A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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ANDOVER with FOXCOTT CHAPELRY
Andefera (x cent.); Andovere (xi cent.); Andewra, Andeura (xii cent.); Andevre, Andever (xiii cent).
The parish of Andover is by far the largest in the hundred to which it gives its name. It extends over 8,663 acres, of which 5,173 acres are of arable land, 884½ acres permanent grass and 29 acres woodland. (fn. 1)
The town lies towards the south-west of the parish, on either side of the River Anton. The High Street runs north and south, being continued northwards past the cemetery towards Charlton, and southward becoming the Winchester road. Bridge Street cuts it at right angles and runs west to Devizes. The Salisbury road branches from it just outside the town. Other principal roads are those which run northward to Newbury and eastward to Basingstoke. The church, with the vicarage hard by, is in the north of the town to the east of High Street. The Town Hall, a stone building in the Classic style, was built in 1825 on the site of one built in 1725. Across the river lies the Andover Union workhouse with a fever hospital adjoining. There is another fever hospital outside the town to the north-east, not far from the site of St. John's Hospital. The New Town lies in the angle formed by the Salisbury and Devizes roads.
Andover station on the main line of the London and South Western Railway is the junction of the Andover and Redbridge branch. The junction of the Midland and South Western line to Swynnerton, Cirencester and Cheltenham is also here.
Andover has never been a place of much historical prominence. Though under royal lordship, it was never a dwelling-place of kings, and King John's fishstew (fn. 2) seems to be the chief manifestation of personal interest on their part. Its principal interest is derived from the fact that it stood on the high road from London to the West, (fn. 3) and thus came fleetingly into touch with many an event of national importance.
Many kings since Edgar and Ethelred (vide infra) have made Andover a halting place, as the dating of royal letters testifies. (fn. 4) In the 17th century the town was repeatedly brought into such indirect and transient prominence. James I was here in 1623, (fn. 5) and five years earlier the place marked a stage of Ralegh's last journey to London. (fn. 6) Andover's share in the Irish rebellion of 1642 was to draw a complaint from the Sheriff of Hampshire for giving no assistance in conveying prisoners to the capital. (fn. 7) During the Civil War the town was a Royalist commissariat station. The Sheriff of Berkshire was required to send provisions there to the value of £200 every week, (fn. 8) but means of conveyance were hard to come by. (fn. 9) In February 1645 three regiments of horse were quartered there. (fn. 10)
In April 1653 fifty Dutch prisoners taken in the war were sent to Andover, (fn. 11) and in the following June Philip Borde, the bailiff, was petitioning the Navy Commissioners to refund him £70 for their maintenance. (fn. 12) On 24 and 25 November 1688 James II stayed at Andover on his way from Salisbury, where he had thought to face his son-in-law, (fn. 13) and thence Prince George of Denmark, the Duke of Ormonde and others stole away in the night to join William of Orange. (fn. 14) 'I shall never forget the confusion the Court was in,' wrote Dr. George Clarke. (fn. 15) Two days later the bailiff and magistrates wrote to the king to profess their duty and loyalty, and James replied through Lord Preston, thanking them for the signal proof they had given of both in suppressing the late disorder and tumult in their town. (fn. 16) Andover has been the birthplace or dwellingplace of few famous men. Isaac Chauncy, that prolific Nonconformist writer, took charge of the Congregational church in 1662. (fn. 17) William Howley, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, was vicar from 1802 to 1811. (fn. 18)
Foxcott is situated 2 miles north-west from Andover town. The agricultural returns show for it an area of 1,290 acres of arable land, 373 acres of permanent grass and 63 acres of woods and plantations. (fn. 19) The village consists mainly of the church and the buildings of Foxcott Farm.
By an Order in Council dated 7 May 1858 all parts of the parish of Andover north of the main line of the London and South Western Railway were formed into an independent district chapelry of Christ Church Smannell with Hatherden. (fn. 20) In 1874 Smannell and Hatherden were separated and constituted ecclesiastical parishes. (fn. 21) Hatherden is situated 3 miles north of Andover. Hatherden House, which has been for over thirty years the seat of Mr. Alfred Butterworth, stands in a considerable park. Wildhern is in the same district.
Smannell is situated 2½ miles north-east of the town, it contains the hamlets of Woodhouse, East Anton, Little London and Finkley. Finkley House is the seat of the Rev. Robert Finch. The northeastern part of the parish is well wooded, including the southern portion of Doles Wood, which was parcel of Finkley Park or Finkley Forest. A survey of this park, taken by order of the Parliamentary Commissioners in 1652, exists at the Public Record Office. (fn. 22) At that date it contained 841 a. 1 r. 17 p., together with a lodge standing therein. There were 7,149 timber trees and saplings growing in it, and there were also various copses in the park, (fn. 23) usually fenced in, and containing 620a. 2r. The 150 deer in the park were valued at £100 and the rabbits at £50. 'The wood and woody ground called the Ridges,' (fn. 24) which was parcel of Finkley Forest, contained 5,120 trees, and the underwoods there were worth £40. Richard Cromwell was then the chief ranger, and William Cooke the keeper. The inhabitants of King's Enham, Knight's Enham and East Anton had certain rights of common of pasture in Finkley Park, and 20s. yearly and 9s. yearly were paid to the ranger and the keeper respectively towards the making of fences by the tenants of King's Enham farm, under Magdalen College, Oxford, who from time immemorial had had common of pasture there for seventy cows and one bull from Mayday to Michaelmas. Four years after his accession Charles II granted Finkley Park to George Duke of Albemarle and his heirs for ever. (fn. 25)
In May's Wood is preserved the name of an ancient manor. Charlton is further south, a mile from Andover on the Hungerford road.
The sites of the Roman roads from Old Sarum to Silchester and from Winchester to Cirencester both pass through the parish, crossing one another near the hamlet of East Anton. Balksbury Camp is near the Upper Clatford boundary. There are two barrows near Finkley. Though little has been discovered within the parish itself, Andover is the centre of a district extraordinarily fertile in Roman remains. (fn. 26)
An inclosure award was made in 1740 (fn. 27) and in 1784 the common lands comprising Andover Great or East Field, Andover West Field, Andover Down, Andover Marshes, Enham Heath and Finkley Down were inclosed by a Private Act of Parliament. (fn. 28)
The following place-names are found in documents relating to Andover: 'Wymanes,' (fn. 29) 'Westwode,' 'Merwey,' 'la Wodeweye' (xiv cent.) (fn. 30); 'Blaklethacre' (xvi cent.). (fn. 31) 'Estmede,' 'Scharpe Croft' and 'Brode Croft' were in Foxcott. (fn. 32)
The borough of Andover is coextensive with the parish, which in 1835 comprised the six tithings of Alderman-le-Grand, Priory, Winchester Street, Charlton, Hatherden and Enham Regis, together forming the in-hundred. Of these the first three were specifically designated ' the borough,' and possibly indicate its original extent. Charlton, Hatherden and Enham Regis formed the 'out in-hundred.' (fn. 33)
According to the document which purports to be his will, King Edred left the 'ham' of Andover to the New Minster at Winchester (fn. 34); and in the story of William's confiscations for the part played by the abbot and his monks on Hastings field Andover is named among the escheated lands. (fn. 35) This story has been elsewhere disposed of, (fn. 36) and the fact that none of the three 'hams' bequeathed to the abbey by Edred belonged to it in the time of the Confessor throws doubt on the authenticity or the effectiveness of the will. Apart from this, all pre-Conquest references to Andover tend to show that it was always in royal hands. Edgar, who came to the throne in 959, held a Witenagemot there at which, seeking to avert the plague, he enjoined a greater piety and more careful payment of tithes and church shot. (fn. 37) It was the 'royal vill' of Andover whereat in 994 Ethelred concluded that treaty with Olaf Tryggvason which put a period to the harrying of England by the Norseman. (fn. 38) In 1086 the Conqueror held Andover in demesne, as had the Confessor before him. (fn. 39) Of the history of the town during the next century nothing has survived beyond that it was burnt in 1141, when Maud the Queen was besieging Maud the Empress in Winchester. (fn. 40) What damage was done is unknown, but it may have been in acknowledgement of the renewed vigour of the town that Henry II granted the men of Andover a gild merchant with freedom from toll, passage and custom, as the burgesses of Winchester who were of a gild merchant were free. (fn. 41) The date of this charter is approximately fixed by an entry in the Pipe Roll of 1175–6, which states that the men of Andover paid 10 marks for having the same liberty in their gild as the men of' Wilton' and Salisbury had in theirs. (fn. 42) To the 'Aid' of the following year Andover, like Portchester, contributed 10 marks as against the £7 of Basingstoke. (fn. 43)
The granting of charters was to the impecunious John a ready source of revenue, and so in 1201 he is found, for 20 marks and a palfrey, (fn. 44) confirming to the burgesses of Andover their vill at the ancient farm and £15 of increment. (fn. 45) At the beginning of May 1205 the king confirmed his father's charter of gild merchant, (fn. 46) and the end of the same month saw another charter couched in the terms of that of 1201, except that the burgesses were to pay £10 more yearly, and that they were to have in return a fair, to commence on the vigil of St. Leonard (5 November) and to last four days. From this charter it appears that the ancient farm was £80 'blanch.' (fn. 47) It was, however, cancelled, because broken, but in 1213 came a further grant of the manor and out-hundred. (fn. 48) The increment was given as £20, at which with slight variations it remained.
In 1215 John gave the manor of Andover to his half-brother, William de Longespie Earl of Salisbury, (fn. 49) to whom Henry III confirmed it on his accession. (fn. 50) The exact status of the earl as regards the townsmen is doubtful, but he received the fee-farm rent of £90, (fn. 51) and was able to disseise a certain John de Bosco of his free tenement—an act of severity of which he subsequently repented. (fn. 52) Salisbury died early in 1226, (fn. 53) and Henry immediately regranted the men of Andover their vill at fee-farm during his pleasure, and ordered Hugh de Nevill to give them seisin of the pasture belonging to the town as they had had it in the time of King John, before the war. (fn. 54) In 1228 the king formally confirmed both the charter of Henry II and the charter of 1213. (fn. 55)
A charter of 1256 gave the good men privileges in respect of debt, forfeiture, inheritance and the hambling of dogs, and imposed a penalty of £10 on any who should hinder them in their liberties, and another charter of the same date granted them the return of all writs touching the vill and hundred. (fn. 56) All the previous charters were inspected and confirmed by Henry VI in 1446, (fn. 57) Edward IV in 1466, (fn. 58) Henry VIII in 1510, (fn. 59) Edward VI in 1548, (fn. 60) Philip and Mary in 1555, (fn. 61) and Elizabeth in 1588. (fn. 62)
The fee-farm rent of the manor, town and hundred of Andover, due to the king as overlord, was continually granted out. Various queens held it in dower. Such an assignment was made to Eleanor of Provence in 1236. (fn. 63) In the following year, however, the farm was given to Hubert Hussey for life, unless and until the king should provide him fifty pounds worth of land elsewhere. (fn. 64) In 1278 Henry de Glastonia quitclaimed to Edward I £20 a year granted him by Henry III out of the farm of Andover, due compensation having been made. (fn. 65) In 1281 the town was reassigned to Queen Eleanor, (fn. 66) and five years later her dower was assured to her in the event of her entering a religious order. (fn. 67) She died a nun of Amesbury in 1291. In 1299, on her marriage with Edward I, Andover was assigned in dower to Margaret of France, (fn. 68) and was confirmed to her by Edward II both as Prince of Wales and after his accession. (fn. 69) Margaret was holding Andover in 1316, (fn. 70) but died in 1318, and in the following year the rents since her death were given to Queen Isabel. (fn. 71) In November 1319 the farm and increment, then amounting in all to £104 1s., were granted to Edmund of Woodstock, the king's brother, afterwards Earl of Kent, (fn. 72) who died seised in 1330. (fn. 73) Maurice de Berkeley then received a life grant for his better maintenance in the king's service and in consideration of his agreement to stay always with the king with fourteen men at arms at the king's charge in time of war. (fn. 74) Something must very shortly have terminated this arrangement, for later in the same year the farm was granted for good service to Oliver de Ingham, (fn. 75) while in December it was restored to Margaret, the earl's widow. (fn. 76) In 1338 the countess, in satisfaction of the earl's debts, leased it to Raymond Seguyn for three years at a rent of £24 11s. 8d. for the whole period. (fn. 77) In 1341 the farm was in arrears, the bailiffs urging as pretext of non-payment a royal ordinance that all money of farms and issues was to be brought to the receipt of the exchequer. (fn. 78) Margaret's petition, however, obtained a mandate for payment. John Plantagenet third Earl of Kent, younger son of Edmund of Woodstock, died seised of the farm of Andover in 1352, (fn. 79) and his widow Elizabeth died holding in dower in 1411. (fn. 80) Her heirs were the five daughters of Thomas (de Holand), second Earl of Kent of that house, son of Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent, sister and heiress of John, Elizabeth's late husband. These were (1) Eleanor Countess of March, represented by her son Edmund Mortimer last Earl of March; (2) Joan Duchess of York, who died in 1434 with no surviving issue, (fn. 81) her heirs being the heirs of her sisters; (3) Margaret wife of John Beaufort first Earl of Somerset; (4) Eleanor wife of Thomas de Montagu fourth Earl of Salisbury; (5) Elizabeth wife of Sir John de Nevill and mother of Ralph second Earl of Westmorland.
Eleanor Countess of March was represented after the death of her son (fn. 82) by her daughter Anne Countess of Cambridge, grandmother of Edward IV, (fn. 83) and by her two daughters by her second husband, Edward Cherleton, Lord Cherleton of Powis, viz. Joan, who married John Grey Lord Grey of Powis and Earl of Tankerville, and Joyce wife of Sir John Tiptoft and mother of John Tiptoft Earl of Worcester. The portion of Margaret Countess of Somerset descended to her granddaughter Margaret wife of Edmund Tudor Earl of Richmond, and thence to their son, Henry VII. (fn. 84) Eleanor Countess of Salisbury bore her husband an heiress, Alice wife of Richard Nevill Earl of Salisbury and mother of the Kingmaker, whose granddaughter and eventual heir Margaret Countess of Salisbury, with her son Henry Pole Lord Montagu, (fn. 85) sold her portion of the fee-farm rent of Andover to William Paulet, afterwards Marquess of Winchester, in 1538. (fn. 86) From the portion that came to the Crown dower was assigned in 1495 to Elizabeth queen of Henry VII, (fn. 87) in 1509 to Catherine of Aragon (fn. 88) and in 1540 to Anne of Cleves. (fn. 89) In 1549 Edward VI granted to Henry Nevill fifth Earl of Westmorland, descendant of Sir John de Nevill and Elizabeth, Thomas de Holand's fifth daughter, (fn. 90) the reversion of the manor and hundred of Andover, (fn. 91) which the earl in the same year granted to William Paulet. (fn. 92) The future Marquess of Winchester thus became possessed of the portions that had belonged to the Crown, Salisbury and Westmorland. These have remained to his descendants and are now paid to Lord Bolton. (fn. 93) This leaves only the parts held by the two daughters of Lord Cherleton and the elder Eleanor de Holand. That held by John Grey Earl of Tankerville and his wife Joan was carried by Anne Ludlow, their greatgreat-granddaughter, to Thomas Vernon of Stokesay. (fn. 94) Henry Vernon, grandson of this match, died in 1606 seised of £12 10s. rent issuing from Andover, which passed to his cousin and heir, John Curzon of Kedleston, son and heir of Francis Curzon and Eleanor Vernon daughter of
Thomas Vernon and Anne Ludlow. (fn. 95) This John Curzon was the ancestor of the present Lord Scarsdale, who still receives the rent. (fn. 96) The male descendants of Sir John Tiptoft and Joyce Cherleton came to an end in 1485 on the death of Edward third and last Earl of Worcester, whose barony fell into abeyance among his aunts. The fee-farm rent of Andover passed to Philippa Tiptoft, wife of Thomas Lord Ros, and with their daughter Eleanor to the family of Manners. In 1525 Thomas Manners Earl of Rutland gave quittance for £6 for one year. (fn. 97) In 1894 the holder, with Lords Bolton and Scarsdale, was Mr. Duncan, (fn. 98) who bought his share from a Mr. Reeves in 1887 or 1888, (fn. 99) It is now paid to Mrs. Duncan. This annual payment must have been a heavy burden on the men of Andover, and in spite of some commercial activity their town seems often to have been in financial straits. In 1227 (fn. 100) and again in 1234 (fn. 101) the king remitted a substantial proportion of the tollage as originally assessed, and the burgesses were in arrears with their fee-farm rent. (fn. 102) The desire for better conditions must have lured the bailiffs into an excess of zeal, for in 1234 the king sent them a mandate on behalf of the local clergy, for whose buyings and sellings in the town toll and custom had been exacted as though they were merchants plying for gain. (fn. 103) Two centuries later either poverty or privilege made Andover almost free of the burden of tenths and fifteenths which other towns had to contribute towards the expenses of the French war. In 1435 (fn. 104) and 1437 (fn. 105) borough was wholly exempt, while in 1439 (fn. 106) and 1444 (fn. 107) it was only expected to contribute half the normal sum. This indulgence may have been due to the burning of the town about this time, for it was on that account that Lord Tankerville remitted his share of the fee-farm rent with all arrears, and allowed a deduction of 100s. for twenty years. (fn. 108)
The gild merchant was granted, as already stated, by Henry II, (fn. 109) and the gild rolls, of which Andover has a particularly rich collection, date from 1262. (fn. 110) They throw much interesting light on the early government of the town. The fraternity at Andover was divided into the upper and the lower houses, and there were two classes of brethren, those who had the free gild and those who had the villein or hanse gild. The highest in rank were the 'forwardmen,' a term apparently peculiar to Andover, (fn. 111) while the 'custumarii' had but restricted rights. There were certain dues known as 'scot-pennies,' 'hanse-pennies,' and 'sigepennies.' The chief business at first transacted at the meetings—known as maneloquium or 'morrowspeech'—was the admission of new members. The gildship could be transferred, with the permission of the brethren and on payment by the recipient, and it was heritable, except when specifically granted only for life. In 1296 it was ordained that no one should sell or give away his gild except to a relative within the third degree. Those thus admitted were to pay half a mark to the gild, except in the case of father to son, when the payment was to be 2s. (fn. 112) The usual admission sum was 60s. 'For very serious offences the gildsmen of Andover fulminated a decree of excommunication against the erring brother, commanding that no one receive him, nor buy and sell with him, nor give him fire or water, nor hold communication with him, under penalty of the loss of one's freedom.' (fn. 113) Such a decree was passed in 1327 on one Robert le Kyllere, who had endeavoured to sow discord by alleging that fifty-five members of the community were intending to rob and destroy certain magnates. (fn. 114)
Besides admissions and amercements, a good many entries refer to trade regulations. In 1279, for instance, the butchers were accused of dividing their carcases among different stalls, a practice deplored by the 'good men,' and they were ordered, whether several of them bought several animals or one animal, to sell at one stall only, under a penalty of 12d. At the same time the fishermen were forbidden, under a like penalty, to take any partner but a fellowtownsman. (fn. 115) At a 'morrow-speech' held on the vigil of the Annunciation, 1301, it was ordered that all bushels and gallons of wine and ale should be sealed with the king's seal in Easter week at latest, on pain of heavy amercement. (fn. 116)
Another function of the 'morrow-speech' was the election of bailiffs. In 1329 an election took place on the Friday after St. Matthew (21 September), (fn. 117) but later, in the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV and Henry VII, the Sunday before Michaelmas was the usual day. (fn. 118)
Side by side with the morrow-speech, and quite distinct from it, was the court held every Monday at Andover, dealing in alternate weeks with the affairs of the in-hundred and the out-hundred. The gild is never referred to in the rolls of this court, and the bailiff is the only officer mentioned. The entries refer for the most part to pleas concerning debt, land, transgressions, bloodshed, trespass, battery, theft, breaking the assize, carrying off the toll (pro tollonio asportato), raising hue and cry, &c. (fn. 119)
In the reign of Edward IV admissions to the gild grow rarer (fn. 120) and in the 16th century almost wholly disappear. (fn. 121) Thus on a gild roll of 1415 there is the following significant entry:—' It was ordained at the said morrow-speech with the consent of the whole community of the same vill that the twenty-four shall be elected there, and shall have the government of the said vill with the supervision of the stewards and bailiffs for the time being.' (fn. 122) The gild was merging in the borough, (fn. 123) and in the business of the morrowspeech the regulation of trade was gradually giving way to the supervision of corporation property. (fn. 124) The town was thus at this period under the control of the stewards, (fn. 125) bailiffs and chamberlains, and the twenty-four forwardmen or aldermen sometimes styled the twenty-four, the twenty-four good men or the twenty-four of the corporation. It is possible (fn. 126) that in the 15 th and 16th centuries, as often later, more than one office was held by the same man, and that, for instance, the bailiffs were sometimes the chamberlains also. After the middle of the reign of Henry VIII the good men, no longer called 'forwardmen,' were reduced from twenty-four to thirteen or eighteen, and later in the century were sometimes no more than five. (fn. 127) Two constables now appear among the officers elected, but there was only one steward at this time.
A case tried in the Court of Requests throws interesting light on the constitution of the town not long before the great charter of 1599. It is undated, but appears to be of the reign of Henry VIII. William Redyng complained that whereas the chamberlains and twenty-four aldermen of Andover had granted one John Hakker, junior, clerk, a barn and a close next the town 'pynfold,' to hold to him and his heirs and assigns at a yearly rent of 3s. 4d., Hakker had left the premises by will to the plaintiff, but the chamberlains and aldermen would not suffer him to enter. The town of Andover was' an auncient borough and all landes there devisible by will.' The defendants replied that they had been seised of the premises as parcel of the manor of Andover, and that Richard Harold, fuller, to whom they had descended as Hakker's cousin and heir, had released his right to the grantors,' wtout that the seyd towne of Andever ys a borowe towne.' (fn. 128) The issue of this suit is unknown, but it was doubtless such controversies as these that, at the end of the 16th century, made some revision of their organization seem desirable to the burgesses of Andover.
With the waning of the influence of the gild and the general progress of civic life the old charters had lost their significance and, of necessity, become fruitful of dissension. So appeal was made to Elizabeth, and she, considering that Andover was an ancient and populous town and on the thoroughfare to the west, moved too by the humble petition of Robert Earl of Essex, granted an entirely fresh charter in 1599, making the townsmen ' a certain and undoubted corporate body politic' (fn. 129) This became the governing charter of the town, and the rules it laid down were still adhered to almost to the letter when the commissioners visited Andover in 1835. (fn. 130)
The Corporation of Andover, then, duly empowered to possess a common seal, consisted of a bailiff, a steward, a coroner, an escheator, a clerk of the market, four justices, two chamberlains, (fn. 131) two constables and two serjeants-at-mace, with ten 'good men 'to assist the bailiff and twelve chief burgesses. The steward had a deputy, the town clerk, whom he elected subject to the approval of his fellows. There was also a high steward, an entirely honorary official, however, and always a person of rank. Thus in 1599 the Earl of Essex became the first high steward. This seems a goodly list of governors for a town of no great dimensions, but it must be remembered that one man could hold more than one office. The bailiff, who was elected on Monday before Holy Cross Day and took up his duties at Michaelmas, while he might also occasionally be the chamberlain, was always by an unwritten law both coroner and escheator, until the latter office, in due course, fell into abeyance. He and the steward were also ex officio justices, the other two usually being the outgoing and prospective bailiffs. Moreover, in later times, the ranks of the good men and capital burgesses were not invariably kept filled. Hence, in fact, the Common Council consisted only of the bailiff, the steward or his deputy, and as many of the good men as had been chosen.
The election of the bailiff was in the hands of the bailiff, steward, a majority of good men and a majority of capital burgesses. The wording of the charter is, however, ambiguous, and for many years it was considered that with the bailiff and steward any eleven others, that is to say, half of the whole chartered number of good men and capital burgesses, formed a legal assembly. In 1830 this method of procedure was called into question and a mandamus was obtained by which it was established that a majority of each body should take part in all elections. (fn. 132) The good men were elected from among the capital burgesses, and these from the inhabitants of the borough. There were no other burgesses, and the charter of 1599 specifies no way in which the freedom might be obtained.
Among the privileges granted by Queen Elizabeth, besides the courts and fairs to be dealt with later, may be mentioned the borough gaol, of which the bailiff was warden, goods and chattels of fugitives, felons and outlaws, return of writs, exemption from suit to county or hundred of the sheriff, assize of bread, ale and other victuals and fines for false weights and measures.
Just as, a little later, the morrow-speech gave way to the Common Council, (fn. 133) so, by the charter of 1599, the old hundred court was superseded by a court of record, held every Monday in the gild hall before the bailiff or his deputy. By 1835 this had fallen into total disuse, no action having been entered since 1812. The ceremony of opening and adjourning the court was still, however, performed from time to time. (fn. 134)
Elizabeth also granted a yearly view of frankpledge with court leet and law days for the inhabitants of the borough, town and hundred. The leet was held at Easter and Michaelmas. At Easter there were two separate courts, one at Andover for the inhundred, the other at Weyhill for the out-hundred. At Michaelmas one court held at Andover was deemed sufficient. (fn. 135)
In August 1682 the men of Andover surrendered their charter, receiving a new one in the following month. (fn. 136) The reason for this was scarcely a laudable one. By the charter of 1599 they had five fairs, commencing (1) the day before Michaelmas at Weyhill, (2) the eve of St. Leonard (5 November), (fn. 137) (3) Thursday in the third week in Lent, (4) the eve of St. Philip and St. James (1 May), (fn. 138) (5) 29 August, each to last three English working days, with court of pie-powder, tolls, pickage and stallage. The first of these fairs was none other than the celebrated Weyhill Fair, from which the lord of the manor of Weyhill and others drew substantial profits. On these the good burgesses cast a covetous eye and by the new charter obtained permission to move the fair into their own grounds. This they promptly did, and the stalls were set up at Cholderton. (fn. 139) The long and wearisome litigation which was the inevitable consequence of this action is sufficiently described under Weyhill (q.v.). Andover lost the day, and the charter of Charles II never superseded that of Elizabeth as the town's governing charter. In 1792 fairs were kept up on Mid-Lent Saturday, 12 May and 16 November (fn. 140); in 1888, as now, there were only two: on the last Friday in June for wool and 17 November for sheep. (fn. 141)
Elizabeth's charter further provided for a weekly market on Saturdays; that of Charles provided for another, for cattle, to be held every other Wednesday.
About the date of the charter of Elizabeth the gild was replaced by three companies—Leathermen, Haberdashers and Drapers (fn. 142) —to one of which every other trade was affiliated. In 1625 the Common Council agreed ' that the style and orders made for the government of the thre Companies of the Towne shalbe perused and made accordinge to our nowe Charter, whereby the penalties, fynes and amerciaments therein set may be levied for the better order and government of the said companies.' (fn. 143) The last entry in the Haberdashers' Book is dated 17 March 1807, and it shows the old order again changing. Persons have lately set up their trade in the town and have 'contemptuously neglected and refused' to become free of the company. (fn. 144) Counsel's opinion is to be taken. This may be considered the 'death gasp' of the companies. The commissioners of 1835 reported that the gilds had been extinct for at least forty years. (fn. 145)
In the year following the commission an alteration was made in the constitution of Andover, the first mayor, Mr. Robert Dowling, being elected in 1836. (fn. 146) The modern corporation consists of a mayor, a recorder, four aldermen, twelve councillors and the usual officers.
Cloth-making was the principal industry of Andover. In 1273 licence was granted to five Andover merchants to export 124 sacks of wool. (fn. 147) Centuries later the Royalist garrison of Winchester managed to take £10,000 worth of cloth from the neighbouring town, and Colonel Massie had strict injunctions from the Committee of Both Kingdoms to see that it was not sent abroad by way of Bristol. (fn. 148) A wool fair is still held here in June.
There was an iron market at Andover in the 14th century, (fn. 149) and when, in 1471, the quire and bell furniture in the church needed restoring ironmongers were at hand to do the work. (fn. 150) Tanning also was a local industry, (fn. 151) and the town appears to have supplied parchment to the royal chancery at an early date. (fn. 152)
There are deeds in the town chest in connexion with lime burning, which seems to have been an industry of some extent. (fn. 153) The tradesmen of Andover issued tokens, and they were also issued by Andover in its corporate capacity. Boyne, in his list of Andover tokens, describes three which were issued for the payment of the poor. The one dated 1658, and having the legend ' Remember the poor,' with the figure of a cripple, is very rare. (fn. 154)
In 1295, and from 1302 to 1307, Andover returned two burgesses to Parliament. (fn. 155) In 1298, 1299, 1300, 1309 and 1311, however, writs were received, but no returns made, and from the last date the privilege remained unused until 1586. Thence onward two members were regularly sent up until 1867, when by schedule A of the Representation of the People Act the number was reduced to one. (fn. 156) In 1885 Andover ceased to exist as a parliamentary borough, but now gives its name to the western division of the county. (fn. 157)
In 1689 it was resolved in committee, and agreed to by the House, that the right of electing lay with the bailiff and a select number, and not with the general populace. (fn. 158) This decision was confirmed in 1703. (fn. 159) In 1700 a charge of bribery was brought against Samuel Sheppard, member for Newport (Hants). As a result Julius Samborn, bailiff of Andover, and others, were taken into custody, brought to the bar of the House, reprimanded and discharged. (fn. 160)
The manor of ANDOVER, which is co-extensive with the parish, has no history separate from that of the borough. Except during the few years in which it was in the hands of William Longespée it was always held by the burgesses, the bailiff being ex officio lord of the manor (fn. 161) and the town clerk steward. The king is lord paramount.
At Domesday there were six mills in Andover worth 72s. 6d., (fn. 162) one of which was the object of a fine in 1202. (fn. 163) In 1539 William Williams of Salisbury died seised of a water-mill which he held of the bailiffs of the town, (fn. 164) while a mill was the cause of a suit in the Court of Requests between Richard Gilbert and John Ashton. (fn. 165) The latter was possibly the mill belonging to Cricklade Manor, held by the Gilberts about this date. The Cricklade mill, Mayes Mill and the mill in 'Ayliffes' were certainly among those mentioned in Domesday Book. Sir John Philpot, the recusant, had a mill in Andover, which was granted with other of his property to Sir Thomas Stukeley in 1627. (fn. 166) Rooksborough Mill belonged to Michael Cooke, who died in 1619. (fn. 167) Twenty years later William Sotwell of Seymour's Farm died seised of it. (fn. 168) It still stands to the south of the town. There are two other mills now in existence.
In the time of the Confessor FOXCOTT (Fulescote, xi cent.; Wexkot, xiii cent.; Foscote, xiv cent.) was held as two manors. It paid geld for 3 hides both then and in 1086, when the whole was held by Ralf under Waleran the Huntsman. (fn. 169) The overlordship descended to the heirs of Waleran, William Fitz Waleran confirming a charter of the mesne lord in the reign of William I or William II. (fn. 170) At the beginning of the 13th century it belonged to Joan de Nevill, (fn. 171) daughter and heir of Sir William de Nevill, and Isabel Waleran, daughter and co-heir of Walter Waleran, the great-greatgrandson of Waleran the Huntsman. (fn. 172) From her it passed to her son, William de St. Martin, who was overlord in 1280. (fn. 173) The place gave its name to the early lords of the manor, being held by Edward de Foxcott at the end of the 11 th century, (fn. 174) and by Herbert de Foxcott in 1167. (fn. 175) In the reign of Richard I Edulf and Walter de Foxcott, Adam the younger and Adam the elder and . . . (sic) de Foxcott and Geoffrey, son of Ralf, Miles de Foxcott and Robert de Foxcott were impleaded for building a wall on the common pasture of Foxcott since the king's first coronation to the damage of the free tenement of Michael son of Luke in 'Clebton.' The wall was ordered to be taken down and all the builders were amerced. (fn. 176) In the Testa de Nevill Henry de Foxcott is entered as holding half a fee in Foxcott of the old enfeoffment of Joan de Nevill, (fn. 177) and in 1280 this same Henry or his son was summoned to show why he took the amercements of the assize of bread and ale in Foxcott which belonged to the king. Answering through his attorney he disclaimed the assize of bread, but said that he and his ancestors had had that of ale since the days of King Richard. Asked if he had a tumbril for the effective observance of this liberty, (fn. 178) he replied in the negative, and the prosecutor sought judgement for the king on that account. (fn. 179) In the Nomina Villarum of 1316 the vill is assigned to Thomas de Foxcott, (fn. 180) and at the Aid of 1346 Henry de Foxcott and John de Wynton held the quarter fee in Foxcott which had belonged to Thomas. (fn. 181) The share of John de Wynton is to be accounted for by the fact that Thomas de Foxcott and his wife Margaret had in 1324 granted land in Foxcott to Henry de Harnhill, (fn. 182) who in 1342 granted it in remainder to John de Wynton and his wife Joan. (fn. 183) This tenement afterwards passed with the manor of Pen ton Mewsey to the Stonors. (fn. 184) In 1405 Thomas de Foxcott granted the reversion of the manor, which Nicholas Bray and Alice (fn. 185) his wife were holding for the life of Alice, to William Stokes and his heirs. (fn. 186) Two years later William Stokes regranted this reversion to Thomas and the heirs of his body with remainder to John son of William and the heirs of his body, with remainder in default to the right heirs of Thomas. (fn. 187) Thomas de Foxcott, who was the son of Robert de Foxcott, married Philippa daughter and heir of William Stokes, (fn. 188) who, although he cannot well have been the William just mentioned, was probably closely related. Whatever the precise import of the second of the above fines, William Stokes died seised of the manor in 1427, (fn. 189) his son John being named as his heir. Nevertheless, in 1428 William Dyneley, who had married Margaret daughter and heir of Thomas de Foxcott, (fn. 190) was found to hold Henry de Foxcott's quarter fee. (fn. 191) Peter Carvanell, who died in 1500, had a life interest in the manor by reason of his marriage with Sanchea widow of Edward Dyneley grandson of William. (fn. 192) After his death it reverted to Thomas Dyneley, Edward's son and heir, who died seised of the manor in 1502, holding of the king in chief by fealty. (fn. 193) He left an infant daughter and heir Elizabeth Dyneley, subsequently the wife of George Barrett of Aveley (co. Essex), who had livery of this and other lands in 1517. (fn. 194) Edward son of George Barrett died seised of the manor in 1586, (fn. 195) his heir being his infant grandson Edward Barrett, created Lord Barrett of Newburgh (co. Fife) in 1627. (fn. 196) The history of Foxcott Manor during the 17th century is obscure. Lord Barrett died without issue in 1645, leaving his Hampshire lands, after payment of debts and legacies, to his half-brother Sir Richard Leveson, and his heirs, with remainder to Richard Lennard (ancestor of the Barrett-Lennards Lords Dacre), who was to inherit the bulk of his estates. (fn. 197) In 1652 Henry Mitton, Frances his wife, and John Mitton quitclaimed the manor to Edmond Arnold. (fn. 198) By 1686 it had come to the possession of Joseph Hinxman, (fn. 199) sometime M.P. for Christchurch, with whose heirs it has continued. (fn. 200) It is now in the hands of the trustees of the late Rev. John Henry Gale, son of Thomas Hinxman Gale.
There is mention of another manor of the same name as the preceding in a fine of 1352, whereby John le Crepse and Margaret his wife granted their manor of FOXCOTT to Ralph de Clatford, Alice his wife and Roger their son. (fn. 201) It may perhaps be identified with the lands and tenements in Knight's Hatherden which were leased for life by Ralph and Alice to John atte Grove, Joan his wife and Adam their son in 1355, for in the lease these lands are said to have descended to Alice on the death of John le Crepse and Margaret his wife. (fn. 202) Nothing further has been learnt concerning the history of this estate.
The vill of HATHERDEN was in the possession of Thomas de Foxcott in 1316, (fn. 203) and in 1324 Thomas de Foxcott and Margaret his wife granted land in Hatherden to Henry de Harnhill (vide supra). (fn. 204) When their descendant Thomas de Foxcott in 1405 relinquished the manor of Foxcott to William Stokes, he also gave up his claim to a messuage, a carucate of land and 8 acres of wood with appurtenances in Hatherden. (fn. 205) This estate, which followed the same descent as Foxcott (q.v. supra), is called a manor in the inquisition taken on the death of Edward Barrett of Aveley in 1586. (fn. 206)
In 1293 Nicholas Durdent died seised of other land in HATHERDEN (or KING'S HATHERDEN) belonging to the fee-farm of Andover, in which Agnes Durdent had dower. (fn. 207) He left a son and heir John, but nothing- more has been traced as to this holding until 1502, when Robert Johnson and Joan Durdent, calling to warrant Thomas Fish, conveyed the manor of Hatherden to Edmund Dudley, Andrew Windsor and John Caryll. (fn. 208) In 1568 Ralph Cawley alias Calley sold it to Edward Thurman, (fn. 209) who in 1574 sold it to Robert Noyes. (fn. 210) Robert Noyes dealt with the manor by fine in 1604 (fn. 211) and 1628, (fn. 212) and another of the same name conveyed it in 1655 to John Mundy. (fn. 213)
The WOODHOUSE from an early date pertained to the bailiwick of Finkley Forest held with that of Chute, of which it was the eastern walk, and was held by Avice de Columbers at her death in 1258, (fn. 214) no doubt as heir of her father Ellis Croc. (fn. 215) Her son and heir Matthew de Columbers gave the bailiwick of the forest of Chute to John de Lisle and his wife Nichola daughter of Michael brother of Matthew. (fn. 216) With this grant doubtless went Woodhouse, of which John de Lisle died seised in 1304, (fn. 217) holding, it was stated, of Clarice de Sackville. His son John died seised in 1331, (fn. 218) and in 1340 Edmund de la Beche, king's clerk, was pardoned for acquiring a life interest in the messuage called the Woodhouse and the bailiwick of the forestership of Chute Forest from Bartholomew de Lisle, son of the last-mentioned John. (fn. 219) Five years later Bartholomew died seised, (fn. 220) leaving an infant son John, and in the same year the escheator, who had taken the premises into the king's hands, was ordered to intermeddle no further, since Elizabeth the widow had done fealty for the same. (fn. 221) About 1370 Sir John de Lisle died abroad, (fn. 222) leaving a son and heir John, who was seised in a messuage and 30 acres called Woodhouse and died in 1407 (fn. 223) holding by the service of keeping Chute Forest. About this time the Lisles acquired the manor of Thruxton (q.v.), with the descent of which that of Woodhouse is henceforth identical. It is first spoken of as a manor in the reign of Henry VIII, (fn. 224) and the last mention of it as such is in 1684, when George Philpot and Mary Philpot dealt with it by fine. (fn. 225)
In 1591 a deponent in a suit as to the right to the office of forester of Chute Forest said that the house called Woodhouse was down before he came into the county. (fn. 226)
CHARLTON MANOR is first mentioned at the end of the 15 th century, (fn. 227) when it was in the hands of the lords of Foxcott (q.v.), with whom it continued throughout the following century, eventually no doubt becoming completely merged in the Foxcott estate. (fn. 228)
In 1537 George Gilbert and John Gilbert his son and heir sold the so-called manor of CRICKLADE (Cryklade, xvi cent.) to Thomas White, (fn. 229) who dealt with it by fine in 1580 (fn. 230) and died seised in 1590, having also the royalty of all the waters in Andover and Charlton. (fn. 231) In 1602 his son Thomas White the younger sold the manor to Arthur Swayne, (fn. 232) and in 1615 Edward Swayne sold it to Richard Blake, (fn. 233) who died some eight or nine years later, leaving a son and heir William. (fn. 234) On the death of Peter Blake of Andover about 1693 the manor passed to his sister Sarah wife of Edmond Lambert of Boyton (co. Wilts.). (fn. 235) The Lamberts held during the 18th century, (fn. 236) and perhaps joined the estate to their neighbouring manor of Abbotts Ann (q.v.). To-day the name of Cricklade has entirely disappeared from the map.
A water-mill always went with the manor of Cricklade. (fn. 237)
The Sandys family, who at the beginning of the 15th century acquired much land in this part of Hampshire, held a manor in Andover, sometimes called SANDYS MANOR. This is first mentioned in the inquisition on Sir Walter Sandys' property in 1435. (fn. 238) It is not called a manor after the deaths of his son Thomas (fn. 239) and Sybil his wife, (fn. 240) but they held much land in the parish, and their son Sir William Sandys died in 1496 holding Sandys manor of the free men of Andover. (fn. 241) Thenceforth it remained in the same family until the middle of the 17th century, when much of their property was dispersed. (fn. 242) In 1649 William Lord Sandys and Mary his wife conveyed the manor of Andover to John Fielding. (fn. 243) Its later history has not been traced.
The estate known as AYLIFFE'S MANOR was apparently acquired by the Sandys family about the same date as the foregoing. (fn. 244) It is last mentioned in 1496, as being held of the freemen of Andover. (fn. 245) No doubt both this and the Mottisfont Priory property in Andover granted to William Lord Sandys, the chamberlain, in 1536, (fn. 246) were afterwards considered parcel of the manor last described. A water-mill belonged to this manor.
In 1509 John Seymour died seised of a messuage in Andover, leaving as his co-heirs four sisters, Agnes wife of Richard Forde, Isabel wife of George Berenger, Margery wife of Thomas Sotwell and Joan Seymour. (fn. 247) This was probably the so-called manor of SEYMOUR'S PLACE which John Bennet and Edith his wife conveyed to Thomas Cordrey and William Sotwell in 1546. (fn. 248) It seems to have remained with the Sotwells for nearly a century, and at William Sotwell's death in 1639 was known as Seymour's Farm alias Sotwell's Farm. (fn. 249) It eventually came to John Pollen, who in 1702 gave it as endowment to an almshouse which he founded in Dog Pole Street. (fn. 250)
MAYES MANOR or the manor of KING'S ENHAM originated in the lands in the Enhams and Charlton, which were held in early days by the families of Wilekin, Ingulf, le Poer, May and Goode, and in the 15 th century became concentrated in the hands of Robert May. (fn. 251) In 1443 May granted all his property in King's Enham, Knight's Enham, Charlton, Hide, Woodhouse and Andover to feoffees, who reconveyed it to him and his wife Felicia, with reversion to themselves on the death of Robert and Felicia without issue. (fn. 252) In 1452 the feoffees conveyed their reversionary interest, Felicia May having died in the meantime, to John Audley, eldest son of James Lord Audley, who three years later conveyed it to William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, and others. (fn. 253) It was discovered, however, in 1460 on the confession of Robert May that Thomas Whiteway was the true heir by entail of all the premises after the deaths of Robert and Felicia. (fn. 254) May's conveyances must therefore have been of no effect. A memorandum dated 1473 shows that Thomas Whiteway's interest was then vested in Alice wife of Thomas Warren. (fn. 255) In 1477 Thomas Warren and Alice conveyed Mayes Manor to Bishop Waynflete, (fn. 256) and he in 1481 granted it to the president and scholars of Magdalen College, Oxford, (fn. 257) who still hold it, though the manorial lands have been reduced to about 20 acres in Charlton. (fn. 258)
There was a mill which went with the manor.
In the conveyance of Hampshire lands by William Lord Sandys to John Fielding in 1649 a manor of King's Enham was included. (fn. 259) This, however, seems merely to have been a courtesy title, although Sir William Sandys, who died in 1496, was found to have held the manor of King's Enham of the president and scholars of Queen's College, Oxford. (fn. 260)
The church of ST. MARY THE Virgin was built between 1840 and 1844 in place of an old church of which nothing now remains except a round-headed doorway in the tower with shafted jambs and zigzag in the arch, of late 12th-century date but much repaired.
A painting of the south view of the old church hanging in the clergy vestry shows that it had a central tower, a chancel and north chapel, and a nave lighted on the south by five windows, four of two lights of late 13th-century character to the east of the south porch and one of three lights to the west. The other windows seem to be of 16th-century date and the upper part of the tower looks late.
The present building consists of a nave and chancel with an apsidal east end in all about 102 ft. by 22 ft., north and south aisles 12 ft. 6 in. wide, and transepts 22 ft. deep by 18 ft. 6 in. wide; a south porch and a west tower of three stages 16 ft. square inside with vestries to the north and south of it. The details are modelled on Salisbury, and though rather lanky the general internal effect is very good. There are arcades of six bays a side, those opening to the transept being wider than the others; the clearstory is lighted by pairs of lancet windows, and the whole church is ceiled with quadripartite ribbed vaults in plaster. The aisle windows are pairs of tall lancets, and in the apse the windows are of three lights with geometrical tracery, and an inner plane of tracery carried on slender banded shafts. On the chord of the apse is a row of three arches on pairs of tall and slender shafts, and above in the gable a group of five lancets.
The church stands very well, with a fine flight of steps from its west door in the tower, and the other entrances are through the south porch and south transept. The exterior is not equal to the interior, the tower being very weak and drawn out, but the original is pretty faithfully copied in the elevations of the aisles, and the whole building in spite of the poorness of its materials must be considered a very meritorious performance for the time. None of the fittings are old, but there are a good many mural monuments preserved from the old church. The best is that at the east end of the south aisle to Anne second wife of William West first Lord De la Warr. She, who was married first to Thomas Oliver, was daughter of Henry Swift of Andover and Elizabeth his wife, and married thirdly Richard Kemish of Andover. She survived her third husband, who died 6 October 1611.
On the monument is the seated figure of Richard Kemish dressed in a long furred gown, and with his hand resting on a skull on his knee, and to the left of him the kneeling figure of Lady De La Warr, and behind her are the kneeling figures of her two sons and four daughters. All the armory appears to have been repainted with the usual disastrous results. Shields above and below the monument display the arms of West. At the back are two shields, apparently for Kemish and Oliver, each impaling Swift, Party or and vert a cheveron between three running harts with three pheons on the cheveron all countercoloured and a chief azure with three scallops or therein.
On the other side—at the east end of the south aisle—is another Renaissance monument to Richard Venables, 1621, and Dorothy his wife, 1612, with their kneeling effigies on either side of a desk. Above are the arms of Venable, Azure two bars argent with the difference of a martlet gules and painted on a corbel between the figures appear the same arms impaling Brooke of Whitchurch, Checky or and azure a bend gules with a lion passant or thereon. This monument was formerly placed above the west gallery in the tower.
By the side of this monument is a small brass with shield and inscription to Nicholas Venables, died 1602. On the south wall adjacent is a painted board on which is represented a classic monument; it is to Mr. Nicholas Venables 'gentleman and merchant of London,' died 1613. On it is the quaint rhyming epitaph: 'A hundred pound he gave ye poore—wch as a stock should still remaine,—To buy them bread for evermore,—Theire hungrie bodies to sustaine.—His gift, our good, abides with us,—His soule wth God in heav'n hath place,—God gaunt (sic) you all may pitty us,—And follow him in the like race.'
In the south transept is a board set up by Edward Warham, gent., bailiff 1692, with the names of the benefactors of the town of 'Andever' and their 'guifts' from 1569 to 1690. Another board brings the list up to 1849.
There are eight bells by Lester & Pack, 1758, and a clock by Thwaites & Reed of London, 1846.
The plate consists of a silver-gilt chalice and paten cover of 1611, the gift of Richard Kemish in 1711, and another silver-gilt chalice and paten cover of 1632; a pair of chalices, a pair of patens, another paten, and a flagon, all of silver, and dated 1874.
The registers before 1812 are contained in fifteen books. The earlier ones are somewhat torn, but they have now been most carefully restored and bound by the British Museum.
The first book begins in 1587 and contains baptisms to 1636, marriages to 1633, and burials to 1634.; the second, mixed entries, 1636 to 1642; the third, baptisms 1642 to 1684,marriages 1642 to 1686, burials 1642 to 1681; the fourth, burials 1678 to 1713; the fifth, baptisms 1685 to 1700; sixth, baptisms 1700 to 1713, marriages 1700 to 1714; seventh, baptisms, marriages and burials 1714 to 1746; eighth, baptisms 1746 to 1783, marriages to 1754 and burials to 1782; ninth, marriages 1754 to 1769; tenth, banns 1754 to 1760; eleventh, banns and marriages 1769 to 1781; twelfth, the same 1781 to 1812; thirteenth, baptisms and burials 1784 to 1798; fourteenth, baptisms 1798 to 1812; and fifteenth, burials for the same period.
At Foxcott, in this parish, was a modern chapel of ease (rebuilt c. 1830), but this has now been all pulled down, excepting the tower, which is retained as a mortuary chapel. The rest of the material has been re-used to build a small church at the more populous village of Charlton. The only old piece of stonework retained is a small 15th-century canopy head to a niche which belonged to the former building at Foxcott, and has been reset on the north side of the Charlton chapel.
The plate consists of a silver chalice, paten and flagon of 1839, 1852 and 1851 respectively.
CHRIST CHURCH, Hatherden, is of flint and stone in 13th-century style, consisting of apsidal chancel, nave and north and south porches, and turret with two bells.
CHRIST CHURCH, Smannell is a similar building of apsidal chancel, nave, north aisle, south porch and turret containing one bell.
The church of Andover, which is not mentioned in Domesday, was granted to the alien priory of Andover (fn. 261) by William I and remained in its gift, under the abbey of St. Florent, Saumur, until 1414, (fn. 262) the year of the dissolution of the alien priories, when the last prior was permitted to alienate his house to Winchester College. (fn. 263) Ever since that date the college has held the rectory and the advowson of the vicarage. (fn. 264)
There was a chantry called Our Lady Chantry founded in 1368 by Peter de Bridges. (fn. 267) In the 16th century it was valued at £12, of which £10 16s. was paid to the chantry priest. (fn. 268) On its abolition the people of Andover prayed to have assistance for ministration, saying that they had no other aid than the chantry priest.
There is also reference to a stipendiary priest in the certificates of Henry VIII and Edward VI. In the former it is stated he had no foundation, but was appointed by the bailiff's and corporation and was removable at their will and pleasure; in the latter that he was supported by the 'devotion of the inhabitants' and was to continue for ever. The appurtenant lands were valued at £3 13s. 4d.
At the same time a barn in Andover given by one Whood for the maintenance of a yearly obit, worth 10s., was forfeited for superstitious uses. (fn. 269)
In 1566 a messuage and garth called Our Lady's Chapel, formerly granted to William Huggins and by him made over to Francis Barker of London, in consideration of a debt, was granted to Francis Barker and Thomas Blackway and their heirs. (fn. 270)
Foxcott is a chapelry of Andover. At some date in the reign of William I or William II Edward de Foxcott granted the tithes of his demesne and 8d. from the villeins to St. Mary's, Andover, which belonged to the Abbey of St. Florent, Saumur, on condition that the church should find a priest to serve the chapel of Foxcott at various feasts and seasons. This grant appears in a charter of William I or William II, which was confirmed by Edward II. (fn. 271)
The living of Hatherden is a vicarage in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester. The living of Smannell is a vicarage annexed to the rectory of Knight's Enham, also in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester. (fn. 272)
There are in Andover a Baptist chapel, built in 1886, a Congregational chapel, built in 1700 and enlarged in 1879, and Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels. At Charlton there are a mission hall and a Primitive Methodist chapel, and at Wildhern a Primitive Methodist chapel. There is also a Baptist chapel at Smannell.
The hospital of St. John the Baptist at Andover received a royal charter in 1247, (fn. 273) and in the same year the men of Andover granted 50s. yearly from the gild merchant for the maintenance of a chaplain. (fn. 274) In 1250 the brethren and sisters had licence to inclose a piece of land belonging to the king opposite their hospital, wherein the bodies of the deceased were buried at the time of the interdict, and to build a chapel thereon for the celebration of divine service for the souls of the faithful departed. (fn. 275) The burgesses usually appointed the chaplain, (fn. 276) but on several occasions a king's clerk was put in by royal letters. (fn. 277) In the 16th century the rents of the hospital and its lands were appropriated to the corporation of Andover, to be taken by the chamberlains, (fn. 278) and in 1574 it was agreed that £10 yearly for life should be paid by the chamberlains to the Earl of Leicester and 20s. to Richard Inkpen for his fee. (fn. 279)
There was also in the 13th century a leper hospital dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. (fn. 280) The editors of Dugdale, following Tanner, speak of St. John the Baptist and Mary Magdalene as one hospital, (fn. 281) so presumably the two were united at some date.
Tradition says that the site of the hospital was at the bottom of New Street, on the east side of the road going north. Tytheridge, in his report on the archives, says:—'A person named Richard Steele, born in 1706, used frequently to say when in his ninetieth year that he had often rung the bell in the old Market House, which was built (of timber) previous to the one in 1725, and that the bell therein was the identical one that came from the Spital chapel.' (fn. 282)
The Municipal Charities.—By order of the Charity Commissioners, dated 17 July 1906, a scheme was established for the administration of the following charities, formerly under the administration of the Corporation, viz.:—
(a) The Spital Almshouses, an ancient foundation, formerly consisting of four almshouses in the Western Road and land adjoining, sold in 1902, and the proceeds invested in £985 3s. 5d. Metropolitan 3 per cent. stock;
The Acre Almshouses, being four tenements erected on land known as the Common acre, containing 1a. 2r. 14P., given in 1570 by Catherine Hanson for the recreation of the inhabitants;
The charities of Thomas Cornelius (will, 1610), Richard and Joan Blake, George Pemerton (deed, 1634), Nicholas Fishbourne, and Thomas Westcombe (deed, 1622), the endowments of which are now represented by two shops at the corner of Winchester Street, let at £40 a year; £325 2s. 5d. Metropolitan 3 per cent, stock, £828 5s. 3d. consols, and £109 3s. 7d. consols (belonging to Thomas Westcombe's Charity).
(b)Charity of Ambrose Massey, founded by will, 1843, consisting of £300 consols, and Richard Kemish's eleemosynary charity, the trust fund of which consists of £533 6s. 8d. India 3 per cent, stock.
(c) Charity of the Rev. Richard Widmore, rector of Lasham, founded by will, proved in the P.C.C., 1764, the trust fund being £250 consols.
By the scheme the charities enumerated under (a) were consolidated and directed to be administered under the title of 'The Consolidated Almshouse and Pension Charity.' The scheme provides 'that the net income of the charities under (a), amounting to about £100 a year, should be applied for the maintenance of four almspeople, who should be widows, and for the payment of pensions, the pensioners to be persons of either sex, qualified as therein mentioned, the almspeople to receive not less than 3s. 6d. a week, and the pensioners not less than 4s. a week.'
That the income of the two charities under (b), amounting to £23 10s. a year, should be applied for the benefit of deserving and necessitous persons bona fide resident in the borough, Kemish's eleemosynary charity being given in sixpences.
That the yearly income of the charity under (c), 'The Rev. Richard Widmore's,' amounting to £6 5s., should be applied to the relief of aged and impotent poor persons resident in the borough, and in binding out as apprentices poor children belonging to the borough, or otherwise for the benefit of the poor thereof.
The poor also received an annuity of £5, devised by the will of Christian Hinxman, 1689, and a further annuity of £5 under the will of her son, Joseph Hinxman, 1691.
Henry Smith's Charity.—The poor are entitled to a share of the Thurlaston estate, amounting on the average to about 18s. a year, which in 1906 was applied in the distribution of blankets.
In 1624 Peter Blake by will charged his lands in Andover, among other payments, with £3 a year for the poor of Andover. The annuity is paid by Mr. M. S. Brooke, the owner of 82 High Street, which is applied in gifts of overcoats.
In 1686 John Pollen erected an almshouse in Dog Pole Street for six poor ancient men with provision for their maintenance. The trust property now consists of six almshouses on Church Hill, occupied by six old men, appointed by Sir Richard Hungerford Pollen, bart., who also pays the inmates 2s. 6d. a week each, and a cloak of the value of 20s. is also given by him annually.
The same donor also by his will, proved in the P.C.C. 1719, devised a messuage and garden for a school and an annuity of £10, which was paid to a schoolmistress.
In 1845 the Rev. William Stanley Goddard, by will, proved in the P.C.C., bequeathed to the vicar and mayor a legacy, now represented by £899 8s. 1d. consols, the income to be distributed in clothing, food or fuel to the poor of the town, those attending church to have a preference. The dividend amounting to £23 15s. is usually distributed in coals.
The same testator bequeathed to the vicar and churchwardens a legacy for the repairs and preservation of the parish church. The trust fund, with accumulations, in 1892 amounted to £1,648 3s. 10d. consols, with the official trustees, when a sum of £698 3s. 10d. stock was sold out to meet extra expenditure, leaving the sum of £950 consols.
The official trustees also hold a sum of £824 9s. 3d. consols, producing yearly £20 12s., representing the proceeds of the sale in 1896 of land in Winchester Road and Watery Lane, a house in East Street and a house in New Street, vested in the churchwardens as church lands, the origin of which was unknown. The income is carried to the general account of the churchwardens for church repairs, &c.
They also hold a sum of £584 5s. 4d. consols, producing yearly £14 12s., which is applied for the salary of the organist and the repair of the organ.
In 1862 Martha Waight, otherwise Gale, by her will, proved 17 December, bequeathed to the mayor and vicar a legacy, represented by £900 consols, the dividends to be applied in the purchase of blankets to be distributed on or about St. John the Evangelist's day amongst the poor, with a preference to those attending the parish church.
The dividend, amounting to £22 10s., was in 1905 used in the distribution of thirty-two half-crowns for Christmas cheer for the poor and sixty blankets.
In 1869 the Rev. Charles Henry Ridding, D.D., by deed (enrolled with the Charity Commissioners), declared the trusts of a sum of £2,000 stock, now consols, the income to be applied by the vicar in providing the necessitous poor with articles in kind.
In 1891 Miss Elizabeth Caroline Etwall, by will, proved 10 January, bequeathed a sum of money, now represented by £390 12s. 6d. consols, the income to be distributed amongst the poor inhabitants of New Street, on or about 11 October yearly, whether in receipt of parochial relief or not. The dividends, amounting to £9 15s. 4d., are usually applied in the distribution of coals.
The same testatrix left £78 2s. 6d. consols for the benefit of the Cottage Hospital in the Junction Road erected in 1876.
In 1898 William Safe, by will, proved 28 February, bequeathed to the vicar and churchwardens a legacy, represented by £658 4s. 6d. consols, the dividends of which, amounting to £16 9s., are applicable for the benefit of deserving poor, irrespective of religious denomination, preference being shown to the aged and afflicted. The distribution is usually made in coal.
By an order of the Charity Commissioners of 9 July 1897 the Catherine Wheel Inn was authorized to be sold to the Corporation for the purposes of a free library, reading-room, museum and a school of art, also in part as a coffee tavern.
The Grammar School.—John Hanson in 1569 gave £200 to be invested at the rate of £16 per annum for the maintenance of a free school within the town. The schoolmaster was to be a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge. The money was placed in the hands of Bishop Horne, then Bishop of Winchester, to be employed by him as Hanson requested. This money the bishop entrusted to William Blake, senior, and his son, William Blake, junior, and they, in connexion with John Blake, gave a bond to the bishop for payment of the £200 and the £16 yearly at a certain time. The bond was not to be found at the death of the bishop, and some time afterwards William Blake, of East Anton, 'being moved in conscience for that the said sum of £200 was given to so good a use and purpose,' is found 'entering into another obligation unto Walter Wayte, then bailiff of Andover, in the sum of £400 to make good the loss.' Richard Blake gave the site and the Corporation built the schoolhouse. Richard Kemish, by will dated 25 September 1611, left £5 per annum to the school.
The school is now regulated by a scheme under the Endowed Schools Acts dated 16 February 1903. The trust estate consists of the school buildings and master's house, which are endowed with an income of about £100 a year derived from land and stock; and there are certain funds held by the official trustees in trust for exhibitions. Additional school buildings are now in course of erection. By the scheme £16 a year is payable by the governors in respect of Kemish's eleemosynary charity (see under Municipal Charities), and £10 a year in respect of Kemish's Lectureship Charity.
The Industrial School, founded by indentures of 14 February 1849 and 24 March 1852, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 14 April 1899. The trust estate consists of the school, matron's residence, and infants' school, which were endowed by the will of Miss Martha Gale, 1862, with the sum of £10,000, which has been invested in £3,020 Great Western Railway 5 per cent, rentcharge stock, and £6,000 Midland Railway 2½ per cent, preference stock, producing yearly £301. (fn. 283)
Hatherden School, founded by will of James Samborne, proved in P.C.C. 1725. The official trustees hold a sum of £1,100 2½ per cent, annuities in trust for this school, producing a yearly income of £27 10s.
In 1872 George Chandler, by will, left £100 consols, which is held by the official trustees, the dividends of £2 10s. being applicable in the distribution to deserving poor in Christinas week.
Smannell.—In 1887 Lieut.-Colonel William Henry Earle, by will proved 4 June, bequeathed a legacy, represented by £477 18s. local loans 3 per cent, stock with the official trustees, income to be applied towards the maintenance of the school at Smannell.
The poor of Smannell are also entitled to share in the charity of Colonel Earle, for the poor of certain districts. See under Knight's Enham.
David Dewar's Charity for Education.—See also under Knight's Enham.