A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1907.
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Gerstan, usual to the end of xv cent.; Gerston, 1201; Garston, common from 1500; Gahersteng, 1205, and final g occasionally, leading to confusion with Garstang.
The township, bounded on the south-west by the River Mersey, has an area of 1,625 acres. (fn. 1) The division between Garston and Toxteth is marked by Otterspool, a name now given to the waters of the Mersey, where a brook flowing through Toxteth falls into that river. Another brook flows—or did flow— diagonally through the township; and a third used to pass through the village and discharge by a narrow gorge into the Mersey; a small portion is still visible.
The country is flat, covered with the pleasant suburban colonies of Aigburth and Grassendale, with streets of houses set in flowery gardens, many running at right angles to the principal main roads, and leading down to the river bank. Grazing fields are scattered amongst the houses and streets, especially near the river. Garston itself is a seaport town, with docks, iron and copper works, and large gas works. On the outlying land are cultivated fields where some crops are grown. These include potatoes and corn. Altogether the district is a curious mixture of industrial, agricultural, and residential features.
The geological formation consists entirely of the pebble beds of the bunter series of the new red sandstone or trias. To the south-east of Garston cliffs of drift boulder clay abut upon the river.
There was a total population of 17,289 in 1901.
A local board, formed in 1854, (fn. 2) became in 1894 an urban district council; but the township was incorporated with Liverpool by a Local Government Order in 1903. There are public offices, library, and accident and smallpox hospital.
The road from Liverpool to Garston and Speke remains the principal road in the district, running parallel with the river bank, and about half a mile from it. The Liverpool tramways reach as far as Garston. The Cheshire Lines Committee's railway passes through the township, and has stations at Aigburth, Otterspool, Mersey Road (close to the Liverpool cricket ground), Grassendale (Cressington Park), and Garston. The London and North Western Company's line to Warrington and Crewe passes along the north-eastern boundary, with stations at Mossley Hill near the northern corner, and on the Allerton Road; from the latter station, called Allerton, a branch line curves round into the town of Garston, where there is a station formerly the terminus of the Warrington line. The docks at Garston belong to the London and North Western Railway Company; the other railway has a connexion with them.
The sugar works (glucose) have ceased work owing to the cases of arsenical poisoning traced to them.
'The whole hill of Mossley commands a charming view of the River Mersey and Wirral hundred in Cheshire, with the distant hills of Wales … The view is equally commanding at Mossley Hall, formerly the spot where the Ogdens … had their country seat … (It) was lately rebuilt by Peter Baker, mayor of Liverpool 1795), and was afterwards the residence of the Dawsons; it is now (1817) that of William Ewart.' (fn. 5)
There were anciently two crosses in Garston. The base of one lies opposite the site of the south porch of the old chapel; the other was by the mill dam. The base stone of this latter one has been re-erected near St. Francis' Church, with a new plinth. (fn. 6)
'In a field below the dam of the old Garston mill was found some years ago a curious relic of penitential discipline—a scourge of iron with spiked links. It had seven lashes of chain, possibly to chastise the flesh for the seven deadly sins.' (fn. 7)
In a report made in 1828 upon the changes wrought by the tides it is stated that 'the line of low water did not alter materially,' but 'the steep clay banks' were constantly being worn away. A detailed description is given, beginning at Speke and going northwards to Toxteth. At the southern end 'the land is said to have lost about 15 yds. in width along the whole front in about twenty-five years;' the salt works to the north of this had been built (1793) upon the strand; then came the pool, to the north of which more of the strand had been enclosed, one part having been a vitriol works (before 1793). Further north the tides had made great ravages, about 15 yds. in twenty years being a rate given. In some places an attempt had been made to protect the bank by means of walls, but these had been overthrown; at Otterspool, at the extreme north, 'a stone-paved slope or sheeting' seems to have been more successful. Here there was a snuff mill (1780). It is incidentally stated that the manor courts had ceased to be held. (fn. 8)
This township is not mentioned by name in Domesday Book; it formed part of the demesne of the capital manor of West Derby, being one of its six berewicks. (fn. 9) Its customary rating was four plough-lands, and in 1212 it was held in thegnage by the yearly service of 20s. (fn. 10)
Shortly after 1088 Garston was given by Roger the Poitevin to his sheriff Godfrey, who gave it in alms to the abbey of Shrewsbury, together with his little boy Achard, who was to become a monk there. Count Roger confirmed the grant, and about 1121 Henry I renewed the confirmation. Ranulf Gernons, earl of Chester, some twenty years later issued his notification and precept to the bishop of Chester, and to his justices 'between Ribble and Mersey,' directing that the monks of Shrewsbury be left in peaceable possession of their lands and rights in that district, and particularly in Garston; and 'let Richard son of Multon do service to them from Garston completely and fully as he craves my love; and that no one of my men may demand anything from Richard, I proclaim him absolutely free from all (services) due from Garston, desiring nothing but prayers therefrom.' Henry II also in the first year of his reign confirmed the grant, and about the same time Reginald de Warenne, as seneschal of the lord of the honour of Lancaster (1153–64), specially ordered his justices and ministers to see that the monks had peaceable possession of Garston with the men and all things pertaining to it, without injury or insult. (fn. 11) Later still, in 1227, Henry III included it in his general confirmation. Another confirmation was issued as late as 1331. Strange to say, after the monks had taken such pains to vindicate their right to the place, they showed no further interest in it, and it does not appear either in the Valor or in Ministers' Accounts of the sixteenth century. (fn. 12)
The above-mentioned Multon is the earliest manorial lord of Garston of whom there is any record. He had three sons—Richard, Henry, and Ralph— and perhaps Matthew was another son. To Henry and to Matthew he made respective grants of three oxgangs of land, for the rent of 22½d., and to the ancestor of Thomas (living in 1212) he gave four oxgangs at 30d. This ancestor may have been the other son Ralph, who had at least one oxgang, afterwards the property of Stanlaw. (fn. 13) Richard son of Multon, who held Garston about 1146, was the father of Adam de Garston, who in 1201 and various subsequent years paid his contributions to the scutages. (fn. 14) Adam died in 1206, leaving a widow Margaret, afterwards married to Richard de Liverpool, (fn. 15) and sons Adam and Richard, both young. The wardship of the heir was purchased by his uncle Robert de Ainsdale. (fn. 16)
Adam the son of Richard was lord of Garston for many years, dying in 1265. He, like his father, was a benefactor to monasteries. (fn. 17) He also granted to Roger the miller of Barwe the third part of his mill in Garston with a fishery in Mersey and half the fishery of the mill pool. (fn. 18) Adam also came to an agreement with Alan le Norreys about the fishing in the pool of Garston, binding himself that none should fish there without Alan's consent, under a penalty of 40s. to St. Mary of St. John's Church at Chester. (fn. 19) He died about 1265, and at the inquest it was found that he had held four plough-lands in Garston in chief of Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, by a rent of 20s. per annum, doing suit to county and wapentake, and that he held nothing of any one else. Of the land seven oxgangs (worth 9s. 6d.) were in demesne, and twenty-five in service; there was a mill worth a mark yearly. His son John, of full age, was his next heir. (fn. 20)
John de Garston gave in alms two small portions of his waste in Aigburth to the monks of Stanlaw. (fn. 21) He appears to have died about 1285, leaving his brother Adam as his heir; and in the inquest of 1298 it was found that Adam de Garston had been lord of the place, and that his heir was in the king's hands by reason of minority. (fn. 22)
The succession at this point is doubtful. Probably the 'Adam, son of Adam, formerly lord of Garston,' who about the end of the thirteenth century made grants to his brother Robert and his sister Margery, was the son and heir; (fn. 23) but a John son of Adam de Garston occurs about the same time, leaving a daughter Sibota and a son Robert. (fn. 24) In any case, however, the inheritance came to an Ellen de Garston, who early in Edward II's reign married Robert de Blackburn, (fn. 25) thenceforward called 'lord of Garston.'
It will here be convenient to give some notice of the other branches of the Garston family. The inquest of 1212 shows the following members of it holding portions of the land: (i) The heir of Adam de Garston held four plough-lands of the king for 20s. in thegnage—this is the main line, whose fortunes have been recounted; (ii) Hugh son of Henry, three oxgangs for 22½d., of the gift of Multon; (iii) Thomas, four oxgangs for 2s. 6d., by the gift of Multon; (iv) Henry son of Matthew, three oxgangs for 22½d., of the gift of Multon; (v) Simon, three oxgangs for 22½d., of the gift of the aforesaid Adam his brother; these thirteen oxgangs were held of the lord of Garston; (vi) there were three acres held in alms. (fn. 26)
Hugh son of Henry son of Multon gave two of his three oxgangs to Hugh de Moreton, for the rent of a pound of cummin, and they were then given to Stanlaw Abbey. (fn. 27) Hugh and his son Richard continued to hold the land as tenants; Richard transferred the third oxgang to the monks in return for a gift of five marks. (fn. 28)
Thomas is not heard of again; but his four oxgangs may be those granted by Adam de Garston to Simon son of Henry de Garston, at the ancient farm of 2s. 6d. Simon gave lands in Aigburth to Stanlaw Abbey. He is probably the Simon the clerk, son of Henry, who attested several charters; his father was also a clerk. Simon had a son Henry and a daughter Maud, who married John Minting, her father giving them one oxgang on their marriage. (fn. 29)
Henry son of Matthew had a daughter Aubrey (or Albreda) who married William Rufus (Roo) and had a son Walter. Aubrey gave to the monks of Stanlaw two of the three oxgangs which descended to her, receiving seven marks and an annual rent of a pair of white gloves; and the other oxgang she sublet to Adam de Ainsdale, who granted this also to Stanlaw, together with half an oxgang he held of Roger Balle. Walter duly ratified his mother's gifts. (fn. 30)
The three oxgangs of Simon brother of Adam de Garston do not occur again, unless, indeed this Simon, and not Simon son of Henry, was the father of John son of Simon, whose story has been narrated above. (fn. 31)
Adam de Garston III had, beside his heir, a younger son Robert living as late as 1353, and commonly known as 'the lord's son.' As stated, Robert received one oxgang from his brother Adam, who had had it from their father, with reversion to their sister Margery. This oxgang he in 1341 gave to Adam his son for the old rent of 4d. to the chief lord; with reversion to Margery. (fn. 32) In 1343 John del Fernes, chaplain, gave to Robert all the latter's lands in Garston and fishery in the Mersey, with remainders in succession to his sons William, Roger, and Thomas. (fn. 33)
Robert de Blackburn held Garston for nearly forty years, dying about the year 1354; his wife Ellen is mentioned in 1332. He acquired various portions of land from the minor owners; from Richard son of Richard de Toxteth, two oxgangs and land in Grassendale; from Roger de Hale in Quindal Moor and the Dale; from Adam Wade in Mukelholm; from Henry de Easthead, and Margery his wife, in Ychyndale Moor; and from Robert del Eves lands and a fishery which had belonged to Simon son of John de Garston. (fn. 34)
Robert de Blackburn was succeeded by his eldest son John, who even before his father's death seems to have taken an active part in managing the estate. (fn. 35) He was lord of the manor for about fifty years, dying on 8 January, 1404–5, (fn. 36) and during this long period seems to have been constantly acquiring fresh portions of land. (fn. 37) At the inquest taken after his death it was found that he had held the manor of Garston of the king as duke of Lancaster, by knight's service, 6 oxgangs in Downham, lands in West Derby, Holland Place in Halewood, lands in Allerton and in Woolton. His heir was his grandson John, son of Robert, who was then fifteen years old and more. (fn. 38)
John, the grandson, (fn. 39) died early and without issue, and the inheritance came to his sister Agnes, who married Thomas, younger son of Sir John de Ireland of Hale. Thus the manor passed to the Irelands, who by the same marriage acquired Lydiate, the property of Agnes's mother, which they made their principal residence. (fn. 40) Little appears to be known of their connexion with Garston. (fn. 41) The inquest taken after the death of John Ireland in 1514 states that he held the manor of Garston of the king as duke of Lancaster in socage for a rent of 20s., lands in Allerton of the priory of Burscough by the rent of a grain of pepper if demanded; in Woolton of the prior of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and in Halewood of the earl of Derby. (fn. 42) His grandson Lawrence, in 1543, exchanged the manor of Garston and lands and watermill there and in Much Woolton with Sir William Norris of Speke, taking the latter's lands in Lydiate and Maghull. (fn. 43)
The Norris family had long had a fair holding in the township, the rents in 1450 amounting to £3 10s. (fn. 44) A junior branch seems to have resided there for a time. (fn. 45) The manor continued in the Norris family, descending like Speke, until near the end of the eighteenth century. (fn. 46) The dismemberment and sale of the estates began in 1775. (fn. 47) In February, 1779, the corporation of Liverpool purchased the manorial rights of Garston, with the intention, it was said, of regulating the fisheries in the Mersey, but in April of the following year the manor was sold to Peter Baker, a Liverpool shipbuilder, and his son-in-law John Dawson, captain of the privateer Mentor, which in 1778 had captured the French East Indiaman Carnatic with a rich booty. Certain reservations made by the corporation were afterwards given up. In January, 1791, Baker and Dawson conveyed the manor to the trustees of Richard Kent, a Liverpool merchant, who had died before the completion of the sale. Elizabeth Kent, his daughter, had married (in 1786) Lord Henry Murray, son of the third duke of Atholl; and they joined with John Blackburne of Liverpool (fn. 48) in procuring (at the latter's expense) an Act of Parliament (fn. 49) for destroying the entail and enabling the trustees to sell the Garston estate. John Blackburne purchased the manor under this Act, with various lands in Garston, but exclusive of the advowson of Garston chapel, the mill dale and pool, and certain rights; he also purchased independently other lands in Garston, and transferred his Liverpool salt works to this place. He willed this estate to his only child Alice Anne, wife of Thomas Hawkes of Himley, in Staffordshire, and about 1823 she disposed of them, the manor being sold to the Garston Land Company. The duchy of Lancaster afterwards made a claim to the manorial rights, (fn. 50) which are now said to be divided among the Lightbody (fn. 51) family and several companies. (fn. 52)
The neighbouring families of Ireland of Hale and Grelley of Allerton also had lands in Garston. In 1306 Thomas Grelley demanded against Adam de Ireland and Avina his wife two messuages and an oxgang of land in Garston. (fn. 53) One of the fields was known as Gredley's Acre.
The lands of Whalley Abbey were at the confiscation found to be leased to Lawrence Ireland for a rent of £4. (fn. 54) Some of the lands were by Queen Mary appropriated to the endowment of the Savoy Hospital in London; (fn. 55) and on this being dissolved they were sold. (fn. 56) They were held by Topham Beauclerk, the heir of the Norris family, about 1775.
Garston Hall was originally the grange house of the monks of Upholland, who, as appropriators of the rectory of Childwall, held the land of the church in Garston and the tithes. (fn. 57)
In 1350 John, prior of Holland, appeared against Nicholas de Bold and others on various charges, including one of carrying away his goods and chattels (valued at 100s.) at Woolton and Garston, and breaking into his fold at the latter place. (fn. 58) After the dissolution the hall became the property of the new see of Chester, as part of the rectory of Childwall, and was farmed out with the tithes to the Andertons and Gerards. It was a half-timbered building, standing on a rock overhanging the lower mill-dam. There is a tradition that a room in it was used for Roman Catholic worship during the time of proscription, which is not unlikely, considering who were the lessees. (fn. 59)
The hamlet of Brooks, in which the early Norris holding seems to have chiefly lain, gave a name to one or more families dwelling there. (fn. 60) The principal of these had its origin in a certain Gilbert living early in the thirteenth century. Richard, son of Gilbert de Brooks, gave to Roger his brother land called Carran, stretching from the river dividing the Carran of Speke from the Carran of Brooks, to the chief ridge of Roger's heir, and from the river of Garston to the boundary of Allerton; Roger son of Robert de Brooks gave to Hugh son of Lette of Garston, land near the river of Slodekan, and near the river of Quitefelf; and John son of Roger Punchard granted to Alan le Norreys of land between the Hollow brook and the highway, one head extending to the house of Robert de Blackburn on the west and the other towards Carran in the east. (fn. 61) The Tranmole or Tranmore family had a small holding at Brooks which ultimately passed to Norris of Speke, the rental of 1454 stating that Wilkyn Plombe and John Jenkynson paid 9s. 4d. rent 'for Tranmoor's lands.' (fn. 62)
Grassendale (fn. 63) had risen to the dignity of a hamlet by the time of Elizabeth.
AIGBURTH (fn. 64) seems at first to have been the descriptive name of a district at the north-west end of Garston and the west of Allerton. It was very largely in the hands of religious foundations—Stanlaw (Whalley), (fn. 65) Cockersand, and to a small extent the hospital of St. John at Chester. Under these houses probably the local families held. Henry son of Hugh de Aigburth is mentioned as holding land in the Brooks about 1270, in a charter to which Adam de Aigburth was a witness; and Alice daughter of Hugh de Aigburth was in 1274 the wife of John de Garston, son of Robert called the Mouner. (fn. 66) Adam de Aigburth about this time made an exchange with the monks of Stanlaw of land in the moor at Aigburth. (fn. 67) He is described as 'forester of Toxteth,' and may therefore be the Adam de Toxteth who was the ancestor of a family holding land in Aigburth down to the sixteenth century. (fn. 68) Adam de Toxteth in 1292 made an unsuccessful attempt to recover from Abbot Gregory a messuage and 30 acres of land of which he said he was disseised by the former Abbot Robert. (fn. 69) On the other hand he was successful in resisting a claim by Robert de Thornyhead of Hale. (fn. 70) Margery, Adam's widow, granted to Adam son of Henry de Garston land in the Rotherrakes, and may be the Margery de Aigburth who had land in Quindal Moor. (fn. 71)
Roger de Toxteth, the son and heir, may be the Roger the clerk, or Roger de Toxteth, clerk, concerned in many of the local charters of his time. (fn. 72) By a fine in 1315 this Roger arranged for the succession to his property; (fn. 73) the remainders after Roger's own children (unnamed) were to Thomas son of Wenthlian daughter of Anyan Voyl, to Floria daughter of Wenthlian, and to John son of Richard de Toxteth. (fn. 74) Roger appears to have died in 1327, and in 1331 Thomas son of Roger de Toxteth made a claim against Margaret widow of Richard as to land in Garston, but did not prosecute it. (fn. 75)
The succession is not clear at this point. The next in evidence is Adam de Toxteth, a witness to charters in 1342. He appears to have died early, (fn. 76) for in 1344 there was an arrangement made as to the succession to lands of his young son Roger, by Roger de la More on the one part and John (son of William) de la More on the other; the latter was about to marry Adam's widow Katherine, a daughter of John del Ford. (fn. 77) Some years later the duke of Lancaster's escheator took into his hands all the lands in Garston that Adam de Toxteth had possessed, alleging that Adam had made them over to Roger atte More (on trust) after he had committed a certain felony. At the trial in 1352 the jury found such to have been the case, and said the duke should have the issues for six years, amounting to £9, which John de Liverpool must pay. (fn. 78) Restitution, however, must have been obtained, for in 1360, when Roger the son and heir of Adam came of age, John de la More released to him two-thirds of his lands. (fn. 79)
About 1361 Roger de Toxteth made a settlement of his lands in Garston, Aigburth, Halewood, and Wavertree on his marriage with Agnes daughter of William de Slene. (fn. 80) The succession again becomes obscure for nearly a century. (fn. 81)
In 1484 a marriage was arranged between James son of John Toxteth and Isabel his wife, and Alice daughter of Thomas Norris of Speke. (fn. 82) John, probably a son of James, in 1525 entered into a bond in £20 to perform certain covenants. (fn. 83) In 1544 there was a settlement of disputes between John Toxteth of Aigburth and Henry Tarleton of Fazakerley on the one part and Sir William Norris on the other part. Sir William had enclosed a piece of waste in Aigburth Lane, as common appertaining to the manor of Garston; and he further claimed the marriage of Ellen Toxteth, younger daughter and one of the coheirs of John, for Richard Norris son and heir apparent of Henry Norris of West Derby. Arbitrators were appointed who decided in favour of Sir William, expressing the wish that he would be 'good master' to the tenants of John Toxteth and Alice his wife, as before the variance. (fn. 84) The elder daughter, not mentioned here, married William Brettargh of the Holt in Little Woolton; and this family owned a portion of Aigburth until the beginning of the eighteenth century. (fn. 85)
The mention of the Tarleton family is interesting; in one way or another they were connected with Aigburth until the beginning of the nineteenth century, but the succession and connexion of the various Tarletons is not quite clear during the period. (fn. 86)
The jury of the leet in 1686 ordered that the lord of the manor of Garston should have free privilege to set hunting gates, &c., according to his worship's pleasure, for hunting or any other recreation, disturbers to forfeit 20s. (fn. 87)
In 1717 the following 'Papists' registered estates in Garston:—James and William Dwerryhouse of Grassendale, Thomas Fazakerley, and Edward Hitchmough. (fn. 88)
The principal landowners in 1787, as shown by the land-tax return, were Thomas Tarleton and Elizabeth Lightbody.
St. Wilfrid's (fn. 89) chapel existed at an early date; and appears to have been considered parochial, even if not an independent parish church; thus 'Henry parson of Garston' is witness to a charter in the first quarter of the thirteenth century. (fn. 90) Just before Adam de Garston's death the chaplaincy became vacant, and he claimed the patronage as of an independent church, presenting to the bishop of Lichfield for institution a clerk named Reginald de Sileby; but Herbert Grelley, rector of Childwall, opposed, asserting that Garston was only a chapelry, and in his own charge as rector. The bishop, after taking advice, agreed that Herbert, as rector, should hold it as long as he held the rectory, and (as compensation) pay from the goods of the chapel 3 marks a year to Reginald in the Black Friars' Church at Derby. (fn. 91) The right of patronage was not decided; but the question does not seem to have been raised subsequently. (fn. 92) Besides Henry the parson other early chaplains are mentioned — Ralph, (fn. 93) Richard, (fn. 94) and Roger, 'chaplain of Garston and of Hale.' (fn. 95) Later chaplains, who probably ministered here, were John de Fernes, (fn. 96) John del Dale, (fn. 97) Robert Boton, (fn. 98) William Whitfield, (fn. 99) Adam the Mason, (fn. 100) William de Wavertree, (fn. 101) William Fletcher, (fn. 102) Thomas de Blackburn, (fn. 103) Richard Challoner, and John Fletcher. (fn. 104)
From remains of the mediaeval building discovered during the demolition of the eighteenth-century chapel in 1888, it appears that it dated from the time of Edward I, and was repaired or practically rebuilt about 1500. (fn. 105) It seems to have been abandoned for worship in the reign of Edward VI, when it is spoken of as nuper capella. (fn. 106) The building remained in use only as a rent-receiving place, many of the lessees being bound to pay their rents at or in the chapel, or more particularly in the south porch. In 1605 the 'right worshipful' Edward Norris, in his old age, made an endeavour to keep it in repair, and desired his son to find a suitable chaplain for it. (fn. 107) The work seems to have been completed in 1609, (fn. 108) The Norrises, as lessees of the tithe-barn at Garston, received the tithes of that 'quarter' of the parish, and may have been responsible for the repair of the chapel.
The Commonwealth church surveyors found the 'very ancient' chapel in ruin and decay, and without an incumbent. They considered it fit to be made a parish church. Garston Hall paid 13s. 4d. to the farmer of the tithes, 'as land belonging to the parish of Childwall.' (fn. 109) The Norrises of Speke became Protestants about this time, but it was nearly fifty years before they did anything for the chapel. Then Katherine, widow of Thomas Norris, by her will in 1707 left £300 for a new building, and in 1715 and 1716 her son Edward, lord of the manor, carried out her wishes at a cost of about £360, and gave £300 as an endowment for a minister, by this means securing £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty.
The old building was entirely demolished, a font being found in the rubbish. The new chapel of St. Michael, a plain but substantial stone building, was erected on the site. Several gravestones were found in the chapel-yard, and there Edward Norris himself was buried in 1726. (fn. 110) There is a tablet to his memory on the church. A district was formed for it in 1828, (fn. 111) and the existing church was built in 1876–7. The registers date from 1777. The lord of the manor of Speke is the patron, and the following is a list of the curates and vicars: (fn. 112) —
|1716||James Holme (fn. 113)|
|1730||John Norris (fn. 114)|
|1738||Thomas Barlow (fn. 114)|
|1810||Marcus Aurelius Parker|
|1811||John Vause, M.A. (Fellow of King's College, Cambridge)|
|1836||John Gibson (first vicar, 1867)|
|1869||John Fitzgerald Hewson, B.A.|
|1884||Thomas Oliver, D.D. (T.C.D.)|
Aigburth was formed into an ecclesiastical parish in 1844; (fn. 115) St. Anne's church had been built in 1837. Mossley Hill became an ecclesiastical parish in 1875; the cruciform church of St. Matthew and St. James on the crest of the hill has a conspicuous central tower. A mission church of St. Barnabas has lately been opened. Grassendale was made into an ecclesiastical parish in 1855 (fn. 116) for the church of St. Mary, built in 1853. The patronage of the three benefices is in the hands of different bodies of trustees.
At Garston the Wesleyan Methodists have two churches; the Welsh Methodists and the Methodist Free Church each one.
There are a Congregational church (fn. 117) and a Baptist church. The Presbyterians have a church, built in 1894, with a mission hall. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists have a place of worship. At Aigburth also there is a Wesleyan Methodist chapel.
At Grassendale is the Roman Catholic church of St. Austin, served by the English Benedictines; it was opened in 1838, but represents the mission formerly maintained by several of the older families in the district, as the Harringtons of Aigburth. (fn. 118) There is a small cemetery adjoining. At Garston a temporary chapel of St. Francis of Assisi was opened in 1883, the building having formerly been used by the Congregationalists; the present church, on an adjacent site, was opened in 1905.