A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 11, Bisley and Longtree Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1976.
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MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
An estate held by Ernesi in 1066, (fn. 1) later called the manor of PAINSWICK, evidently passed to Walter de Lacy (d. 1085) (fn. 2) and was held by his son Roger de Lacy in 1086 (fn. 3) and until his banishment in 1096. The estate was possibly the caput of the Lacy lands east of the Severn (fn. 4) and was held in chief. (fn. 5) Roger de Lacy was succeeded by his brother Hugh (d. before 1115), and Hugh by his daughter Sibyl, the wife of Pain son of John. The estate was held by the Crown between 1126 and 1130 (fn. 6) but had been restored to Pain before his death in 1137 when he was succeeded by his daughter Cecily, the wife of Roger of Gloucester. (fn. 7) Cecily survived to the end of the 12th century but the manor of Painswick had passed to her nephew Ralph de Munchensy before his death c. 1190. (fn. 8) Ralph was succeeded by his brother William (d. by 1204), and William by his son, also William (d. by 1212). The younger William's heir was his brother Warin, who had livery of his estates in 1213. Warin's estates were forfeited in 1215, and Painswick was granted to Walter de Lacy, (fn. 9) but Warin regained his lands in 1217 and died in 1255. At Warin's death his son William succeeded to Painswick but suffered temporary forfeiture, his lands being granted to his brother-in-law William de Valence. Munchensy regained his estates before his death c. 1287 (fn. 10) when the succession of his daughter Denise was challenged unsuccessfully by William de Valence who alleged that she was illegitimate. (fn. 11) Denise, who later married Hugh de Vere, was granted livery of her estates in 1297 and died in 1313 when Painswick passed to her cousin Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke (fn. 12) (d. 1324). (fn. 13)
In 1324 the manor descended to Elizabeth Comyn, a niece of Aymer de Valence, (fn. 14) who granted it to Hugh Despenser the elder in 1325. (fn. 15) The grant was made under duress and, after the execution of the Despensers, Elizabeth with her husband Richard Talbot, later Lord Talbot, regained the manor. (fn. 16) Richard Talbot died in 1356 and Elizabeth married John Bromwich. (fn. 17) She retained the manor of Painswick to her own use (fn. 18) until her death in 1372 when it passed to her son Gilbert Talbot, Lord Talbot. (fn. 19) Gilbert (d. 1387) was succeeded by his son Richard (fn. 20) (d. 1396), (fn. 21) whose widow Ankaret, later wife of Thomas Neville, Lord Furnivale, retained a third of the manor as dower until her death in 1413. (fn. 22) The remaining two-thirds passed to the Crown during the minority of Richard's son Gilbert who had livery of his estates in 1403. (fn. 23) Gilbert (d. 1418) was succeeded by his daughter Ankaret (fn. 24) who died a minor in 1421 (fn. 25) when the estate passed to his brother John Talbot, Lord Talbot, later earl of Shrewsbury, who in 1443 settled the estate in fee tail on the offspring of his second marriage. (fn. 26) The earl and his son John, Viscount Lisle, were killed in battle in 1453 (fn. 27) when the estate passed to the latter's son Thomas who was a ward of his grandmother, Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury. (fn. 28) Thomas died at the battle of Nibley Green fought against the Berkeley family in 1470, and his widow Margaret was granted Painswick for life as part of her dowry. (fn. 29) Evidently that grant was rescinded and Thomas's sisters Margaret (d. 1475) and Elizabeth (d. 1487) inherited Painswick. (fn. 30)
Elizabeth married Edward Grey, who was created Viscount Lisle in 1483 and died seized of Painswick in 1492, (fn. 31) his widow and second wife, Joan, having custody of his lands during the minority of his son John Grey, Viscount Lisle. John died in 1504 (fn. 32) and his widow, Muriel, later the wife of Sir Thomas Knyvett, held Painswick as part of her dower until her death in 1512. (fn. 33) In 1512 the estate passed to the daughter of John and Muriel, Elizabeth Grey, who was a minor and betrothed to Sir Charles Brandon. Brandon was created Viscount Lisle in 1513 and held Painswick in that year (fn. 34) but the proposed marriage did not take place and the wardship of Elizabeth passed to her future husband Henry Courtenay, earl of Devon. Elizabeth died in 1519 and was succeeded by her aunt Elizabeth, who had married as her second husband Arthur Plantagenet, an illegitimate son of Edward IV. Arthur was created Viscount Lisle in 1523 and, after Elizabeth's death c. 1530, he held the manor, with reversion to John Dudley, Elizabeth's son by her first marriage. In 1539 Lord Lisle and John Dudley conveyed the manor to Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, (fn. 35) who sold it in 1540 to Sir William Kingston and his wife. (fn. 36)
Sir William Kingston died in 1540 and his wife Mary in 1548 (fn. 37) when the manor descended to Sir William's son Sir Anthony (d. 1556). At Sir Anthony's death the manor passed to his niece Frances, wife of Sir Henry Jerningham. (fn. 38) In 1569 Jerningham settled the manor on his son, Henry, reserving a life-interest in a portion of the manor, including the park, for himself (d. 1572) and his wife (fn. 39) (d. 1583). (fn. 40) During the tenure of the younger Henry leases of the manor were granted to Sir Arnold Lygon in 1599 and to Sir William Sandys in 1614, (fn. 41) possibly to alleviate the burden of recusancy fines on the family. (fn. 42) Henry died in 1619 and was succeeded by his son, (fn. 43) later Sir Henry Jerningham, Bt. (d. 1646), but in 1636 the manor passed temporarily to Sir Ralph Dutton in settlement of a debt. Sir Henry Jerningham was succeeded in 1646 by his grandson Henry, although the manor was administered for some years by his cousin, Sir Henry Moore. Sir Henry Jerningham died in 1680 when Painswick passed to his son Sir Francis (fn. 44) who made it over to his son and heir John on the latter's marriage in 1704. Sir John, as he became, died in 1737, and his wife Margaret held Painswick until her death in 1756 when it passed to Sir John's brother, Sir George Jerningham (d. 1774). Sir George's son, Sir William, succeeded (fn. 45) and in 1803 sold part of the estate to Joseph Pitt of Pittville, Cheltenham, who in 1804 conveyed Painswick Lodge and c. 350 a. to Edward Jerningham, a younger son of Sir William. At Edward's death in 1822 the estate passed to his son Charles Jerningham who conveyed it in 1831 to Mr. A. Brown. (fn. 46) By 1839 the estate, known as Lodge Farm, was in the possession of Sir Griffin Wilson (fn. 47) and was purchased in the 1920s by the father of Mr. P. A. M. Murray, the owner in 1972. (fn. 48)
The manorial rights were purchased from Sir William Jerningham in 1804 by Thomas Croome (fn. 49) of Cainscross (d. 1839), who had a small estate at Painswick called Beech farm. From Thomas the rights passed to successive sons, Thomas Clutterbuck Croome (d.1859), Thomas Myers Croome (d. 1883), and Arthur Capel Molyneux Croome (d. 1929). After Arthur's death the rights were purchased by the architect Detmar Blow (d. 1939), (fn. 50) whose son Mr. J. O. T. Blow of Hilles House, Harescombe, owned them in 1972. (fn. 51)
The supposed castle south of the church, or a manor-house on or near the same site, appears to have been used as a residence by the Talbots until the mid 15th century. (fn. 52) A lodge in the park, northeast of the town, built in the 14th century, was greatly enlarged in the early 16th century by the addition of a large hall, possibly for receiving Henry VIII in 1535. (fn. 53) From about that date the lodge became the manor-house, but it was used only occasionally by the Jerninghams who were seated at Costessey (Norf.). In the 1570s Painswick Lodge was leased to the bishop of Gloucester. (fn. 54) The medieval west wing of the house and the 16th-century hall with 17th-century additions survived in 1972 but an east wing and south wall, which had given the house the appearance of being built around a central courtyard, were demolished in the 19th century. (fn. 55)
An estate, later known as the manor of EBWORTH, (fn. 56) was granted by Pain son of John to Osbert, a member of his household. The estate presumably reverted to the manor and was granted by Pain's daughter Cecily to her tutor, Walter of Bayeux, sometime before 1175. Walter subsequently granted it to Gloucester Abbey in return for a corrody of 20s. and 13 crannocks of corn. The grant was confirmed by Warin de Munchensy, and c. 1262 the abbey paid £20 to the manor for release of suit of court. (fn. 57) In 1354 the abbey was granted free warren in Ebworth. (fn. 58) The estate, which had been leased in 1527 to John Mills for 70 years, was administered as a member of the abbey's manor of Standish in 1539. (fn. 59) In 1557 Thomas Winston and Richard Stephens, who had bought Standish manor, (fn. 60) conveyed Ebworth to John Cooke of Westbury-on-Severn. (fn. 61) The estate subsequently passed to the Wood family of Brookthorpe, (fn. 62) possibly by 1608 when Richard Wood was recorded at Painswick. (fn. 63) It may have passed by direct descent from Richard (d. c. 1635) to Sylvanus (d. 1675) (fn. 64) and to Roland Wood who conveyed it to Stephen Cooke (fn. 65) of the Leigh (d. c. 1730). (fn. 66) By 1724 Stephen had apparently made the estate over to his son Thomas (fn. 67) (d. c. 1742). In 1744 Thomas's executors leased the estate to Robert Ball of Stonehouse, (fn. 68) and in 1755 the whole estate was settled on Sophia Dalton, a niece of Thomas Cooke, (fn. 69) who with William Jones sold it in the same or the following year to Robert Ball. Ball sold Ebworth in 1766 to John Gibson, from whom it was bought in 1770 by John Stephens of Over Lypiatt, whose nephew and heir Thomas Baghot-De la Bere (fn. 70) sold it in 1781 to Nicholas Webb of Gloucester. Webb sold it to Edward Berry in 1798 and Berry sold it in 1800 to Stephen Welch of Clifton, near Bristol. (fn. 71) Welch died c. 1809 (fn. 72) when the estate passed to his son-inlaw Dr. John Fletcher (fn. 73) whose heir T. G. W. Fletcher-Welch was in possession of Ebworth in 1827. (fn. 74) By 1839 the estate was held by trustees for Georgiana Welch, (fn. 75) and in 1869 S. J. W. FletcherWelch was in possession. (fn. 76) The estate in Painswick, which comprised c. 300 a. in the earlier 19th century, (fn. 77) remained with the Welch family until c. 1899 when it was sold under a Chancery order, (fn. 78) presumably to Henry Workman (fn. 79) (d. by 1926) who owned an estate in this and neighbouring parishes of c. 1,000 a. (fn. 80) The estate was owned by a descendant, Mr. John Workman, in 1972. Ebworth House was a substantial gabled house of the early 17th century with a contemporary stable block. About 1715 the house was heightened and enlarged to the west by the addition of a new range with a classical entrance front. (fn. 81) Further alterations were made to the house and the stables in the 19th century. It was occupied until after the Second World War but had become derelict by 1957 when after the removal of some of the fittings the interior was gutted by fire to provide practice for the local fire brigade. (fn. 82)
An estate granted to the priory of Llanthony Prima by Hugh de Lacy (fn. 83) was later known as the manor of PAINSWICK and was subsequently transferred to Llanthony Secunda at Gloucester (fn. 84) which held it at the Dissolution. (fn. 85) At that time the demesne, the Combe House estate in Edge tithing, was leased to Thomas Gardner and his son Richard. (fn. 86) In 1543 the manor was granted to Richard Andrews and Nicholas Temple who conveyed it later that year to John Motley (fn. 87) (d. 1544). John was succeeded by his brother William (fn. 88) who sold some of the customary land to Arthur Porter of Llanthony and Thomas Adeane, a tenant of the manor. (fn. 89) The remainder of the estate was settled in 1550 on William's son Arthur, who had succeeded to it by 1556. (fn. 90) Arthur conveyed the estate to the tenant Richard Gardner and his son Richard in 1566. (fn. 91) It remained in the Gardner family into the 17th century, Richard Gardner (d. 1639) being succeeded by his son Thomas. (fn. 92) Its subsequent history is not known until 1757 when Combe House and 6 a. belonged to Mrs. Elizabeth Purnell. (fn. 93) The house, with 13 a. of land, was owned by Joseph Grazebrook in 1820 (fn. 94) but was demolished in the mid 19th century. (fn. 95)
In 1346 Richard Talbot founded a priory for Augustinian canons at Flanesford (Herefs.) and endowed it with lands and a mill in Painswick (fn. 96) which were valued at £6 18s. 8d. yearly in 1535. (fn. 97) The Crown granted the estate to George Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, in 1538, (fn. 98) and at his death that same year it passed to his son Francis, earl of Shrewsbury. In 1553 Francis sold the estate to John Bridges, Lord Chandos (fn. 99) (d. 1557), and it passed to his son Edmund (d. 1573), and to Edmund's son Giles, who conveyed the whole or part of the estate to Henry Jerningham in 1587. That same year Jerningham conveyed a part of the same property, called Seagrims, to John Osborne, the younger (fn. 100) (d. 1630), whose son Thomas succeeded. (fn. 101) Thomas leased the capital messuage with some land to Robert Cooke, a clothier, whose sons George, William, and Francis bought the freehold in 1641. (fn. 102) Later William and John Cooke sold Seagrims to George Wick of Wick Street (d. 1701), whose son Edmund (d. 1768) devised it to his son Nathaniel. (fn. 103) The estate, which was in Stroudend tithing near Sheephouse, later became part of the Grove estate. (fn. 104)
Other religious orders to have possessions in Painswick during the Middle Ages were the Knights Hospitaller, who owned a tenement, (fn. 105) and Cirencester Abbey. The estate of Cirencester church recorded in 1086 (fn. 106) was evidently that in Stroudend later held by the abbey; after the Dissolution it passed to the Loveday family, the former tenants. (fn. 107)
An ancient copyhold estate called the Herrings formed the basis of the estate later attached to PAINSWICK HOUSE, formerly called Buenos Ayres. (fn. 108) In 1733 Charles Hyett bought the Herrings from the Adey family and built a gentleman's residence on the site of the farm-house. From Charles (d. 1738) the estate passed in turn to his sons Benjamin (d. 1762) and Nicholas (d. 1777) and then to Nicholas's son Benjamin. The younger Benjamin (d. 1810) devised Painswick House with the land adjoining to his wife's cousin Mrs. Frances Adams (d. 1828) for life, with reversion to her son William Henry, who assumed the surname Hyett in 1813. (fn. 109) The estate was much enlarged by the purchase of Spoonbed farm in 1814 (fn. 110) and by exchanges of lands at Painswick with John Crump, who received lands in Hasfield, in 1845. (fn. 111) The estate comprised 471 a. in 1847 when Hyett acquired the freehold of his copyhold properties, (fn. 112) and was further enlarged by the purchase of part of Ifold farm in 1856. (fn. 113) Hyett, who was made an F.R.S. for his work in agricultural science, (fn. 114) took an active part in local affairs at Painswick, particularly in educational matters, (fn. 115) and was M.P. for Stroud 1832-4; he died in 1877 (fn. 116) when he was succeeded by his son Francis Adams Hyett (d. 1941). Francis, knighted in 1919, was chairman of quarter sessions 1904-19 and of the Gloucester county council 1918-20. His antiquarian interests resulted in a number of publications, and he was chairman of the records committee of the county council from its inauguration in 1934 until 1939. (fn. 117) After his death the estate descended to his three surviving daughters, Violet (d. 1949), (fn. 118) Lucy, and Margaret. Violet devised her share to her sisters who made the estate over to Richard Dickinson, Lord Dickinson, their kinsman and heir, in 1955. In 1972 Margaret Hyett still lived at Painswick House and Lord Dickinson had converted the 18th-century stable block into a house. (fn. 119)
The building of Painswick House c. 1735 entailed the demolition of the earlier farm-house. The house comprises two storeys at the front and four at the rear, the discrepancy being explained partly by the slope of the site and partly by the exceptional height of the main rooms to the south which were almost of double height and probably occasioned the name Buenos Ayres. The south front had five bays with sash-windows with alternating triangular and arched pediments. To the north of the house, in a dell, extensive formal gardens and ornamental ponds were laid out and classical and Gothic garden houses were built. An octagonal building raised on a square basement, south of the house, was probably a pigeonhouse. (fn. 120) A Gothic summer-house, called Pan's Lodge, was built near Bull's Cross (fn. 121) from which it was possible to see Painswick House and the town across the valley; the summer-house was probably demolished before 1824. (fn. 122) Painswick House was extended considerably c. 1830 by George Basevi, a brother-in-law of W. H. Hyett, who added east and west wings level with the main rooms on the south front. The wings, decorated in Greek style, contain an entrance hall with Ionic columns on the west and a dining room decorated with copies of the Parthenon frieze on the east. The rooms in the central portion of the house, particularly the library, contain fittings designed by Basevi. In 1847 a recess in the north front of the house was filled by a new staircase incorporating Corinthian pillars formerly at St. John's College, Oxford. (fn. 123) Poultry Court, a dowerhouse built in the grounds in the 18th century, was badly damaged by bombs in 1941 (fn. 124) and was later restored in the Cotswold style.
An estate was established south of Painswick town at BROWNSHILL by the clothier family of Palling. William Palling (d. c. 1630) of Wick Street was succeeded by his son William (d. 1665), whose son, also William, (fn. 125) was primarily responsible for extending the property. He added a copyhold estate called Hammond's, bought from Daniel Capel in 1705, (fn. 126) and two further copyholds, Shewen's and Sander's, bought from the Gardner family of Wick Street in 1717. (fn. 127) After William Palling's death in 1732 the estate passed in succession to his sons William (fn. 128) (d. 1769) and Thomas (d. 1777). Thomas's widow Elizabeth (d. 1782) held the estate, comprising six or seven copyhold tenements in Stroudend tithing, as her freebench; the reversion belonged to a third brother, Edward Palling, who surrendered it in favour of his nephew William Caruthers. William (d. 1790) was succeeded by his widow Grace (d. 1816) and the estate then passed to his son, Edward Palling Caruthers (d. 1842). (fn. 129) Edward, whose estate comprised 584 a. in 1820, (fn. 130) devised a life-interest to his wife's sister, Harriett Mary Bradstock, (fn. 131) with reversion to his nephew, William Caruthers Wathen (d. 1890), whose son Samuel Wathen inherited the estate. (fn. 132) It passed from Samuel (d. c. 1914) to his son Egbert Augustus (d. c. 1953), whose daughter Mrs. S. R. Smith owned it in 1972. (fn. 133)
The original house attached to the small copyhold estate was Brownshill (known in 1972 as Wick Street Farm), formerly a small house of the 16th century, at least partly-timber-framed. The house was faced in stone and more than doubled in size by building gabled extensions to north and south before the later 17th century when it was no longer the chief house of the estate but was occupied by another branch of the Palling family. (fn. 134) Later the chief house of the estate was Guidehouse, southwest of Brownshill on the site of the present Brownshill Court. In the mid 18th century Guidehouse was demolished to make way for a house of two storeys and five bays facing west which in the 1780s was lengthened to the south, heightened, and doubled in depth by a new classical block built on the east. (fn. 135) The east front was extended symmetrically by the building of pavilions joined to the main block by corridor wings c. 1790. (fn. 136) Known as Brownshill Court, it remained the chief house of the estate until 1853 when it was sold with some land, and the owners of the estate returned to live at the house called Brownshill. In 1853 Brownshill Court was acquired by S. S. Dickinson (d. 1878), M.P. for Stroud 1868-74, but was sold back to the owners of the Brownshill estate by his son W. H. Dickinson, later Lord Dickinson, shortly after his father's death. (fn. 137) The house was afterwards leased and comprised flats in 1972.
A copyhold estate in the south part of the parish, called THE GROVE, became the nucleus of a large estate built up by the Capel family. John Mayo held the Grove in 1688 and died c. 1715 when Samuel Capel, clothier of Stroud, the husband of Hester, one of Mayo's daughters, bought out the shares of the other daughters. (fn. 138) Samuel was succeeded by his son William Capel (fn. 139) who held the Grove with two other copyhold estates, Cambridge's and Oakey's, in 1717. (fn. 140) William retained the estate in 1759 (fn. 141) but in 1769 a Mrs. Capel, presumably his widow, held it. (fn. 142) It passed in direct line to William's son Daniel (d. 1808), William (d. 1838), William (d. 1883), and Lt.-Col. William Capel (fn. 143) who offered most of the estate, amounting to 822 a., for sale in 1914. (fn. 144) William died in 1932 (fn. 145) and the house and 40 a. were apparently sold after his death. (fn. 146) In 1972, known as Hawkwood College, the house was used as an adult education centre by followers of Rudolf Steiner. (fn. 147) It was rebuilt in 1845 (fn. 148) and is a large gabled residence in the Cotswold style.
The church of Painswick was granted by Hugh de Lacy to Llanthony Priory (fn. 149) but a portion, valued at 40s. in 1535, was held by St. Guthlac's Priory, Hereford, (fn. 150) apparently in respect of a grant made by Hugh to Gloucester Abbey. (fn. 151) The Crown leased a portion of the rectorial tithes to Arthur Porter of Newent in 1538, (fn. 152) and to John Brook in 1561. (fn. 153) In 1567 a reversionary lease of another portion of the tithes, said to have been granted to John Coke c. 1550, was granted to Richard Procter of London. (fn. 154) In 1610 the Crown granted the rectorial tithes to Francis Morris and Francis Phillips who sold them the next year to Edward Aley. Edward sold them in 1615 to Edmund Fletcher, a Painswick clothier, who had bought a lease of tithes granted to the Garnons family of Gloucester in 1592, and also acquired the rectory tithe-barn from the same family. (fn. 155)
In 1626 Edmund Fletcher sold the barn and the great tithes of Edge, Spoonbed, and Sheepscombe tithings to his son George Fletcher, clothier (d. 1643); George settled the tithes of Edge on his wife Margery (d. 1685) with reversion to his son George, who inherited the Spoonbed and Sheepscombe tithes at his father's death. The younger George (d. c. 1687) left equal moieties to his great-nephew George Hill and nephew George Wick of Wick Street (d. 1701). In 1704 George Wick's widow Anna made a partition with George Hill: she received the Edge tithes and he those of Sheepscombe while the tithes of Spoonbed, the tithe-barn, and the rector's chancel were divided between them. George Hill's share passed at his death before 1718 to his sister Anne, wife of Charles Purnell, and Anna's share passed on her death in 1740 to her son Edmund. (fn. 156) The Stroudend tithes followed a different descent within the same families. From Edmund Fletcher, who died in 1631, (fn. 157) they passed to his son Henry who sold them to his brother George in 1642. George devised them to a younger son Edmund (fn. 158) (d. 1674), who left them in portions to his nephews, George Wick and Thomas Wynn, and his niece Mary Hill; (fn. 159) Mary's daughter Anne Purnell and her husband sold to three of the Stroudend landowners the tithes from their lands in 1717. George Wick's share passed with his share of the tithes of the other tithings to his son Edmund Wick (d. 1768) of Wick Street, who devised his tithes to his son Nathaniel. (fn. 160) Nathaniel's sisters and devisees, Elizabeth and Mary, were apparently in possession of all the various portions in 1796 when they sold the rectory to Samuel Webb of the Hill. Webb sold it in 1805 to Thomas Croome, lord of the manor. (fn. 161) By 1839, however, the landowners generally were in possession of the great tithes of their own lands. (fn. 162)
Roger of Aldewick and his wife Ellen, who were granted a private oratory at their house at Aldewick in Painswick in 1315, presumably owned an estate in the parish. (fn. 163)