the celebrated engineer, and author of a standard work on Roman Antiquities, was a native of Carluke.


CARMICHAEL, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 5 miles (S. E.) from Lanark, containing 874 inhabitants. This place derives its name from St. Michael, to whom its first church was dedicated. The remains of antiquity of which historical use can be made, are very few; in the south-west corner of the parish are vestiges of a camp and military station, and a few years ago, a large coffin constructed of sandstone was found, but destitute of any mark to guide opinion as to its probable origin. On the summit of the lofty mountain of Tinto, is a cairn or heap of stones; and in some parts, are stone crosses, all of which point out the places of military occupation and engagement, concerning the particular facts of which nothing determinate is on record. The ancient and illustrious family of Carmichael occupy the most prominent place in the civil history of the parish: one of its members, John, second Lord Carmichael, born in 1672, was created Earl of Hyndford in 1701, and filled a succession of honourable and important offices to the time of his death, which took place on his estate here.

The length of the Parish, from south-west to north-east, is six miles, and its extreme breadth nearly five miles; it contains about 11,630 imperial acres, and is bounded on the north by the Clyde river, from its confluence with Douglas water to Mill-hill, and intersected by the roads from Carlisle to Stirling, and Edinburgh to Ayr. The surface presents numerous irregularities, consisting of hill and valley, breaks, and sweeping undulations, crowned, in the south-eastern part, by the lofty and celebrated mountain of Tinto, which rises to an elevation of about 2400 feet. This majestic hill, the name of which is said to signify "the hill of fire," from the fires formerly kindled upon it, commands an interesting and extensive view of the lower elevations of Carmichael, Drumalbin, Whitecastle, Crossridge, and Stonehill hills, all in the parish, the ground gradually sinking to the northern extremity. The climate is cold; and the surface is covered, in many parts, with poor pasture, and only in the highly cultivated grounds has an agreeable aspect. The Soil, in the vicinity of the Clyde, is thin and sandy; in other parts, a good deep loam, but in the arable districts, generally damp and clayey, resting upon an impervious till or ferruginous clay, with a considerable mixture of marine stones. The number of acres (Scotch) under cultivation is, 4702 arable, and 3815 pasture; 735 acres are plantations, which consist of oak, ash, elm, plane, beech, alder, poplar, birch, and horse-chesnut. The crops generally raised are, oats, barley, bear, peas, potatoes, turnips, rye-grass, and meadow hay, the first of which greatly predominates; the cattle are of the Ayrshire breed, and the sheep are the black-faced, with a few Cheviots. The system of agriculture is excellent, and numerous improvements have been introduced of late years; the rateable annual value of the parish is £5280.

The prevailing rock is the old red sandstone, which is good for building houses or fences, and is abundant in the hills of Carmichael, Whitecastle, and Drumalbin; felspar porphyry, in some places, lies near the sandstone, and in the Crossridge hill is a stratum of clayslate, passing into greywacke slate. Blocks of quartz are sometimes seen, exposed by the action of the streams; and blocks of gneiss have been found, deposited in alluvial soil, whither it is supposed they had been carried by the violence of the rivers. There are quarries of limestone and sandstone. Carmichael House, an ancient and magnificent baronial residence, for many generations the seat of the family of the same name, is encompassed by aged and lofty trees, and extensive grounds and plantations, which were greatly improved by John, Earl of Hyndford. The mansion of Eastend, comparatively a modern structure, is elegant and commodious. There is a tan-work in the parish, in a prosperous state; also an establishment for the carrying of leather, which is carried on with considerable profit. At Carmichael Mill, is a foundry, which supplies most of the iron-work for threshing-mills and other machinery used in the parish; and there are thirty hands employed as weavers. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the direction of the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is exercised by Sir W. Carmichael Anstruther, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £225. The church, a cruciform building, erected in 1750, is in good repair, and accommodates between 400 and 500 persons; the manse was built at the same time, and considerably enlarged some years ago, and is supplied with a glebe valued at £20 per annum. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, French, and mathematics, with all the usual branches of education; the salary is £32, with more than the legal accommodations, and fees of about £26. 8. Another school, at Ponfeigh, is supported partly by the heritors; and there is a savings'-bank, established in 1814.


CARMUNNOCK, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark; containing 717 inhabitants, of whom 390 are in the village, 5 miles (S.) from Glasgow. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from the compound Gaelic word Caer-mannock, signifying "the monk's fort." The remains of antiquity here bear testimony to the settlement and military operations of the Romans; vestiges of a military road and camp, are still to be seen on the estate of Castlemilk, and pieces of ancient armour, with a variety of utensils, have been found. In the reign of William the Lion, the manor was held by Henry, son of Anselm, who assumed the name of Henry of "Cormanock." Some time before the year 1189, he granted the church to the monks of Paisley, with half a carucate of land, and a right of common, and directed that his remains, and those of his wife, should be interred in the monastery. The church was held by the monks till the Reformation. The Parish is about four miles long, from north-east to south-west, and averages about two and a half in breadth; it contains 2810 Scotch acres, of which 2400 are arable, and under a regular system of cultivation, 250 wood, and 106 pasture, the remainder being roads, &c. The surface is considerably elevated, and exhibits a succession of hill and dale, varied with extensive and flourishing plantations, and enlivened by the beautiful meanderings of the river Cart, on the western boundary of the parish, which here borders on Renfrewshire. From the summit of Cathkin-hill, near the eastern boundary, at an elevation of nearly 500 feet above the sea, the prospect embraces parts of sixteen counties, the nearer group consisting of the city of Glasgow, with its surrounding villages, the towns of Rutherglen and Paisley, and the vale of Clyde, from Hamilton to Dumbarton. The parish abounds with springs, and there are five public wells of good water; but the only river running through it is a small stream called the Kittoch.

The soil, which is generally uniform, consists of good earth, about six or seven inches deep, and resting upon a superior whinstone rock, which extends throughout the parish. In some spots, it is more moist and clayey, with a retentive bottom, yet yielding excellent crops when well drained and manured; in a few places, it is considerably mixed with sand, and too much impoverished to be applied to any use but that of common pasture. Crops of all kinds are raised, and, on account of the highly cultivated state of the soil, are of the highest order; and the greatest encouragement is given to dairy-farming, both for the superior profit it brings to the tenant, and for the manure. The cows are all of the Ayrshire breed; many improvements have taken place in agriculture within the last few years, and furrow-draining with tiles has been extensively practised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5511. There is a considerable quarry of freestone, of good quality; and on the estate of Castlemilk, excellent limestone and ironstone are found, the latter of which has been partially wrought. The village population are chiefly hand-loom weavers; seven annual fairs are held, some of which are for the sale of horses and cows. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, J. S. S. Stuart, Esq. An excellent manse has been lately built, to which there is a glebe valued at £19 per annum; and the stipend is £152. 17. 6., of which £39. 10. 10. are received from the exchequer. The church, which is situated in the middle of the village, was built in 1767, and repaired in 1838; it is a neat and convenient structure, and seats about 450 persons. There is a dissenters' place of worship; also a parochial school, in which the usual branches of a plain education are taught, and the master of which has the maximum salary, and about £32 fees, with a house and garden. An old thorn-tree here, is much regarded, as marking out the spot from which Mary, Queen of Scots, was a spectator of the defeat of her army at the battle of Langside.


CARMYLE, a village, in the parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 4½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Glasgow; containing 238 inhabitants. This village, which is remarkable for its beautiful situation, and fine southern aspect, is seated on the north side of the Clyde, and owes its origin to the establishment of a muslin manufactory, about the year 1741, by Mr. Mackenzie, a merchant of Glasgow.


CARMYLIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Arbroath; containing, with the hamlet of Graystone, 1107 inhabitants. The name is supposed to be derived from a Celtic word, signifying " the top of a high rocky place," which description answers to a castle formerly standing here. At Carbuddo, not far from the parish, are the remains of a camp, indicating the occupation of the ground, in ancient times, by the Romans, who are said to have reduced the forts of Carmylie and Carnegie in the year 139. At a very early period, the lands belonged to the abbey of Aberbrothock, whence the monks came to perform divine service at a chapel here, more ancient than the abbey, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and called in old writings, "Our Lady's chapel of Carmylie;" its site is occupied by the present church. The parish is about six miles long, and its mean breadth three miles; it is bounded by portions of eight parishes, and forms a part of the range of the Sidlaw hills, exhibiting a series of acclivities, which are cultivated throughout, and rise 200 feet above the lowest ground in the parish. These hills are nearly all of equal height, and are about 580 feet above the sea, commanding, on one side, a beautiful and extensive prospect of the Grampian mountains, and, on the other, of the German Ocean and the coast of Fife, and, sometimes, the Lammermoor hills. The only stream of any note is the Elliot or Elot, which rises in a moss called Diltymoss, and, after a course of about eight miles, falls into the sea at Arbirlot.

The soil most prevalent is a dark rich-looking mould, which receives its hue, partly from a mixture of moss, and partly from moisture; a light dry soil is found on some of the higher slopes, and in the valleys near the streams is a rich fertile mould, with alluvial deposits. There are about 200 acres of moss, much moor, and 355 acres of plantation, consisting of Scotch and spruce fir, larch, and the ordinary kinds of hard-wood; the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, turnips, potatoes, hay, and peas. Great improvements have been made in husbandry within the last half century, by the conversion of pasture into arable land, by draining marshes and mosses, and reclaiming wastes; also by inclosures, raising good farm-buildings, and introducing the best system of cultivation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8928. The subsoil is chiefly a stiff retentive clay, requiring frequent and deep draining, and the rock most common, especially in the higher lands, is the red or grey sandstone, covered with the whinstone called scurdy. At Conansythe, a large quantity of steatite has been found, of red hue, variegated with white veins, and suited to the manufacture of superior porcelain. There are also several good quarries in the parish, regularly worked, the stone and slate of which are suited for pavement, and for columns, balusters, and various other ornaments in buildings, and are sent to all the large towns in Scotland, and to London; the slate is of every size, colour, and texture, and many pieces of it, beautifully variegated with spots, when polished, imitate a fine marble.

The parish contains two convenient and elegant mansions, built of the native sandstone. That of Guynd is situated on the north bank of the Elot river, and ornamented with several beautiful plantations; the other, which stands on high ground, commands an interesting view of the vales of the Lunan and the Brothock. The population has greatly increased within the present century, owing to the manufacture of coarse linen, such as sheetings, dowlas, Osnaburghs, &c., and to the large number of hands employed in the quarries. A yearly cattle-market is held about the end of April, or beginning of May. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are directed by the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns. There is a good manse, built in 1820, with a glebe valued at £30 per annum, and the minister's stipend is £158. 8., of which a portion is received from the exchequer; the patronage is in the Crown. The church, which is ancient, is conveniently situated, and is a substantial building, accommodating 500 persons. A congregation has been formed here in connexion with the Free Church; and there is a parochial school, in which are taught Latin, and all the branches of an ordinary education, and the master of which has the maximum salary, with about £18 fees, and a house and garden. A library was instituted in 1828, and is partly under the direction of the Kirk Session. At the Den of Guynd, are the remains of a fort called Dunhead, supposed to be of Caledonian origin, and afterwards to have been occupied by the Danes; it is of triangular form, and appears to have been encompassed by a ditch and wall. Urns, and human bones, have been found in the neighbourhood, the latter supposed to be of the Danes who fell in the battle of Barrie, when they were defeated under Malcolm II. There are several chalybeate springs, the strongest of which is one in the Den of Guynd.


CARNBEE, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Pittenweem; containing 1043 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the south-eastern part of the county, is above four miles in length, and nearly of equal breadth, comprising about 5600 acres, of which more than 3000 are arable, and the remainder, with the exception of a moderate proportion of woodland and plantations, meadow and pasture. The surface is diversified with hills of conical form, of which the most conspicuous is Kellie Law, rising to the height of 810 feet, and commanding from the summit, a fine view of the Frith of Forth, the German Sea, and the coasts of Haddington and Mid Lothian, with the city of Edinburgh in the distance. Nearly one-half of this hill is arable, and the remainder is covered with verdure to the summit; the hills of Carnbee Law, Cumner, and Gelland are of similar form, rising to a considerable height, and affording excellent pasturage. The lands are watered by several small burns, which flow in various directions. The soil is mostly fertile; in some parts, a clayey loam, in others, a rich black mould of great depth; and the pastures generally are luxuriant. The chief crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is greatly improved; around the mansions of the principal proprietors may be seen the remnants of ancient timber, and the plantations of more recent date are in a thriving state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,390. The substrata are chiefly coal, which is generally prevalent throughout the parish, and of which two mines are in operation; and limestone and freestone of excellent quality, which are both extensively quarried.

Kellie Castle, for many generations the baronial seat of the earls of Kellie, and now the property of the Earl of Mar and Kellie, was once a noble mansion, containing many stately apartments, and situated near the base of Kellie Law, in a richly-wooded demesne. Balcaskie House, near the southern boundary of the parish, is surrounded with grounds tastefully laid out; and Pitcorthie House and Gibliston are also handsome residences. The village, which is small, is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the coal-works. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £238. 17., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, Sir Ralph Anstruther, Bart. The ancient church has been replaced by a neat structure, erected in 1794. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £25. Among persons connected with the parish, have been, Hugo Arnott, author of State Trials, and Archibald Constable, the eminent publisher, of whom, the latter was a native of Carnbee.


CARNIE-HILL, a village, in the parish of Auchter-gaven, county of Perth, 5½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Dunkeld; containing 133 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the road from Perth to Dunkeld, on the summit of an elevated ridge, at the base of which is the village of Bankfoot, is almost identified with that place. It is of recent origin, having, like Bankfoot, been built within the present century, on land belonging to Mr. Wylie. The houses are neat, and, from their elevated site, command extensive and finely-varied prospects of the adjacent country, which is well cultivated, and abounds with interesting scenery. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in weaving for the manufacturers of Dundee, Arbroath, and other towns.


CARNOCH, or Strathconon, late a quoad sacra parish, 20 miles (W.) from Dingwall; consisting of parts of the parishes of Contin, Fodderty, and Urray, county of Ross and Cromarty; and containing 563 inhabitants. The district is about eighteen miles in length, and ten in breadth, and wholly consists of moor pasture, with the exception of a few patches of arable land. The estate of Strathconon, which formed nearly the entire parish, consists of 69,896 acres; of these, 68,005 are hills and moor, 972 arable, and green pasture, and the remainder lochs. The population is agricultural, and they forward their produce to the Inverness sheep and wool market, and the Moor of Ord cattle-markets. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross: the church is a plain building, erected in 1830, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, and contains 330 sittings. The stipend of the minister is £120, and he has a manse, a glebe of the annual value of £2, and grazing for two cows and a horse; the patronage is in the Crown. There is a school, endowed by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge.


CARNOCK, a parish, in the district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Dunfermline; containing, with the village of Cairney-hill, and the hamlet of Gowkhall, 1270 inhabitants, of whom 184 are in the village of Carnock. This place originally included only the barony of Carnock, and the lands of Blair, and Easter and Wester Camps; but in 1650, the Pitdennies, the lands of Luscar, and those of Clune, which formed part of the parish of Dunfermline, were, by act of the presbytery, annexed to this parish. The barony formerly belonged to Lieut.-Col. John Erskine, whose eldest son, a distinguished member of the bar, and professor of Scottish law in the university of Edinburgh, built the old mansion of Newbigging, now a farm-house. Mr. Erskine, after residing at this place during the intervals of his professional avocations, and having here composed his Institutes of Law, removed to Cardross, where he died in 1767. The parish, which is situated at the western extremity of the county, is about three miles in length, and measures nearly the same in average breadth, comprising about 2260 acres, of which 1060 are arable, 450 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface is pleasingly undulated, in some parts having a considerable elevation; Camps Hill and Carniel Hill form a continuous range of rising ground, commanding a view of the Frith of Forth, with the adjacent country, from Stirling on the west, to Edinburgh on the east. The Luscar Know and the Clun of Newbigging are also elevated, and command views of the Ochils, Ben-Lomond, and the Pentland hills. The streams are small; the Ink Craig, near the village of Carnock, is remarkable for the black colour of its water, which, for ordinary purposes, is sometimes used as ink.

The soil is extremely various, but generally productive, and, in some parts, richly fertile; the system of agriculture is in an improved state; the crops are, oats, barley, wheat, and beans, with potatoes and turnips. A considerable number of sheep are pastured; the cattle are chiefly of the Fifeshire and Teeswater breeds, but few are reared, though great numbers are fattened for the markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3126. Coal is diffused throughout, and formerly there were five mines in operation; the only one at present wrought, is on the lands of Blair, consisting of four separate seams, of which the uppermost is a blind coal, three feet in thickness, and is used chiefly by brewers and maltsters. The other seams are household coal, of different qualities, of which the lowest is found at a depth of twenty-three fathoms. Sandstone, limestone, and varieties of trap, constitute the rocks, and freestone is quarried in several places; in some, susceptible of a high polish. The plantations are in a thriving state, and are chiefly larch, spruce and Scotch firs, oak, beech, elm, chesnut, and ash; of these, the firs, oak, and beech, of which there are many stately trees on the plantations formed by Mr. Erskine, seem best adapted to the soil.

The principal seats are, Carnock House, a small but handsome mansion; Blair House, a neat substantial building, erected about the year 1815; and Luscar House, a handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style, recently erected. The village of Carnock is pleasantly situated on a rivulet of that name, over which is a bridge, supposed, from an inscription on one of the stones, to have been first erected about 1638; a post-office, subordinate to that of Dunfermline, was established in 1838. The manufacture of table-linen, and table-covers of cotton and worsted, affords employment to more than 200 of the inhabitants, in hand-loom weaving for the wholesale houses at Dunfermline. A fair for cattle, and for general business, is held on the 26th of May, or, when that day falls on Sunday, on the preceding Saturday. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife; the minister's stipend is £155, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £24 per annum; patron, John A. Stuart, Esq. The church, erected in 1841, is a handsome cruciform structure in the Norman style, with a graceful spire, and contains 400 sittings, with arrangements for the erection of galleries, if requisite, for 200 more; in the churchyard, are considerable remains of the ancient church. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church; also a meeting-house in connexion with the United Secession Synod. The parochial school is attended by about sixty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £16. In the village, is a parochial library, containing 250 volumes. Some Roman coins, and fragments of urns, were discovered by the plough, at Cairney Hill, about the year 1820; and it is supposed, from the name of a farm in the parish, called Camps, that there may have been a military station.


CARNOUSTIE, a village and late a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Barrie, county of Forfar, 2 miles (E.) from Barrie; containing 1268 inhabitants. This place is on the eastern coast, about three miles north of Buddon Ness, at the mouth of the river Tay. For some years past, it has been resorted to for bathing, and its smooth, sloping, sandy beach renders it peculiarly adapted to the purpose; the number of visiters has latterly increased, owing to the facility afforded by the Dundee and Arbroath railway, which passes through. The village itself formed the parish, and the inhabitants, both male and female, are for the most part employed in hand-loom weaving, in their own dwellings; their manufacture is principally brown and white linen, for the markets of Dundee and Arbroath. The ecclesiastical affairs were under the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns; the church was erected in 1838, and the patronage was in the male communicants. There are now only places of worship for members of the Free Church, Original Secession, and United Secession. A Free Church school has been recently established, to which the privy council made a grant; and there are also a library, and a savings' bank. In the immediate vicinity of Carnoustie, a name signifying "the cairn of heroes," are vestiges of a camp, and several tumuli, where were deposited, it is said, the remains of the Danes who fell under their leader Camus, when vanquished by the Scottish army commanded by Malcolm II.