A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 6. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1965.
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The parish of Todenham lies in the north-east corner of the county, its northern and south-eastern boundaries being the county boundary with Warwickshire; it is three miles north-east of Moreton-inMarsh and four miles south-west of Shipston-onStour. The parish, which is oval in shape and 2,481 a. in area, (fn. 1) includes the hamlet formerly known as Upper Lemington in its south-west corner.
The hamlet, called simply Lemington until the 15th century, (fn. 2) may have once formed a separate parish with Lower Lemington, and been later drawn into Todenham parish because Todenham manor and Upper Lemington manor were both owned by Westminster Abbey. No reference has been found to Upper Lemington as part of Todenham parish before 1390. (fn. 3) A possible site of a village, visible at Upper Lemington in 1962, was close enough to Lower Lemington church to suggest that Upper and Lower Lemington may also have formed a single village at one time. This theory is supported by the fact that in 1327 Lemington village in Tewkesbury hundred was described as part of Lemington. (fn. 4) A tithe portion paid to Tewkesbury Abbey from Todenham until the Dissolution indicates the association of part of the parish with Lower Lemington church. (fn. 5) The name Upper Lemington had disappeared by the 20th century and the buildings there were called Lemington Manor.
The northern boundary of the parish is formed by the Knee brook, and two streams, called Lemington brook and Wolford brook in 1474, (fn. 6) running into the Knee brook form most of the east and west boundaries. Todenham lies largely on the Lower Lias with boulder clay in the south part of the parish and around the village, which stands on the boulder clay, and alluvium beside the Knee brook. (fn. 7) The northern part, where the village is situated at about 400 ft., has a great number of springs. The land drops on the north side of the village to the river valley at 250 ft. and on the east and west sides to c. 300 ft.; the highest point, in the southern part of the parish, is 450 ft. The open fields lay on both sides of the village and comprised most of the parish until after the inclosures in 1592 and 1776. The meadowland was in one piece beside the Knee brook in the north-west part of the parish. (fn. 8) In 1559 it was said that there was little wood growing in Todenham (fn. 9) and in 1962 the woodland was confined to the southern corner of the parish.
The village was by the 14th century divided into two parts corresponding to the division of the open fields and called by the same names as the two fields, Homestall End and, a short distance south-west of it, Todenham End. (fn. 10) Of some 40 houses and cottages in the village in the early 15th century (fn. 11) most were probably in Todenham End, and in 1592 Homestall End included only the church and Manor Farm and about eight houses immediately west of them. (fn. 12) More houses may have been built in that part of the village after the inclosure of Homestall field in 1592. Considerable building took place in Todenham End also in the 17th and 18th centuries, including two large farm-houses. During the 17th and 18th centuries a few cottages and a smith's forge were built on the waste in Homestall End (fn. 13) and a row of houses opposite the church was built in the 17th and 18th centuries. The village was extended slightly beyond the church in the 18th and 19th centuries when a few brick houses and a stone farm-house were built. By 1820 a row of cottages belonging to the parish stood next to the churchyard, (fn. 14) and by 1824 houses had been built on both sides of the road between the two parts of the village. (fn. 15) In the later 19th century a few houses were built in Todenham End at the junction of the road from Great Wolford (Warws.), (fn. 16) and in the 1930's a row of council houses was built on the same road to replace a number of cottages which had been pulled down. (fn. 17) Another group of 12 council houses, called the Stonebridge estate, was built between the two parts of the village in the mid-20th century.
Upper Lemington was evidently a hamlet with a small community in 1327 when five people there paid tax. (fn. 18) In the late 15th century and early 16th it included two houses and a few tofts (fn. 19) and after that time it was not usually distinguished as a separate hamlet from Todenham. By the late 19th century Upper Lemington included one house and a few cottages. (fn. 20) Of the other houses (apart from the mill) outside Todenham village, Lower Farm, off the road leading towards Mitford Bridge (Warws.), was built in the 19th century possibly on a site where there were farm buildings in 1592. (fn. 21) No evidence has been found before inclosure in 1776 of the other three farm-houses outside the village. Mount Sorrell, on the east edge of the parish near Great Wolford village, was built in the 18th century, Solloway's Farm and cottage in the north-west part of the parish were built between 1824 and 1846, (fn. 22) and Woodhill Farm, in the south part of the parish, was built before 1824. (fn. 23)
There were c. 40 tenants in Todenham, excluding Upper Lemington, in the 13th century, (fn. 24) and in 1327 16 people from the whole parish paid subsidy. (fn. 25) The population decreased between the early 15th century when there were c. 40 households (fn. 26) and 1563 when there were said to be 28 families. (fn. 27) If the latter figure was accurate the population had almost doubled again by 1650 when the number of families was c. 50. (fn. 28) The population, c. 250 in 1735, (fn. 29) had again almost doubled by 1831 when it was 481 and thereafter it decreased steadily to 321 in 1881. After a slight rise in 1891 the population continued to decrease rapidly to 215 in 1921 and showed only a slight increase by 1951. (fn. 30)
In the 16th century the main street through the village ran west of the church and then east towards Burmington (Warws.), with a road branching from it going north to the stream which was crossed by a bridge of three arches. (fn. 31) The road from the south end of the village to Ditchford Mill (Blockley) was called Campden way in 1583. (fn. 32) By 1776 a road ran from the south end of the village south-east to Great Wolford. (fn. 33) Since inclosure in 1776 the most important change in the roads has been the diversion in 1895 of the road through the village to Mitford Bridge from its old course west of the church and past Todenham House to its present course south of the church. (fn. 34) Moreton-in-Marsh station on the Oxford to Worcester railway, completed in 1853, (fn. 35) is three miles from Todenham village; the Moreton and Stratford tramway, opened in 1826, crossed the west side of the parish for a short distance. (fn. 36)
There is some diversity in the styles and materials of the buildings in Todenham, though most of the older houses are in the traditional Cotswold style, of stone with Cotswold stone roofs, stone mullions, dripmoulds, and dormers or gables. Until the 1950's the village had some timber-framed houses. (fn. 39) One house built in 1733, (fn. 40) later the 'Farriers' Arms', is of brick, and a number of houses and barns were built or repaired with brick in the 19th century. In the mid20th century several houses underwent extensive alterations and many stone roofs were replaced with Welsh slate and tiles. In 1962 two houses had thatched roofs. Most of the council houses are of brick but about half the houses on the Stonebridge estate are Swedish timber houses.
The site of the manor presumably included a farmhouse when, in a lease of 1391, the Abbot of Westminster reserved part of the site for a new house. (fn. 41) About 1560 a manor-house was built, of timber and stone with a Cotswold stone roof, (fn. 42) perhaps on the site of an earlier house, and it was almost certainly the house called Todenham Farm by the 17th century (fn. 43) and Manor Farm in the 20th century. The house, which was extended in the 17th century, was partly timber-framed and partly of rubble in the 20th century, with a hipped Cotswold stone roof. The windows included some of six lights with stone mullions and dripmoulds, some casement windows, and some bay windows. (fn. 44) The house is said to have been used as the rectory in the 17th century. (fn. 45) It had fallen into disrepair and was pulled down shortly before 1962. The Old School, south-west of the church, was another partly timber-framed and partly rubble house, with an overhanging upper story and a Cotswold stone roof. The house was demolished in the 1950's.
Near the site of Manor Farm and possibly on the site of an older house, Todenham House was built in the early 19th century as a residence for the Pole family. It is a large three-storied house with a parapeted slate roof and gables on the west side. The east side of the house, which is lower than the rest, may have been part of an earlier house; the west front was enlarged in 1891. Most of the windows have stone mullions.
The house of Upper Lemington manor, called Upper Lemington Farm (fn. 46) until the 20th century when it was called Lemington Manor, (fn. 47) is an Lshaped, two-storied house of rubble with a Cotswold stone roof and dormer windows, mainly of the 18th century. The principal windows have wood mullions and transoms with leaded lights. Alterations were made in the first half of the 20th century. (fn. 48)
Some of the rectors of Todenham were men of more than local repute, (fn. 49) and William Wyatt (1616 85), a noted scholar and author of a Latin grammar, was born in Todenham. (fn. 50) None of the lords of Todenham manor lived in the parish until the 19th century, and probably among the most influential people in the parish were members of the Freeman family which held land in Todenham perhaps from the early 14th until the end of the 18th century. (fn. 51) The custom of beating the bounds of the parish, which was established by the 17th century, (fn. 52) was continued until c. 1920. (fn. 53)
In 804 Ethelric son of Ethelmund gave TODENHAM to Deerhurst Priory. (fn. 54) It was presumably among the possessions of that priory given by Edward the Confessor to Westminster Abbey at its foundation, (fn. 55) and in 1086 Todenham was entered, with the possessions of Westminster Abbey, as a member of Deerhurst manor. (fn. 56)
At the Dissolution the manor passed to the Crown which granted it in 1542 to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 57) In 1544 the manor was returned to the Crown (fn. 58) and the following year it was given in exchange to Sir William Petre of Writtle (Essex), (fn. 59) the Secretary of State, whose family retained it until the end of the 18th century. The manor passed in 1572 to William's son John, who became Lord Petre in 1603, and descended, with the barony, to Robert Edward (d. 1801), (fn. 60) who sold the manor to Sir Charles Van Notten in 1783. (fn. 61) Van Notten, who assumed his wife's name, Pole, in 1787, died in 1813 (fn. 62) when Todenham passed to a younger son, Abraham, and then to Abraham's brother Sir Peter Pole (d. 1850). (fn. 63) The manor was held from 1850 to his death in 1887 by Sir Peter's son Sir Peter Van Notten Pole (fn. 64) and then by the latter's grandson Sir Cecil Van Notten Pole (fn. 65) (d. 1948). (fn. 66) For a short time the manor was owned by Sir Charles Freake (nephew of Sir Cecil Van Notten Pole) after whose death in 1951 the estate was divided and sold. In 1962 the site of the manor and Todenham House were owned by Col. J. Talbot-Ponsonby and the greater part of the land was owned by Mr. H. M. Sassoon. (fn. 67)
The three hides in Lemington held of Westminster Abbey by Auti for the service of a radknight in 1066 and by Gilbert son of Turold of the abbey in fee in 1086 (fn. 68) were presumably the estate later called UPPER LEMINGTON manor. In 1086 the estate was a member of Deerhurst manor and subsequently it may have become a sub-manor of Todenham manor. In 1303 the manor was held as a sixth of a fee by Lawrence le Poer, Thomas Willington, and W. Freeman, (fn. 69) and in 1402 the Abbot of Westminster was said to hold a sixth of a fee in Lemington. (fn. 70)
By 1492 Upper Lemington manor was held by Richard Greville, (fn. 71) and in 1514 William Greville, perhaps Richard's son, (fn. 72) died seised of the manor, held of Westminster Abbey in fee, which passed to his brother Robert. (fn. 73) In 1541 Robert Greville sold the manor to John Palmer, (fn. 74) who at his death in 1552 was said to hold it of Todenham manor. Upper Lemington passed to John's son William Palmer, (fn. 75) and then to Richard Palmer and his son, who were dealing with the manor in 1587. (fn. 76) By 1627 Henry Compton owned the manor (fn. 77) which thereafter descended with Lower Lemington manor (fn. 78) until the mid-18th century. (fn. 79) By 1775 the two manors were separately owned; Upper Lemington belonged to Robert Pratt, (fn. 80) and in 1783 John Pratt sold it to Sir Charles Van Notten. (fn. 81) The manor subsequently descended with Todenham manor until the 1950's when it was bought by Mr. A. D. Henderson, who sold it in 1958 to Major J. R. Stedman, the owner in 1962. (fn. 82)
In 1086 the members of Westminster Abbey's manor of Deerhurst were entered together and no detail of the 11 hides in Todenham is given apart from the fact that four hides, one in Todenham itself and three in Upper Lemington, had been held in 1066 by two radknights. (fn. 83)
In 1291, and in 1391, the demesne of Todenham manor included two plough-lands. (fn. 84) Until the end of the 14th century the demesne, with that of Suttonunder-Brailes (Warws.), was managed by a bailiff; afterwards it was leased. (fn. 85) A large part of the demesne of the two manors was arable; during the 13th and 14th centuries there were sometimes as many as 39 oxen and six ploughmen employed on it. (fn. 86) During the 14th century the number of sheep increased, with a corresponding decrease in arable farming by 1376 when the number of oxen was 18; in that year 193 a. were sown with four crops. (fn. 87) One shepherd was employed on the demesnes during most of the 14th century (fn. 88) but three were mentioned in 1376. (fn. 89) The sale of wool and lambs became an important part of the profit of the manors. (fn. 90) The demesne of Todenham, which was leased in 1391, included c. 130 a. of arable and six parcels of meadow and pasture as well as pasture reserved by the abbot for his flocks. (fn. 91)
A large part of the produce of the demesne was used for sowing and for paying (in kind) the permanent servants of the grange, including the bailiff, the ploughmen and shepherds, and carters, drovers, swineherds, and dairymen; usually the rest of the produce was sold. (fn. 92) During most of the 14th century it seems that the sowing and harvesting of the demesne crops and the mowing of the lord's meadow was done largely by the labour-service of the tenants of the manor. (fn. 93) The increasing sale of customary work during the course of the 14th century accompanied the decrease in arable farming. (fn. 94)
In 1559 the demesne included c. 168 a. of arable, 180 a. of sheep-pasture, and c. 100 a. in closes of meadow and pasture. (fn. 95) At that time, and presumably earlier, although there were two open fields, the demesne arable was all in the one called Homestall End. In 1592 it included 17 a., 25 a., 36 a., and 38 a. respectively in the four quarters of the field. (fn. 96) The inclosure of Homestall End in 1592 was largely at the instigation of the farmer of the demesne, (fn. 97) whose allotment of c. 340 a. consisted of one piece running east from the village to the parish boundary and one small piece at the west side of Homestall End. (fn. 98) In 1658 the demesne, called Todenham Farm, comprised c. 350 a. divided fairly evenly into arable and pasture, (fn. 99) and by 1691 it had increased to 439 a. (fn. 100)
The free tenement of one hide in Todenham manor in 1086 (fn. 101) survived in 1406 as the plough-land held in fee by Philip Hyde. (fn. 102) Five other people held land in fee at that time and in 1442 there were, apart from the rector, two free tenants, including a member of the Hyde family. (fn. 103) The radknight holding land in Todenham in 1086, though a free tenant, owed service of ploughing, harrowing, mowing, and reaping, (fn. 104) and in 1406 the free tenants owed the boon-service called 'metebene' for one day during harvest. (fn. 105) Chief rents were paid in money and kind and free tenants seem to have paid heriots as well as reliefs. (fn. 106)
In the 13th century most of the 42 tenants of the manor were presumably customary, (fn. 107) and in the early 14th century 49 customary tenants owed labourservice. (fn. 108) The 45 customary tenants in 1406 included ten yardlanders, nine tenants at will, seven halfyardlanders, twelve cotmen, and seven cottars. (fn. 109) In 1442 the tenants' rents amounted to 15 8s. 4d. (fn. 110) and in 1535 they were valued at 17 4s. (fn. 111) The assessment for tax in 1327 suggests a number of prosperous landholders; of 11 people paying the tax only three paid 2s. 2d. or less, four paid between 4s. and 5s. and four paid more than 5s., including two who paid 7s. 10d. and 8s. 1d. (fn. 112) The 15th-century rentals of the manor, however, show that few tenants held more than a yardland. In 1406 the yardlanders and half-yardlanders held the amounts of land their designations imply. Most of the tenants at will also held a yardland, and the holdings of the cotmen and cottars were presumably smaller. (fn. 113) In 1442 also most of the holdings were of one or half a yardland, though at that time one tenant held four tenements. (fn. 114)
In the 13th century a majority of the tenants owed either 4s. or 2s. rent, (fn. 115) but in the 15th century, although the rents of yardlanders and half-yardlanders showed some consistency, the rents of the other tenants varied considerably. By 1442 few of the tenants still owed rent in kind. All customary tenants paid heriots; (fn. 116) though there was no right of hereditary succession, the reversion of a tenement was normally granted to the tenant's son. (fn. 117)
During the 14th century all the customary tenants seem to have owed labour-service, though service was sometimes released. (fn. 118) That of the yardlanders included ploughing and sowing a selion and a half in winter, two days' ploughing, harrowing, mowing and lifting hay, half a day's harrowing and carrying hay as well as three days' labour at harvest, one 'metebene' with his family also, and two services called 'menynges'. At the end of the harvest he received a sheaf of wheat. The half-yardlander's service was half that of the yardlander, except that he owed the full three days at harvest and one 'metebene'. The cotmen owed one day each at the winter and spring sowings, and another three days a week in winter and summer, and two in spring, as well as three boon-services and a 'metebene'. The service of the cottars varied, two of them being Mondaymen and the others mostly owing service at harvest only. In 1406 the tenants at will, although classed as customary tenants, did not owe labour-service, but paid higher rents than the other tenants. After 1400 all tenants were allowed to commute their service for money (fn. 119) and by 1442 there is no evidence of the performance of service except by the free tenants. (fn. 120)
The number of tenants had decreased by 1559 when there were 20 customary tenants and four freeholders, the large free tenement having been split up. (fn. 121) By 1566 when there were three free tenants, one of the free holdings had become customary, and there were then 21 customary tenants. (fn. 122) The numbers changed little during the 17th century; in 1683 there were 24 customary and four free tenants (fn. 123) and by 1775 the total number of tenants was c. 24. (fn. 124) All tenants, including the farmer of the demesne, continued to pay heriots or, for some small holdings, farleus; (fn. 125) in 1564 it was ordered that a heriot must be either the best animal or 12s. (fn. 126) Copyholds were often for three lives (fn. 127) and it was customary for a widow to hold her husband's tenement during her life. (fn. 128) In the 16th century copyholders as well as free tenants were sometimes allowed to lease their land to other tenants, (fn. 129) and this and exchanges of land became commoner during the 17th century. (fn. 130)
With the decrease in the number of tenants by the 16th century there was a corresponding increase in the size of farms. In 1559 nearly half the tenants held two or more yardlands, though none had more than four, (fn. 131) and there was little change during the next two centuries. Before inclosure in 1776 there is no evidence of holdings, other than the demesne, of more than four yardlands and the average size was two yardlands, though some tenants had more than one holding. (fn. 132) At inclosure eleven people had two yardlands or more and six had fewer. (fn. 133)
In Upper Lemington in the 13th century a few people held free tenements of a yardland, (fn. 134) and in 1327 at least five people were holding land there, of whom two paid 2s. d. tax, one paid 2s., and two paid 1s. each. (fn. 135)
The manors of Todenham and Upper Lemington may have shared the same open fields at one time. There is no evidence of separate open fields for Upper Lemington, and in the 13th century portions of the meadow in Todenham manor belonged to tenants in Upper Lemington. (fn. 136) At inclosure in 1776 the owner of Upper Lemington manor still held some land in Todenham manor. (fn. 137) By the 14th century there were two open fields in Todenham each with its own crop rotation, Homestall End field and Todenham End field. Homestall End field lay north and east of the village reaching to the parish boundary and following the east boundary up to the small stream which runs south of the village. This stream separated Homestall End field from Todenham End field, (fn. 138) which occupied most of the south and west part of the parish.
Homestall End field, which was the smaller of the two fields (fn. 139) and included the best soil in the parish, (fn. 140) was almost half demesne land. In 1559 it had 287 a. of customary land and c. 240 a. of demesne and only two tenants had their land entirely in Homestall End compared with 15 who had land only in Todenham End and seven who had land in both. (fn. 141) Homestall End was divided into four quarters called Springwell, Millfield, Incheland, and ten Headland quarters in the 16th century, with a four-course rotation. (fn. 142) Todenham End, which by 1679 was divided into four parts called the North, South, East, and West fields, (fn. 143) was perhaps so divided at an earlier date also. Both fields were divided into furlongs which varied in size. The furlongs were slightly bigger in Homestall End, where there were 22 furlongs, than in Todenham End, where there were 66. Tenants' holdings were made up of scattered lands and leys, although, particularly in Homestall End, they were sometimes in the 16th century grouped together to form larger units of an acre or more. Free, customary, and demesne land lay together in the fields, (fn. 144) and lands were separated by grass baulks. (fn. 145) In 1391 and in 1559 there were said to be three lands or selions to an acre and 80 to a yardland but several yardlands were in fact smaller, particularly in Homestall End. (fn. 146) In 1566 it was said that four lands made an acre and a yardland contained 15 a. (fn. 147) In the 17th century the size of the yardland varied between 18 a. and 30 a. (fn. 148)
Todenham had no common pasture outside the two open fields. Tenants were allowed 40 sheep, five cows, three horses, and a colt to a yardland. (fn. 149) Two overseers, of cattle and of sheep, were appointed in the 16th century. (fn. 150) In 1609 the number of sheep rose to 42 (fn. 151) but was later reduced to 20 to a yardland or sometimes less in the 18th century, when the commons were stinted twice a year, at the beginning of April, when sheep were shorn, and at the beginning of November. (fn. 152) The tenants until 1592 had the right to use c. 120 a. of demesne pasture at certain times of the year. (fn. 153) In the 14th century there was common meadow in Broadmead and Wormshall and in the 16th century 66 a. of meadow at Broadmead in Homestall End was divided in eleven lots, the farmer of the demesne having three and the tenants eight. (fn. 154) After the inclosure of Homestall End field the meadow remained common for the tenants of both fields.
In 1592, following frequent disputes about the tenants' right to pasture on the demesne, Homestall End field was inclosed, against the wishes of the tenants. Ten people holding land there received allotments, apart from the farmer of the demesne. The larger allotments were divided into a few pieces and the smaller ones were in single pieces. (fn. 155) In 1724 it was agreed that the furze common should be inclosed and 4 a. to a yardland allotted to the land holders, (fn. 156) and in 1730 Dunsden Hill was divided among the proprietors 'for improving its ploughing'. (fn. 157) In the 17th century leases of land usually included the condition that the tenant should agree to any proposed inclosure of the open field, (fn. 158) but in 1776 nearly half the parish was still uninclosed.
On the demesne the main crops by the 14th century were wheat, oats, and pulse. (fn. 159) In the 15th century there was a corn field and a pea field, (fn. 160) and in 1592 Homestall End was divided into wheat, barley, and pea fields; (fn. 161) 17th-century references to wheat and pea fields in Todenham End (fn. 162) suggest that it may have been divided in the same way. In 1728 the tenants agreed to grow turnips. (fn. 163) Sheepfarming was important on the demesne land by the 14th century and later about half of Todenham farm was pasture; (fn. 164) the inclosure of Homestall End does not seem to have resulted in a large increase in sheepfarming and the traditional sheep-and-corn husbandry continued. A large number of pigs seems to have been kept in the parish in the 15th and 16th centuries. (fn. 165) In the 16th century Upper Lemington Farm had about twice as much arable as pasture, (fn. 166) but sheep-farming was evidently important there, and in 1513 William Greville had 1,000 sheep. (fn. 167) In 1776 1,022 a. of open land in Todenham were inclosed. Apart from the lord of the manor, who had a few small allotments for his rights of the soil and waste and a small piece of land in the open field, 18 landholders received allotments varying in size from the rector's of 181 a. to 5 a. One other landholder received a large allotment, of 137 a., and 11 others between 56 a. and 36 a. Most of the allotments consisted of one large piece with a few small scattered pieces. (fn. 168)
During the early 19th century the average size of the farms, apart from the two largest ones, was c. 200 a., nearly all farmed by tenants and owned by one landowner. (fn. 169) In 1870 there were 12 farmers in the parish, and by 1935, when the number had decreased to eight, five farms were 150 a. or more. (fn. 170) In the 1950's Todenham farm was divided and in 1962 three farms were 250 a. or more, five were c. 150 a., and Upper Lemington included one farm of c. 350 a.
Inclosure may have been followed by a decrease in arable farming and in 1803 it was said that there was more pasture than arable. (fn. 171) In 1801 when 611 a. were returned as sown, mainly with wheat, oats, and beans, (fn. 172) it was said that the parish had been much injured by inclosure. (fn. 173) By 1834 the parish included 1,325 a. of meadow and pasture and 800 a. of arable, (fn. 174) and in 1933 the land was largely permanent grassland with a few small areas of arable near the village and the farm-houses. (fn. 175) Most of the farms included dairy and beef cattle and sheep with some arable in 1962.
By the 13th century a smith was working in the parish, (fn. 176) and later the parish usually had at least one smith. (fn. 177) In the 16th century the demesne included a forge, and a forge was built in the village in 1757. (fn. 178) There was still a blacksmith working in Todenham in 1962. The parish had carpenters by the 14th century; (fn. 179) in 1758 there was a carpenter and joiner (fn. 180) and in 1767 a wheelwright. (fn. 181) A mason was living in the parish in 1709, (fn. 182) but there is no evidence of quarries there. In the early 16th century William Willington of Todenham was a wool merchant. (fn. 183) In 1790 there was a woolcomber in the parish (fn. 184) and in 1817 a weaver. (fn. 185) By the 16th century the demesne included a brewhouse and bakery, and in 1549 there was a brewer. (fn. 186) The parish had two licensed victuallers in 1755 (fn. 187) and at least one innkeeper in 1821. (fn. 188) The 'Farrier's Arms', the only inn in the parish in 1962, was opened by 1856. (fn. 189) In 1811 seven families were said to be engaged in trade, manufacture, and industry (compared with 45 engaged in agriculture), and by 1821 the number had increased to 20. (fn. 190) A small brick works was operating in the mid-19th century. (fn. 191) During the 19th century there are references to smiths, carpenters, wheelwrights, a sawyer, a slater, a cooper, a plumber and glazier, a mason, and a tailor. Tradesmen included a butcher, a baker, and general shopkeepers. (fn. 192) In 1962 there was one shop and post office. At that time about half the working population was engaged in agriculture, a number of people worked in industry as far away as Stratford and Oxford, and the parish had a number of retired and professional residents.
The four mills belonging to Deerhurst manor and its members in 1086 may have included the mill at Todenham. (fn. 193) By the mid-13th century the mill, with a fishpond, was part of the demesne of the manor, (fn. 194) and from c. 1400 it was farmed with the manor. (fn. 195) In the 15th century the mill, on the river north of the village, was called Homestall Mill, (fn. 196) and later Todenham Mill. (fn. 197)
In 1769 the mill was leased (fn. 198) and by 1777 it had apparently been sold to William Solloway (fn. 199) whose family owned it in the early 19th century. (fn. 200) It was sold again in 1860 to the owner of the manor. (fn. 201) The mill, with a bakery, was in use until c. 1904 when it was closed, (fn. 202) and in 1962 the mill buildings were in ruins.
During the 17th century three mills were associated with the Juxon estate which comprised Upper and Lower Lemington; (fn. 203) one of them may have been in Upper Lemington, but no other evidence of a mill there has been found.
Todenham and Upper Lemington formed separate tithings, Todenham having two tithingmen and a constable and Upper Lemington one tithingman. In the late 15th century the tithing of Upper Lemington was regularly amerced for failing to attend the abbot's court at Moreton-in-Marsh. (fn. 204) After the Dissolution view of frankpledge in Todenham and Upper Lemington apparently descended with the ownership of the manors. (fn. 205) In the 18th century there was one constable for both tithings. (fn. 206)
Court rolls of Moreton-in-Marsh, for the later 15th century, include Todenham and Upper Lemington manors, (fn. 207) and many court rolls of Todenham manor survive for the period between 1545 and inclosure in 1776. (fn. 208) In the 15th century courts seem to have been held four times a year, (fn. 209) and later they were held once a year (fn. 210) or, in the late 17th century, only if the tenants required them. (fn. 211)
Churchwardens' accounts for Todenham parish survive from 1791 and vestry minutes from 1819. Expenditure on poor relief doubled between 1783 and 1803 when 33 people were receiving regular and six occasional relief; (fn. 212) by 1813 the amount was more than double that of 1803, but it had decreased considerably by 1815. (fn. 213) A select vestry was set up in 1819; (fn. 214) financial relief was largely replaced by allowances of flour, and a parish oven was built and financed by the parish for the use of the poor. By 1834 the parish owned 12 cottages. (fn. 215) Expenditure on relief, which had decreased between 1815 and 1825, (fn. 216) rose sharply in 1831 but had decreased again by 1834. (fn. 217) Todenham became part of the Shipston-onStour Poor Law Union after 1834 (fn. 218) and the Shipstonon-Stour Rural Sanitary District in 1872. In 1894 it became part of the Campden Rural District (fn. 219) and in 1935 of the new North Cotswold Rural District. In 1962 the parish council met regularly.
The earliest known documentary evidence for Todenham church is a papal confirmation of the church to Westminster Abbey in 1157. (fn. 220) The benefice, which has always been a rectory, (fn. 221) was united with that of Lower Lemington in 1931 to form the benefice of Todenham with Lemington; at the same time the two parishes were united, Todenham church becoming the parish church. (fn. 222)
The advowson, which belonged to Westminster Abbey until the Dissolution, (fn. 223) was granted to the Bishop of Westminster in 1541. (fn. 224) In 1550 it was transferred to the Bishop of London, (fn. 225) whose successors continued to present (fn. 226) until 1852, when the Bishop of Gloucester became the patron. (fn. 227) After the benefice was united with that of Lower Lemington the advowson was held jointly by the bishop and Lord Dulverton, the patron of Lower Lemington, (fn. 228) but by 1959 the bishop had become sole patron. (fn. 229)
The rectory was valued at 14 marks in 1291 (fn. 230) and at 18 16s. 4d. in 1535. (fn. 231) Its value rose during the 17th and 18th centuries to 150 by 1743. (fn. 232) In the 13th century portions of the tithes of Todenham belonged to Deerhurst Priory, Westminster Abbey, and Tewkesbury Abbey. (fn. 233) The rector apparently had all the tithes in 1535 except the portion of the great tithes belonging to Tewkesbury Abbey, (fn. 234) which passed to the Crown at the Dissolution when it was valued at 13s. 4d. (fn. 235) The owner of the portion in 1776 received 2 a. for it at inclosure. (fn. 236) After the inclosures of Upper Lemington and Todenham farm the rector received a corn-rent for their tithes. (fn. 237) At inclosure in 1776 152 a. was allotted to the rector for great and small tithes and a rent for the remaining tithes of old inclosures. (fn. 238) The rector's glebe included a house and a yardland, (fn. 239) for which he was allotted 29 a. at inclosure. (fn. 240) The value of the rectory had risen to 268 by 1856 (fn. 241) and to 500 by 1935 when most of the glebe land had been sold. (fn. 242)
In the 14th century several of the rectors held the living for a short time only. (fn. 243) Thomas Merke or Merks, the former Bishop of Carlisle who had been imprisoned for his opposition to Henry IV, was Rector of Todenham from 1404 to his death in 1409, when he is thought to have been buried at Todenham. (fn. 244) A few of the 15th- and early 16th-century rectors were graduates. (fn. 245)
The rector who died in 1538 held several benefices, (fn. 246) and the living was served by a curate (fn. 247) who continued to serve under the next rector, a former monk of Westminster, (fn. 248) who was also non-resident. (fn. 249) In 1551 the rector, John Lathbury, was criticized for superstitious practice; (fn. 250) in 1554 he was deprived and replaced by Henry Pendleton, (fn. 251) a noted preacher and controversialist. (fn. 252) By 1563 John Lathbury had been reinstituted. (fn. 253) In 1576 the rector was a non-resident pluralist (fn. 254) and the next rector was neither a graduate nor a preacher. (fn. 255) During the late 16th century it was said that the nave and chancel of the church were in decay and the windows broken. (fn. 256) The rector presented by the Bishop of London in 1594 was presented again by the Crown in 1598 when the living was said to be vacant although the rector had not renounced his title. (fn. 257)
In 1644 the rector's property was sequestrated because of his malignancy. (fn. 258) His successor, Robert Wickens, who held the living from 1648 to 1686, was one of the supporters of the Gloucestershire Ministers' Testimony (fn. 259) in 1648, and in 1654 he published a concordance of the Bible. (fn. 260) During the late 17th century the rectors apparently lived at Manor Farm and c. 1721 the rector built the large stone rectory at the south end of the village. (fn. 261) 'Full services' were held in the mid-18th century (fn. 262) when the rector may have lived in the parish, but by 1784 the rector and curate were both non-resident. (fn. 263) During the 19th century Gilbert Malcolm, who held the living for 43 years from 1812, (fn. 264) and the subsequent rectors lived in the parish. (fn. 265)
By 1501 Todenham church had a guild or chantry called the Guild of the Blessed Virgin. (fn. 266) No other record of this chantry has been found, but a messuage and half yardland given for the maintenance of an anniversary were in the churchwardens' hands in 1549, (fn. 267) and in the same year were granted by the Crown. (fn. 268) A sum of money bequeathed in 1907 by Richard Badger for the repair of the church was producing 220 by 1953. (fn. 269)
The church of ST. THOMAS OF CANTERBURY was apparently so named before the Reformation, (fn. 270) and was known by this name from the early 18th century. (fn. 271) It is built of stone with a Welsh slate roof, comprises chancel, north vestry, nave, north aisle and chapel, south porch and transept, west tower and spire, and a sanctus bellcot. The church has traces of late 12th-century work, but was almost wholly rebuilt in the 14th century. The east respond, with a scalloped capital, and the springing of the western arch of the 12th-century arcade between nave and aisle, perhaps of four arches, are visible. They were built into the walls when the rather shorter arcade of three pointed arches, supported on pillars without capitals, was built. This may have been at the same time as part of the 14thcentury rebuilding. The rebuilding was apparently not all done at once, for the porch and the south transept are awkwardly joined together, but the 14th-century work, including chancel, transept, porch, nave, north aisle, and north vestry, shows considerable coherence, which is emphasized inside and outside by continuous string-courses. The south wall of the chancel has a trefoil-headed piscina, three stone sedilia with ogee heads, and a small doorway with an external finial and ogee head. Both the transept, called Palmer's chapel in the 17th century, (fn. 272) and the north chapel also have 14th-century piscina niches; that in the north chapel is in what appears to have been once part of the aisle. The chancel has a trussed rafter roof.
The tower, of two stages with a spire, was built in the late 14th century; it has a two-light west window in the lower stage and a single-light window on each side of the second stage, on which a former roof-line is visible. The tower is surmounted by an octagonal broach spire of ashlar, with pinnacles at the angles. The spire has a two-light window with crocketed ogee heads on each of its eight sides.
In the 15th or 16th century two new windows were inserted, in the chancel and the south transept. The north chapel, lit by a four-light north window and a small east window, was built by William Greville in the early 16th century, when it was called the chapel of the Holy Trinity. The north aisle was restored, with new windows, about the same time, following a bequest by William Greville in 1513 for that purpose, (fn. 273) and its eastern end appears to have been taken into the chapel, with a doorway and steps leading to a former rood loft. The chapel was known as the Upper Lemington chapel in the 17th century, (fn. 274) and it was later used as a private pew by the Pole family. (fn. 275) The church was apparently neglected during the 17th century when the tracery of some of the windows was broken; the church was extensively repaired and reseated in 1879 following a bequest of 100 for that purpose made by Grace Malcolm of Batsford. (fn. 276) The work included the restoration of tracery, notably in the east window of the chancel.
The 13th-century font has a plain circular bowl and octagonal pedestal. It was removed from the church at one time, and the names of the churchwardens who restored it to use in 1773 are carved on the bowl. A scratch-dial is visible on the south wall of the nave, west of the porch. (fn. 277) A small brass on the north wall of the chancel, to William Moulton (d. 1614) and his wife (d. 1604), shows two kneeling figures with a long inscription in verse.
Brass figures without inscription in the floor of the transept and a brass on the south side of the chancel to William Brigges, rector, visible in the 17th century, (fn. 278) had been removed by 1962, as also had a brass plate to William Wright (d. 1485) which could be seen in the 18th century. (fn. 279) A lead coffin found in the chancel in 1779, said to be that of a bishop, is traditionally associated with Thomas Merks (d. 1409), Rector of Todenham and former Bishop of Carlisle. (fn. 280)
One Protestant nonconformist and one Roman Catholic were recorded at Todenham in 1676. (fn. 283) The parish had four Quakers in 1735, (fn. 284) and two nonconformist families in 1750. (fn. 285) A group of dissenters using a private house for worship in 1818 (fn. 286) was probably the Methodist community which existed in the parish in 1825. (fn. 287) No later evidence of the community has been found.
Between 1683, when there was no school in the parish, and 1704 20 was given by Mrs. Mary Rawlinson for the schooling of poor children of the parish, to be chosen by the rector and churchwardens. (fn. 288) The bequest had apparently been lost by 1828. (fn. 289) Todenham National school, established in the early 19th century, was in 1853 held in a rented building; the school was supported by local subscription, fees, and the rector. (fn. 290) The building used by the school may have been the house which was still known as the Old School in the mid-20th century (fn. 291) when it had long been a private house. In 1873 a small National school was built of stone on the road between the two main parts of the village. (fn. 292) It received a grant from 1876, when the average attendance was 38. (fn. 293) From 1923 the children over eleven attended schools in Moreton and Chipping Campden, (fn. 294) and in 1962 the number of pupils was c. 20. (fn. 295)
By the early 17th century a house known as Church House, built as a public meeting house, was held in trust for the poor of the parish. (fn. 296) The rent was still applied to the poor in the early 18th century, (fn. 297) but the charity was apparently lost by 1828. (fn. 298) By the 17th century rent from a meadow in Todenham was used to provide food at the perambulations of the bounds; (fn. 299) it was presumably a tradition of this custom that gave rise to an inquiry in 1920 about a charity of 4 a. of land for the annual distribution of food, and it was then decided that no such charity existed. (fn. 300)
Archbishop Juxon (d. 1663) by will gave 50 for the poor, and also in the 17th century John Juxon gave 5 and William Porthloe 10. (fn. 301) Abraham Pole by will proved 1841 gave 400 stock, and Grace Malcolm by will proved 1877 gave money for the poor of Todenham which, after the expiry of life interests in 1900, was represented by 17 stock in 1906. Richard Badger by will proved 1907 gave 68 stock for the poor for coal. In 1962 the income of 10 from the Pole and Malcolm charities, administered together under a Scheme of 1906, (fn. 302) was distributed in clothing vouchers, and the accumulated interest of the Juxon, Porthloe, (fn. 303) and Badger charities was distributed in coal. (fn. 304)