A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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TACH-LLEUAN (TACH-LEIAN), with Rhiwlas, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Cayo, in the union of LlandiloVawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2½ miles (N.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 197 inhabitants. The name implies "a spreading to the west," being descriptive of the situation of the hamlet in the parish.
TÂF, with Cynon, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Merthyr-Tydvil, hundred of Caerphilly, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (S.) from the town of Merthyr-Tydvil; containing 395 inhabitants. In this hamlet a canal proceeds along the Vale of Tâf, to Merthyr; and from this, immediately below the hamlet, branches the Aberdare canal, along the valley of the river Cynon, to Aberdare. To connect these lines of navigation with the main trunk from Cardiff, there is a fine aqueduct over the river Tâf, near the spot where the stream is crossed by a bridge on the road to those places. The Tâf-Vale railway also passes in this vicinity, and up the Cynon valley proceeds the Aberdare branch railway. The banks of the Tâf are here finely wooded, presenting some beautiful views; and several agreeable residences are contained in the hamlet, especially in the Vale of Cynon. A portion of the hamlet is included within the limits of the borough of Merthyr.
TÀLACHDDÛ (TÀL-ACHDDÛ), a parish, in the hundred of Pencelly, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3½ miles (N. E.) from Brecknock, on the road to Hay; containing 196 inhabitants. This parish comprises about one thousand five hundred and fifty acres of land. It derives its name from its situation at the head of a small rivulet called the Achddû, from the black colour of its water; and is separated from the adjacent parish of Llandevalley by the river Dulas, which, at the little village of Velin-Vâch, is crossed by a neat bridge. The soil is various, in some parts extremely fertile, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. Copper-ore has been found in the parish, and, some time since, a mine was opened on a farm belonging to Samuel Church, Esq.: the vein extends to the depth of sixty yards, and the ore, which is supposed to be very rich, in parts lies within a foot of the surface, but no progress was made in working the mine. In descending the hill from Brecknock to this place, the village and church have a beautifully picturesque appearance; they are situated on rising ground, and form an interesting feature in the superb view which is obtained from the hill: in front is a large common, overlooking a fertile and rich tract of country, bounded by swelling hills, cultivated to the very summit; beneath is a pleasingly wooded dingle, along which the river Dulas takes its course; on the left the fine range of the Black Mountains is seen extending for several miles, and on the right is the more magnificent chain of the Brecknockshire Beacons. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £4. 12. 1., and in the patronage of Mrs. Anna Griffith; total net income, £143: there is a good parsonage-house, with a garden of about half an acre, and forty-seven acres of glebe land. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small ancient building with a low tower; part of the rood-loft is remaining, and has been converted into a gallery. The register contains entries of marriages celebrated, during the protectorate of Cromwell, before the bailiff of Brecknock; and, in the same period, the births, and not the baptisms, are registered. There is a place of worship for Anabaptists. A day school is held, in connexion with the Established Church; and two Sunday schools are conducted, one of them on Church principles, and the other held in the Anabaptist meeting-house, above mentioned.
TALBENNY, county of Pembroke, South Wales.—See Telbenny.
TÀLGARTH, a parish, partly in the hundred of Tàlgarth, in which it comprises the decayed borough of Tàlgarth, and the townships of Grwyne Vawr and Grwyne Vechan; and partly in the hundred of Pencelly; unions of Hay and Crickhowel, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Brecknock; containing 1388 inhabitants, of whom 673 are in the borough. This place derives its name from its situation in front of the chain of lofty hills called the Black Mountains, which are partly included within the limits of the parish. It once comprised three inferior lordships marcher, called respectively English Tàlgarth, Welsh Tàlgarth, and Dinas; the village was anciently a borough and market-town, and had numerous privileged fairs, which are all that remain of its former distinctions. The parish is very extensive, comprising, according to a survey made in 1801, which is quoted by Mr. Jones in his History of Brecknockshire, an area of not less than ninety thousand one hundred and forty-five acres. Its surface is mountainous, and the soil extremely various, being in some parts fertile and productive, and in others affording only scanty herbage for sheep and young cattle. The 'scenery is much varied, but it is characterised more by features of rugged boldness than of picturesque beauty; in some parts the views border upon the romantic. Though no longer a market-town, nor retaining any of its municipal privileges, Tàlgarth is, notwithstanding, a large and well-built place: it occupies an eminence rising gently from the river Ennig, which is here crossed by a stone bridge of one arch, and, after precipitating itself over several successive ledges of rock, falls into the river Llynvi.
In the parish were formerly many ancient seats, the residences of genteel families, which, having in course of time been abandoned by their proprietors, have fallen into neglect, and are now become comparatively insignificant. Among these is Porthaml, noticed by Leland, who derives its name from the hospitality and affluence of the proprietors, the Vaughans, of whom Sir William Vaughan was first high sheriff of Brecknockshire; it is now the property of the Earl of Ashburnham, by the marriage of one of his ancestors with the heiress of that family: part of the embattled wall of the old mansion, and one of the towers, are at present remaining. Tregunter, an old seat of the Gunters, from whom it derives its name, was originally bestowed by Bernard Newmarch upon Sir Peter Gunter, in reward for his services, and continued in that family for many years: the estate was purchased by the late Thomas Harris, Esq., who erected the present handsome mansion, surrounded by fine grounds, and commanding a pleasing view of the adjacent country, which is richly wooded, of the lofty hill called Troed, near Tàlgarth, and of part of the range of the Black Mountains. Tredustan, a commodious mansion, was for many years the seat of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, and, after her death, was converted into an academy for young men intended for the ministry among her ladyship's connexion. The seat named The Hermitage is beautifully situated in a retired spot.
The village stands within a mile of the turnpikeroad leading from London to Brecknock, through Hay; and the Brecknock and Hay tramroad, in its course through the parish, passes close to it. A new turnpike-road through Tàlgarth forest to Crickhowel and Abergavenny has been formed, diminishing by three miles the distance between Tàlgarth and those two places. The various bridges in the parish are kept in repair by the inhabitants, with the exception only of Pont-y-Tŵr, or "the tower bridge," over the river Llynvi, in the village, which is repaired by the county; this bridge takes its name from a square tower, forming at present part of a small farmhouse, noticed by Leland, who supposes it to have been the ancient borough gaol. Fairs, which are numerously attended by dealers from all parts of the country, and at which great numbers of horses and cattle are sold, are held annually on February 2nd, March 12th, May 31st, July 10th, September 23rd, November 2nd, and December 3rd.
The living is a vicarage not in charge; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Windsor, to whom, after the dissolution of the priory of St. John at Brecknock, the advowson and tithes, which had previously belonged to that establishment, were granted by Henry VIII. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £895, which sum is thus apportioned. From the hamlets of Trevecca, Pwllywrach, and Forest, £40 are received by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. Out of the same hamlets, those of Grwyne Vawr and Grwyne Vechan, and the borough of Tàlgarth, £590 are derived by the dean and canons, who have also a glebe of 22 acres, valued at £22 per annum, and called Tîr-y-Prior, or "the prior's land," from having been possessed by the priory. The vicar receives from the borough, and the hamlets of Grwyne Vawr and Vechan, £285, and likewise has a glebe of 22 acres, valued at £22 per annum. The church, which stands in the higher part of the village, and from all parts of the surrounding country presents a very respectable appearance, is dedicated to St. Gwendeline, or Gwenvrewi, and is a spacious and ancient structure, with a handsome square embattled tower surmounted with turrets. The interior consists of a nave and south aisle, separated by a series of five obtusely pointed arches, springing from octagonal pillars with plain capitals; the windows at the east end are in the later English style. From the churchyard, which is ornamented with numerous yew-trees, is a delightful prospect over a richly cultivated tract of country, embracing a great portion of the counties of Hereford and Radnor. The Independents and Calvinistic Methodists have places of worship: one belonging to the former, at Tredustan, possesses a small endowment, arising from the sum of £170, raised, as is supposed, by subscription, and secured on a bond from the late Lewis Williams, of Pentwyn, in the parish of Gwenddwr, bearing interest at 4½ per cent., and dated January 1st, 1797. Two day schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other conducted on the British and Foreign system; also five Sunday schools, one of which is a Church school, three belong to the Calvinistic Methodists, and one to the Independents.
Trevecca House, in the hamlet of Trevecca, was built by Howel Harris, the friend and disciple of the Rev. George Whitefield, whose tenets he adopted; and it became the seat of a religious community founded by this gentleman, to whose zeal may be ascribed the prevalence of Calvinistic doctrines among the dissenters in Wales. He was born at this place in 1714, and entered as a student at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1735; but, continuing there only one term, he quitted the university, became immediately an itinerant preacher, and, after experiencing considerable persecution, settled in his native place, where he was highly respected, and laid the foundation of a community, similar in some respects to those of the Moravians. For this purpose he built the house of Trevecca, and inclosed a sufficient quantity of garden-ground and land, for the accommodation of a large number of inhabitants, whom he invited to invest their property in one general fund, for the equal benefit of all. A portion of the day was spent in religious exercises at the chapel, in which service was performed three times in the day; and, during the intervals, the members were employed in cultivating the land belonging to the institution, the produce of which, after supplying the wants of the immediate locality, was sent to market, and the money added to the common fund. A woollen manufacture was also carried on by the members, who thus supplied the adjacent country, and even distant places, with some of the finest flannel made in the principality. The society flourished greatly, and at one time consisted of a hundred and fifty efficient members, exclusively of children; but after the death of Mr. Harris, who was both chaplain and treasurer, the number declined considerably, and the establishment is now rapidly hastening to decay. Mr. Harris, a short time prior to his death, settled the house and grounds, together with several leasehold farms, in trust for the use of the community; the leasehold property has long since fallen in, and there now remains only the house, with about seven acres of ground. The building is of singular appearance, combining the Grecian, early English, castellated, and Elizabethan styles of architecture; and being much too large for its very few proper inmates, it is let in tenements to different families: the chapel is opened regularly every alternate Sunday for public worship.
Walter Williams, of Neuadd-Vâch, bequeathed £10, the interest of which he appropriated to the instruction of one poor boy; and the parish is entitled to share in the benefit of the Boughrood charity at Brecknock, for apprenticing children, under the liberal endowment of Rice Powell. Near the church are four almshouses, with a garden to each, erected at the expense of John Gunter, Esq., who died in 1689; they have no endowment, and are kept in repair by the parish. Thomas Harris, Esq., of Tregunter, in 1782, bequeathed the interest of £200, for clothing ten men yearly, which is accordingly carried into effect under the superintendence of Mrs. Madocks, of Tregunter. Thomas Bennet, of Pen-yrWrlodd, in 1727, left a house and garden, called Tŷ Bâch, in the parish, the rent to be distributed among the poor of Trevecca; the house was pulled down many years since, and the ground pays 10s. per annum, which is divided among widows of the hamlet. Mrs. Sybil Williams, of Trêvithel, bequeathed £20 in money, now secured on Capel-y-Fin, in Llanigon; and Thomas Watkin Probert, by deed, in 1663, gave to the poor £10 per annum, charged on estates in Tàlgarth and Llangorse: both which charities are distributed on Good Friday.
On the Black Mountains are some imperfect Druidical remains, and vestiges of military works of ancient British origin. On a farm called Pendre, about half a mile from the village, is a very perfect earthwork, forming the segment of a circle, and extending for about two hundred yards; it appears to have been thrown up to cover the retreat of the natives to the mountains, or it may have been an outpost of the fortified station of Dinas, which lies directly in its rear, at the distance of two miles. This last fortress, once a place of great strength, occupies the summit of a conical hill, commanding the mountain pass to Crickhowel, and the eastern parts of the Vale of Usk; it was formerly of great importance, and constituted the head of a lordship marcher, conferring upon its possessor the dignity of a baron of parliament. It is said by most writers to have been built by one of the lords marcher; but Camden is of opinion that it had been previously occupied by the Britons, and identifies it with the fortress of Brecenanmere, which was attacked by Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, and Countess of Mercia, who had previously defeated Hwgan, Prince of Brecknock, and who took his wife with thirty of her attendants prisoners at Brecenanmere, and sent them into England. According to Leland, in whose time it was in ruins, Dinas was destroyed by the inhabitants of this part of the principality, during the reign of Henry IV., to prevent its falling into the hands of the Welsh chieftain, Owain Glyndwr. Near the place is a sulphureous spring, called Dinas Well.
Thomas Harris, who purchased the estate of Tregunter, and was an elder brother of Howel, above noticed, was born in the parish; in early life he settled in London, where he realized an ample fortune, with which he retired to his native place. The eldest of the brothers, Joseph, according to a tablet in the church, distinguished himself by his scientific researches; he held a respectable situation in the Mint, and was the author of several astronomical and mathematical treatises, which were highly appreciated.
TALIARIS, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Llandilo-Vawr, Lower division of the hundred of Perveth, county of Carmarthen, in South Wales, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 178 inhabitants. This place is situated on the banks of the Dulas river, over which here is a bridge, called Pont-Rhyd-y-March; and to the left of the road leading from Llandilo-Vawr to Lampeter. It consists of the two hamlets of Taliaris and Cwm Cawlud, which form the chapelry, and occupy the northern portion of the parish. Some portions of the surface are rugged, but in other parts, and especially at the warren and demesne of Taliaris, the scenery is truly beautiful: the soil is chiefly clay, more or less tenacious, yielding principally barley and oats; and black cattle, and sheep, are also reared. There are three corn and grist water-mills; and some quarries of rough stones for rubble masonry and road repairs. Taliaris, the seat of William Peel, Esq., second cousin of Sir Robert Peel, Bart., occupies an elevated and extensive range of ground, reaching nearly to the banks of the Dulas, and overspread with a profusion of full-grown trees, consisting of very large oak, ash, elm, beech, and fir, all of an ancient date, with above 100 acres of new plantations. The mansion is a spacious building in freestone, of the Doric order, with a rustic basement, erected in the reign of Charles I.; the estate is exceedingly picturesque, and has a fine sheet of water on an elevation above the house. It was at one time the residence of a branch of the Gwynne family.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £1400 royal bounty; total net income, £103, with a glebe-house; patron, Mr. Peel, above-mentioned, proprietor of the Taliaris estate, from which the minister is entitled to an annual stipend of £11, including £1 for preaching a sermon under the bequests of William and David Gwynne, in 1697 and 1713. The chapel is a cruciform structure, exhibiting a mullioned window of the ancient edifice. It was once a chapel of ease to Llandilo church, and after remaining in ruins, with its endowments alienated, was rebuilt by William Gwynne, Esq., and re-endowed with a portion of its former property; upon which it was opened by the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, during his refuge from political troubles at Golden Grove. The building contains some monuments of the Gwynne and Seymour families, and will accommodate about 250 persons, the seats being unappropriated, except in the south transept, which is reserved for the family at Taliaris. The late Lord Robert Seymour, of Taliaris, enlarged the chapel, endowed the benefice with eight acres of glebe, and built thereon a residence for the incumbent. The repairs of the chapel are charged upon the estate; and for the education of the children residing on the property, the late Robert Peel, Esq., endowed a school. There are, besides, several benefactions payable from the estate, for supplying the poor who attend the chapel with bread and money. On the Gaer-Vawr, near the house of Maes-y-Castell, is an ancient earthwork.
Talley, otherwise Tàl-Y-Llychau
TALLEY, otherwise TÀL-Y-LLYCHAU, a parish, in the poor-law union of Llandilo-Vawr, Lower division of the hundred of Cayo, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7½ miles (N.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 1068 inhabitants, of whom 418 are in the Lower, and 650 in the Upper, division. This place was originally of much greater importance than it is at present, and the seat of one of the most extensive and venerable ecclesiastical establishments in this part of the principality: the name signifies "the head of the lakes," and is derived from two large pools near the church, about fifty acres in extent. The parish is bounded on the south by Llandilo-Vawr and Llansawel, east and north by Llansadwrn and Cayo, and north and west by Llansawel. It is situated upon the river Cothy, on the turnpike-road from Llandilo-Vawr to Lampeter; and comprises by admeasurement 7167a. 2r. 19p., of which the arable portion may consist of about two-thirds, nearly 200 acres are woodland, 290a. 8p. a common, and the remainder pasture. The surface displays a continued succession of hill and dale, sideland and mountain top, and is rather woody, the principal timber being oak, ash, elm, fir, alder, &c. The soil is grey in colour, and tolerably deep and fertile; the chief agricultural produce is wheat, barley, oats, &c., with a good and sufficient supply of grass and hay for the use of the dairies. On the west the parish is bounded by the Cothy, a tributary of the Towy river, and several brooks rise in the parish and unite in the south-eastern part, where the stream thus formed pursues its course to the Towy. There are two small villages, named Talley and Cwmdû; and the mansion of Glanyrannel, pleasantly situated in grounds well laid out. A small fair is held on August 6th.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1000 parliamentary grant; net income, £127; patron, the Rev. William Thomas Nicholl, heir of the late Venerable Thomas Beynon, Archdeacon of Cardigan, who purchased the tithes and the advowson from the ancient family at Abermarles. The tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £299. 15., and there is a glebe attached of 3½ acres, valued at £11. 3. per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, having fallen into decay, was rebuilt in the Grecian style, in 1773, at the expense of the inhabitants, principally from the ruins of the ancient abbey of Talley, the nave of which formed the old church, and of which there are still some remains within the burial-ground, consisting of half the tower, and other considerable portions. The present is a neat edifice, and contains some monumental inscriptions, including a mural tablet to the memory of Sir Nicholas Williams, an ancestor of Sir James Hamlyn Williams, Bart. The area, exclusively of the chancel, is fifty feet long by thirty wide, and being all pewed, contains between 300 and 400 sittings, which belong to the rate-payers, except two, and the seats of the gallery, which are free. There were formerly five chapels of ease, but of none are there at present any remains; memorials of two are preserved in the names of small patches of ground, one being called Mynwent Capel Llanvihangel, "the churchyard of St. Michael's chapel," and the other, Mynwent Capel Crist, "the churchyard of Christ's chapel." In the parish are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, the poor of the latter of whom participate in the benefit of Mrs. Mary Griffith's charity at Llangeitho. A day school is held, under the patronage of Lady Mary Williams; and there are some Sunday schools.
The abbey was founded prior to 1197, by Rhŷs ab Grufydd, an ancestor of Lord Dynevor, for Præmonstratensian canons, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Baptist: a charter was given to it by Edward III., confirming a prior grant by the ancient Princes of South Wales in the time of Henry III. This establishment flourished until the Dissolution, at which period it had eight canons, and its revenue was estimated at £153. 1. 4. The remains, though much diminished by the appropriation towards rebuilding the church, are still considerable, containing, as already stated, about half the tower, and some portions of the transept on both sides, all within the churchyard, and the property of the owner of the tithes: the large bell that was sold to assist the parishioners in the erection of the church, in 1773, is now in Exeter cathedral. The situation of this structure, in a luxuriant vale embosomed among lofty hills, was peculiarly adapted for devotional retirement and contemplation. From the richness of the endowment, the abbots were little inferior in power to the bishops of the diocese; and to the influence of one of them, who was confessor and secretary to Rhŷs ab Thomas, has been attributed the active part which that chieftain took in favour of the Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII. Near the abbey, but within the parish of Llansawel, is the seat of Edwinsford, the property of Sir James Hamlyn Williams.
TÀL-Y-CAVN, a detached hamlet, in the parish of Llanbedr, union of Conway, hundred of Llêchwedd Isâv, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 7½ miles (N.) from Llanrwst. This isolated spot, though forming part of the parish of Llanbedr, is entirely surrounded by that of Caerhên. It is situated upon the western bank of the navigable river Conway, across which is a public ferry to Eglwys-Bâch, in the county of Denbigh. This is the only ferry between the bridges of Conway and Llanrwst, and near the approach to it is a small artificial mount, on which was once a tower, or castle, erected to defend the pass, but of which there are now not the slightest vestiges; the fort is said by Camden to have been called Bryn-Castell, and to have served as an exploratory tower forming an outpost of the Roman station Conovium.
TÀLYLLYN (TÀL-Y-LLYN), a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Llanbeulan, hundred of Llyvon, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6 miles distant (W. S. W.) from the town of Llangevni: the population is returned with the parish of Llanbeulan. This chapelry is situated in the south-western part of the island, and on the river Fraw, which falls into the little bay of Aberfraw in Carnarvon bay. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty; net income, £62; patron, O. M. F. Meyrick, Esq. The parochial chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a small edifice of no interest, situated near a pool from which the chapelry takes its name. It consists of a nave and chancel, with a chapel on the southern side of the latter: the font, placed against the southern wall of the nave, belonged to a more ancient edifice on the spot. Not far from the parochial chapel stands an old Hall, now used as a farmhouse, dating from the 17th century; it has been partially destroyed by fire, but still shows traces of having been once the residence of a gentleman. Hugh Wood, in the year 1611, bequeathed a messuage and garden in the town of Newborough, and a farm of 12½ acres in the liberties of that place, for the perpetual endowment and repairs of Tàlyllyn chapel: the premises in the town were let on a 99 years' building lease, that expired some years since; the farm of 12½ acres in the liberties produces a rent of £15 per annum, which is paid to the curate, who keeps the chapel in repair.
TÀLYLLYN (TÀL-Y-LLYN), a parish, in the union of Dôlgelley, hundred of Estimaner, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 8 miles (S. by W.) from Dôlgelley, on the turnpike-road to Towyn; containing 1069 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the situation of its church, at the head of a beautiful lake called Mwyngil. It extends eight miles in length and four in breadth, and includes a large portion of the lofty mountain Cader Idris. The area is about thirty-six thousand acres, of which only about six thousand are under cultivation, the remainder consisting chiefly of barren rugged hills, merely affording pasturage to sheep and goats. In the lower grounds the soil, though shallow, is enriched by several small rivers, which descend from the hills in various parts. The scenery is strikingly romantic, and derives much beauty from two lakes within the limits of the parish; one, called Llyn Cae, at the foot of Cader Idris, about a quarter of a mile long and nearly of equal breadth; and the other, called Mwyngil, which is the principal, more than a mile in length, and something less than half a mile broad. The latter abounds with excellent trout and eels: the vale in which it is situated is so contracted as to leave, for a considerable part of its length, only a very narrow road on each side of the water, and the clear surface of the lake reflects the precipitous acclivities on each side. Towards the extremity of the vale, the lake contracts gradually into the form of a river, rushing with rapidity through a stone arch into a very narrow pass, having on one side the church, and on the other the small cluster of houses which form the village, embosomed in trees, and assuming a romantically beautiful appearance. At the distance of a mile or two beyond the church, the hills almost meet, and present a sterile and rugged aspect; they are broken into numberless crags, of which some are vertical and sharply pointed, but the greater number project horizontally, and impend with threatening gloom over the vale beneath. One of these precipices, from its resemblance in form to a harp, has been called Pen-y-Delyn; and another, from a tradition that it was formerly the practice to throw thieves from its summit, has been denominated Llamy-Lladron, or "the thieves' leap." There were formerly some ancient seats in the parish, the principal of which were Aberlleveni and Maes-y-Pandy; but they have been abandoned by their proprietors, and are now occupied by tenants. Slate is found in the parish, and some quarries of it are worked, employing a considerable number of inhabitants.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; net income, £84; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield, whose tithes here have been commuted for a rentcharge of £250. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, and beautifully situated within a few yards of the lake, is an ancient building in the early English style of architecture. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A school on the British and Foreign system was established in the year 1845; and eleven Sunday schools are held, nine of them belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists, one to the Independents, and one to the Wesleyans. The Rev. John Owen gave £20; Catherine Hugh, £40; Elizabeth Edwards, £5; and Hugh Pugh, in 1812, £10; the interest of which sums is distributed among the poor at Christmas.
A mineral spring here, called the Bishop's Well, was formerly much resorted to for its efficacy in the cure of rheumatism. At a place designated Llwyn Dôl Ithel was found, in 1684, while digging for turf, a coffin made of deal, seven feet in length, and carved and gilt at both ends: two skeletons were deposited in it, the feet of the one lying by the head of the other; they were of uncommon size, and the bones moist and tough. Within a few yards of the coffin were two other skeletons of the same size, lying on the clay, and near them a grave in which was a skeleton of the ordinary size. Along the grave and coffin were laid hazel rods, with the bark remaining, and perfectly pliable. The high state of preservation in which these relics were found is attributed to the bituminous quality of the turbary in which they were deposited.
TAVOLOG, with Bryn-Uchel, a hamlet, in the parish of Cemmes, union and hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 9½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Machynlleth; containing 420 inhabitants, of whom 91 are in Tavolog. It is situated on the right bank of the river Tavolog, which falls into the river Dovey near Mallwyd; and forms the northern portion of the parish, which borders on Merionethshire.
Telbenny, or Talbenny
TELBENNY, or TALBENNY, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, in South Wales, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Haverfordwest; containing 257 inhabitants. It is situated on the south side of St. Bride's bay, on a ridge overlooking which the village is chiefly built. Goldtop Road, off the coast of the parish, forms the south-westernmost recess of the bay, and affords safe anchorage for vessels during gales from certain quarters. According to Mr. Morris' account, in his survey of the Welsh coast, it might be made a very safe roadstead, in three or four fathoms water, by the construction of a pier on Burrow Head, in the erection of which the beach might be cleared of the large stones that now encumber it. This improvement of the haven, it is thought, would make it a place of some trade, as there are several mines of stone-coal in the neighbourhood. At the western extremity of the parish is the small inlet of Mill Haven, and at the eastern that of Little Haven. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 12. 6.; patron, Sir John Owen, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £150; and there is a glebe of 25 acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated near the coast, below the village. A small school is supported by the rector.
TELYCH, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandingat which is in the higher division of the hundred of Perveth, in the union of Llandovery, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Llandovery; containing 218 inhabitants. It comprises a district through part of which flow the rivers Brân and Gwdderig, and exhibits some well-wooded inclosures, occupying the vales and sides of the hills.
TENBY (DYNBYCH-Y-PYSCOD), a parish, including the In-Liberty and the Out-Liberty, the former constituting the borough, and comprising the sea-port, market-town, and fashionable wateringplace, of Tenby; in the hundred of Narberth, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales; 10 miles (E.) from Pembroke, 20 (S. E.) from Haverfordwest, and 245 (W.) from London; containing 2803 inhabitants, of whom 2512 are within the limits of the borough. This place was at a very remote period occupied by the ancient Britons as a fishingtown, for which its situation on the coast rendered it extremely favourable; and from this circumstance it obtained its Welsh name, of the first part of which its modern appellation of Tenby is an obvious modification. According to George Owen, an eminent antiquary of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, whose manuscript history of Pembrokeshire is now in the library of the British Museum, the origin of the present town is attributable to the settlement of the Flemings in this part of the principality by Henry I., who placed them under the protection and control of Gerald de Windesor, governor of Pembroke Castle, whom he ordered to provide them with habitations, on condition of their garrisoning the castles the king then had in Wales, erected by the Normans for the security of the territories which they had usurped by conquest. In order to protect themselves from the repeated attacks of the native Welsh, and to maintain possession of the lands that had been assigned to them, they soon found it necessary to build the towns of Tenby, Pembroke, and Haverfordwest, which they fortified with strong and lofty walls; and from that time Tenby began to assume a high degree of importance as a strongly fortified military post, and progressively to enjoy, from its advantageous situation, considerable prosperity as a maritime and commercial town.
In the year 1150, Cadell, eldest son of Rhŷs ab Grufydd, Prince of South Wales, being on a hunting excursion in the neighbourhood, was suddenly attacked by a party of the inhabitants of Tenby, who lay in ambush for the purpose, and who, rushing from their concealment, soon put to flight the unarmed retinue by which he was attended: but Cadell resolutely defended himself against the assailants, of whom he killed several; and, though severely wounded in the conflict, ultimately effected his escape. Two years afterwards Meredydd and Rhŷs, brothers of Cadell, in order to avenge this outrage, assembled all their forces, and advancing to Tenby, scaled the walls of the town, surprised the castle, and put most of the garrison to the sword. During the minority of Isabel, Countess of Pembroke, the several castles in her earldom were entirely neglected, and that of Tenby, being unprovided with a sufficient garrison, was attacked by Maelgwyn and Hywel, who coming against it with an overwhelming force, destroyed the fortress, burned the town, and slew many of the inhabitants. It was a considerable time before Tenby recovered from the devastation it suffered upon this occasion: the castle was repaired, and its fortifications strengthened, by William Marshall, who, espousing Isabel, was created Earl of Pembroke; but the town remained for a much longer time in ruins. William had five sons, who all succeeded in turn to the palatinate: of these, Walter, the fourth son, gave orders for restoring the town and building a new church and an almshouse; but dying in 1246 before his intentions were carried into effect, Warren de Mountchensy, who married one of his sisters, and eventually succeeded in her right to the earldom, completed the plans of his predecessor, and made to the church a valuable present of plate and jewels.
During the wars of the houses of York and Lancaster, the fortifications were repaired and strengthened by Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, who, in the 36th of Henry VI. (1458), caused the platform along the summit of the walls to be widened, for the greater facility of posting soldiers on the battlements, and the moat by which they were surrounded to be much increased in depth and breadth. Henry, Earl of Richmond (afterwards Henry VII.), and his mother, sought shelter in the castle of this place, to which they were brought by David ab Thomas, one of the brothers of Sir Rhŷs, a zealous adherent of the house of Lancaster, from Pembroke Castle, where they had been besieged. Here they received due attention from the mayor of the town, and embarked for Brittany under the protection of Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, uncle of Henry, who accompanied them to the continent. In the reign of Elizabeth, a memorial was presented by the Bishop of St. David's, and the principal persons of the county, praying that fit persons might be sent to inspect the castle and fortifications of Tenby, &c., preparatory to putting them into a state of defence against the threatened invasion of the Invincible Armada of Spain. The walls were consequently restored by order of the queen, whose initials, with the date 1588, are still visible.
At the commencement of the civil war in the reign of Charles I., the castle and the town were garrisoned for the king; and in 1644, Colonel Laugharne, with a strong body of parliamentary forces, laid siege to the place, which was resolutely defended by Colonel Gwyn, the governor, for three days, when, a breach being made in the walls, it was taken by storm, and the governor, the high sheriff, and three hundred men were made prisoners. In 1647, the castle and town were seized for the king by the same Colonel Laugharne, who, in conjunction with Colonel Poyer (governor of Tenby for the parliament) and Colonel Powell, had abandoned the parliamentarian cause, and embraced the royal interests. From the strength of the garrison, composed of three hundred men, with twenty-five pieces of ordnance, and from the abundant store of provisions and ammunition with which it was supplied, it proved a formidable obstacle to the entire subjugation of the country to the authority of the parliament. Cromwell, who soon after came into South Wales with an army of eight thousand men, sent a detachment of twelve hundred, under the command of Colonel Read, to besiege this place; while he himself proceeded to obtain possession of Pembroke, then held by the three royalist commanders in person. For five days it held out against all the efforts of the united forces of Colonels Read and Constable, by the latter of whom the former had been joined, until the suburbs were at length taken by storm, and a breach made in the walls; the garrison was then compelled to surrender at discretion, and among the prisoners were numerous gentlemen of the surrounding country.
The town is romantically situated on the eastern and southern sides of a rocky peninsula, stretching out into the Bristol Channel, and rising a hundred feet above the level of high water. It consists of one principal street, and several smaller streets diverging from it, which latter are in some instances inconveniently narrow. The houses are in general well built and of respectable appearance, and some of them command fine views over the sea. Considerable improvements have been made of late years, among which may be noticed the erection of a new markethouse by the corporation, in 1829, and the formation, at a cost of £900, of a line of road, by which the approach to the town is greatly facilitated, and a steep and dangerous descent from Narberth and the eastern parts of the adjacent country avoided, and which was opened to the public in 1831. In the session of 1837-8 an act was passed for the improvement of Tenby, and the regulation of its harbour. The main street is well paved, and lighted, and the town is amply supplied with water, brought to the different houses, at the expense of the corporation, for which the occupiers pay from 10s. to 30s. a year, according to the value of their houses. The surrounding scenery is beautiful: the majestic masses of rock, of various forms and hues, that line the coast; the numerous bays and distant promontories stretching into the sea; the receding coasts of Carmarthenshire, with the projecting headland of Gower, inclosing the great bay of Carmarthen, on the western boundary of which the town is situated; and the small islands of Caldey and Lundy, with the shores of Somerset and Devon, combine to impart a high degree of interest, variety, and beauty to the sea-view, which is also pleasingly enlivened by the frequent passing and repassing of vessels navigating the Bristol Channel. On one side of the town is a drive of ten miles to the ancient town of Pembroke, through a fine champaign country, studded with churches, old castles, villages, and gentlemen's seats surrounded with plantations and pleasure-grounds. On the other side, the country is agreeably diversified with swelling eminences clothed with verdure, and small valleys richly wooded. The beautiful situation of the town, the fine beach and firm and smooth sands, extending two miles in length to the south, and one mile to the north, the transparency of the sea-water, and the pleasant walks and rides in the vicinity, have rendered Tenby a fashionable place of resort for bathing, and, since the close of the last century, raised it from the decline into which it had for many years previously fallen, to a high rank among the most favourite watering-places. Many good lodging-houses have been built for visiters, and a number of respectable private houses are also appropriated during the season to the reception of families.
Baths, provided with every convenience, were erected by the late Sir William Paxton under the castle hill, and are supplied from a capacious reservoir filled from the sea at every tide. The establishment comprises two spacious pleasure-baths, one for gentlemen and one for ladies, four small cold-baths, and also warm sea-water and vapour baths, with apparatus for heating them to any degree of temperature required: the same building contains lodgingrooms for the accommodation of such invalids as may find it inconvenient to be at a distance from the baths, and a general room as a promenade, and for taking refreshments. The exterior of the edifice is neat, though without any pretension to architectural style; and an excellent carriage-road has been made to the house, which commands a fine view over the sea, on one side, and, on the other, of the shipping in the bay. A small theatre was erected about the year 1810; but dramatic performances not being much encouraged here, it has been converted into dwelling-houses. A literary and scientific society was established in September 1847, which has a well-supplied reading-room; and in the High-street, opposite the church, is a good subscription library and reading-room. There are two billiard-rooms, and balls are held every fortnight during the season under the direction of a master of the ceremonies: races take place in the middle of August. The sands afford delightful promenades, and abound with shells of various descriptions, not less than one-half of the British collection of six hundred varieties having been found on this coast, on which many valuable shells commonly esteemed foreign have also been found.
Soon after the settlement of the Flemings at this place, the small harbour was greatly improved for the convenience of the shipping employed at the port. The trade, from that time, progressively increased; and a very considerable part of the population was engaged in carrying on the woollen manufacture, which was introduced by these settlers, and continued to flourish here for many years. From what cause the commercial and manufacturing importance of the town first began to decline, has not been clearly ascertained, but its manufactures have been neglected for a great length of time. The trade at present chiefly consists in exporting to the western and southern coasts of England the coal, culm, and limestone raised in the Out-Liberty of the parish, and which are shipped from Saundersfoot, in the parish of St. Issel's, three miles to the north; and in the importation of shop-wares from Bristol, between which city and Tenby a regular communication is maintained by means of steampackets. Considerable benefit will be derived from the Tenby and South Wales railway, authorized by act of parliament in 1846, and which will have a short branch to Saundersfoot; the total length being seven miles and a half. The works of this line, however, have not yet been commenced, as their construction depends on the progress made in the great South Wales railway, which is not yet brought into this part of the country. According to the custom-house regulations, the harbour is a creek to the port of Milford. It is dry at low water, and is sheltered from the south and west winds by the lofty peninsula on which the town is situated: on the east it is protected by the castle hill; and on the north by a small but handsome pier of ancient erection, which, stretching north-westward from the castle hill, in an irregular curve, terminates in a kind of circular bastion, the whole forming a remarkably picturesque object. The mouth of the harbour is daily cleared by a body of water retained each tide by flood-gates. The adjacent bay of Carmarthen abounds with almost every species of fish; there are several fishing-smacks belonging to Tenby, and the bay is also frequented by vessels from the neighbouring and opposite coasts.
The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, and the fish-market, which is plentifully supplied with excellent fish, is opened daily. Poultry, to the value of £100 a week, and large quantities of fish, are sent to Bristol by steamer. Fairs are held on May 4th, Whit-Tuesday, July 1st, October 2nd, and December 4th: that called St. Margaret's may, by charter, continue for three days; but since the establishment of the fair at Narberth, in the reign of Charles II., in consequence of the more central situation of that place, the fairs of this town have been on the decline, and are now but very thinly attended. A new market-place, as noticed above, was constructed in the High-street, at the expense of the corporation, in 1829, on a site purchased for £450; it is commodiously arranged, and has a handsome façade, with the arms of the borough sculptured in relief, on a shield of white marble, in the tympanum of the pediment above the entrance. A new fish-market was opened at the end of Belle Vue, near the top of Quay Hill, in the year 1847.
The inhabitants were first incorporated by William de Valence, with the consent of his consort Johanna, by whose right he had succeeded to the palatinate. This nobleman's charter, which is still extant, ordains that the burgesses should choose annually from among themselves two portreeves, and that they should have free common over all his lands from mowing and reaping times until the feast of the Purification. It was acknowledged and enlarged by his son, Aymer de Valence, also Earl of Pembroke; and, in the 16th of Edward III., by Laurence de Hastings, Earl of Pembroke. The latter earl's charter was confirmed by Edward himself in the 49th year of his reign. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke, extended the privileges of the burgesses, and made the mayor an independent justice; and all the charters granted by the earls, as well as those bestowed by the reigning sovereigns, were ratified by their successors from the time of Edward III. to that of Elizabeth. Henry IV., by charter conferred in the year 1402, first placed the government in a mayor and two bailiffs, to be elected annually; and in the 23rd of Henry VI., the crown granted to the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses, that they should be free from all murage, pontage, &c., at the port of Bristol. Elizabeth, in the 23rd of her reign, confirmed all preceding charters, and incorporated the inhabitants under the designation of the "Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the borough of Tenby," granting them power to elect a second justice of the peace from among the aldermen, who, with the mayor, should hold courts of quarter-session, with authority to punish for all felonies, trespasses, and misdemeanors, not affecting life or limb. Charles I., in his 6th year, added a third justice of the peace, and two serjeants-at-mace, one to be nominated by the mayor, and the other by the bailiffs, whom he made keepers of the common gaol and house of correction, and also charged with the execution of all writs. Under these various charters the control was vested in a mayor (who was also coroner), two bailiffs, two justices, and an indefinite number of common-councilmen and burgesses, assisted by a townclerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and other officers.
By the act 5th and 6th of William IV., c. 76, the corporation is now styled the "Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of Tenby," and consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, together forming the council of the borough, of which the municipal and parliamentary boundaries, including about 600 acres, are the same. The council elect the mayor annually on Nov. 9th, out of the aldermen or councillors; and the aldermen sexennially out of the councillors, or persons qualified as such, one-half going out of office every three years, but being re-eligible: the councillors are chosen annually on Nov. 1st, by and from among the enrolled burgesses, one-third retiring every year. Aldermen and councillors must each have a property qualification of £500, or be rated at £15 annual value. The burgesses consist of the occupiers of houses and shops who have been rated for three years to the relief of the poor. Two auditors and two assessors are elected annually on March 1st, by and from among the burgesses; and the council appoint a town-clerk, treasurer, and other officers, on Nov. 9th. The income of the borough in the year 1810 was £287, in 1820 £572, and in 1830 £616; and according to the report of the Municipal Commissioners in the year 1834, it then amounted to £801, of which £622 were derived from lands and houses, £64 from tolls, £10 from water-rents, and £105 from harbour-dues. Some opinion may be formed of the importance of the property belonging to the corporation, from the circumstance, that during the period of twenty-two years commencing in 1810, about £7300 were expended in general improvements; namely, £1700 for the erection of a market; £1297 for supplying the town with water; £309 for paving and repairing the streets; and about £4000 for improving the place, removing obstructions, and for labour. Of the sum paid for obtaining a due supply of water, £100 were for a reservoir, and £700 for pipes.
This borough, with Wiston, was, in the 27th of Henry VIII., made contributory to Pembroke, in the return of a parliamentary member: by the act of 1832 to "Amend the Representation," Milford was added to the district of boroughs. The elective franchise, until the passing of that act, was vested in the burgesses at large, in number nearly 400, of whom about 130 were resident. It is now exercised by the old resident burgesses, and the £10 householders: the number of houses within the limits of the borough, of value sufficient to qualify their tenants, is 220. Tenby is one of the places at which the poll is appointed to be taken at county elections.
The corporation formerly held quarterly courts of session for the borough, on the Friday after the county-sessions were held, for the trial of all offenders, of whom the punishment did not affect life or limb; a court of record for the recovery of debts to any amount above the sum of forty shillings, called the monthly court, which was held on the first Thursday in every month, and had power to issue process to hold to bail in actions for debt; and a court every fortnight, on Monday, for the recovery of debts under forty shillings. The jurisdiction of these courts extended over the entire In-Liberty of the parish, constituting the borough, in which neither the county magistrates nor the sheriff had any authority. By the Municipal act of the reign of William IV., the borough was deprived of its exclusive jurisdiction, and other privileges, such as exemption from county rates, the ballot for the militia, &c.; the county magistrates have now concurrent jurisdiction with the borough magistrates, and all cases of moment are referred to the general or quarter sessions at Haverfordwest, the county town. The town prison is used only as a place of temporary confinement, or prior to the committal of prisoners to the county gaol at Haverfordwest.
The living consists of a consolidated rectory and vicarage, in the gift of the Crown; the rectory rated in the king's books at £26. 10. 10., and the vicarage, which is discharged, at £13. 6. 8. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £236; and there is a glebe of fifteen acres, valued for the poor-rate at £52 per annum, with a house, valued at £42 per annum. Tenby church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a venerable and spacious structure, principally in the early style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire, 152 feet in height: being situated in the centre of the town, it forms a prominent feature in the view of it from the sea and the surrounding country. The present edifice was erected in the year 1250, by Warren de Mountchensy, Earl of Pembroke, after the destruction of the town by the sons of Rhŷs ab Grufydd. The body consists of a nave, north and south aisles, and a chancel; and the church is richer in sepulchral monuments than any other in South Wales, excepting the two cathedrals. Of these, the most remarkable are the monuments of John and Thomas White, brothers, and eminent merchants of the place, which are sumptuously embellished and elaborately sculptured; each has the effigy of the deceased, in the costume of the time, and in each also are four compartments, containing effigies of other members of the family, of whom was Griffith White, mayor of the borough when Henry Earl of Richmond embarked here for the continent, and to whom, after his accession to the throne, that monarch, in recompense for his services, granted a lease of all the crown lands in the vicinity of the town. An altar-tomb is still remaining, to which a brass representing a bishop was formerly affixed, supposed to have been the memorial of Tully, Bishop of St. David's. The western entrance to the church is beneath an arch surmounted with the inscription, in characters of the 13th or 14th century, "Benedictus Dominus in Domis Suis." The ceiling of the nave is of neatly carved wainscot, and that of the chancel is of wainscot much more richly ornamented; it is divided into square compartments with a knot of curiously carved work in the angle of each panel, the ribs resting on figures rudely carved holding escutcheons for arms. Some repairs were effected in the building in 1847, partly by a rate, partly by subscription, and partly by the aid of Mr. and Miss Tuder. According to Mr. Fenton, three chantry priests were appointed to officiate in the church, one at the altar of Jesus, another at that of St. Anne, and a third at the "Rood of Grace;" for which services, lands producing at that time £13. 3. per annum, together with thirteen shillings and fourpence for lamps, were settled on the church. There are places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, Independents, and Baptists; and a building on the pier, said to have been dedicated to St. Julian, and used as an oratory, in Roman Catholic times, by seamen, prior to their setting out on a voyage, has been occasionally used by the dissenters as a marine chapel. National schools for boys and girls were built in 1831, on the castle hill; an infants' school is held, and there are several Sunday schools. A dispensary was established in 1843 for the benefit of the poor, supported by subscriptions, under the management of the medical practitioners of the town.
An hospital in the town, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, was founded at a very early period, but by whom is unknown: about the year 1236, it was endowed by Gilbert Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, with lands for the relief of the lepers therein; and its revenue at the Dissolution was valued at £3. 5. Queen Elizabeth, in the 23rd year of her reign, vested the lands in the corporation, in trust for the benefit of the poor; and in the 43rd of the same reign, by an act of parliament for the better regulation and support of the poor, these estates were transferred from the former trustees to the overseers and churchwardens of the parish of St. Mary, Tenby. The present income is only about £14 per annum; but on the expiration of the leases, which were granted many years since, the revenue will be much increased. Two marks, or £1. 6. 8., per annum, are paid to the poor in a monthly gift of bread, by the proprietor of the estate of St. Botolph's, in the parish of Steynton; being a bequest made about the year 1633 by Richard Budd, in consideration of his having been saved from shipwreck by taking refuge within Tenby pier. William Risam, in 1633, bequeathed £50, and £200, to be lent without interest to, and to provide coal for, the poor; and to be employed in putting out apprentices: these sums are now lost, having been improvidently lent; as was likewise a bequest of £10, left by Thomas Barret, in 1623. Dr. John Jones left in trust to his brother, the Rev. William Jones, certain property, to be applied to such charitable uses as he might think proper; and, in 1703, the latter gentleman appropriated £413, to be vested in the purchase of land, now producing £63 per annum, for apprenticing children, and towards the maintenance of such persons as cannot support their families by their own labour; to which purpose is also applied the interest of a bequest of £40, by Anne Hitchings, in 1813. Of the charities until lately administered by the corporation, the principal are a bequest of £250, by Abra Bowen, in 1679, another of £40, by Mrs. Anne Lloyd, and a third of £6, by Mrs. Hunt; with which certain lands were purchased, now yielding £27 per annum, the chief part of which is divided among three aged natives of the town, and the residue among the poor generally; together with the produce of £50, left by Mary Lewis, in 1783, in money and bread. The charities till lately under the control of the churchwardens, exclusively of Budd's gift, noticed above, consist of donations in bread, arising from some small bequests for the purpose. Among what were the overseers' charities, besides the hospital lands, are some fields in Knowle Park, purchased many years since with a bequest of £50, by Thomas Wyatt, in 1644, and now let at £15 per annum; and a rent of £2. 16. from Upper Cwm Park, bought with bequests of £10, by Elizabeth Pint, in 1656, and £45, by Anthony Williams, in 1696. Since the passing of the Municipal act, the public charities have been under the control of nine charity-trustees appointed by the lord chancellor. Some of the charities have been lost, and the principal of others laid out in the purchase of land; the whole of those still in existence are now comprised under three heads, Dr. Jones's, Almshouse, and Abra Bowen's, and their gross annual value is about £190. There is also property for the repair of the church, consisting chiefly of land, and producing from £60 to £70 per annum: and besides the harbour-dues, there are certain funds for the maintenance of the quay, pier, and harbour, consisting of nominal rents for houses, stores, and pieces of land, near the shore and other parts of the town.
The remains of the castle are very considerable, though mostly in a dilapidated condition. The fortress once comprised within its defences the whole of the little rocky peninsula which, projecting eastward from the eastern extremity of the town, forms the southern limit of the small bay of Tenby; but the only portions now sufficiently entire to convey any idea of its original strength are, a bastion and a square tower, in tolerable preservation, some portions of the walls, and the principal gateway entrance. The state apartments may still be traced among the ruins, and they exhibit the appearance of a splendid baronial residence, rather than the features of a military fortress. On the north of the grand entrance are the ruins of a once stately hall, a hundred feet in length, and twenty feet wide; and near the gateway are the remains of another apartment, eighty feet long, and thirty wide; attached to which are smaller rooms, that seem to have been offices and barracks for the garrison. A portion of the keep also remains, occupying the most elevated part of the castle hill, and presenting an appearance of great antiquity. The ancient walls by which the town was surrounded are still in some places entire: the path along their summit, from the northern extremity of the fortifications to the south gate, may be traced; and the pointed arches by which the platform for manning the battlements was supported, are also discernible. There yet remain two of the towers by which they were defended, the battlements of the towers being supported by corbels; and likewise the south gate, surmounted by a low semicircular bastion of great strength: and besides these, some other towers of smaller dimensions, chiefly circular, and a square turret near the eastern extremity, are in tolerable preservation. Several of the towers are richly mantled with ivy, and the whole convey an imposing idea of the ancient importance of this fortress.
Numerous specimens of old domestic architecture, formerly existing, have been removed for the purpose of widening the streets, and otherwise improving the town; but sufficient yet remain to give some notion of the style prevailing in Tenby during its occupation by the Flemings. Several beautiful engravings, also, of remains of early military and domestic architecture, now entirely destroyed, are preserved in the "Etchings of Tenby" by C. Norris, Esq., published in 1812. Among the ecclesiastical establishments that existed at the place were, an hospital or free chapel, founded by William de Valence, and dedicated to St. John the Baptist, which, at the Dissolution, had an endowment of £9. 3. 2. for an officiating priest; and a convent instituted by John de Swinemor, in 1399, for Carmelite friars, and in honour of St. Mary. Of this latter, some beautiful doorways may still be traced. Near the coast to the east of the town are several gentlemen's seats, some of them of very ancient date; among which are, Kîlgetty, Hên Castle, Merrixton, Bonville's Court, and Amroath Castle. To seaward are some insulated rocks of romantic character, in which curious natural caverns have been excavated by the action of the winds and tides; some of these are accessible on foot at low water, and one, off the Castle point, called St. Catherine's island, has been completely perforated by the force of the waves, and presents a very interesting appearance. About two miles and a half from the pier at Tenby, is the extra-parochial island of Caldey, which is described under its own head: it contains 87 inhabitants; and the extra-parochial island called St. Margaret's has 22 inhabitants. Robert Loughor, LL.D., distinguished by his literary attainments, and by the offices which he filled in the university of Oxford, was born at this town, where he died in 1585. Robert Record, M.D., also a native of Tenby, is mentioned by George Owen, as having been renowned for his works on cosmography, arithmetic, and geometry; he died in the reign of Queen Mary.
THOMAS' (ST.), a township, forming that part of the parish of Swansea which is in the hundred of Llangyvelach, in the borough and union of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, half a mile (E.) from Swansea; containing 683 inhabitants. This place, within the last few years, has greatly increased in population and importance. It is situated on the left bank, and near the mouth, of the river Tawy, across which is a ferry to the town of Swansea on the opposite bank, but which, during the whole of the interval from two hours before till two hours after the time of low water, is fordable. Considerable alterations have been made here, by way of improving the harbour of Swansea: the principal are, the construction of the eastern pier, extending six hundred yards across the mouth of the Tawy, and inclosing a capacious basin, which at high water has a noble appearance; and the formation of Port-Tennant, the private property of H. T. Tennant, Esq., by whom it was projected, and at whose sole expense it was completed. This latter consists of a dock capable of receiving vessels of two hundred tons' burthen, communicating with the Swansea and Neath Junction canal, formed by the same gentleman, which extends hence to the village of Cadoxton, about a mile above Neath, where it joins the Neath canal, thus providing a cheap means of conveyance between Port-Tennant and a large district abounding with coal and culm, which are brought down the canal and here shipped. The hamlet includes a portion of the Cremlyn Burrows, an extensive marsh stretching along the coast, and bounded on the south by Swansea bay. It formerly contained a chapel of ease to the church of St. Mary, Swansea; but, from the encroachment of the sea on this part of the coast, the site cannot now be distinguished. The seat Tan-yGraig is pleasantly situated in the township.
THOMAS' (ST.), a hamlet, in the union of Haverfordwest, in that part of the parish of St. Thomas, Haverfordwest, which is in the hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, in South Wales, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Haverfordwest; containing 160 inhabitants. The road to Herbrandston passes through it; and on the west it is bounded by a stream that flows into the Western Cleddy river.