A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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THREAP-WOOD, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Wrexham, said to be partly included in the hundred of Broxton, county of Chester, in England, but chiefly in that of Maelor, county of Flint, North Wales, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Malpas; the Welsh portion containing 126 inhabitants. This district is surrounded by the parishes of Malpas, Hanmer, and Worthenbury, and, until of late years, formed a tract of waste common, which, on account of its extra-parochial exemption from local jurisdiction, was long the resort of abandoned characters. For the purposes of the Militia act it was annexed to Worthenbury, and by the Mutiny act was connected with Malpas; but the inhabitants, considering themselves beyond the reach of all legal authority, opposed, even with force, the execution of the assize and other laws within their precinct. At length a chapel was erected, which, being endowed in 1817 with £1800 parliamentary grant, is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £87 and a parsonage-house, in the gift of the Bishop of Chester. In 1843, schools in connexion with the Church were established; they are under the patronage of Lord Kenyon, and, in conjunction with the civilizing influence exercised by a resident clergyman, have produced a very salutary effect on the character of the population. A Church Sunday school is also held.
TÎR-ESGOB (TÎR-YR-ESGOB), with Rhôsmaen, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Perveth, in the union of LlandiloVawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 590 inhabitants. It is situated on the western bank of the river Towy; and the road from Llandilo-Vawr to Llangadock passes through it, in a direction parallel with that stream.
TÎR-IVAN (TÎR-IEUAN), a township, in that part of the parish of Yspytty-Ivan which is in the hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, in the union of Llanrwst, in North Wales, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Pentre-Voelas; containing 268 inhabitants. It is situated near the source of the river Conway, on the borders of Carnarvonshire and Merionethshire, where the mountains form elevated and extensive wastes, from which numerous streams descend. The name Tir Ivan signifies "the ground or territory of Ieuan," or John, and is derived from the circumstance of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem having had an hospitium here, founded by Ivan ab Rhŷ;s about the year 1189. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £70.
TÎRMYNYCH (TÎR-Y-MYNEICH), a township, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Geneu'r-Glyn, union of Aberystwith, Upper division of the hundred of Geneu'r-Glyn, county of Cardigan, South Wales; containing 276 inhabitants, who are exclusively employed in agriculture.
TÎR-ROSSER (TÎR-RHOS-HÎR), with Blaenau, a hamlet, in the parish of Llandebie, union of Llandilo-Vawr, hundred of Iscennen, county of Carmarthen, South Wales; containing 251 inhabitants. The name signifies "the long marshy ground," and is descriptive of the situation of this hamlet among the streams which unite to form the Loughor river.
TÎR-Y-BRENKEN (TÎR-Y-BRENIN), with Briskedwin, a hamlet, in the parish of Llandeilo, union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 7 miles (N. N.W.) from Swansea; containing 485 inhabitants, of whom 188 are in Tîr-y-Brenken. The road from Swansea to Carmarthen passes through this hamlet, in which are some respectable residences.
TÎRYMYNACH (TîR-Y-MYNEICH), a hamlet, in the parish of Guilsfield, hundred of Pool, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 5 miles (E.) from Welshpool; containing 283 inhabitants. The name implies "the monks' ground," and is derived from the circumstance of the hamlet having belonged to the abbey of Strata Marcella, in the neighbouring parish of Welshpool. A portion, amounting to about five hundred acres, is tithe-free; the tithes of the remainder have been commuted for £163, of which £121. 10. are payable to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, Oxford, and £41. 10. to the vicar of Guilsfield. The surrounding country is well cultivated, and productive.
TOWYN (TYWYN-MEIRIONYDD), a market-town and bathing-place, and a parish, in the union of Machynlleth, hundred of Estimaner, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 16 miles (S. W.) from Dôlgelley, and 221 (W.N.W.) from London; containing, with the sea-port and bathingplace of Aberdovey, 2907 inhabitants. This town is beautifully situated at the distance of about a mile from the sea-coast, near the mouth of the river Dysynni, in a small and pleasant vale, watered by that stream, and on the verge of a tract which once formed a very extensive morass, but which has been secured by an embankment from the inundation of the tide. The surrounding scenery is strikingly diversified, combining features of romantic grandeur with picturesque beauty. In the rear the town is sheltered by a distant chain of lofty mountains, among which the summits of Cader Idris appear in all their majesty; while in front it commands a fine expansive view over the bay of Cardigan. The houses, which are built principally of the coarse grey stone found in the neighbourhood, are of respectable appearance, and the general aspect of the place is neat and prepossessing. The fine beach near the town, being remarkably convenient for sea-bathing, has made it the resort during the summer season of numerous visiters, from Llanidloes, Newtown, Montgomery, &c.; and valetudinarians are also attracted hither by a well, called St. Cadvan's, in a field below the church, much celebrated for the cure of rheumatic, scrofulous, and cutaneous disorders. This well was formerly quite open, but for the better accommodation of the public has been inclosed, and made into two baths, each about six feet square, with four dressing-rooms attached; the whole under the care of a person appointed for the purpose. Several improvements have taken place in the town of late years; some new houses have been erected, and a line of road has been constructed, forming an easier approach. The sands are firm and smooth, and the drive over them to Aberdovey, a rising village about four miles distant, especially at low water, is very pleasant. A beautiful line of road to that interesting spot has been constructed under the auspices of Athelstan Corbet, Esq., whose seat is near the town, and is continued from Aberdovey to Pennal, affording an extensive ride through a tract of country abounding with picturesque scenery, and commanding views of Snowdon, Aran Mowddy, Cader Idris, and Plinlimmon. Races were formerly held on the marsh below the town, on the 6th and 7th of September: they are now held near Aberdovey.
The parish, which comprises a wide district of about thirty thousand acres, is bounded on the north by the river Dysynni, on the south by the Dovey, on the west by Cardigan bay, and on the east by the parishes of Tàlyll-y-Bryn; and Pennal. It extends eight or nine miles in length, and from five to six in breadth, including, besides part of the Vale of Dysynni, a large tract of land on the banks of the river Dovey, and reaching to within a very short distance of the church of Pennal. The surface is greatly diversified, and the high grounds above Tàlgarth, Penmaen Dovey, and the town, embrace fine prospects of the Vales of Dovey, Pennal, and Dysynni, with the surrounding hills and Cardigan bay. The soil is various. Some copper and lead mines in the parish have been let by their proprietor to a company in London; and there are slate-quarries near the port of Aberdovey, which is described under its appropriate head. Webs and flannels are manufactured in various parts of the parish, affording employment to a portion of the inhabitants. The market is on Friday; and fairs are held on March 16th, May 14th, September 17th, and November 18th. Towyn is one of the places at which the poll is appointed to be taken in the election of the parliamentary representative of the county.
The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage. Of these, the rectory, which is an appropriation annexed to the bishopric of Lichfield, by a forced exchange in the reign of Edward VI., is rated in the king's books at £60. 13. 4.; the vicarage, which is discharged, is rated at £6. 13. 4., and is of the net annual value of £224, with a glebe-house, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes have been commuted for £980, of which a sum of £800 is payable to the Bishop of Lichfield, and £180 to the vicar. The church is dedicated to St. Cadvan, a native of Armorica, who is said to have come to Britain, with other missionaries, about the commencement of the sixth century, and to have been afterwards abbot of Bardsey. It is a spacious and ancient cruciform structure, in the Norman style of architecture; the building contains some very old monuments, and on the north side of the chancel, under arched canopies, are the effigies of two persons, of whom one, wrapped in a winding-sheet, is supposed to represent Cadvan, and the other, in armour, Grufydd ab Adda, of Dôlgoch in the parish. There is also a stone, seven feet and a half long, having sculptured upon it several inscriptions, in very ancient characters, and so mutilated as to be almost illegible; it is called St. Cadvan's Stone, and formerly stood erect against a tomb in the churchyard. In the cemetery was another upright stone rudely carved, which commemorated some warrior. At Aberdovey is a chapel in connexion with the Established Church, in the Vicar's gift. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists.
Lady Moyer, in 1717, gave £400 three and a half per cent. consols. for the foundation and endowment of a school, which was further endowed, in the same year, by Athelstan Owen, Esq., with £4 per annum; twenty-two children are gratuitously instructed, and others paid for by their parents: the master's salary, under the endowments, is £16. 12. per annum. A British and Foreign school is also held, and the parish contains eleven Sunday schools. Some almshouses in the village for five widows were founded, and endowed with lands now producing £20 a year, by Mrs. Anne Owen. From the Rev. Edward Morgan's charity at Llangelynin 20s. per annum are received, and distributed on Easter Monday, among such poor people and children as can best repeat the Church catechism. Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Dôl-y-Cletur, county of Cardigan, in 1691 bequeathed a tenement and land, designated Abergroes, in the township of Is-yr-Avon, consisting, with mountain, of 128a. 3r. 35p., and paying £15 per annum rent, for the benefit exclusively of the poor of the township; and the commissioners of charities lately directed that this benefaction, together with 23s., the produce of others in the township of Cynval Vawr, should in future be applied to the support of a school in the former.
On the contracted summit of an immense rock, rising to a considerable elevation from the vale in which the town is situated, are some remains of an ancient castle of great strength, whose fortifications comprehend the entire summit of the eminence: one of the apartments, thirty-six feet in diameter, was hewn out of the solid rock. This fortification, which is called Tebeni, Mr. Pennant conjectures to have been the strong castle of Bere, fortified by Davydd ab Grufydd, and taken in 1283 by William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, a short time prior to the entire subjugation of the principality by Edward I., by which monarch it was committed to the custody of Robert Fitz-Walter, who at the same time obtained the privilege of hunting in the circumjacent country. The Roman road from Cevn Caer, a Roman station in the parish of Pennal, to the village of Carreg, on the opposite bank of the river Dovey, passes through the parish. Near Towyn a battle was fought between the Welsh partisans of the house of Lancaster, under the command of Thomas ab Grufydd ab Nicholas, of Dynevor, and those of the house of York, under Henry ab Gwilym, of Court Henry, one of the Earl of Pembroke's captains; in which the former gained a decisive victory. Here also the same Thomas ab Grufydd encountered in single combat David Gough, a near kinsman of Matthew Gough, a celebrated warrior in the reigns of Henry V. and Henry VI.; whom he slew. A tumulus situated in the grounds of Tàlgarth is said to have been raised over the body of Thomas ab Grufydd, and some of his followers, who were murdered while asleep on the spot, by a party of the adherents of the vanquished.
At a small distance from the town is Ynysymaengw-y-Bryn; the seat of A. Corbet, Esq., a noble mansion, pleasantly situated in grounds tastefully laid out, comprehending much beautiful scenery, and embellished with flourishing plantations, and timber of ancient growth, among which is an evergreen oak, considered to be the finest tree of its kind in the kingdom. The gardens rank among the first in the principality, being very extensive, and containing many curious and rare trees and plants. This seat, during the parliamentary war, was burnt to the ground, to prevent its affording any shelter to the parliament's forces; and on a farm in the immediate vicinity, called -y-Bryn Castell, is a circular mound of earth, near which, some years since, the half of a cannon ball, weighing seven lb., was found, which is now in the possession of Mr. Corbet. At Dôlgôch is a small but very picturesque waterfall. Craig-y-Deryn, or "the rock of birds," about four miles from Towyn, up the Vale of Dysynni, derives its name from the number of birds that shelter in its crevices during the night; the scenery around it is extremely wild and romantic, and the discordant clamour which announces the birds' retreat to this sequestered spot adds greatly to the effect of the scene. Its summit was once occupied by an ancient fortress or stronghold, of which there are some vestiges; and several other strongholds of the same kind, occupying similar situations, are found near this part of the coast.
TRAIAN-GLÂS, a township, in the parish of Llywel, hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 12 miles (W. N. W.) from Brecknock; containing 625 inhabitants. It comprises an area of 10,667 acres. On the west it is bounded by the Black Mountains on the border of Carmarthenshire, across which the road from Llandovery to Trêcastle passes, and thence descends into a rich vale near the head of the river Usk, which rises not far distant, and flows through the township. There are some agreeable residences in the vale. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £248, of which two-thirds are payable to the Dean and Chapter of St. David's, and one-third to the vicar of Llywel.
TRAIAN-MAWR, a township, in the parish of Llywel, hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 10 miles (N. W. by W.) from Brecknock; containing 703 inhabitants, of whom 289 are in Trêcastle ward, at one time part of the borough of Brecon. It forms a mountainous district of 5891 acres, on the borders of Carmarthenshire. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £183. 10., of which two-thirds are payable to the Dean and Chapter of St. David's, who have also a glebe of 12 acres, valued at £16 per annum; and one-third to the vicar of Llywel.
TRALLONG (TRALLWNG), a parish, in the hundred of Merthyr-Cynog, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 5½ miles (W. by N.) from Brecknock; containing 284 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south by the river Usk, and on the east by the Brân, which separates it from the adjacent parish of Aberyscir; it is also watered by the little river Kilieni. Trallong is surrounded by the parishes of Llywel, Devynock, Aberyscir, and Llanvihangel-Nant-Brân; and contains 3384 acres, nearly equally divided between arable and pasture, with a large portion of woodland: 245 acres are common or waste. The soil is composed partly of gravel and clay, and produces different sorts of corn, but chiefly barley and oats; the prevailing timber consists of oak, ash, and fir, and the scenery in several situations is very beautiful. The parish is said to have been at an early period entirely covered with woods, which were frequented by wild boars. Its surface is undulated, in some parts hilly; and the great road from London, through Brecknock, to Milford Haven passes within half a mile to the south of the parish.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty; net income, £59, arising principally from three farms in the parishes of MerthyrCynog, Llandevalley, and Llanthew, respectively; patron, the Prebendary of Trallong in the Collegiate Church of Brecknock. The church, dedicated to St. David, is a plain ancient edifice, about 120 feet long by 20 broad, and contains 38 pews, twelve of which are free. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A day school in connexion with the Established Church is held, and two Sunday schools are supported, one of them belonging to the Church, and the other to the Calvinistic body. On a hill at the eastern extremity of the parish are the remains of a British fortification, called Twn-y-Gaer, overlooking the river Usk, on the other side of which is another of the same appellation, crowning a hill in the parish of Llanspythid, directly opposite to the former, from which it is about a mile and a half distant. The celebrated Owain Iolo Gôch is said to have been buried in a field in the parish, that still retains his name.
TRALLWMGOLLEN, a township, in the parish and hundred of Welshpool, incorporation of Forden, county of Montgomery, North Wales; containing 209 inhabitants. This township, with Tyddyn-Pridd, Dysserth, and Stredal-Vecan, forms the Upper division of the parish.
TRANE, a hamlet, in the parish of Llantrissent, poor-law union of Cardiff, hundred of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales: the population is included in the return for the parish.
TRAWSCOED, a hamlet, in the parish of Carno, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales; containing 374 inhabitants. The name of this place implies that it was formerly well wooded; but the mountains now afford only herbage for sheep, and the valleys are chiefly under tillage.
TRAWSCOED, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanyre, union and hundred of Rhaiadr, county of Radnor, South Wales, 5 miles (N.) from Builth; containing 524 inhabitants. It takes its name, which signifies "the cross wood," from having formerly abounded with timber; and is situated between the rivers Wye and Ithon, near where the latter flows into the former. These rivers are crossed by two bridges, that over the Ithon being on the line of road between Builth and Rhaiadr, which passes through the hamlet along the banks of the Wye, and is remarkable for its picturesque views.
TRAWSVYNYDD (TRAWS-FYNYDD), a parish, in the poor-law union of Festiniog, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 12 miles (N. by W.) from Dôlgelley; containing 1545 inhabitants. This parish is surrounded by the parishes of Maentwrog, Llandecwyn, Llanvachreth, and Llanycil; and is of large extent, being estimated to contain 25,000 acres, and to extend ten miles in length by eight in breadth. It is exceedingly mountainous throughout; and is intersected by the turnpike-road from Dôlgelley to Tan-y-Bwlch (at which latter is the post-office), the road passing through the village, which is situated on an eminence in an exposed and hilly district. Considerably more than one-half of the parish consists of barren and uncultivated hills, affording only scanty pasturage for sheep and young cattle. The country is strikingly varied, presenting in some parts the dreary wildness of rugged mountain scenery, in others the softer features of rural beauty, combined with objects of romantic grandeur. The lake called Rathlyn is a fine sheet of water, noted for a peculiar species of perch, having the lower extremity of the back-bone strangely distorted: the interesting waterfalls of Pistyll Caen and Pistyll Mawddach, in the parish, are described in the article on Dôlgelley. Fairs, which are in general well attended, are held here on April 23rd and September 29th, for horses, cattle, and pedlery; and at Penystryd, in the parish, others take place on August 17th and September 21st.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £8. 12. 1.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £280, and there is a glebe of half an acre, valued at 10s. per annum; with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Madryn, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, in rather a dilapidated state. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A day school is held, and the parish has about ten Sunday schools. David Lloyd, in 1686, bequeathed to the poor the sum of £20, the produce of which has been in abeyance since 1819; Robert Roberts, in 1756, gave £12 to be distributed in bread; and Mrs. Jones, near Corwen, and her daughter-in-law, bequeathed £180, with which a house and field in the village of Trawsvynydd were purchased, now yielding a rent of £8. 10. This sum, agreeably with the directions of the donors, is appropriated to the annual distribution of £4, in sums of five shillings each, to sixteen poor women, and the remaining £4. 10. a year to the apprenticing of a boy once in two years.
There are some remains of an ancient fortress called Castell Prysor, the name of which implies its hasty erection; it is of small extent, and occupied a situation in a pass between the hills on the left of the road from Trawsvynydd to Bala. The origin of this fortress, which is built of stone without any cement, is not precisely known; but from the discovery of several urns and coins near the site, it is supposed to have been built or at least occupied by the Romans; and part of a Roman road, now termed "the Sarn Helen," which is still visible at no great distance, in some degree corroborates the opinion. On a farm in the parish, called Llêch Idris, is Bedd Porus, or "the grave of Porius," over which is a flat stone with the inscription "Porius. hic in tumulo jacit. homo pianus fuit.," with a more modern addition of the figures "1245," and the letter E. Near this is an upright stone, Llêch Idris, from which the farm is named, and concerning which there is a legend stating it to have derived its appellation from Idris a giant; it appears to be simply one of those monumental stones so frequently found in this country. Not far from the Sarn Helen are several tumuli, in one of which were found five urns, and several fragments of bricks that had been placed round them to protect them from injury: there is also a tumulus on Gw-y-Bryn;vynydd farm. Humphrey Lloyd, Bishop of Bangor, was born at Bôdyvudda, in the parish, about 1600. Sion and Rhŷs Cain, both eminent bards, were also natives of the parish.
TRÊBRYS (TRÊV-BRYS), a township, in that part of the parish of Yspytty-Ivan which is in the hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, in the union of Llanrwst, in North Wales; containing 159 inhabitants. This township, which is sometimes called Prees Uchâ, lies near the head of the river Clettwr, on the border of Merionethshire, in a mountainous district, and on the road from Corwen to Llanwrst. The incumbent of the parish receives a tithe rent-charge of £56 a year from the township. There is a meeting-house for Independents.
TRÊCASTELL, with Llanlluan, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarthney, hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 5 miles (E.) from Carmarthen; containing 1053 inhabitants, of whom 376 are in Trêcastell and the remainder in Llanlluan. It is situated on the river Towy, and the road from Llandilo-Vawr to Carmarthen passes through. At Capel Dewi was anciently a chapel.
TRÊCASTLE, an ancient ward of the borough of Brecknock, in the parish of Llywel, hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Brecknock; containing 289 inhabitants. It derives its name from a castle, said to have formerly existed here; but by whom the fortress was erected, or at what time, cannot be clearly ascertained, neither are there at present any vestiges of it, except an artificial mound or tumulus on the northern side of the turnpike-road, which is supposed to have been its site. The origin of the place is involved in great obscurity, nor has it been satisfactorily shown by what means it became a part of the borough of Brecknock, from which it was separated, as regards municipal jurisdiction, on the recent abridgment of the limits of that town. It is conjectured that, having formed part of the lands of Idio Wyllt, son-in-law of Bleddyn ab Maenarch, Trêcastle fell, with the other territories belonging to the family, to Bernard Newmarch; and that, thus becoming connected with Brecknock, the head of that baron's possessions, it continued to form part of the great lordship of Brecknock, from which it was not divided even when, in the reign of Henry VIII., Brecknock first became shire ground. The present small village of Trêcastle seems to have formed the old town of Lluel, or Llywel, under which name it is frequently mentioned in the charter of Brecknock. It is situated on the northern bank of the river Usk, on the high road from Brecknock to Llandovery, and consists of a cluster of several houses, including a good inn and posting-house, from which it derives all the little importance it possesses. Fairs are held on January 17th, April 5th, May 21st, August 14th, November 13th, and December 14th.
TRÊCASTLE, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the hundred of Iscennen, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4 miles (S. E.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 378 inhabitants. In this hamlet, about two miles and a half to the east of the turnpike-road from Llandilo-Vawr to Swansea, stand the picturesque and romantic remains of Carreg Cennen Castle, on a perpendicular isolated rock, rising nearly 300 feet above the river Cennen, which flows at the base. The situation of the castle is peculiarly interesting; and though surrounded by lofty hills, the views from it are rich and varied, especially on the right, where the Vale of the Towy presents itself, in front the Vale of Llangendeirn, and on the left the Vale of Llandebie, with a part of that of Loughor. It is said to have been erected by Urien Rheged, lord of Iscennen, a knight of King Arthur's round table; the chief circumstance in its authentic history is its capture from the English by Rhŷs Vychan, whose mother had delivered it up to them out of dislike to him. Roman coins, among which have been some of the Emperor Domitian, are continually found in the soil, at the foot of the rock on which the castle stands; and an ancient British celt has been discovered in the immediate vicinity. For a fuller account of this fortress, see the article on Llandilo-Vawr.
TRÊCEVEL (TRÊF-GEFAIL), a hamlet, in the parish and union of Trêgaron, Lower division of the hundred of Penarth, county of Cardigan, South Wales, ½ a mile (S. W.) from Trêgaron; containing 126 inhabitants, who are wholly employed in agriculture. It is situated on the road to Lampeter, which passes along the right bank of the Teivy. There is a bridge over the river at this place.
TRECH-GWINNON, with Miawst, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarthney, hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales; containing 375 inhabitants. It is situated near the head of Gwendraeth Vâch river.
TRÊCLÂS, with Myddvay, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarthney, hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7½ miles (E.) from Carmarthen; containing 405 inhabitants. It is situated on the left bank of the Towy, and the parochial church stands in the hamlet, within a short distance of that river, the views of which from this place are extremely beautiful.
TREDDERWEN-VAWR (TRÊ-DDER-WEN-FÔR), a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llansantfraid-yn-Mechan which is in the Upper division of the hundred of Deythur, in the poorlaw union of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 9 miles (N. N. E.) from Welshpool; containing 152 inhabitants.
Trêgaron (Caron, or Trêf-Garon)
TRÊGARON (CARON, or TRÊF-GARON), a market-town and parish (formerly a borough), and the head of a union, partly in the hundred of Ilar, but chiefly in the Lower and Upper divisions of the hundred of Penarth, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 39 miles (E. by N.) from Cardigan, and 202 miles (W. by N.) from London; comprising the chapelry of Caron-Uwch-Clawdd, or Strata-Florida; and containing 2572 inhabitants, of whom 692 are in the town of Trêgaron. It is said to derive its name from being the burial-place of Caron, a Welsh king, who, according to tradition, from a low situation in life, raised himself, by his bravery and generous deportment, to the sovereignty, which he held for seven years; after his death, he was canonized, and became the tutelar saint of the church. The town is small and indifferently built, presenting only the appearance of a village. It is situated on the high road from Lampeter to Rhaiadr, at the south-eastern extremity of the parish, and on the small river Berwyn, within a short distance of its conflux with the Teivy, which runs about half a mile to the west; a new bridge of stone has been erected over the former, at an estimated expense of £120, defrayed partly by subscription, and partly from the county rate. In the vicinity are two small lakes, one called Berwyn, about a mile and a half in circumference, which contains abundance of trout, and the other Maes Ll-y-Bryn, "the lake of the field," where tradition reports the town to have once stood; the latter is situated about two miles to the east, is a mile in circumference, and produces trout and eels. Silver and lead-ore are stated to exist in small quantities in Cwm y Graig Gôch, but the mines have not been worked for many years. The market is on Tuesday, for the sale of provisions, stockings, flannel, &c.; an annual fair is held on March 15th, 16th, and 17th, and another on the first Tuesday in May, chiefly for the sale of pedlery, homespun cloth, hose, horses, pigs, &c. Trêgaron was formerly incorporated, and its burgesses, in common with those of Aberystwith, Atpar, and Lampeter, had the privilege of voting in the election of a parliamentary representative for the county town; but, in consequence of some acts of corruption, it was deprived of that liberty by a committee of the House of Commons, on the 7th of May, 1730. The only electoral right now exercised by the inhabitants is that of the freeholders in the choice of a county member, for which this town, by the act of the year 1832 to "Amend the Representation," is constituted a polling-place. It is under the jurisdiction of the county magistrates; and a court leet is held twice a year by the lord of the manor.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8; present net income, £156, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the prebend of Trêgaron, an impropriation that was attached to the ancient college of Llandewy-Brevi, was rated in the king's books at £13. 6. 8. The church, dedicated to St. Caron, is a neat structure, agreeably situated on a rocky elevation in the middle of the town, and consists of a nave, chancel, and an embattled tower sixty feet in height, in the later style of English architecture; the churchyard contains four ancient monumental stones, supposed to have been set up in the sixth century, two of which have inscriptions. There are places of worship for dissenters, and some Sunday schools, one of which is in connexion with the Established Church. The poorlaw union of which this town is the head, was formed May 15th, 1837, and comprises the following twentytwo parishes and townships; namely, Trêgaron, Bettws-Leike, Blaen-Penal, Caron-Uwch-Clawdd, Cugian, Dothie-Camddwr, Dothie-Pyscottwr, Garth with Ystrad, Gartheli, Godwidd, Upper and Lower Gwnnws (forming Llanwnws parish), Gwynvil, Llanbadarn-Odwynne, Llangeitho, Llanio, Upper and Lower Lledrod (forming the parish of LlanvihangelLledrod), Nantcwnlle, Prisk with Carvan, YspyttyYstrad-Meuric, and Yspytty-Ystwith. It is under the superintendence of twenty-three guardians, and contains a population of 10,253.
At the distance of three miles northward from the town is a large encampment, called Castell Flemys, forming the greater segment of a circle, and defended on three sides by an impassable morass: it is thought to have been constructed by a body of the Flemish settlers in South Wales. There is another, which is designated Castell Sunnyhill, from its proximity to Sunnyhill farm. In the parish also are several sepulchral heaps of stones, termed carneddau; a curious bank of earth, extending several miles in length, styled Cwys Ichain Banawg, or "the furrow of the Bannog oxen," supposed by the late Sir S. R. Meyrick to be the remains of an ancient British road; and an artificial mound, encompassed by a moat, denominated Tommen Llanio, but by whom or for what purpose erected is uncertain.
Thomas Jones, a Welsh antiquary and poet, who flourished about the commencement of the seventeenth century, was born at a house called Porth Fynnon, a little to the east of Trêgaron. In addition to his literary reputation, he enjoyed, according to tradition, a less enviable distinction, from his practice of plundering his neighbours; being represented, under the name of Twm Sion Catti, as an expert and dexterous robber. He acquired a considerable fortune by marrying the heiress of Ystrad-Fin by an ingenious stratagem, and was subsequently appointed sheriff of the county.
Trêgayan (Trêf-Gîan, or Trêf-Gaian)
TRÊGAYAN (TRÊF-GÎAN, or TRÊF-GAIAN), a parish, partly in the hundred of Menai, partly in that of Tyndaethwy, and partly in that of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 2½ miles (N. N. W.) from Llangevni; containing 188 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Caian, is situated nearly in the centre of the island, upon the market-road from Llangevni to Llanerchymedd. It is bounded by the parishes of Llangevni, Llanddyvnan, Llanvihangel, LlanbedrGôch, and Llangwillog; and is computed to contain 2000 acres, one-half arable, and one-half pasture, with a little woodland. The surface is boldly undulated, and the soil of a light quality, the principal agricultural produce being oats: the whole, with the exception of a small portion, is inclosed, and under tolerably good cultivation. There is a mill on a branch of the river Cevni. Trêgayan Hall, the seat of Rear-Admiral Lloyd, is a handsome mansion, pleasantly seated amid some flourishing plantations, and forming a prominent object in the scenery of the place.
The living is annexed to the rectory of Llangevni; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £195. The church is simple and primitive in its construction; it measures forty-five feet by fourteen feet and a half, external dimensions, and only eight feet in height to the wall-plate. At the western end is a single bell-gable, of good design: a southern doorway, with trifoliated spandrils, under a square label, leads into the church, and is answered by a smaller doorway on the northern side. The eastern window is of rather singular design, and on the walls of the edifice are some monumental tablets; the font is probably of the twelfth century, and belonged to an earlier church. There are eighty sittings, threefourths of which belong to the tenantry of the soil. The parish register contains an entry recording the death of William ab Howel, in the year 1587, at the advanced age of 105 years; he is said to have been the father of forty-two children, of whom the oldest, at the time of his decease, was eighty-nine, and the youngest eight years of age. A rent-charge of 2s., bequeathed by John Griffith Lewis, is paid to some deserving person not receiving parochial relief.
TREGÎB (TRE-GÎB), a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Upper division of the hundred of Iscennen, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 1 mile (S. E.) from Llandilo-Vawr; containing 308 inhabitants. The river Towy runs on the northern side of this hamlet, and here receives the small tributary streams called the Cennen and Cib: the road from Llandilo-Vawr to Swansea passes through it; and it is also crossed by a Roman road, the Via Julia. An ancient residence here, once a fortified place, gives its name to the hamlet. The union workhouse of Llandilo-Vawr, a handsome structure in the Elizabethan style, with a front of cut stone, is situated within the limits of Trêgib.
TRÊGOED, county of Brecknock, in South Wales.—See Velindre.
TRÊGORN (TRÊ-GÂR), a hamlet, in the parish of Llandarog, Upper division of the hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 6 miles (E. by S.) from the town of Carmarthen; containing 303 inhabitants.
TRÊGYNON (TRÊF-GYNON), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 5½ miles (N. by W.) from Newtown; containing 709 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the turnpike-road from Newtown to Llanvair, and surrounded by the parishes of Bettws, Manavon, and Aberhavesp. It comprises 5000 acres of arable, pasture, and woodland, principally in old inclosures, and about 1336 acres of uninclosed land, incapable of cultivation, and affording only pasturage for sheep and young cattle. The surface is agreeably diversified with hills and vales, with abundance of good oak and fir timber; the river Rhiew flows through a part of the parish, and there are some smaller brooks. Gregynog Hall, a seat of Lord Sudeley's, adds considerably to the beauty of the district; and the views from the higher grounds embrace a well-cultivated tract of country: the soil in the lower lands is rich, and there are some good turbaries in various parts, affording fuel to the inhabitants. About 500 acres were inclosed, under an act of parliament passed in the year 1794. The population of the parish consists of weavers and agricultural labourers.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £400 royal bounty, and £800 parliamentary grant; net income, £87; patron and impropriator, Lord Sudeley, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £90. The church, dedicated to St. Cynon, is an ancient edifice, in the early English style of architecture, with a tower, apparently of great antiquity; and contains some neat monuments, among which is one of white marble to the memory of the benevolent Arthur Blayney, Esq., at whose expense the church was new-pewed and embellished. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A day school in connexion with the Established Church is principally promoted by Lord Sudeley, and the Calvinistic Methodists have two Sunday schools. Four persons are nominated from this place as inmates of the almshouses founded in 1709, by Arthur Weaver, Esq., in the parish of Bettws. A fund for distribution among the poor on New Year's day and Easter Monday amounts to £23. 12. annually; arising from two tenements, and pieces of land containing about seven acres and a quarter, yielding a rent of £13. 16. per annum, the gift of unknown benefactors; and a grant of £6. 6. by the late Arthur Blayney, Esq.; together with a rent-charge of 10s., by a member of the family of Foulkes, and a bequest of £5 per annum, by Mr. Weaver, founder of the almshouses, of which last £2 are expended in repairs and firing. The Roman Via Devana passes across the parish, and some remains of it were here visible until of late years.
Trelêch-Ar-Bettws (Trêf-Llêcha'r Bettws)
TRELÊCH-AR-BETTWS (TRÊF-LLÊCH A'R BETTWS), a parish, in the Higher division of the hundred of Elvet, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 8 miles distant (N. W. by W.) from the town of Carmarthen; containing 1620 inhabitants. This parish comprises a large tract of arable and pasture, inclosed, and a very extensive district of uncultivated land, consisting chiefly of heath and turbaries, from which latter the inhabitants principally obtain their fuel, and which also afford a supply to the neighbouring parishes. The surface is uneven, and in some parts hilly. The petty-sessions for the hundred are held here every month. Trelêch constituted a prebend in the ancient college of Llandewy-Brevi, rated in the king's books at £16, and in the gift of the Bishop of St. David's. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; patron, the Bishop; impropriators, the Earl of Lisburne, and Richard Price, Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £390, and the vicarial for one of £95; the impropriate glebe comprises above forty acres, and the vicarial above thirtytwo acres, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Teilo, and situated within two miles of the turnpike-road from Carmarthen to Cardigan, was rebuilt in 1834, and is a neat and commodious structure: Capel Bettws is a chapel of ease to it. There are two places of worship for Independents, one for Calvinistic Methodists, and one for Baptists.
A school was founded in 1804, by Mr. William Davies, formerly of Plâs-y-Park in the parish, and afterwards citizen of London, who endowed it with £4563. 15. 5., in the three per cent. consols., directing the dividends to be appropriated to the education, clothing, and apprenticing of children. It contains about seventy children, and the master's salary is £40 per annum: the total income from the dividends amounts to £136. 18. The house consists of a schoolroom on the ground-floor, and two apartments above, one for the meeting of the trustees, and the other used as a storeroom. Two or three children are apprenticed yearly with premiums of about £4, and are also supplied with clothes during their apprenticeship. The trustees are, the minister, churchwardens, overseers of the poor, and every inhabitant possessed of a freehold of £50 per annum. There are also six Sunday schools, four of them connected with the Independents, one with the Baptists, and one with the Calvinistic Methodists. Mrs. Elizabeth Lewis, of Blaendewi in the parish, bequeathed £100, of the interest of which she directed £1 per annum to be paid to the support of a meeting-house, and the remainder to be distributed among the poor; but the sum was lost by the insolvency of a solicitor, at Carmarthen, to whom it had been lent at interest. A rent-charge of 5s., by an unknown donor, is annually divided among five persons.
In the parish is a remarkable barrow, called Crûgy-Deyrn, or the "king's barrow," about sixty paces in circumference at the base, and rising with a gradual slope to the height of six yards; on the summit is a cavity, in the centre of which is a large stone of elliptical shape, three yards in length, five feet broad in the widest part, and about ten or twelve inches in thickness. On searching underneath, it was found to cover a cist-vaen, about four feet and a half in length, and three feet broad, within and around which were rude fragments of brick, and some pieces of bone, the latter supposed to have been brought there by foxes.
TRÊLLAN (TRÊ-LLAN), a hamlet, in the parish of Kilken, poor-law union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 5½ miles (W. N. W.) from Mold; containing 390 inhabitants.
TRÊLLAN (TRÊ-LLAN), a hamlet, in the parish of Llandegley, union of Kington, hundred of Kevenlleece, county of Radnor, in South Wales, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from Pen-y-Bont; containing 150 inhabitants. The road from New Radnor to Rhaiadr passes through this hamlet, which contains the parochial church; and a branch of the Cymaron brook flows through it, near the northern base of a lofty and barren mountain, which occupies a great portion of the district. The manorial rights of this hamlet and that of Graig, are vested in the crown.
TRÊLYDAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Guilsfield, hundred of Pool, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Welshpool; containing 105 inhabitants. It is within the liberties of the borough of Welshpool.
TRÊLYSTAN (TRÊ-ELYSTAN), a township, in that part of the parish of Worthen which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Cawrse, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 3¾ miles (S. E.) from Welshpool; containing 100 inhabitants. This township is situated nearly at the southern extremity of the Long Mountain, on the border of Shropshire; and, with the township of Rhôsgôch, forms the Welsh chapelry of Wolston, or WestonnyEnd, attached to the rectory of Worthen, in Shropshire, in which county the principal part of the parish is included. It is one of the places incorporated by an act of parliament, for the support of their poor in the house of industry at Forden.
TRÊMADOC, a market-town, in the parish of Ynyscynhaiarn, union of Festiniog, hundred of Eivionydd, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 20 miles (S. by E.) from Carnarvon; containing 523 inhabitants, and, with Port-Madoc, 1353. This place is of very recent origin, and is a signal instance of the triumph of public-spirited perseverance over accumulated and apparently insurmountable local difficulties. It derives its name from a small rocky spot close by the town, called from time immemorial Ynys Madog or Madawg, and which used in former times to be surrounded by water. Some persons, however, with a pardonable latitude, derive the name of the place from its patriotic and enterprising founder, the late William Alexander Madocks, Esq. This gentleman, having projected a plan for regaining from the sea a portion of land on the western side of the wide sandy estuary called the "Traeth Mawr," purchased the estate of Tan-yr-Allt, in the immediate vicinity, in 1798, and in 1800 succeeded in recovering a tract of nearly two thousand acres of rich land, then forming Penmorva marsh, which now produces excellent crops of wheat, barley, and clover. Encouraged by the success of his first attempt, Mr. Madocks was induced to undertake the more arduous enterprise of reclaiming the whole of the Traeth Mawr; and for this purpose he obtained an act of parliament in 1808, vesting in him and in his heirs the entire extent of these sands, from Pont Aber Glâslyn, at their head, to the point at Gêst, at their lower extremity. According to the provisions of the act, Mr. Madocks received a grant of two thousand acres in fee, and was to possess one-fifth part of the land recovered from the sea, or secured from injury by the floods, the remainder to go to the freeholders who claimed right of common on the adjoining marshes. Notwithstanding the numerous unforeseen obstacles which threatened to frustrate the undertaking, Mr. Madocks succeeded in constructing across the mouth of the Traeth Mawr, at the eastern extremity of Cardigan bay, an embankment of earth and stones, nearly a mile in length, from north to south, varying from one to four hundred feet in breadth at the base, and diminishing gradually to a breadth of thirty feet at the summit, which is a hundred feet high from the foundation. By means of this embankment, which forms a line of communication between the counties of Carnarvon and Merioneth, a tract of more than two thousand seven hundred acres of land was gained from the sea, besides a vast extent of adjoining land, which was before overflowed by the tides, but is now, by draining, rendered susceptible of cultivation. This arduous work was completed in 1811, at an expense of more than £100,000; and, including the lands previously recovered, not less than seven thousand acres have been obtained, of which six thousand are now cultivated.
The Town is situated on a portion of the tract first recovered from the sea, and is built on the sides of a spacious quadrangular area, having in the centre a lofty stone column, round the pedestal of which is a flight of four steps. The houses are of handsome appearance; there is a commodious hotel, and the town promises, when the plan is fully completed, to be a great ornament to this part of the coast. It is sheltered on the north by a chain of formidable rocks, that line the side of the road leading from Bethgelart, which approaches it from the north-east, after winding its way through the grand mountain pass of Pont Aber Glâslyn: at the foot of that pass is seen a picturesque bridge, springing from rock to rock, and forming a means of communication between the counties of Merioneth and Carnarvon, with the river Glâslyn meandering beneath. On the west the town is approached by the road from Pwllheli, which passes through the neat little village of Llanystyndwy and the old town of Criccieth. Tan-yr-Allt, the seat of the late W. A. Madocks, Esq., is a spacious modern mansion of elegant design, situated on an elevated rock overlooking the town; it is surrounded with thriving plantations, and presents, with its entrance lodge of neat design, a pleasing and picturesque appearance. Morva Lodge, and T'wnti'r-bwlch, erected likewise by that gentleman, are handsome villas in the immediate vicinity. Moel-yGêst, which is partly in Ynyscynhaiarn parish, and partly in that of Trêvlys, is an isolated rocky eminence, about a mile from the town, and contiguous to the sea, above which it attains an elevation of nearly 1000 feet. The ascent to the top is easy, and the prospect from it is exceedingly grand, embracing the whole of Cardigan bay: on the sides of the entrance to the harbour of Port-Madoc are seen the interesting ruins of Harlech and Criccieth Castles; and the interior view presents Snowdon and its group of elevations, known by the name of the Snowdonian mountains, with the mountains of Merioneth.
With a view to promote the commercial interests of the town he had founded, Mr. Madocks obtained an act of parliament in 1821 for improving the navigation of this part of the bay, under the provisions of which he rendered the place accessible to vessels of three hundred tons' burthen, which can now lie here in safety, and constructed commodious quays and wharfs for the landing and shipping of goods. The last improvement carried into effect was the erection of Port-Madoc, containing 830 inhabitants, about one mile from the town, where many good houses have been built: it is an increasing place, and a considerable trade is carried on. The principal exports are slates and copper-ore, the former brought from the Festiniog quarries, and amounting to about thirty thousand tons annually; the chief imports are timber, coal, and lime. Lead-ore has been discovered at Gêst, near the town. An excellent road was constructed by Mr. Madocks from Aber Glâslyn, through Trêmadoc, to Porth-Dinllaen on the western coast of Carnarvonshire; and a tramway from the Festiniog quarries, and the mines in the neighbourhood, to Port-Madoc, is carried along the great embankment, with a good road for travelling on its north side, well sheltered from the sea, being eight feet lower than the summit. Fairs are held annually on the 2nd Friday in February, on April 13th, June 30th, December 6th, and on November 12th, the hiring day for servants. Upon the east side of the area is a commodious market-house, above which is a handsome assembly-room. The powers of the county debt-court of Port-Madoc, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Festiniog: the court is held monthly, in a market-hall lately built. Mr. Madocks also built at Trêmadoc, at his own expense, a small church in the later style of English architecture, with a lofty spire, which forms an interesting object as seen from the coast: divine service is regularly performed in the English language, every Sunday, which is a great accommodation to families residing in the neighbourhood, as there is no other church within twenty miles, where the service is conducted in English. There are places of worship for dissenters at Port-Madoc and Trêmadoc, a day school, and also some Sunday schools.
The road from Trêmadoc to Bethgelart, along the side of the Traeth Mawr, passes, as already mentioned, for some distance under perpendicular cliffs, in which are numerous chasms and fissures; and after heavy rains, or long-continued frosts, immense masses are sometimes detached from the impending precipices, and fall with a tremendous crash, bestrewing the way with fragments, sometimes of sufficient magnitude to obstruct the passage. The road commands to great advantage the scenery of the Merionethshire side of the Traeth, and affords a delightful ride to Pont Aber Glâslyn and its vicinity.
TREMAEN (TRÊ-MAEN), a parish, in the Lower division of the hundred of Troedyraur, union and county of Cardigan, South Wales, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Cardigan; containing 264 inhabitants. It is thought to derive its name, signifying "the town of the stone," from the vast rude stone termed Llêch yr Ast, and the adjacent cist-vaens, situated near the village, though within the limits of Llangoedmore parish. These relics, together with a large tumulus on a farm in this parish, designated Canllevarvaes, are supposed to commemorate a decisive battle that occurred here between the Welsh and the Flemings, soon after a body of the latter had effected a landing at a place called Mount, about three miles distant, on the sea-shore. The parish is situated on the summit and declivities of a hill, called, from the stone above noticed, Llêch yr Ast; and comprises about 900 acres of cultivated arable and pasture land, with a tract of 30 acres of marshy ground. Its soil is principally light, except in the lowest part. The river Arberth runs through the parish, and after turning four or five grist-mills, falls into the Teivy: the turnpike-road from Cardigan to Aberystwith also intersects the parish, within a short distance of the church. In the neighbourhood are Trê Prior, anciently a place of some note, but now a farmhouse, and Trêv Wttial Vawr, similarly converted. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 royal bounty, and £291. 4. 10. parliamentary grant; net income, £72; patrons and impropriators, the Miles family, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £124. Attached to the benefice is a small farm in the parish of Llansawel, Carmarthenshire, the rent of which is included in the above income. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, was rebuilt in the year 1810, with the exception of the chancel, and is a plain edifice, composed of a nave and chancel, fifty feet long, twenty-two feet wide, and thirty-five high; the height of the steeple is forty-five feet. In the parish is a ford called Rhŷdwenwynvarch, supposed to have derived that name from the water having been poisoned, to destroy the army of an invading enemy.