A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Chipinden, Dom. Bk.; Chipping, 1242; Chepin, 1246; Chipindale, 1258; Chipin, 1258; the final g seldom occurs till xvi cent. Schepin and similar forms are found occasionally, 1292 and later.
The northern boundary at Fairsnape Fell attains a height of 1,700 ft.; thence a spur shoots south, terminating in Parlick, 1,416 ft. high. Saddle Fell is a minor eminence to the east. From Parlick the ground slopes rapidly to the east and south, but land over 600 ft. high projects south-east, and on the eastern slope of this, close to the boundary, are Chipping village and church, beside a brook running south to join the sluggish Loud, which rises on Parlick and bounds the township on the west (for part of the way) and south, curling round a hill 500 ft. high, Elmridge. Core is in the north-west corner, and Wolfhall, formerly Wolfhouse, in the north. The area of the township is 5,634 acres, (fn. 1) and it had a population of 820 in 1901.
The principal road is that from Thornley to Chipping village, going north. Many smaller roads branch off from it, crossing the township in all directions.
'Within living memory the district was rich in fine ancestral timber; the oak, the ash, the elm, the sycamore, the hazel and the holly find congenial soil; and . . . the alder grows in great abundance in "carrs and marshes," although surface draining has in recent years much reduced the growth.' (fn. 2)
'Teanleas fires' used to be lighted on 1 May, 24 June, 31 August and 1 November. (fn. 3)
The township is governed by a parish council.
Among the trades recorded in the parish registers of the 17th century are those of gold-beater, glover, hat-maker and linen-weaver. In 1825 there were cotton-spinners, roller maker and spindle maker. More recently lime-burning, iron-working and chairmaking were the principal industries. The last-named continues, but the iron-turning mill was disused about twenty years ago. The land is mostly in grazing. (fn. 4) The soil is clay and calcareous earth.
In 1833 there were cattle fairs on Easter Tuesday and 24 August. The fairs are now held on 23 April and the first Wednesday in October.
Ground for a camp and rifle range was acquired by the government in 1892.
In 1066 CHIPPING, assessed as three plough-lands, was a member of Earl Tostig's fee of Preston. (fn. 5) After the Conquest it was granted to Roger of Poitou, and became part of the possession of the Bussels of Penwortham for a time. Henry I in 1102 gave it to Robert de Lacy, (fn. 6) and from that time it continued to form a member of the honor of Clitheroe. (fn. 7)
The land appears to have been divided among a number of holders, but it is not possible to trace the origin or descent of these tenements. The most important were those of Hoghton of Hoghton, Knoll of Wolfhouse or Wolfhall, and the Hospitallers, each of them apparently being regarded at one time or another as a ' manor.'
The Hoghton tenement can be traced back to 1292, when Adam de Hoghton complained that Richard le Surreys (Sothron) and others had made forcible entry into his several pasture in Chipping. The jury, however, found that the defendants had a right to common in 20 acres of moor and other land which Adam had inclosed by a dyke, and gave a verdict for them. (fn. 8) In 1313 only the twelfth part of the manor is named in a Hoghton settlement, (fn. 9) but in later times the ' manor' is spoken of absolutely. (fn. 10) In 1425 the manor was stated to be held of the king by a rent of 2s. (fn. 11); in the 16th century the service was unknown. (fn. 12) In 1552–6 there were disputes between Hoghton and Shireburne of Wolfhouse as to the lordship, the command of the waste being of importance. It appears that the Hoghton manorhouse was Black Hall, about half a mile west of the church. (fn. 13) This manor was sold to trustees for Charlotte wife of Lord Strange about 1630. (fn. 14) It does not appear much later. (fn. 15)
The Knolls of Wolfhouse appear to have been a branch of those of Thornley, and in the inquisition of 1628 respecting the estate the manor of Chipping and the capital messuage called 'Wolf house in Shireburne,' with various other messuages, water-mill and lands in Chipping, were stated to be held of the lord of Thornley by the service of a greyhound, a 'coter,' and 3s. rent. (fn. 16) One Adam son of Richard de Knoll had half an oxgang of land in Chipping in 1280, when it was claimed by Ralph de Catterall, (fn. 17) and the surname appears frequently. (fn. 18) Wolfhouse descended to John Knoll, (fn. 19) whose daughter Isabel married Roger Shireburne, a younger son of Robert Shireburne of Stonyhurst; and in 1493 the estate seems to have been secured by Roger. (fn. 20) Roger Shireburne, who built the Wolfhouse chapel in Chipping Church, (fn. 21) died in 1543, his son and heir Robert being then fifty-three years old. (fn. 22) The family remained Roman Catholics at the Reformation, (fn. 23) and during the Civil War the estate was sequestered by the Parliament. (fn. 24) Wolfhouse descended to Alexander Shireburne, who in 1678 mortgaged or sold it to Christopher Wilkinson (fn. 25); six years later it was sold to William Patten and Thomas Naylor (fn. 26) : these were probably trustees of Thomas Patten of Preston, from whom this manor of Chipping has descended through the Stanleys of Bickerstaffe to the Earl of Derby. (fn. 27) No courts are held.
The estate of the Hospitallers in Chippingdale goes back to early times, and is named in 1292. (fn. 28) After the Suppression the manors of Haworth and Chipping were sold by the Crown to George Whitmore of London, (fn. 29) who transferred them to Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst (fn. 30); this is perhaps the origin of the manor claimed by the family. A court was held by Richard Shireburne in 1690, (fn. 31) and as late as 1825 the manor of Chipping was said to be held by Thomas Weld. (fn. 32)
Sawley Abbey had land in Chipping. (fn. 33)
Of the minor families but little can be stated. The earlier surnames include Chipping and Chippindale, (fn. 34) Greenhills (fn. 35) —some of whose estate seems to have passed to Wawne (fn. 36) and other parts to Brown (fn. 37) —Ravenshaw, (fn. 38) Surreys (fn. 39) and Startevant or Sturtevant, (fn. 40) with others denoting landowners in adjacent townships. (fn. 41) Some deeds of the Halton family have been preserved by Kuerden. (fn. 42)
HESKETH END was long the estate of the Alston family, traceable to the time of Edward I. (fn. 43) The house known by this name is a two-story stone building, about 1½ miles south-west of Chipping the front facing south, with a projecting gabled wing at the west end. The principal part now remaining appears to have been built at the end of the 16th century by the Alstons, but the building was probably originally of greater extent. Some of the inscribed stones in the east part have apparently been inserted in a rather haphazard fashion and suggest the later rebuilding. At the west side is a large projecting stone chimney, but the exterior of the house, which has a stone slated roof repaired with modern blue slates at the back, is chiefly remarkable for the lengthy and unique inscriptions which run across the front and on the inner return of the west wing. These, together with the whole of the front of the house, were for a long time very much obscured by repeated coatings of whitewash, but in 1907 the building was thoroughly restored, the whitewash carefully removed and much of the stone work re-chiselled. The main front wall was largely rebuilt, but the smaller inscribed stones after being carefully cleaned were put back in the positions they formerly occupied. The interior is almost wholly modernized, but there is an inscribed stone in the chief bedroom and another in the dairy. It is now a farm-house.
The west wing, which is 17 ft. across, has a
mullioned window of seven lights with hood mould
over on each floor and a two-light window in the
gable, over which is a stone carved with the sacred
monogram. The inscription runs across the front
wall above the ground-foor window in double lines,
and is carved on six separate stones, the wording on
each stone being complete in itself, as follows, except
perhaps in the last two stones:
BRVTVS ERECTVS LONDINV ANTE CHRIST 1108
CESAR CONQVERT ANGLIA ANTE CHRIST 58
SAXONII CONQVERT ANGLIA ANNO DON 447 EPISCOPAT IB
DANII CONQVERT ANGLIA ANNO DOI 1018
ANGLIA IN COM · SIVE · SHIRI
AGER FLODDAN AN 1513
ANGL RECEP. FID[E]M AD 179
This is continued on four stones along the return
of the west wing facing east as follows, the end of
the last stone facing the front being carved with the
ANNO DOMI 1591 ELIS REGI ROBART ALSTVN 25
REGNO ANNI ETATIS NOSTRE RIC ALSTVN IVNIOR 5
A CREACIONE MVNDI 5553 A CONQVES
TO ANGLIE 524 DEVM TIME REGEM HONOR
Over the door on the return of the west wing
facing east is a stone inscribed
RESPICE FINEM ET NVNQV
AM PECCABIS PROX1MVM AMA
and to the left of this over a small built-up window another stone with the name of 'Richarde Alstun 53.' On the main south front are other inscribed stones, one with the sacred monogram between two crosses, another with the fragment RIC AVLSTV, and a third ALSTVN HATH INHERITED HERE IB l8 YER.
In the bedroom in the east wing an inscribed
HOC FAC ET VIVE
and a stone in the dairy has 'Fear God and love the right.'
The west wall retains its old rough stone walling unrestored and has a small square built-up window with the sacred monogram between two crosses on the head. Another window has also some ornament in the head, and the chimney, which is a good one of two shafts, has two gargoyles in the angles.
Richard Alston of Chipping died in 1607 holding a messuage and lands there of the king in socage. Richard his son and heir was forty years of age. (fn. 44)
HELME, now Elmridge, gave a surname to a family which spread into neighbouring townships. (fn. 45) William Helme died in 1597 holding a messuage, &c., of Richard Hoghton by a rent of 4d. and leaving a son Richard, aged twenty-two. (fn. 46) Richard died in 1638 holding of Lord Strange; his son and heir William was thirty years of age. (fn. 47) Leonard Helme died in 1601, but the tenure of his Chipping property is not recorded. (fn. 48) Another William Helme died in 1612, leaving a son James, thirty-nine years old; he also held of Richard Hoghton as of his manor of Chipping. (fn. 49) James died in 1622, leaving a son William, aged twenty in 1633, by which time Lord Strange had succeeded Hoghton. (fn. 50)
CORE was divided. At one time it seems to have been held by an illegitimate branch of the Knolls. (fn. 51) In later times the most important family was that of Parkinson. (fn. 52) From them sprang Richard Parkinson, Canon of Manchester and Principal of St. Bees College, who was born at Woodgates in 1797. (fn. 53)
One of the most notable estates, on account of the tenure, was that of the Leylands of Morleys in Astley, (fn. 54) who held 'of the heirs of William son of William son of Maurice' by a rent of 18d. (fn. 55)
The following were freeholders in 1600: Richard Austen (Alston), Richard Bolton, Henry Mawdesley and Thomas Thornley. (fn. 56) The Subsidy Rolls afford further information; thus in 1524 Roger Shireburne was the principal landowner contributing to the subsidy, Robert Alston and Richard Thornley being the others. (fn. 57) Thomas Sturtivant, Thomas Bolton, Robert Alston, Thomas Thornley, Thomas Rodes and Christopher Mawdesley contributed for their lands in 1543. (fn. 58) Robert Shireburne, Thomas Thornley, Henry Mawdesley, Richard Alston, Roger Sturtivant and Richard Bolton were the landowners in 1597. (fn. 59) Those in 1626 were: Henry Shireburne, Richard Thornley, Richard Parkinson, the heirs of Robert Alston, Thomas Boulton and John Sturtivant; James Beesley and a large number of others paid specially as non-communicants. (fn. 60) Several ' Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 61) The land tax return of 1789 shows that the Earl of Derby, Sir H. Mainwaring, and — Blundell were the chief landowners.
An inclosure award was made in 1812. (fn. 62)
The parish church has been described above.
The Wesleyans made attempts to found a congregation, but abandoned them about 1850. (fn. 63)
The Nonconformists after the Restoration had a meeting-place (fn. 64) and in 1705 the chapel in Hesketh Lane was built. (fn. 65) It is associated with the name of Peter Walkden, minister from 1711 to 1738, whose Diary was published in 1866. (fn. 66) It was closed in 1880 and then sold. The Congregationalists had another chapel from 1838 to 1882. (fn. 67)
In 1604 it was reported to the Bishop of Chester that an 'old priest' was harboured in Chipping; and ' James Bradley, recusant, [was] reported to be a leader of priests to men's houses.' (fn. 68) John Bradley, Grace Fairclough and Richard Singleton, as recusants, compounded for their sequestrations in 1630 onwards by payment of £2 each. (fn. 69) Little, however, is known of the story of the proscribed religion there, and the Roman Catholic church of St. Mary, opened in 1828, seems to be the offspring of the mission long before worked from the adjacent Leagram Hall. It was served by the Jesuits until 1857 and since then by secular priests. (fn. 70)