Townships: Cuerden

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.

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'Townships: Cuerden', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6, ed. William Farrer, J Brownbill( London, 1911), British History Online [accessed 20 July 2024].

'Townships: Cuerden', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6. Edited by William Farrer, J Brownbill( London, 1911), British History Online, accessed July 20, 2024,

"Townships: Cuerden". A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6. Ed. William Farrer, J Brownbill(London, 1911), , British History Online. Web. 20 July 2024.

In this section


Kirden, 1212; Kerden, Kerdyn, 1292; Keurden, Kuyrdon, Keverden, xv cent.

This township lies in the bend formed by the Lostock, flowing north and then west. The area is 808 acres, (fn. 1) and the population in 1901 was 401. About a third of the area is occupied by the well-timbered park surrounding Cuerden Hall, which stands in the south-east corner on a hill overlooking the Lostock. Cuerden Nook and Cuerden Green are hamlets in the north and north-west.

The principal road is that from Wigan to Preston through Bamber Bridge. On the western edge is that from Leyland to Preston.

In 1666 the principal houses were those of Christopher Banastre and Thomas Woodcock, each having six hearths to be taxed. The whole number in the township was forty-five. (fn. 2)

The population is mainly agricultural, but there is a cotton mill.

The township is governed by a parish council.


From the early part of the 12th century, and possibly before that, CUERDEN was a member of the Sefton fee, held by the Molyneux family. (fn. 3) In some way not ascertained the lordship passed to the Banastres of Walton-le-Dale and Newton-in-Makerfield, whose right in Cuerden becomes evident about 1270, (fn. 4) and whose lordship descended with the manor of Walton to the Langtons. (fn. 5)

About 1290, however, the immediate lordship of the manor became vested in a certain Ingelram de Amelcotes, (fn. 6) but some twenty years later had passed to Adam de Charnock of Charnock Richard, (fn. 7) descending to his younger son John, (fn. 8) who in turn was succeeded by his son of the same name. (fn. 9) This family retained possession (fn. 10) until 1521, when Richard Charnock of Cuerden and Leyland sold his manor to Thomas Langton, lord of Newton, (fn. 11) and thus the inferior manor became merged in the superior one. Cuerden Manor was in 1604 sold by Sir Thomas Langton to John Sweeting, (fn. 12) and is soon afterwards found in possession of Henry Banastre of Bank in Bretherton, (fn. 13) whose daughter Alice, wife of Sir Thomas Haggerston, held it in 1641. (fn. 14) It seems to have reverted to the Banastre family, or was repurchased by them, (fn. 15) for it descended to Christopher Banastre of Bank. (fn. 16) His inheritance was, after his death in 1690, divided between his daughters, and Cuerden was included in the share of Elizabeth, who married Robert Parker (fn. 17) of Extwistle, and their descendants have retained it to the present time. Banastre Parker, their son, transferred the family seat to Cuerden. He died in 1738, and was succeeded by his son Robert, who married Anne daughter and heir of Thomas Townley of Royle, (fn. 18) and in 1779 was succeeded by his elder son Banastre, and he in 1788 by his brother Thomas Townley Parker. The latter had married Susannah daughter and heir of Peter Brooke of Astley in Chorley, Charnock Richard, &c. (fn. 19) He was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1793, (fn. 20) and, on his death in the following year, the great estates were inherited by his son Robert Townley, who served as high sheriff in 1817, (fn. 21) and as member for Preston (Conservative) in 1837 and 1852. (fn. 22) He died in 1879, and was succeeded by his eldest son, (fn. 23) Thomas Townley, who in 1879 assumed the surname and arms of Townley in addition to those of Parker. On his death in 1906 the manors and lands passed by his will to his nephew Mr. Reginald Arthur Tatton of Chelford, in Cheshire, a son of Harriet Susan, eldest sister of the deceased. Mr. Tatton acted as high sheriff of the county in 1910–11.

Langton. Argent three cheverons gules.

Banastre. Argent a cross patonce sable.

Townley. Argent on a fesse sable a cinquefoil or, in chief three molets of the second.

Parker. Gules a cheveron between three leopards' faces or, in the mouth of each an arrow fesseways argent.

Cuerden is not now reputed to be a manor, and no courts are held.

Tatton. Quarterly argent and gules four crescents counterchanged.

Cuerden Hall is a modern mansion of brick and stone, standing in a large park on an elevated site commanding extensive views, about 4 miles south-east of Preston. (fn. 24) Of the original house which stood on the site in the 17th century nothing remains. Part of the present structure, however, dates back to about 1717, and was erected by Mr. Banastre Parker. The house of this date was a plain classic building of two stories and an attic, rectangular in plan, measuring about 68 ft. by 48 ft., the longer sides facing north and south, with entrance on the north, and now forms the middle part of the mansion. This house was completely remodelled and large additions made in the years 1816–19, from the designs of Lewis Wyatt, the additions consisting of a large east wing, 72 ft. by 60 ft., containing the principal rooms, and a large servants' wing and offices on the west built on three sides of a courtyard open to the west. Wyatt's building is a dignified composition of brick, two stories in height, with plain brick parapets and barred sash windows. In the east wing the flues are grouped together at the angles of the building, and the chimneys carried up above the parapets in the form of turrets, but the chief external architectural feature is the tower above the staircase in the middle of the building. The entrance faces north, and has a projecting stone porch, and on the east side the gardens are laid out in terrace form on the slope of the hill. The old house was refronted to harmonize with the new work, and now forms an integral part of the design. (fn. 25) In more recent years the ground floor of the east wing has been extended northward on each side of and linable with the porch, and Wyatt's west wing has been remodelled, the courtyard built upon, and further extensions made westward. The general appearance of the house, however, remains unaltered.

Robert de Molyneux, father of the Richard living in 1212, granted his two plough-lands in Cuerden to Siward son of Auti, who had married Robert's sister; and their son Henry held the same by knights' service in 1212. (fn. 26) This Henry de Kuerden, as he was called, was a benefactor to Cockersand Abbey, (fn. 27) and his son Thomas also gave land to Cockersand (fn. 28) and to the Hospitallers. (fn. 29) Henry's eventual heir was another son Roger, (fn. 30) who made grants to the Woodcock family, (fn. 31) and was succeeded by his son Simon. (fn. 32) It may have been this Simon de Kuerden who disposed of his manor to the lord of Walton. (fn. 33) In 1292 Richard de Molyneux of Sefton proved his right to certain customs and services from Simon son of Roger de Kuerden, who held of him a messuage and two plough-lands by homage and the payment of 12d. yearly, contributing also 8s. to a scutage of 40s. (fn. 34) No descendants of Simon are known. (fn. 35)

Other families adopting the surname of Kuerden occur as holding portions of the land, but, though many of the charters relating to them have been preserved, it is not possible to give a detailed account of any. (fn. 36) One of the families is of special interest, (fn. 37) as from it sprang Dr. Richard Kuerden, who planned a history of the county on an ambitious scale, and whose collections have been of great service to later historians. He was born about 1622, (fn. 38) educated at Leyland and St. Mary Hall, Oxford; removing to Cambridge, he graduated from Emmanuel College in 1646. Oxford having then surrendered to the Parliament, he returned thither; M.A. 1647. He studied medicine, but deferred taking his degree till the Restoration, (fn. 39) not liking some of the political tests applied. His History of the county was planned in conjunction with Christopher Towneley, and he had the use of the latter's collections. It was not, however, till after twenty years' labour that Dr. Kuerden in 1688 issued his proposals for the publication of the Brigantia Lancastriensis Restaurata, to be issued in five folio volumes. Nothing came of it, and Kuerden died about 1700. (fn. 40)

Kuerden. Per bend sinister or and azure a griffon segreant counterchanged.

Of the other landowners the most important residents appear to have been the Woodcocks, and in 1564 the landowners contributing to the subsidy were John Kuerden and William Woodcock. (fn. 41) The family can be traced to the early part of the 13th century, when, as stated above, Henry de Kuerden made several grants to them. (fn. 42)

Thomas Woodcock died at Cuerden in 1602 holding 'the capital messuage called Lostock' in Cuerden—no doubt the house later called Woodcock Hall—with lands in Cuerden, Walton-le-Dale, &c. This 'Lostock' had belonged to the Hospitallers (fn. 43); Lostock Hall, to the north, was in Walton-le-Dale, and held in 1576 by Thomas Fleetwood. According to Kuerden Woodcock Hall on Cuerden Green was at one time known as Crow Trees. (fn. 44) The abovenamed Thomas left a son and heir John, aged nineteen. (fn. 45) Another of the same name, born about 1603, is of more note—the Ven. John Woodcock. He became a student at St. Omer's and afterwards in 1629 proceeded to the English College in Rome. (fn. 46) Next year he joined the English Franciscans at Douay and was sent to England for a time. On a later mission he was arrested soon after his arrival in Lancashire and was barbarously executed at Lancaster for his priesthood, 7 August 1646. (fn. 47)

The house known as Woodcock Hall is situated on what was formerly known as Cuerden Green, near to Lostock Hall railway station, and is a three-story red brick structure with stone dressings and barred sash windows, apparently of 17th-century date, having three gables to the front and a projecting porch in the middle going up to the full height of the building. The roof is covered with stone slates and the gables have been at one time surmounted by ball finials which are now lying in the front garden. The greater part of the front is covered with ivy, which gives the house a very picturesque appearance. The interior is a good deal modernized, and some of the rooms, not being occupied, are in a state of disrepair, but the original oak staircase with twisted balusters remains. The building, described by Dr. Kuerden as a 'fair built house,' is now a farm-house.

Some other names appear in the inquisitions and other records, but most of the families seem to have been resident in the neighbouring townships. They include Blundell, (fn. 48) Clayton, Cliff, (fn. 49) Farington, (fn. 50) Langley, (fn. 51) Langton of Hindley, (fn. 52) Lemon of Walton-le-Dale, Walton, (fn. 53) and Whithalgh, (fn. 54) with a few others. (fn. 55)

Cockersand Abbey (fn. 56) and the Knights Hospitallers (fn. 57) had lands in Cuerden.

The freeholders named in 1600 were Thomas Woodcock and Gilbert Jackson, (fn. 58) while in 1628 the landowners contributing to the subsidy were Thomas Haggerston, a convicted recusant, John Woodcock and Richard Jackson. (fn. 59) It was probably the other John Woodcock who appears in the recusant roll of that time. (fn. 60) The township does not seem to have had any residents who suffered from the Commonwealth sequestrations, but a number of 'Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 61) Banastre Parker was almost the only landowner in 1786. (fn. 62)

At one time the Benedictines had a mission station in Cuerden. (fn. 63)

Andrew Dandy in 1674 left money to found a school at Cuerden. (fn. 64)


  • 1. 805 acres, including 7 of inlandwater; Census Rep. 1901.
  • 2. Lay Subs. R. 250, no. 9.
  • 3. It was held by Richard de Molyneux in 1212; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 12. The Molyneux lordship was recognized again in 1242; ibid. 147. Even down to 1355 Cuerden was still accounted part of the Sefton fee; Feud. Aids, iii, 91. In later times the Molyneux family held land in the township, but this was a part of the Hospitallers' holding; see Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 35; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 383, &c.
  • 4. Roger de Kuerden in 1276 complained that Robert Banastre had distrained him to do suit at his court of Cuerden; De Banco R. 13, m. 28. Alice widow of Roger de Kuerden in 1281 and later claimed dower in 6 oxgangs of land against Robert Banastre; ibid. 41, m. 40 d.; 43, m. 47. Simon son of Roger de Kuerden claimed common of pasture against Robert Banastre in 1284, and Roger, his brother, claimed the like against Richard Banastre, but they were non-suited; Assize R. 1268, m. 12, 13. The lordship of Robert Banastre was fully recognized in pleadings in 1292, quoted below.
  • 5. To an aid in 1378 the 'lords of Cuerden' contributed for the fourth part of a knight's fee; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 421, &c. Again, in an extent of 1445–6, Henry de Langton is stated to have held the fourth part of a knight's fee in Cuerden; Duchy of Lanc. Knights' Fees, bdle. 2, no. 20. As the whole Sefton fee was held by the service of half a knight, it appears that a moiety had been placed upon this single manor. Cuerden appears frequently to have been regarded as in Walton-le-Dale, no doubt through its dependence upon the lords thereof. James de Lostock of Walton-le-Dale complained in 1347 that Sir Robert de Langton, John son of Robert de Langton the elder, and others had with force and arms disseised him of a mill in Cuerden, and a verdict was given against John de Langton; Assize R. 1435, m. 9 d.
  • 6. In an undated charter Ingelram de Amelcotes is styled lord of Cuerden. He gave to John son of Ellis de Kuerden land on the east side of Ferncroft; also land on Huntersty to John son of Geoffrey son of William de Walton; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 23. Alice widow of Robert Banastre in 1291 claimed dower in the manor of Cuerden against Ingram de Amelcotes; De Banco R. 91, m. 157, 157 d. In the next year Simon son of Roger de Kuerden claimed common of pasture in certain land against Ingelram de Kuerden, brother and heir of Robert the Serjeant; but it was shown that Robert Banastre, 'chief lord of Cuerden,' had approved the land out of his own waste, and, after holding it for four years, had granted it to Robert the Serjeant; Assize R. 408, m. 33 d. Ingelram de Kuerden, no doubt the same as Amelcotes, was defendant in another case; ibid. m. 24 d. Roger son of Roger de Kuerden in 1292 claimed common of pasture against Geoffrey the Brewster, who answered that he and Robert de Amelcote had purchased the land from Robert Banastre, lord of the vill and of the waste, and that he then held it jointly with Ingelram the brother of Robert de Amelcote. Roger said that a partition had been made. The verdict was for Geoffrey; ibid. m. 10 d. By another charter Ingelram de 'Huntcoat,' lord of Cuerden, confirmed to John de Foldringis (Faldworthings) the half of Vendkarhey in Cuerden, the boundary as defined in one part being the Lostock. A rent of 2s. 6d. was to be paid. John son of Ellis de Kuerden was a witness; W. Farrer's notes.
  • 7. In 1316–17 Adam de Charnock charged on John son of Geoffrey a rent of 2s. due to the lord of Walton-le-Dale for a piece of the waste which Adam had granted to John; Kuerden fol. MS. 71. Two years later Adam granted a rood of the waste to Robert son of Roger Woodcock; ibid. Later still (1322–3) he gave to John son of Geoffrey a part of the waste within bounds beginning at the Lostock, with remainders to Adam, Henry and William, sons of John; ibid. A Robert de Charnock, of whom nothing further is known, made a grant in almost the same terms to John son of Geoffrey; ibid. The latest grant by Adam de Charnock, made to Alexander de Cliff in 1325, records many names of places and tenants. For example, Long Castlegate, Short Castlegate, Towncrofts, the Hanedings of the Shortbottom, Longbottom, Balgreen and Kilgreen; Roger son of Roger son of Alice (formerly), William de Whithalgh, John de Bradley, Richard son of Robert Woodcock, Ellis son of John de Alt, John de Faldworthings, William de Molyneux and Richard de Hoole; ibid.
  • 8. For a settlement of the manor of Charnock Richard by Adam, see Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 57. John son of Adam de Charnock Richard granted land in Cuerden lying by the highway leading from Clayton to Preston; Kuerden fol. MS. 72. In 1334 John son of Adam de Charnock (lord of Cuerden) licensed Richard son of Robert Woodcock to make a new hearth upon the Smithridding; ibid. 71. The same John in 1338 demised to William de Whithalgh two adjacent parcels in Cuerden called the Whitfield and Walgate; ibid. 72. John de Charnock in 1347 claimed land in Cuerden against Adam de Clayton, Adam son of Peter de Risley and others. The defence was that the land was in Clayton, but the jury decided in favour of the plaintiff; Assize R. 1435, m. 19 d. At the same time John complained that William de Whithalgh and others had been digging in his several turbary within Cuerden; De Banc. R. 351, m. 340. John de Charnock in 1348 allowed Roger son of John de Faldworthings to remove a hearth (astrum) formerly built on the north side of Faldworthings to the south side of the same; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 103 (where his seal is drawn). In July 1351 he was unsuccessful in a demand for a rent of 15s. made against Sir Robert de Langton, John his son, and others; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 3. William son of Walter de Burnhull and Margery his wife did not prosecute their claim against him; ibid. m. 1 d.
  • 9. John de Charnock the elder may have died in or before 1355, in which year John son of John son of Adam de Charnock claimed a messuage and land in Cuerden against Robert son of Henry de Kuerden, Richard son of Henry son of Richard de Kuerden, and Thomas son of Ellis de Kuerden. It appeared that John the father had obtained the land from Henry son of Richard at a rent of 46s. 8d., and had granted it to his son John; the rent falling into arrear, a seizure had followed. See Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 23 d. John son of John de Charnock in 1367 released to William de Faldworthings his right in the service of William de Walton and others; Add. MS. 32106, no. 535, fol. 338. About the same time also he released to Richard Lemon all actions; Kuerden fol. MS. 71. He demised two pieces of land in a field called Huntersty to Robert son of Thomas de Kuerden in 1371; ibid. John son of John de Charnock in the following year released his right in a certain rent to William Woodcock; ibid.
  • 10. In 1408 Robert de Charnock and Roger his son demised 8 acres in Cuerden to William del Cliff at a rent of 9s.; ibid. 72.
  • 11. Kuerden fol. MS. 76; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 105. The manor, services and all lands were transferred, except 9 acres then held by Richard Charnock and his tenants. In exchange he received 22 acres in Walton-le-Dale and Cuerden. Hence the Charnocks of Leyland still continued to hold some land in this township. In the inquisition after the death of Richard Langton, 1511, lands in Cuerden are named as parcel of the barony of Newton, and in that after the death of Sir Thomas Langton in 1569 the tenure of the manor of Cuerden is not given; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 45; xiii, no. 41. Sir Thomas had recently purchased a messuage in Cuerden from the Earl of Derby; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 29, m. 92. William Charnock, as son and heir of Richard, claimed common of pasture in Walton and Cuerden; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 106. In 1554 he secured three barns, &c., in Walton-le-Dale and Cuerden from Sir Thomas Langton and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 15, m. 144. For a brother, John Charnock of Farington, see Piccope, Wills ii, 208. William had a son Thomas, who married Cecily, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Peter Farington of Little Farington (Visit. of 1567, Chet. Soc. 76), and was succeeded by his son William, who died in 1598 holding lands, &c., in Cuerden held of Thomas Langton, but the tenure is not separately given; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 5.
  • 12. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 66, no. 25.
  • 13. The manor of Cuerden was included with other Banastre estates in 1608–9; Pat. 6 Jas. i, pt. xxi. On the other hand in one or two later inquisitions land in Cuerden is stated to have been held of the Fleetwoods, successors of the Langtons, e.g. in 1639 Richard Sherdley is stated to have held of Sir Richard Fleetwood as of his manor of Cuerden; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 1091.
  • 14. Thomas Haggerston and Alice his wife held Cuerden Hall in right of Alice, also 5 acres appurtenant in Walton-leDale; and demised them in 1637 to Christopher Banastre, for 99 years, should Thomas and Alice live so long; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 15. The tenure is not recorded.
  • 15. William Blundell of Little Crosby in 1673 stated: 'There was a fair estate called Cuerden which was held by my wife's father, Sir Thomas Haggerston, only for the term of his life, the remainder to his infant son in tail. This was sold by Sir Thomas to Mr. Banastre of the Bank in the year 1637, and security given for the same out of some lands in Northumberland'; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes, ii, 117.
  • 16. See the account of Bretherton.
  • 17. Christopher's other daughter married Thomas Fleetwood, and in 1703 the manor of Cuerden was secured by Robert Parker, Fleetwood being deforciant; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 250, m. 8. The later descents are taken from Burke's Commoners, i, 116, and Landed Gentry; Foster's Lanc. Ped. Robert Parker was sheriff of the county in 1710 (P.R.O. List, 74), and died in 1718.
  • 18. Near Burnley.
  • 19. She afterwards married Sir Henry P. Hoghton.
  • 20. P.R.O. List, 74.
  • 21. Ibid.
  • 22. Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 172, 174.
  • 23. There were four other sons and three daughters. Among the sons were Capt. Robert Townley Parker, who fought at Aliwal and Sobraon and who is represented by a granddaughter, and Canon Arthur Townley Parker, late rector of Burnley. The former of these sons had the Bradford estate, Manchester, from his father.
  • 24. There are two illustrations of Cuerden Hall in Twycross's Lancashire Mansions, i, 142.
  • 25. Considering the date of its erection Cuerden Hall as designed by Lewis Wyatt is curiously 'modern' in feeling. It is far in advance of the usual domestic architecture, either classic or 'Gothic,' of the early years of the 19th century. A project for the remodelling of the old house on strictly classic lines, and additions thereto, from designs by J. Webb, architect, was abandoned in 1816. Webb's drawings (1815) are preserved at the Hall.
  • 26. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 12.
  • 27. The land was near the present Cuerden Hall, the boundaries including the Lostock and the division between Cuerden and Clayton; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 488. The bounds of a second grant also touched the Lostock, following the stream as far as Holford; ibid. ii, 489.
  • 28. Ibid. ii, 490. The place-names include Aldfield and Halvedland.
  • 29. Kuerden fol. MS. 1. The lands lay in several places, the names given being Walleschaw, Wetriding, and Wallgate.
  • 30. Henry de Kuerden son of Siward granted 3 oxgangs of land to Richard son of Adam de Blackburn, who had married his daughter Avice; and Avice daughter of Henry afterwards granted land in Ferncroft to her son John; Kuerden, loc. cit. In Henry's grant the 16 oxgangs of the vill are mentioned; four of them were held in demesne. Old Cuerden is named in each of the charters. Avice's grant was charged with 1d. a year for incense for Leyland Church. Margery widow of Roger de Blackburn in 1292 claimed dower in tenements in Cuerden against Alice widow of Peter de Kuerden and against John son of Henry de Walton; Assize R. 408, m. 64 d., 59. William de Blackburn gave all his land in Cuerden to his son William, and the latter granted it to John son of Richard son of Ralph of Much Hoole and Robert son of Finian of the same; Kuerden MSS. iv, K 5.
  • 31. Roger de Kuerden son of Henry released to John son of William Woodcock and Gilbert his brother common of pasture in Cuerden for all cattle belonging to them; ibid. 2. Roger confirmed to Gilbert land which the latter had formerly held of Thomas the brother of Roger together with mastfall for his pigs in Cuerden wood; ibid. He also made a grant to Uctred son of Gilbert; ibid.
  • 32. In 1253 Simon son of Roger de Kuerden agreed with the brothers John and Gilbert Woodcock that he would not sell or alienate their homage or service without their consent, under a penalty of 20s. to be paid to the fabric of Lancaster Castle; Kuerden fol. MS. 3. Simon exchanged a croft with Robert son of Thomas de Clayton and made grants to Roger son of Gilbert de Kuerden (? Woodcock) and to Robert son of Roger Woodcock; ibid. The above-mentioned Thomas de Clayton is in another charter called Thomas the Dispenser. Also Alice daughter of Robert the Dispenser of Clayton in 1294 released to her son Thomas all right in her hereditary lands in Cuerden. Her husband's name was John; ibid. 4.
  • 33. A sale appears to have been under consideration in 1253, judging by the charter quoted above.
  • 34. Assize R. 408, m. 66; William de Molyneux, father of the plaintiff, had been seised of the service claimed. It will be noticed that scutage was payable for the fifth part of a knight's fee.
  • 35. Alice widow of Simon de Kuerden in 1309 claimed dower in messuages and lands in Cuerden held by Adam del Kirk and Avice his wife; De Banco R. 179, m. 11.
  • 36. One of C. Towneley's compilations (Add. MS. 32109) contains a large number of Kuerden deeds, referring, apparently, to several families of the name. There are also references in the Kuerden MSS. (Coll. of Arms), iii, K 2, iv, K 5; and Harl. MS. 2112. Several references to the various Kuerden families have been given above from the charters and pleadings; to them the following may be added: There was a dispute as to a tenement in Cuerden in 1283 between John son of Uctred de Kuerden and William son of Henry the Cookson; De Banco R. 49, m. 19 d.; 54, m. 38 d. In 1301 William and Thomas sons of Henry de Kuerden had disputes as to their inheritance; Assize R. 1321, m. 3, 13. Thomas son of Roger de Kuerden in July 1354 claimed land in Cuerden against John and Robert de Arderne (brothers, who had the reversion and warranted), John son of Robert de Hoole, Robert Lemon and Richard Woodcock, the last-named being tenant for life. The verdict was for the plaintiff, who had in 1325 released the land to Margaret Banastre. The Ardernes were to compensate Woodcock; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 3, m. 4 d. Robert de Arderne had a life estate in half an oxgang of land in Cuerden, the reversion being to his brother John. He forfeited it by felony, and John was allowed to have it in 1360; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 341. A grant of land to Margery de Holland in 1346 by Robert son of Henry de Kuerden is preserved in Add. MS. 32109, fol. 45b. At the same time Richard son of Adam son of Alan de Kuerden unsuccessfully claimed a messuage, &c., against Robert Coler, Margery his wife, and others; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 3, m. 9. There are some Coler deeds of a later time in Add. MSS. 32104, fol. 41b; 32109, fol. 81, &c. The following pedigree of a family of the time of Edward II and Edward III is shown by deeds preserved by Kuerden (ii, fol. 250):—Robert de Kuerden -s. Roger -s. William -bro. Adam -s. John. Roger de Kuerden in 1310 granted all his lands, &c., in the vill to his son Richard, with remainders to other sons—Thomas, Robert and John; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 30. In 1318 Roger son of Roger son of Alice de Kuerden granted a parcel of land, the bounds of which began at the Wallshawsykes, to John son of Thomas Woodcock; ibid. fol. 27b. Thomas son of Roger de Kuerden, who has already been named, in 1355 gave his share of Lostockhey to William de Walton; ibid. fol. 41. In 1366 Robert son of Thomas de Kuerden made a feoffment of his lands in the vill; ibid. fol. 37. Robert appears to have had the lands of John de Arderne; ibid. fol. 34b. Ralph de Kuerden and Margaret his mother came to an agreement with Robert de Pinnington in 1374 respecting shares of the Holt; ibid. fol. 46b. A further agreement was made ten years later; ibid. fol. 48. William Kuerden and Margaret his wife made a feoffment of their lands in Cuerden, Clayton and Walton-le-Dale in 1426; ibid. fol. 81. Margaret was a widow in 1434; ibid. fol. 78. The feoffees in 1441 granted the lands received from William and Margaret to Adam de Kuerden, who was to marry Margaret daughter of Hugh Hilton; ibid. fol. 79b, 85. A short pedigree was recorded in 1567 (Visit. Chet. Soc. 69), as follows:— Richard -s. Edmund -s. Thomas -s. John (1567) -s. Thomas. A settlement of land in Cuerden, Walton-le-Dale and Clayton was made by Richard Kuerden in 1506, the remainders being to his sons Edmund and Hugh; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 92. Edmund was in possession in June 1508; ibid. fol. 92b. John and George Kuerden were parties to a fine in 1568 respecting lands in Cuerden, Clayton and Walton; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 30, m. 102. In 1589 John Kuerden and Elizabeth his wife had not only lands in Cuerden, &c., but a fourth part of the manor of Longton; ibid. bdle. 51, m. 238.
  • 37. A fanciful pedigree appears in Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 167. Kuerden himself says: 'Within this manor standeth an ancient fabric called Cuerden Hall, belonging to Christopher Banastre de Bank, and below it on the west side of London [road] another fair square fabric, a brick building adorned about with tall pine and fir trees, situated pleasantly upon the edge of Cuerden Green, not long since built in a fair court, and a spacious orchard and garden on the south side thereof planted by Richard Kuerden, Doctor of Physic, being an ancient inheritance descended upon him, and hath continued in his precedent ancestors from King Stephen's reign, then given in marriage to the original of that family, Siwardus filius Auti. . . . This inheritance hath continued entirely in the Doctor's family to this day, though the lordship itself hath been twice or thrice alienated'; quoted in Baines' Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 143. The family was long known as Jackson, Dr. Kuerden (or Keurden as he spelt it) adopting for himself the local surname. A John son of William Dicconson of Kuerden appears in 1391; he released to Margery widow of Robert de Pinnington his right in land called the Sheetacre on the Oldfield in Cuerden; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 61. William was therefore probably a brother of the Ralph son of Margaret named in a preceding note; ibid. fol. 48. In 1401 Elisota (Elizabeth) widow of William Dicconson made a settlement of her lands in Cuerden, the remainders being to William's sons—John the elder, John and Thomas; ibid. fol. 62, 63. In 1402 Elisota and her son and heir John made a feoffment of their lands; ibid. fol. 65. A little later John son of William Dicconson gave lands to William Cliff; the names include Wellbutts, Croft at the Town, and Ferncroft; ibid. fol. 64. In 1410 the same John granted lands in the Bottoms and Longfield to William son of Ralph Clayton; ibid. fol. 65b. In 1416, as John Wilkinson of Cuerden, he made a settlement of his lands, the remainder being to his son Thomas, who had married Eleanor daughter of John Harwood; ibid. fol. 68, 71, 73. John Wilkinson and Thomas his son in 1420 made a grant of the Mickle Crofts; ibid. fol. 68. Thomas Jackson Wilkinson of Cuerden in conjunction with John Harwood of Hoghton made a grant of land to John Werden in 1434; ibid. fol. 78b. His son Gilbert appears to have succeeded in 1454, when Richard son and heir of John Harwood gave to Gilbert son of Thomas Jackson various lands in Cuerden formerly entrusted by Thomas to the said John and to Geoffrey son of Thomas; ibid. fol. 74b. In the same year there was granted a divorce between Gilbert Tomlinson Jackson and his wife Elizabeth Whalley, on the latter's petition; ibid. fol. 80. It was probably the same Gilbert Jackson who in 1509 gave to feoffees land called Werdenheys, abutting on Richard Charnock's land called Huntersty and on the Stony lane, for the use of Joan wife of Richard Jackson son and heir-apparent of Gilbert; ibid. fol. 96. In 1516 Gilbert Jackson and Richard his son and heir granted land in the Townfield to John Jackson, another son of Gilbert's; ibid. fol. 99b. Richard Jackson granted Little Werdenhey to his brother John in 1528, and in the following year made his will, desiring to be buried in the churchyard of Leyland near his father and mother, and making bequests to his relatives, to priests for masses, and to such as should go on pilgrimage for him to our Lady of Burgh and St. Anne, and to the Rood at Chester; ibid. fol. 94–5. Richard did not die at that time, for in 1537 he as Richard Kuerden and his brother John agreed upon the marriage of the latter's son Gilbert with Grace daughter of Richard Eyves; ibid. fol. 100b. From other deeds it appears that Jackson and Kuerden were used indifferently as the surname. Richard died about the end of 1553, for early in the next year his widow Janet and his brother John (called of Walton-le-Dale) came to an agreement as to the dowry; ibid. fol. 104. In 1568 John Kuerden of Cuerden made an exchange of lands with John Jackson of Walton-le-Dale and Gilbert his son; the names given are: Tunstead, Farthingbutt, Longtonhey; ibid. fol. 112. Five years later John Kuerden gave pieces of land in the Bentbutts and the Menchey to Gilbert Jackson; ibid. fol. 118. A deed of feoffment made in 1584 by Gilbert Jackson records the names of his sons and other relatives; the heir-apparent was his son Richard; ibid. fol. 107; see also fol. 121b. In 1599 an agreement was made between Richard Jackson of Cuerden and Margaret widow of Gilbert Jackson as to her lands; ibid. fol. 117. According to the pedigree recorded in 1664 Richard, who died in 1631, was father of Gilbert (d. 1662), the father of the antiquary. The only inquisition known is that of Richard Jackson, who died 24 April 1631 holding a messuage and lands in Cuerden of Lord Molyneux and Sir Richard Fleetwood, as of their manor of Cuerden; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 699a. Gilbert, the son and heir, was thirty-nine years of age.
  • 38. A Richard son of Gilbert Jackson was baptized at Leyland 7 March 1622–3.
  • 39. See Add. MS. 32109, fol. 127.
  • 40. Baines, Lancs. (cd. 1836), iii. 461, from an account drawn up by Kuerden himself and copied in the Palmer MSS. (Chet. Lib.). There are notices of him also in Wood's Athenae and the Dict. Nat. Biog. (Jackson). For the date of his death see Preston Guardian Sketches, no. 366. Eight volumes of Kuerden's MSS. are in the College of Arms, two in the Chetham Library, and one among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum. For the prospectus of the work and other notes on Dr. Kuerden see Loc. Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 131, &c.
  • 41. Subs. R. 131, no. 210.
  • 42. Many references to them will be found in the collections of Cuerden deeds already noticed. Adam son of William de Ulbas of Leyland in 1306 confirmed to Robert son of Roger Woodcock lands in Cuerden; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 26. In 1342 Richard Woodcock exchanged lands with Ellis son of John de Kuerden; ibid. fol. 39b. In 1352 Adam son of William Woodcock claimed a messuage and land against William son of Thomas Faldworthings; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 5. At the same time Adam son of William del Knoll made a claim against Richard Woodcock, who called John son and heir of Robert Woodcock to warrant him; ibid. m. 5 d.; 3, m. 5 d. There is a brief pedigree in A. E. P. Gray, Woodcock Family, of Cuerden, &c.
  • 43. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 26; there was a rent of 6d. payable to the Crown. For pedigree see Abram's Blackburn, 733.
  • 44. Described by Kuerden as 'the ancient inheritance of Mr. John Woodcock and his family for four or five hundred years'; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 145. Alice daughter and co-heir of Thomas Woodcock is stated to have married William Winstanley in 1762; see Burke, Landed Gentry (Winstanley of Chaigley).
  • 45. John Woodcock of Cuerden and his sons Thomas, Francis and William were at the Preston Guild of 1622; Guild R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 92. John Woodcock of Cuerden and John Woodcock of Cuerden Green appear in 1642, and Thomas Woodcock of the latter place in 1662; ibid. 119, 155.
  • 46. On admission he stated that he was son of Thomas and Dorothy Woodcock and had been brought up at Clayton till he was nineteen years old. 'His father was a heretic or schismatic; his mother a pious Catholic. He studied for one year at St. Omer's, after having been a heretic or schismatic until nearly twenty years of age, when he was converted to the Catholic faith, and suffered much for a long time from a cruel father on that account. He went to his grandfather, a Catholic gentleman, viz. Mr. Anderton of Clayton'; Foley, Rec. S. J. vi, 322. At Rome he 'afforded a remarkable example of the mildest disposition.'
  • 47. Challoner, Missionary Priests, no. 185; Thaddeus, Franciscans in England, 69. His name in religion was Martin of St. Felix. He was arrested early in 1644, and kept in prison for two years. Two secular priests were executed with him. His head was preserved in the cloister of St. Bonaventure's, Douay, till the French Revolution. The Franciscan nuns at Taunton possess an arm bone. The process of beatification was allowed to be introduced at Rome in 1886.
  • 48. The Blundell of Preston family; see their deeds in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 96b– 137b.
  • 49. John son of Alexander de Cliff acquired land in Cuerden in 1341; Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 8174, 8176. Some Cliff deeds may be seen in the Kuerden MSS. iii, K2. By one of 1443 William Cliff settled land on himself with remainder to his son Thomas and to the latter's son William; and by another in 1473 William Cliff, who had married Katherine daughter of John Balshaw, settled land with remainder to his son John. The family occurs in other townships of Leyland and the neighbourhood. John Cliff, who died in 1588, held two messuages, &c., in Cuerden of Thomas Langton, lord of Newton, in socage by a rent of 19s. 3½d.; Richard Cliff, his kinsman and heir, was five years old in 1594; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 29. Richard Cliff died at Bretherton in 1640, holding the same tenement of Sir Richard Fleetwood; John, his son and heir, was twenty-seven years old; ibid. xxix, no. 88.
  • 50. Thomas Farington died in 1508 holding a messuage and land in Cuerden of Richard Charnock by 1d. rent; ibid. iv, no. 41. He also held the Cockersand lands in the township.
  • 51. William Langley of Walton was a ienant in the time of Elizabeth; in 1580 he sold part of his holding in Cuerden to John Robinson; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 42, m. 147; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 52.
  • 52. The messuage, &c., of Robert Langton in Cuerden was in 1548 held of Sir Thomas Langton in socage by a rent of 12d.; his son Peter's tenement was in 1573 held of Thomas Langton in socage, no rent being named; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 35; xii, no. 14.
  • 53. See Final Conc. iii, 36. William Walton of Walton-le-Dale held 6 acres in Cuerden in 1625 of Richard Fleetwood as of his manor of Newton by a rent of 2s. yearly; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 49.
  • 54. Some deeds of this family (of Whithalgh in Livesey) are transcribed in Add. MS. 32104, fol. 40 on. William de Whithalgh in 1367 confirmed to John Finch and Margery his wife a tenement in the vill of Cuerden and 6 acres in divers parcels in Castlegate, Cilnegreve, Sonerseld, Pighle and Blackhorde at a rent of 12s.; ibid. fol. 46b. Henry de Whithalgh appears in 1387; ibid. fol. 44. In 1415 he settled his holding in Cuerden on his son Uriel and other issue; ibid. fol. 43. Henry and Uriel in 1424 demised a plot of land in Cuerden to Robert Coler; ibid. fol. 46. Margaret widow of Henry Whithalgh in 1430 released to Uriel son and heir of Henry all her right in the lands, &c.; ibid. fol. 43b. Uriel frequently occurs; his widow Janet and her children in 1467 agreed to an arbitration concerning disputes with Laurence the son and heir, Katherine his wife, and James and other children of Laurence; ibid. fol. 48. To Laurence and Katherine (daughter of John Ward) the feoffees in 1451 regranted lands in Cuerden, including 2 acres on the west of a close called Hanacres; ibid. fol. 44. James Whithalgh and his wife Isabel occur in 1475; ibid. fol. 50. Margery was his wife in 1497 and his widow in 1525; ibid. fol. 41, 42b. Richard son and heir apparent of James Whithalgh appears to have married Isabel daughter of Laurence Ainsworth in 1499, lands in Mellor and Oswaldtwistle being settled on them; ibid. fol. 45. Richard Whithalgh and James his son and heir in 1528 agreed that James should marry Margaret daughter of Miles Marsden; ibid. fol. 47b. An exchange of land in the Broomfield was made in 1568 between John Kuerden and James Whithalgh; ibid. fol. 47. James Whithalgh died in the same year, holding his lands, &c., in Cuerden of Sir Thomas Langton by a rent of 4s.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 22. His heir was his nephew John son of his brother Lawrence. For the family see Abram, Blackburn, 594.
  • 55. Elizabeth widow of Sir Henry Kighley in 1524 held lands in Cuerden of Thomas Langton as of his manor of Walton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 6r. In this document Cuerden is described as in Walton-leDale. They were probably part of the Hesketh of Rufford lands; ibid. v, no. 16. Richard Sollam in 1555 purchased lands in Cuerden, &c., from Sir Thomas Hesketh and Alice his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 16, m. 164. Edmund and John Burscough occur in a fine respecting land in Cuerden in 1559, and Peter and Roger Burscough in 1595; ibid. bdle. 21, m. 87; 57, m. 74. Thomas Burscough, the successor of Peter, in 1611 held his land in Cuerden of the king (as waste) by the hundredth part of a knight's fee; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 37. Robert Woodroffe died in 1626 holding a messuage and land of Sir Richard Molyneux. He left his estates to his wife; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 1298.
  • 56. The charters have been cited above. In 1451–61 the tenant was Christopher Farington, in 1501 Thomas Farington, and in 1537 Thomas' heir; Cockersand Chartul. iii, 1260–1.
  • 57. See Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 375. A grant to them has been quoted. About 1540 the tenants and rents were; John Woodcock for two riddings on each side of smithy forge, 2d.; Thomas Kuerden for a toft, 12d.; Thomas Walton, a messuage, 12d.; James (? Whithalgh), a messuage, 6½d.; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 83b.
  • 58. Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 244–5.
  • 59. Ibid. 170.
  • 60. Ibid. 182.
  • 61. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 97, &c. Their names were: William Dawson, Robert Hilton, James Carver of Farington, William Cuerden, Eleanor Cooper and Richard Jackson. The estates of Thomas Clayton and Robert Cooper seem to have been forfeited altogether; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 172. These surnames occur much earlier; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 35, 42, &c.
  • 62. Land tax returns at Preston. The family continue to be practically sole landowners.
  • 63. Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiii, 160–1. In 1740 the magistrates issued a notice threatening the prosecution of anyone who should 'presume or dare to exercise the office of a popish priest' within the township, and forbidding any assembly to hear mass, &c.; Salford Dioc. Almanac, 1880.
  • 64. End. Char. Rep.