The city of Norwich, chapter 37: Of the city in the time of King George II

An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.

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Francis Blomefield, 'The city of Norwich, chapter 37: Of the city in the time of King George II', in An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I( London, 1806), British History Online [accessed 25 July 2024].

Francis Blomefield, 'The city of Norwich, chapter 37: Of the city in the time of King George II', in An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I( London, 1806), British History Online, accessed July 25, 2024,

Francis Blomefield. "The city of Norwich, chapter 37: Of the city in the time of King George II". An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I. (London, 1806), , British History Online. Web. 25 July 2024.

In this section



George the Second, King of Great Britain, &c. was magnificently crowned, with his royal consort, Queen Caroline, on the 11th of October, 1727.

In 1728, was renewed and published the Table to show what Habits the right worshipful Mr. Mayor, Justices, Sheriffs, and Aldermen of the city of Norwich, and such as have been Sheriffs, are to wear upon all festival days, and at other meetings.

On Christmas day, the mayor justices, and aldermen,in scarlet; the sheriffs in violet: and in the afternoon, the mayor and justices in cloaks of justice.

The same on Twelfth day; (when Mr. Anguish's commemoration sermon is at St. Edmund's in the afternoon;) Palm-Sunday, Easterday, Wednesday in Easter week, (when the court is at St. Helen's church in the afternoon:) Ascension-day, (at Archbishop Parker's commemoration;) Whit-Sunday, Trinity-fair-day, (to go at 10 o'clock through the fair in procession;) Trinity Sunday, and Sunday in assize week, (to wait on the judges.)

The mayor in scarlet, the justices, sheriffs, and aldermen in black, on St. Stephen's, St. John's, and Innocent's days, St. Matthias (fn. 1) and Midsummer days, if Sundays.

The mayor in scarlet, the justices, sheriffs, and aldermen in violet, on New-year's day, (fn. 2) Easter Monday, Whitsun Monday, St. George's even and Holy-mass day, if Sunday.

Mr. mayor, justices, sheriffs, and aldermen in black, on the 30th of January, Good-Friday, Rogation Sunday, Monday, (fn. 3) Tuesday and Wednesday.

Mr. mayor in violet, the justices, sheriffs, and aldermen in black, on Candlemas day, Easter Tuesday, and Whitsun Tuesday.

The mayor, and justices in scarlet, the sheriff's and aldermen in violet, on May day, (fn. 4) and Michaelmas day.

The mayor and aldermen in scarlet, and the justices to have their scarlet cloaks brought to the New-hall before morning, at St. George's feast, or the gild-day.

The mayor in velvet, the justices and aldermen in scarlet, the sheriffs in violet, on the 29th of May, the coronation day, and the 5th of November.

The mayor in scarlet, justices and sheriffs in violet, and aldermen in black, on the last Tuesday in Aug. (fn. 5)

At sessions, the mayor, the three first days in scarlet, the justices and sheriffs in violet.

On court days the mayor and sheriffs in their gowns.

Commemoration sermons, at which the court attend, besides those mentioned, are, Sir John Pettus's at St. Simon and Jude's church, in the afternoon, on the first Sunday in August.

Sir Joseph Payne's at St. Gregory's, August 19, once in seven years; preached in 1738.

Mr. Maultby's at St. Mary's, October 28, in the afternoon.

Lady Suckling's at St. Andrew's on Friday after St. Simon and Jude.

Sir John Suckling's there the Sunday after.

Mr. Codd's at St. Peter's per Montergate, on Sunday before St. Thomas.

The mayor and justices to wear English gowns faced with furs, from Holy-mass to May day.

When the mayor and aldermen wear scarlet, such as have been sheriffs wear violet; but when the aldermen wear violet, such as have been sheriffs wear black.

At assemblies, the mayor and aldermen are to wear their gowns, and such as have been sheriffs are to be in English gowns and silk tippits, and all the commoners in their gowns and hoods.

And whenever the mayor, justices, and aldermen wear scarlet, the sword, cap of maintenance, and maces are to be born.

In 1729, was an act passed for the better regulating of elections in the city of Norwich, and for preserving the peace, good order, and government of the said city, which took place April 25, 1730, by which it which it was enacted, that at every election for burgesses in parliament, every one that votes must swear, that he hath been admitted to his freedom 12 kalendar months before that election, and that he hath not been polled at that election before, or (in case of an election for two members) but for one person.

And in all elections for mayor or sheriffs, instead of the oath required in the act made in the 9th of George I. each shall swear, that he hath not only been a freeman as aforesaid, but that for six kalendar months last past, he hath been an inhabitant within the liberties thereof.

And in elections for aldermen or common-council-men, each man shall swear, that for six kalendar months last past (he) hath been an inhabitant within the ward for which the election is.

And all persons in work-houses, hospitals, or prisons, are to poll in that ward in which they inhabited the last six kalendar months before their entering such places, the truth of which they must also swear.

And if any refuse to take such oaths, which are to be administered by the mayor, his deputy, or such sworn clerks as shall be by himself or deputy appointed, such person's votes are to be rejected and disallowed.

In all elections a check, and one of the sworn clerks, shall be admitted to the common gaol, to take the votes of those confined there, and the sheriffs, gaoler, or prison keepers, are to admit them for that purpose, under 50l. penalty for refusal.

At all elections, every person, if required by any one of the clerks at any poll, must first take the oaths appointed by the act of 1 George I. or else their vote to be disallowed, and the presiding officer or the sworn clerks refusing to administer such oaths, forfeit 50l. besides costs of suit.

And if any person takes the oaths appointed by this present act, wilfully, falsely, and corruptly, if they be convicted by information or indictment, they shall incur all such penalties as persons convicted of wilful corrupt perjury are liable to by common law.

There are to be no more than three common-council-men for each great ward yearly elected by the freemen, upon the days appointed by the charters, and the three so elected for each great ward, or the major part of them, shall within 48 hours after their elections, or within six days after such scrutiny as shall be demanded on their polls are finished, upon notice thereof from the mayor or his deputy, elect and fill up the remaining number of common council-men, directed to be elected by the charters of the said city, for each great ward, under 50l. penalty, and all such named by the three are to be as effectually common council-men, as if elected by all freemen; and if any person elected by the common council as aforesaid, shall refuse to serve, or happen to die, the three common council-men entered in the assembly book for that ward where such vacancy is, who shall be then living, shall in 48 hours after notice from the mayor, &c. fill up such vacancy by electing others to serve in their stead the rest of the year.

The mayor, or his deputy, appointed under his hand and seal, or in case of the mayor's death, the surviving justice of the peace, who last served the office of mayor, shall be the presiding officer at every election of mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, and common council-men, and of such scrutinies as shall be demanded thereupon.

And no person shall be subject to be elected into the office of sheriff of the city of Norwich, who is not an inhabitant thereof, at the time of such election.

No act, order, or ordinance whatsoever, at any time from and after the 25th day of April, 1730, shall be made or passed in the common council or assembly of the representative body of the said city, without the assent of the mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen present at such common council or assemby, or the major part of them, nor without the assent of the commons present at such common council or assembly, or the major part of them.

The Mayor elect, and the mayor for the time being, to nominate and appoint, for the time of his mayoralty, a sword-bearer, two ward officers, and such other inferior officers, as have been customary for them to nominate and elect.

The mayor shall summon the sheriffs, aldermen, and common council-men, to meet at the quarterly assemblies according to custom, and if one of the sheriffs, and the major part of the aldermen or common council-men, shall neglect to meet at the Gild-hall at the time appointed for holding an assembly upon notice left in writing at their several houses 24 hours before the time fixed, each so absenting shall forfeit 5s. over and above such prosecutions as they may be subject to by law, and one of them that shall depart from any assembly without consent of the mayor, shall forfeit 10s. to be paid to the chamberlain for the city, over and above such prosecutions as they may be subject to by law.

All penalties (except the 5s. and 10s.) shall be recovered by action of debt in any of his Majesty's court of record at Westminster, in the name of the chamberlain of the city, and when recovered, shall be for the benefit of the city, and the 5s. and 10s. shall be levied by distress and sale of the offender's goods, by warrant of two justices of peace of the said city, and paid to the chamberlain, returning the overplus, if any be, to the offenders.

The act is to be taken and deemed a publick act, and be judicially taken notice of as such by all judges, justices, and courts whatsoever, without specially pleading the same.

In 1730, the right honourable the Lord Lynn, lord lieutenant for the county of Norfolk, and county and city of Norwich, sent down new commissions for Capt. Balderstone, and the rest of the officers of the artillery company.

In 1731, the market place began to be new paved.

October 30, a large sturgeon taken in a poor fisherman's nets at Sheringham, was brought hither, being 12 feet long; the liver weighed five stone and an half.

At the quarterly assembly, on St. Matthias's day, were 161 persons admitted and sworn freemen, and a committee appointed for that purpose, reported that they had treated with St. George's company, who agreed to resign their books, charters, and records, into the hands of the city, which was done, and that company's power suspended, and the following procession agreed upon for the gild day, (fn. 6) instead of the said company's viz.

At nine in the morning, the sheriffs, justices, and aldermen, shall attend the new-elect mayor at his house, and with him wait on the old mayor, and go thence to the Gild-hall, where the common council are to be ready in their black gowns, whence they are all to proceed to the cathedral as follows.

Two trumpeters, a standard-bearer, two blue-coat officers with staves, the common council-men as elected for the great wards two abreast, the speaker of the commons alone, a standard, the city musick, the city officers,the mayor and mayor-elect, the recorder and steward, the justices, the sheriff's, and aldermen, all in their usual habits, the whole being closed by four sheriff's officers.

After divine service, they are to proceed from the cathedral in like manner (the orator and speech boys following the court) to the Gild-hall, and after the mayor is there sworn, they are to go in manner aforesaid to the New-hall, where before dinner (if there be time) the orator and speech boys are each to make their speech, and after the feast, the justices, sheriffs, aldermen, and common council-men (following then the aldermen) are first to attend the new mayor home, and then the old mayor.

And the company of the feast of the mayor, sheriffs, citizens, and common-council, commonly called St. George's Company, being laid aside, together with the procession on the day of swearing the mayor, it was ordered, that for the future, every mayor should be excused making a gild breakfast, and holding any mayor's feasts in May or August, and that in lieu thereof, the new-elect-mayor shall make a feast on the day he is sworn at the New-hall, and there entertain the recorder, steward, sheriffs, justices, aldermen, and their ladies, and common council-men; and every mayor that makes such a feast, he, his executors, or administrators, shall be entituled to an allowance or grant of one hundred pounds, to be paid by the chamberlain of the city, immediately after making the said feast, and the further sum of 50l. shall be paid by the chamberlain to such person as shall be mayor of the city on Christmas day next ensuing such feast.

This year, 487l. 5s. 4d. was collected in the city, for the sufferers by fire in Blandford, Tiverton, and Ramsey.

In 1732, there was great damage done by mad dogs, many beasts perishing thereby; Mr. Reeve of St. Peter's of Hungate died by a bite of his favourite dog, as was said. The year was very sickly.

Sherer's Cross, commonly called Charing Cross, (fn. 7) which was a neat ancient stone pillar, was taken down this year, and the market cross also. (fn. 8)

A new silk damask gown was bought by the corporation, to be worn by the speaker of the common council, on all publick occasions, and was first worn on the gild-day, by Mr. Tho. Johnson, then common speaker.

In 1733, July 11, at an assembly then held, the right honourable Sir Robert Walpole was complimented with his freedom, and sworn in person in the Gild-hall, and was then presented by the mayor with the copy of his freedom in a gold-box, after which he made a short speech, thanked them for the honour they had done him, and assured them of his endeavours at all times to promote the city's welfare.

Tombland was paved, and the front of St. Stephen's gates beautified.

In 1734, a new silver mace, weighing 168 ounces, gilt and finely exchased, was presented to the city by the right honourable Sir Rob. Walpole; on the cup part of it are Sir Robert's arms, and the arms of the city; it was first carried before the mayor on the 29th of May.

On the 31st of Dec. was the greatest flood known since 1696; all Heighan was under water, and several streets in the lower part of the city, so that boats rowed in them.

In 1735, the artillery company presented a picture of their Capt. Timothy Balderstone, Esq, to be hung in the New-hall.

In 1736, a picture of Tho. Harwood, Esq. treasurer of the charity schools, was hung up in the New-hall, being presented by a subscription of the trustees of the said schools,

And another of Tho. Vere, Esq.

Hoghill was paved this year, and the city was much visited with the small pox.

In 1737, Oct. 4, was a very great flood.

A picture of Benj. Nuthall, Esq. was hung up in the New-hall.

The gild was kept this year according to the ancient custom, with hangings, pictures, &c.

Nov. 20, died her most sacred majesty Caroline Queen of Great Britain, &c. and was interred Saturday, Dec. 17, when at six in the evening, the great bell of every church in this city began to toll, and continued tolling till 11 at night. The mayor and court appeared in deep mouring at church on Sunday. Of whom the following deserved encomium was then made: (fn. 9)

When as Heaven's gift, the crown she wore, None e're deserved it, none adorn'd it more, Belov'd and honour'd thro' each various scene, As friend, as wife, as mother, and as Queen: Her life, of all the learned the esteem, The maid's example, and the matron's theme: Her death, the wish and comfort of the wise, Religion's honour, and great vertue's prize.

Mrs. Anne Havet of this city being indisposed and let blood, had a living worm about three inches long come out of the orifice of her vein, while she was bleeding; she did not live long after.

In 1738, the ditches on the southern part of the Castle-hill were levelled, and now the market for cattle is kept there.

In 1739, Oct. 30, being the King's birthday, war was proclaimed against Spain, by the court, on horseback, in six different places of the city; the two sheriffs appeared then first with their gold-chains on, which were given by Tho. Emerson of London, a native of this city, to be worn by the sheriffs for the time being; they cost 100 guineas each.

The gild was kept as anciently, with hangings, garlands, pictures, &c.

This winter was extremely cold and sharp, a deep snow fell about Christmas day, and laid till March, and when it brake up, was a prodigious flood; it exceeded the coldest days in the sharp winters in 1708, and 1715, and continued so long, that had not the poor in this city, and other places, been generously relieved by the wealthy, many must have perished.

In 1740, wheat was above 20s. a comb, and other corn very dear. The season held so cold, that on the 5th of May in the morning, it snowed so much, that at 10 o'clock, the snow hung on the cathedral spire, from its top to the second windows.

Nov. 8, was a violent hurricane of wind, but not altogether so high as in 1703.

This year, on pretence of the scarcity and dearness of grain, there was much rioting throughout the kingdom, and at most of the principal places in Norfolk, as Yarmouth, Lyn, &c. at Wisbitch assizes fourteen were found guilty, but were not all executed; in Norfolk two were convicted and executed accordingly. There were none executed for the riot in this city, which came to such a height, that the magistrates were obliged to seek for assistance from the soldiers quartered here, whose commanding officer, fired upon the populace in order to quell them, by which means several unconcerned persons were accidentally killed, and only one of the rioters, who was said to be the chief ringleader: a lad, who was shot in the knee, died of the wound, and was said in the publick papers to be the 7th person that lost his life by this riot.

In 1741, at an assembly held May 3, it was ordered, that no person for the future, being a foreigner, should be permitted to exercise any trade in the city longer than six months, without taking up the freedom of the city.

Mayors and Sheriffs.

1728, † Tho. Harwood. † John Press, † John Spurrell.
1729, John Black. † Tho. Maltby, † Edw. King.
1730, † John Bell. Samuel Eakins, died Sept. 16, and † John Nuthall was chosen in his room, † Samuel Lillington.
1731, † Rob. Marsh. † Rob. Blyford, Joseph Brittan.
1732, Francis Arnam. † John Brown, † Barth. Balderstone.
1733, Jeremiah Ives. † John Fromow, † John Simpson.
1734, † Philip Meadows. † Robert Stileman, † James Nasmith.
1735, † Tho. Vere. † Ric. Humphry, † Will. Wigget
1736, † Tim. Balderstone. † Tho. Johnson, † Simeon Waller.
† Edm. Hooke chosen speaker of the commons and coroner, in Sheriff Johnson's stead.
1737, † John Spurrel. † Charles Maltby, † Nat. Roe.
1738, † Rob. Harvey. † James Barnham, † John Black.
1739, † Will. Clarke. † Abraham Larwood, † Henry Spark Patteson.
1740, † John Nuthall. Charles Lay died March 30, † Tho. Harvey in his place, † John Wood.
1741, † Edw. King. † John Calver, † Will. Crowe.

Burgesses In Parliament.

1727, † Robert Britiffe, Esq. Waller Bacon, Esq.

1734, † Horatio Walpole, Waller Bacon died, and † Tho. Vere, Esq. was chosen in his room.

1741, Horatio Walpole, Esq. and Tho. Vere, Esq. are the present members. (fn. 10)

And thus I have brought down the history of this city from its rise to the present year 1742,
September 29, when the whole corporation, consisting of the mayor, sheriffs, recorder, steward, justices, aldermen, common council-men, and other officers, are as follow,

The right worshipful William Wigget, Esq. Mayor, (fn. 11) who was chosen alderman of Coslany ward, July 11, 1733.

William Greenaway, Esq. sheriffs. (fn. 12)

Thomas Wigg, Esq.

Robert Britiffe, Esq. recorder, (fn. 13) chosen May 3, 1737, on the resignation of Richard Berney, Esq.

William Brooke, Esq. steward, (fn. 14) chosen June 14, 1727, on the resignation of Richard Berney, Esq.

The Aldermen (fn. 15) past the chair, and consequently justices of peace, in the whole city and county thereof, are,

Edward King, Esq. sworn alderman of Colgate Ward May 30, 1733.
Benjamin Nuthall, Esq. of Middle-Wimer ward Mar. 4, 1718.
John Custance, Esq. of East-Wimer April 24, 1724.
Tho. Harwood, Esq. of Mancroft Jan. 19, 1718.
John Pell, Esq. of Middle-Wimer Nov. 18, 1723.
Rob. Marsh, Esq. of Berstreet May 12, 1724.
Philip Meadows, Esq. of Fybridge Dec. 15, 1727.
Tho. Vere, Esq. of South-Conisford Aug. 28, 1722.
Timothy Balderstone, Esq. of St. Giles's Oct. 27, 1725.
John Spurrel, Esq. of South-Conisford Nov. 10, 1726.
Rob. Harvy, Esq. of West-Wimer Jan. 31, 1729.
William Clarke, Esq. of Fybridge May 7, 1729.
John Nuthall, Esq. of West-Wimer Mar. 6, 1732.

The Aldermen below the chair, who are justices in their own wards only, are,

Mr. Edward Weld, sworn alderman of St. Stephen's ward Aug. 7, 1722.
Will. Lovick of the same ward April 19, 1737.
James Nasmith of North-Conisford July 19, 1737.
John Black of Coslany Sept. 8, 1737.
Simeon Waller of East-Wimer July 14, 1738.
John Wood of Colegate Febr. 20, 1738.
Will. Crowe of Berstreet Jan. 9, 1741.
John Goodman of Mancroft Mar. 24, 1741.
Barth. Harwood of St. Giles's April 9, 1742.
Thomas Harvey of North-Conisford Oct. 13, 1742.

The city is divided into four great wards, out of which 60 of the chief commoners are yearly elected common council-men, (fn. 16) to be of the assembly to join with the mayor, sheriffs, &c. to consult, advise, determine, and enaot, any thing concerning the state of the city, viz.

The great ward of Mancroft, which elects 16 common council. of Wimer, which elects 20. of Conisford, which elects 12.

And that beyond the water, or Northern ward, which elects 12.

And these four, are subdivided each into three small or petty wards, viz.

Mancroft contains Mancroft, St. Stephen's, and St. Giles's.

Wimer contains East-Wimer, Middle-Wimer, and West-Wimer wards.

Conisford contains South-Conisford, North-Conisford, and Berstreet wards.

The Northern ward contains Fybridge,Colgate, and Coslany wards.

And each of the petty wards have two aldermen to serve for it, elected by the freemen of the great ward that it lies in.


For Mancroft great ward.

1. Dan. Ganning.

2. James Elmy.

3. John Aldridge.

4. Hen. Crosgrove.

5. Timothy Ganning.

6. Mark Addy.

7. Timothy Money.

8. Robert Francis.

9. Fran. Procter.

10. Thomas Colton.

11. Isaac Schuldham.

12. Edmund Clarke.

13. Tho. Craske.

14. Edward Appleby.

15. John Nickalls.

16. Jeremiah Berry.

For Wimer great ward.

1. John Simpson, plamber.

2. James Barnham.

3. Edmond Hooke. (fn. 17)

4. William Chase.

5. John Hoyle.

6. William Woods.

7. Robert Rushbrooke.

8. John Webb.

9. † Robert Wingfield.

10. John Turner.

11. John Simpson, glover.

12. John Shilling.

13. Jolland Leach.

14. James Holland.

15. Elisha D'Hague.

16. John Gay, junior.

17. Samuel Mottram.

18. Joseph Chamberlain.

19. William White.

20. William Clarke.

The Conisford great ward.

1. George Hainsworth.

2. Will Sherringham.

3. William Lincolne.

4. William Tuck.

5. James Merry.

6. Richard Phillips.

7. Townsend Sheringham.

8. George Sharpen.

9. Benjamin Pendleton.

10. Will. Pearson.

11. Samuel Tooke.

12. Tho. Simpson.

The Northern great ward.

1. Richard Humfrey.

2. Ambrose Gedge.

3. Robert Mott.

4. Abraham Larwood.

5. Thomas Hurnard.

6. Peter Colombine.

7. Samuel Harvey.

8. John Wigget.

9. John Day, junior.

10. Joseph Hardingham.

11. Charles Buckle.

12. Ralph Smith.

Mr. Nehemiah Lodge, town-clerk, elected June 20, 1730.

Mr. John Ewan, foreign-receiver, (fn. 18) and deputy-clerk.

Officers annually elected at the assembly held May 3, are,

Coroners, Alderman John Wood. (fn. 19) Mr. Ambrose Gedge. (fn. 20)

Chamberlain, Mr. Thomas Kirkpatrick.

Sub-chamberlain, Thomas Burrage.

Twenty-four constables, for the twelve wards, two for each.

Thirty and two guardians, according to the workhouse act.

Officers attending the Mayor are,

Mr. John Hilyard, sword-bearer and water-bailiff.

Henry Harper and Mathew Baltis, officers at mace.

Thomas Kemplin and Thomas Hovell, marshal-men.

William Smith, bellman.

John Tuck, charcoal-man.

John Weston, John Tyler, Will. Reeve, Sam. Cooke, and Isaac Lawes, wayts.

The other officers are,

Under-sheriff, Mr. Dan. Negus.

Gaoler, Aaron Fromow.

Serjeants at mace to the Sheriffs are,

1. Henry Stone.

2. Daniel Peachman.

3. Henry Wharton.

4. Tho. Rawlins.

5. John Simpson.

6. Richard Harvey.

7. Will. Ducket.

8. John Allam.

And Tho. Jackson and Joseph Nevill were sworn at large.


  • 1. The general quarter assembly is held on this day.
  • 2. In the afternoon at St. Michael's of Coslany, being Mr. Fawcet's commemoration sermon.
  • 3. The master and usher to bring their boys to the New-hall on Monday, to attend the court to St. Peter's of Mancroft church, on Tuesday to St. Andrew's, and on Wednesday, to be ready at school to go to the cathedral.
  • 4. Mr. Church's commemoration sermon at St. John's Sepulchre's, once in two years May 17, preached in 1727.
  • 5. The day for electing sheriffs, and commemorating Ket's rebellion.
  • 6. Printed by Will. Chase, 1732.
  • 7. So called from sheremen of cloth-cutters, who lived chiefly hereabouts; the corner house in Edward the Second's time, Was owned by Christopher Sherehill, or at the Sherer's Hill.
  • 8. See p. 181.
  • 9. See the Gentleman's Magazine, 1737, p. 713.
  • 10. They are chosen by the freemen and freeholders of the city and county of Norwich.
  • 11. The mayor is always elected by the freemen on May-day, and sworn into his office on the gild day, which is always the Tuesday next before Midsummer-day, except when Midsummerday falls on a Wednesday, and then the gild is kept the Tuesday sevennight before Midsummer-day: he is chosen out of the 24 aldermen, is justice of the quorum during his mayoralty within the city and its county, and is afterwards justice of peace during life, if not lawfully removed from his aldermanship. The mayor and sheriffs keep their courts on Wednesdays and Saturdays, to hear complaints, and manage all things for the peaceable government of the city.
  • 12. The sheriffs are chosen on the last Tuesday in August, one by the court of aldermen, the other by the freemen, and are sworn into their office on Michaelmas day. In their court they try actions of debt and trespass between party and party.
  • 13. The recorder assists in the mayor's court as chief judge, and must be a barrister, is always justice of the quorum, and one of the council for the city.
  • 14. The steward assists in the sheriffs' court as chief judge, must also be a barrister, is always justice of the quorum, and the other council for the city, and on any other emergency, the sheriffs and steward are called into the mayor's court.
  • 15. The 24 aldermen are chosen for the 12 wards, two for each ward, and they are particularly concerned to prevent disorders, and keep the peace in their own wards; when any die, or be displaced, another must be chosen in his room within five days after, by all the freemen belonging to that great ward for which he is to serve.
  • 16. The common council-men are always elected in the week before Passion-week, by the freemen residing in each of the four great wards, separately by themselves, viz. Conisford great ward, on the Monday, Mancroft on the Tuesday, Wimer on the Wednesday, and the Northern ward on the Thursday, and this week is called the cleansing-week. They choose a speaker yearly, who is called the speaker of the commons.
  • 17. Speaker of the commons.
  • 18. His office is to receive all fines for freedoms, &c. The junior alderman used formerly to be elected in course, but now the alderman-coroner often continues till elected mayor or sheriff.
  • 19. He was first chosen in 1736, when Mr. Hooke resigned.
  • 20. He died, and John Baldy was sworn in his place.