Townships: Preston

Pages 91-105

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.

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Prestune, Dom. Bk.; Preston, 1169; Prestone, 1292.

Approached from the south, Preston, in spite of its factory chimneys, has a pleasing appearance, as across the broad stream of the Ribble, which forms the foreground, two well-planted public parks occupy the ascending bank at the other side. The town hall, which has a lofty clock-tower, (fn. 1) is about half a mile north of the river, and from it the principal thoroughfare of the town, the wide street called Fishergate, goes west to the railway station, and then turning to the south-west descends to the riverside, (fn. 2) and bending south (fn. 3) along the Ribble reaches Penwortham Bridge. The continuation of Fishergate east from the town hall is called Church Street, (fn. 4) the parish church standing on its south side; after a short time it divides into three main branches—to the south-east and south as Stanley Street (fn. 5) and London Road, crossing Fishwick to reach Ribble Bridge, the main road southward; to the east, as Ribbleton Lane, to Ribchester; and to the north as Deepdale Road, in which stands the Infirmary. East from Stanley Street begins New Hall Lane, which goes past the cemetery and is continued as the Blackburn Road. On the north side of the town hall is the open market place, around which may be seen the Harris Free Library, the new sessions house, (fn. 6) completed in 1903, and the post-office, opened in the same year. (fn. 7) An obelisk in the square commemorates the local men who fell in the Boer War. From this square Friargate leads north-west for about a quarter of a mile, when it divides; Moor Lane leads north, past Moor Park and then across Fulwood to Garstang and Lancaster, while the Fylde road goes west to Kirkham. From Fishergate Lune Street goes north to Friargate, and from Church Street Lancaster Road and North Road run north to join Moor Lane. On the south side of Fishergate Chapel Street, passing Winckley Square, goes down to the two parks by the Ribble, already mentioned, Avenham Park and Miller Park. In Winckley Square there is a statue of Sir Robert Peel, erected in 1852, and in Miller Park one of the fourteenth Earl of Derby, 1873. In Avenham Park are two of the Russian guns captured in the Crimea. Cross Street, in which is the grammar school, begins on the east side of Winckley Square; while lower down Avenham Lane, an old thoroughfare, leads circuitously from the park, by Stonygate, to the parish church.

The whole township, which has an area of 2,127 acres, (fn. 8) is covered with a network of streets of dwellinghouses and shops, among which rise the numerous great cotton-spinning factories and other works which produce the town's wealth. There was a population of 101,297 in 1901. (fn. 9)

The different railways had formerly separate termini, but now all are made to meet at the large station in Fishergate. The London and North-Western Company's main line to Scotland is formed of the Wigan and Preston Railway, opened in 1838, (fn. 10) and the Preston and Lancaster Railway, 1840. (fn. 11) The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's system has amalgamated the lines joining Preston with Blackburn, (fn. 12) Bolton, Liverpool and Southport. (fn. 13) The two companies together hold the Wyre Railway (fn. 14) and the Preston and Longridge line, which latter has a station in Deepdale Road, its original terminus in 1840. The Lancaster Canal, first formed in 1798, begins on the north side of Fishergate, near the railway.

The railways have three bridges across the Ribble; there is only one bridge for ordinary traffic, that to Penwortham, and another for foot passengers, viz. the old tramway bridge at Avenham Park. (fn. 15)

Fairs are held annually in the first week of each year for horses, on 27 March, 25 August and 7 November for cattle and earthenware, and on the last Friday of March, June and November for cheese.

Though the town has a pleasant aspect and a long history, its buildings are all modern. The ancient crosses and wells have gone. (fn. 16) In addition to public buildings there are banks, (fn. 17) clubs (fn. 18) and theatres. The earliest theatre of which there is any record was near Fishergate, and described as 'old' in 1762. The present Theatre Royal in Fishergate was built in 1802 and the Gaiety or Prince's Theatre in Tithebarn Street in 1882. (fn. 19) The old sports of cockfighting, bull-baiting, &c., have been suppressed. (fn. 20) The old-time punishments of cuckstool, pillory and stocks have likewise ceased. (fn. 21) Archery used to be practised on the Spital Moss. (fn. 22)

For more than a century the cotton manufacture has been the staple industry of Preston. There are, however, a number of minor ones: breweries, iron and brass foundries and engineering works, soap manufactories, and others, including one of the few in England of gold and silver laces and embroideries.

The total abstinence movement found zealous propagation in Preston, which is popularly known as 'the birthplace of Teetotalism'—of the word at least. (fn. 23)


The history of the manor of PRESTON is bound up with that of the hundred, of which it was the head. (fn. 24) Its ancient assessment was six plough-lands. The lords of Amounderness and subsequently the lords of the honour of Lancaster were lords of Preston also, (fn. 25) and though the manor seems once or twice to have been granted out, (fn. 26) the gift had no permanent result. The king, therefore, as Duke of Lancaster, became lord of the manor of Preston, but the corporation, by obtaining a grant of the feudal dues at a fixed rent, became immediate lords of the manor, which lordship was finally secured by their purchase of the rent in 1676.

An extent of the manor made in 1244 showed that if the town had remained in the king's hands it would have yielded over £20 a year (fn. 27); while another extent a century later showed that in addition to the fee-farm rent of £15 paid by the community, the Earl of Lancaster received only 51s. 2d. a year, derived, it would appear, from tenements which had escheated to him and been granted out again. (fn. 28)


The borough may have been created by Roger of Poitou, (fn. 29) and there is an allegation that Henry I granted a charter in 1100, (fn. 30) but this is probably an error. The first extant charter is one granted in or about 1179 by Henry II conceding to 'his burgesses of Preston' —the borough therefore already existing—all the liberties and free customs of Newcastle-under-Lyme, saving the king's right of administering justice. (fn. 31) John in 1199 confirmed both his father's charter and one he had himself granted while Count of Mortain, adding the whole toll of the wapentake, and a free fair on 15 August lasting for a week; also the right of pasture in Fulwood and liberty to take wood for building on view of the forester. (fn. 32) Henry III confirmed all in 1227. (fn. 33) Edward III in 1328 confirmed the foregoing acts of his progenitors, adding liberty of a weekly market on Wednesday and an annual fair of five days, 27 to 31 October. (fn. 34) This charter was granted five months after the holding of the first recorded guild merchant, at which it was expressly stated that 'the king gives the freedom to the burgesses which are in the guild and to none other.' (fn. 35) The guild is not named in any of the charters, but may be implied in the 'customs of Newcastle,' which town certainly had a guild in the time of Henry III. (fn. 36) The charters here described are known by their recital in later confirmations; only one, that of 1199, is preserved at Preston.

In 1292 the borough was called upon to show its authority for the rights of lordship exercised, and the bailiffs and community replied that their liberties and fair were granted by charter, except gallows and infangenthef, which were derived from ancient custom, this latter being also the origin of their weekly market. (fn. 37) The town had a moiety of the Ribble finery. (fn. 38)

The Custumal of Preston in its present form may date from the charter of 1328, (fn. 39) but had probably originated long before and been augmented from different sources. (fn. 40) The need of such a document had been shown by the proceedings of 1292. The first clauses, beginning 'Ita quod,' without an introductory phrase, establish the guild merchant with exclusive rights of trading, except at the burgesses' will. It appears that anyone (fn. 41) could become a burgess if he liked; all that was necessary was for him to pay 12d. to the 'prefect' and then the 'pretors' would assign him a burgage plot, which must have a frontage of 12 ft. at least, and on which, should there be no dwelling, he must build one within forty days. (fn. 42) Various clauses regulate the procedure in market (fn. 43) and court (fn. 44); a burgess was expected to attend three port-motes in the year, and must attend each great port-mote. (fn. 45) The fines, except in one or two cases, were not to exceed 12d. (fn. 46); trial by battle, fire or water was allowed. (fn. 47) The burgesses could marry their daughters as they chose, (fn. 48) and were free in the matter of milling and malting (fn. 49); they had right to common of pasture (fn. 50) and to expenses when travelling on the town's business. (fn. 51)

The titles of prefectus (or prepositus) and pretor for the chief officers are noteworthy, for the terms 'mayor' and 'bailiff' were already in use in the time of Edward II. (fn. 52) The community held the town of the king in fee farm, (fn. 53) and one clause of the Custumal ordains that the 'pretor' of the court should collect the king's farm at the four terms, and if a burgess did not pay at the second demand the door of his house was to be taken off and might not be replaced till due payment had been made. (fn. 54) The reeve had to account in the farm rent for the goods of a man who had been found carrying bad money. (fn. 55) The town court was the king's court, (fn. 56) and the common fund seems to have been called the king's purse. (fn. 57)

In 1314 began a series of grants of pavage to the mayor and town of Preston for the improvement of the ways. (fn. 58) The charter was confirmed from time to time, (fn. 59) but no change of importance was made till 1566, when Elizabeth, confirming the previous charters, decreed that the mayor and bailiffs should be assisted in the government of the town by 'twentyfour men of the more discreet and worthy men' of the borough, who should be called the capital burgesses and form the Common Council, meeting in the Tollbooth or Moot Hall. The mayor for the time being was to be the justiciary, coroner and clerk of the market. (fn. 60)

A dispute as to the right of the aulnager for the county to seal cloths and levy dues in Preston occurred in 1571, it being contended that the charter exempted the town and that the goods made there, viz. 'narrow white kerseys,' were not included in the statute. (fn. 61) The guild of 1622 endeavoured to protect the burgesses in another way by keeping 'foreigners' out of the town, it being found that their living and trading therein was 'to the great prejudice, loss and hindrance of the free burgesses.' (fn. 62)

The records of the court leet have been preserved from 1653. (fn. 63) The ancient fee-farm rent of £15 (fn. 64) was redeemed by the corporation in 1650 and again after the Restoration in 1676. (fn. 65) The guild of 1662 distinguished itself by drawing up a code of by-laws from the records of former guilds and thus providing for the orderly government of the town. (fn. 66) Immediately afterwards a new charter was procured from Charles II, substantially the same as that of 1566, but making some further provisions. (fn. 67) This was followed in 1685 by an extended charter, which for the first time recognized the aldermen, who were to be seven in number. The mayor was to be assisted in his office as a justice of the peace by the exmayor, the senior alderman and the recorder. Two markets were now allowed, on Wednesday and Saturday, and three fairs, beginning 15 August, 27 October and 16 March. (fn. 68) No other charter was obtained till 1828, when, as, owing to the growth of the town, further justices were needed, it was provided that all the aldermen should act, also that the mayor, ex-mayor and senior aldermen should be coroners. (fn. 69)

Only seven years afterwards, in 1835, the Municipal Corporations Act abolished the old constitution and the first council election of the reformed corporation was held on 26 December; the aldermen were chosen on 31 December and the mayor on New Year's Day, 1836. The borough, which included the townships of Preston and Fishwick, was at first divided into six wards, and the council consisted of the mayor, twelve aldermen and thirty-six councillors. (fn. 70) In consequence of the growth of the town parts of Ribbleton and Brockholes on the east and of Ashton on the west were taken into the municipal borough in 1880 (fn. 71) and a further part of Ashton in 1888, (fn. 72) but the number of wards, though the areas were readjusted, remained unchanged until 1900, when the enlarged borough was divided into twelve wards—St. John's, Trinity, Christ Church and Avenham in the centre or ancient urban area; Ashton on the west; Maudland, St. Peter's, Moor Brook, Park and Deepdale on the north; Ribbleton and Fishwick to the east. Each ward has now an alderman and three councillors, so that the total membership is unchanged. The township boundaries were altered in 1894, so that those of the township or civil parish of Preston coincide with those of the municipal borough. (fn. 73) Preston became a county borough under the Act of 1888. As a parliamentary borough it has been known since 1295. (fn. 74) By the Reform Act of 1832 the town continued to return two members, but Fishwick was added to the borough. No change was made in the boundary till 1888, when the enlarged municipal borough, together with the township of Fulwood, became the parliamentary borough, there being still two members.

The borough court, a survival of the old manor courts, is held every third Friday by the recorder, for the recovery of small debts. The town has also its police force and court (fn. 75) and a quarter sessions court. (fn. 76) A county court is held there, as also county quarter sessions. The county council has its offices and meetings in Preston, as the most central point for Lancashire. (fn. 77) The Preston Rural District Council also meets in the town.

An artificial water supply, in addition to the wells, was begun as early as 1729 (fn. 78); but an efficient modern supply was not opened until 1832, (fn. 79) when a private company made a reservoir at Grimsargh. In 1853 the works were acquired by the town and fresh reservoirs have continued to be formed according to the needs of the district supplied. (fn. 80)

Lamps for lighting the streets on dark nights were first supplied in 1699, the corporation providing them. (fn. 81) Fr. Dunn, a Jesuit stationed at Preston, having seen gas used at Stonyhurst, advocated its introduction in Preston, which was thus the first provincial town in England to be lighted with gas, in 1816. (fn. 82) A private company, formed in 1815 and incorporated in 1839, supplies it. (fn. 83) The Electric Supply Company supplies electric light, with which the principal streets are lighted.

The first tramways were opened in 1879 (fn. 84) and have been greatly extended. They are now owned by the town and worked by electricity. The corporation also supplies electric power.

The grammar school seems always to have been governed by the corporation; various other educational institutions and libraries have now been added. The Free Library was opened in the Town Hall in 1879, (fn. 85) but transferred to the Harris Free Public Library and Museum in 1903. (fn. 86) A science and art school are held in the Harris Institute. (fn. 87) The Victoria Jubilee technical school was opened in 1897. (fn. 88)

The corporation has carried out the usual works for sanitary purposes. (fn. 89) It has erected a large town hall, (fn. 90) a public hall or corn market (fn. 91) and a covered market. (fn. 92) It owns several parks and recreation grounds. (fn. 93) The cemetery in Ribbleton was opened in 1855. (fn. 94) The corporation has also done much to improve the navigation of the Ribble and make the town a useful port. (fn. 95)

Preston possesses valuable regalia and plate, including the great mace presented by the Duke of Hamilton in 1703, a civic sword and the hanap, or cup and cover, dated 1615. (fn. 96)

The corporation built a workhouse in Avenham about 1675 for the unemployed poor, and this was superseded in 1788 by a new house on the moor. Under the Poor Law of 1834 Preston became the head of a union. A new workhouse at Fulwood was opened in 1868. (fn. 97) The infirmary is in Deepdale Road. (fn. 98) In addition the town has various societies and clubs. There are two daily and four weekly newspapers. (fn. 99)

In addition to the church and the chantries, the leper hospital (fn. 100) and the Friary, (fn. 101) the Knights Hospitallers, (fn. 102) Lytham (fn. 103) and Burscough Priories, (fn. 104) Whalley, (fn. 105) Sawley, (fn. 106) and Cockersand Abbeys (fn. 107) had lands in the town. In resisting a claim to certain burgages and land Robert Abbot of Cockersand averred that the tenements were of the manor of Preston, which was of the ancient demesne of the Crown of England; the claimant denied this, saying that the manor was of the honour of Lancaster and an escheat of the king, as he was ready to verify by the 'book of Domusdey' and in all other ways. (fn. 108) Many of the gentry of the county had burgages and lands in the town. In some cases they were stated to hold them of the king, in others of the corporation; but often no tenure was recorded. (fn. 109)

Of the local families (fn. 110) several took a surname from the town itself, and Prestons occur constantly in the annals. (fn. 111) One of these families recorded a pedigree in 1664, (fn. 112) another acquired lands in Ireland, and Sir Robert Preston was in 1478 created Viscount Gormanston, (fn. 113) a peerage still in existence, though the title was not recognized from the Revolution until 1800. (fn. 114) Among other more ancient families may be named by way of example those of Banastre of Peel Hall, &c., (fn. 115) Blundell, (fn. 116) Burnhull, (fn. 117) Erghum or Arrom, (fn. 118) Fishwick, (fn. 119) Hacconsall, (fn. 120) Marshall, (fn. 121) Leyland. (fn. 122) Molyneux of Cuerdale, (fn. 123) Pelle, (fn. 124) Wall, (fn. 125) Walton, with lands also in Fishwick and Ashton, (fn. 126) descending by an heiress to French, Werden, (fn. 127) and Wich (fn. 128); of these the Walls recorded pedigrees in 1567 (fn. 129) and 1664, (fn. 130) and Banastre (fn. 131) and Blundell (fn. 132) in the latter year. In 1613 pedigrees were recorded by two families named Breres, (fn. 133) one of them holding the old Friary. (fn. 134) In 1664–5, in addition to those named, the families of Ashton, (fn. 135) Chorley, (fn. 136) French, (fn. 137) Hesketh, (fn. 138) Hodgkinson, (fn. 139) Johnson, (fn. 140) Kuerden, (fn. 141) Law, (fn. 142) Legh, (fn. 143) Lemon, (fn. 144) Mort, (fn. 145) Pigot, (fn. 146) Shaw (fn. 147) and Winckley (fn. 148) recorded their pedigrees as 'of Preston.' Other well-known names appear in the 17th century—as Addison, (fn. 149) Patten, (fn. 150) ancestors of the Earls of Derby, (fn. 151) Pedder, (fn. 152) Sudell (fn. 153) and Walmesley. (fn. 154) Many of these were lawyers. In later times others become prominent, as manufacturers brought wealth to the town and increased its population. (fn. 155)

Preston of Preston.Or on a chief gules three crescents of the field.

Breres. Ermine on a canton azure a falcon volant or.

Kuerden. Per bend sinister or and azure a griffin segreant counterchanged.

Winckley. Per pale argent and gules an eagle displayed counterchanged.

Under the Commonwealth the estates of several of the townsmen were sequestrated for political or religious reasons, (fn. 156) and in 1717 two 'Papists' registered estates in the township. (fn. 157)

The parish church has been described above. The population remaining comparatively stationary no other church was needed in the town till 1724, when St. George's (fn. 158) was built as a chapel of ease at what was then the western edge of the town. A parish was attached to it in 1844. (fn. 159) The building was encased in stone in 1845, and almost entirely rebuilt in 1885. After the lapse of nearly a century a great effort was made to provide additional accommodation, and the following churches have been built:—Holy Trinity 1814–15, (fn. 160) St. Peter's 1822, (fn. 161) St. Paul's 1823–5, (fn. 162) Christ Church 1836–7, (fn. 163) St. James's, built by a newly-formed denomination, acquired in 1838, rebuilt 1870–81, (fn. 164) St. Mary's 1836–8, (fn. 165) St. Thomas's 1837–9, (fn. 166) All Saints' 1846–8. (fn. 167) Somewhat later are:—St. Luke's (fn. 168) and St. Saviour's 1859, (fn. 169) St. Mark's 1863, (fn. 170) Emmanuel 1870, (fn. 171) St. Stephen's, first opened as a chapel of ease to Christ Church in 1869, the present church being erected in 1888, (fn. 172) St. Matthew's 1880–3, (fn. 173) and St. Jude's 1893. (fn. 174) There are mission rooms connected with several of the churches. St. Philip's Protestant Church was opened in 1894–6. (fn. 175)

Wesleyan Methodism obtained a standing in the town about 1781, (fn. 176) when it is stated that a room in St. John's Street was used (fn. 177); in 1787 a small chapel in Back Lanc was erected. (fn. 178) The church in Lune Street succeeded it about 1817, (fn. 179) and was practically rebuilt in 1862; Wesley Church, North Road, originated in 1839, (fn. 180) that at Moor Park in 1862, (fn. 181) Marsh Lanc in 1873, (fn. 182) and two others. (fn. 183) The Primitive Methodists appeared in 1810, (fn. 184) their first meeting-place being in a yard off Friargate; then they built a chapel in Lawson Street, which was in 1836–7 abandoned for that in Saul Street. A mission in Deepdale, begun about 1876, resulted in the present church there. The United Methodist Free Church (fn. 185) has Orchard Chapel, built in 1831 and rebuilt 1862, and Moor Lanc, 1873, which has absorbed the congregation of Parker Street Chapel, built in 1852.

The Congregationalists date from about 1772, (fn. 186) when, probably on account of the Unitarianism of the old Nonconformist chapel, a place of worship for the more Evangelical members was opened in Back Lanc. Lady Huntingdon helped the cause, which struggled on until in 1790 an Independent chapel was built in Chapel Street (fn. 187); it was in 1826 removed to Cannon Street. This church was enlarged in 1852 and greatly altered in 1887. A second church was opened in Grimshaw Street in 1808, (fn. 188) and this was rebuilt in 1859. A third, the result of a secession from Cannon Street, was built in Lancaster Road in 1863, a beginning having been made two years before. (fn. 189)

The Baptist church in Fishergate has sprung from a small meeting which can be traced back to 1782. (fn. 190) A church was formed in the following year, with the concurrence of the Particular or Calvinistic Baptist Church in Prescot Street near the Tower of London. (fn. 191) A building was erected in Leeming Street, now Manchester Road, in 1784–5, (fn. 192) and services went on there until about 1856; the old building was sold (fn. 193) and the present one in Fishergate was opened in 1858. (fn. 194) A division in the congregation had in 1854 led to the foundation of a church in Pole Street, (fn. 195) which had a continuous history until 1901, about which time the congregation dissolved. The trustees afterwards reopened the building, known as Carey, the new church being formed in 1905 or 1906. (fn. 196) The General Baptists had a mission in the town from 1825 till about 1840; they are thought to have used Vauxhall Chapel. This building, which had had various uses, (fn. 197) was acquired about 1845 by a body of Baptists who clung to Calvinistic tenets when the denomination in general was relinquishing them (fn. 198); in 1853 a division led to the building of a small chapel, called Zoar, in Regent Street, (fn. 199) from which the congregation has migrated to Great Avenham Street. The Tabernacle, St. George's Road, is another small Baptist church which has existed for about thirty years.

The Presbyterian Church of England has a place of worship in St. Paul's Square, opened in 1878. (fn. 200)

The Unitarian church in Preston, as in many other places, represents the old Nonconforming congregation, which had a more or less secret existence from the Act of Uniformity of 1662 till toleration was granted at the Revolution. (fn. 201) The chapel, near the east end of Church Street, was built about 1717 by Sir Henry Hoghton of Hoghton. The doctrine is said to have been Arian or Unitarian from an early period of its history. (fn. 202)

The Society of Friends can be traced back to 1680. (fn. 203) Their meeting-house between Friargate and Back Lanc was acquired in 1784 and rebuilt in 1797 and 1847. The district and county meetings of the Society are held in it. (fn. 204) There is a Free Gospel church dating from 1858, (fn. 205) and the Salvation Army has stations. The New Jerusalem Church in Avenham Road began in 1844. (fn. 206) The Catholic Apostolic Church, or Irvingites, after meeting in various rooms acquired in 1882 a small church in Regent Street (fn. 207) originally built by the Particular Baptists. (fn. 208) Some minor religious efforts failed to secure a permanent standing. (fn. 209) The Mormons also failed to establish themselves. (fn. 210)

In spite of the large number of faithful adherents of Roman Catholicism known to have lived in Preston during the times of persecution there is here, as elsewhere, the greatest obscurity in the story of their worship, (fn. 211) though rooms may have been secretly used for mass even in the town itself, particularly in the Friargate district. (fn. 212) It was here that the first St. Mary's Chapel was built in 1761. It was demolished by the mob during the election contest of 1768, and though the priest in charge managed to escape across the Ribble he died soon afterwards from alarm and horror. (fn. 213) Shortly afterwards another was built on the site, but was closed when St. Wilfrid's was opened in 1793 and it became a warehouse. However, in 1815 it was restored to divine worship as a chapel of ease, its present status, and served till 1856, when the present St. Mary's was built on its site. (fn. 214) It stands back from the street, being approached from Friargate through an archway. St. Wilfrid's, built, as stated, in 1793, was rebuilt in 1879, (fn. 215) St. Ignatius' followed in 1836, (fn. 216) and St. Walburge's, with its tall spire, one of the landmarks of Preston, in 1852. (fn. 217) These churches, with St. Mary's, are served by Jesuit Fathers. The secular clergy have St. Augustine's 1838–40, (fn. 218) St. Joseph's 1862–74 (fn. 219) and the English Martyrs' 1863–88. (fn. 220) The Sisters of Charity manage St. Joseph's Institutions, founded in 1872 by Mrs. Holland. The teaching orders of the Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus and the Faithful Companions of Jesus have convents. (fn. 221) A society formed in 1731, but of earlier origin, exists for the relief of the poor and charity towards the dead; it is called the 'First Catholic Charitable Society.'


  • 1. The building was designed by Sir G. G. Scott. The spire is 150 ft. high.
  • 2. Here it is called Fishergate Hill.
  • 3. Here called Broadgate.
  • 4. Anciently Kirkgate.
  • 5. Formerly Finkale Street.
  • 6. It has a tower 179 ft. high. The county records are preserved in this building, having been collected from different repositories. The borough sessions house is near.
  • 7. For the development of the local post office see Hewitson, Preston, 336–41.
  • 8. The area of the county borough, according to the Census Report of 1901, is 3,971 acres. It is that of the old township, together with the whole of Fishwick, large parts of Ashton and Ribbleton, and bits of Grimsargh and Penwortham; these were all united into one township or civil parish in 1894; Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 31607. The 3,971 acres include 79 of inland water; there are besides 85 acres of tidal water and 14 of foreshore.
  • 9. The population of the larger area of the county borough was 112,989.
  • 10. The station was on the site of the existing one. These details are derived chiefly from A. Hewitson, op. cit. 199, &c.
  • 11. The station was on the north side of Fishergate, but was soon afterwards connected with the station on the south side, the line being thus made continuous.
  • 12. The Blackburn terminus occupies its original position.
  • 13. The Southport (West Lancashire) line had its terminus in Fishergate Hill.
  • 14. The terminus was in Maudlands.
  • 15. Foot passengers can also cross the Ribble by the East Lancashire railway bridge, that to Blackburn, by a side walk. This bridge had fifty-seven arches in all, mostly south of the river, but nearly all have now been covered by an embankment.
  • 16. St. Stephen's cross is named in undated deeds; Add. MS. 32106, no. 1486, 1543, fol. 308, &c. Fishwick cross, probably on the boundary, is named in 1339 (ibid. no. 1614) and the Butter cross 1562; ibid. no. 847. See also Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xx, 156–62. The crosses known were the high cross in the market-place, afterwards replaced by an obelisk; a butter cross in Cheapside; a cross near New Street and another in Friargate, and one on the Moor. Our Lady's Well was near the Friary. The butter cross was taken down in 1739 by order of the corporation, and the materials used to repair the marketplace, as appears by the records.
  • 17. The Old Bank was opened in 1776; for a long time the Pedder family were chief proprietors. It failed in 1861. See Hewitson, op. cit. 238, where is given a view of the house (c. 1690) in which business was done. The Preston Banking Company, founded in 1844, had its head office in Fishergate. It has been absorbed by the London City and Midland Bank. Four other banks have branch offices. The Savings Bank was opened in 1816.
  • 18. These include the Conservative Club, the Reform Club and the Winckley Club. In 1824 there were two news-rooms, one in the coffee-house in Church Street and the other adjoining the Town Hall; the two, it was then said, connoted 'ancient and modern Preston; the coffee room is the resort of the gentry and men of leisure, and the Guildhall room affords its more ample accommodation to commercial gentlemen and tradesmen'; Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 499.
  • 19. Hewitson, op. cit. 354.
  • 20. Ibid. 118. A view of the cock-pit is given; it was near the south-west corner of the parish church. Horse-races were run on Preston Moor from 1726 to 1791. For a Corpus Christi play about 1620 see Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 27. The Easter-egg rolling in 1882 is spoken of in Pal. Note-bk. ii, 108.
  • 21. The pillory was last used at Preston in 1814; Hewitson, Preston, 126. The stocks, in the churchyard, were in use till 1825; ibid. Ct. Leet Rec. 68.
  • 22. Hewitson, Preston, 126.
  • 23. Ibid. 226–30; a facsimile of the first pledge, 1 Sept. 1832, is given, with the signatures of the 'seven men of Preston,' including that of Joseph Livesey, the best known of them.
  • 24. See the account of Amounderness.
  • 25. Thus in 1292 Edmund, brother of the king, proved that he was lord of the manor; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 388. In 1361 Preston was among the manors of Blanche daughter of Henry Duke of Lancaster; Fine R. 162, m. 17.
  • 26. Soon after the Conquest the manor was granted to Warine Bussel, who held it for a time; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 35. Again in 1254–5 the manor of Preston, probably in Amounderness, was given by Prince Edward to Maater Richard the Physician; Pat. 49 Hen. III, m. 82. In 1400 the king granted 10 marks a year for life out of the profits of the vill of Preston; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xv, fol. 21.
  • 27. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 158–9; the lands to the ploughing of four ploughs would yield £6, the fisheries the same, the markets £3 and the mills £2, toll and stallages the same, perquisites of pleas 13s. 4d., meadows and pastures the same; escheats in the king's hands produced 6s. 8d. To various railages Preston paid as follows: 1176–7, aid., £16 10s.; 1205, tallage, £10 4s.; 1213–15, pleas of the forest, £2 6s. 8d.; 1226, £10 0s. 6d.; 1248–9, £12; 1261, £20 13s. 4d.; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 35, 202, 251; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 135, &c. As implied above, escheated lands were the king's. From a house escheated 2s. was accounted for in 1184–5; Farrer, op. cit. 54. In 1201–2 Alexander de Preston recovered a toft of which Roger de Leicester had disseised him; ibid. 132. Again in 1226 the farm of a house which had been Harvey's (hanged) amounted to 3s. 8d.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 138. In 1256–8 escheats in Preston produced 21s, 9d. during eighteen months; ibid. i, 222. These were in part held by Richard le Boteler, who paid 7s. 6d. a year in 1258–62; ibid. 230.
  • 28. Add. MS. 32103, fol. 147;, of 1346. For escheats William Chapman paid 5s. 6d. (an increase of 1s. 6d.) and John de Ashton 10s., in addition to 12d. to the earl (part of the £15 fee-farm rent) and 9d. to the Prior of Lytham. This latter tenement had belonged to Adam Bukmonger, for whom see Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 15. The free tenants were: Nicholas de Preston, holding 1 acre for which he paid 12d.; John Marshal and John Bennet, in right of their wives—Ellen and Christiana, daughters of Richard Marshal —each paying 2s. 6d. for half a burgage; Robert son of Henry Maggeson, a burgage (once burnt by the Scots), 4s.; Nicholas son of Henry Williamson, four plots of land, by Court Roll, 4s. 8d.; Thomas de Yomb(er)gh, a messuage lately belonging to Roger son of John de Wich, 5s.; Henry Chapman, a messuage, 10s. Albred son of Robert and Alice his wife, a toft for life, 2s.; an acre in the hands of the friars (held in alms) had formerly paid 4s.; it was used for the channel conveying the water to their house.
  • 29. This was the opinion of Miss Bateson, who discussed the Custumal of the town in Engl. Hist. Rev. xv, 496–512.
  • 30. Sir Thomas Walmesley about 1600 certified that he had seen a charter to the burgesses so dated; Abram, Memorials of Preston Guilds, 1. The charter of Henry II may have been dated by him conjecturally 1° Hen., for if there was an earlier one extant it seems unaccountable that it was not named or included in the confirmations of the charter of Henry II by successive kings.
  • 31. Ibid, 2, 3. The charter was given at Winchester, where the king spent the Christmas of 1179. The year it not named in the deed itself, but gathered from the place and from the names of the witnesses. In the Pipe Rolls of 1179–82 it is recorded that the men of Preston gave 100 marks for the charter; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 42, 46. The customs of Newcastle at that date are not known.
  • 32. Abram, op. cit. 3; Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 26. From the wording of the confirmation it may be gathered that the additions of the fair, pasturage, &c., had been made by John when Count of Mortain, 1189–94. The charter is dated at Le Mans, 18 Oct. 1199. The burgesses paid 60 marks and four chaseurs for the grant; Farrer, op. cit. 116. There was a dispute in 1201 as to the right of gaol; ibid. 130, 136. The fairs are mentioned in a charter of a few years later by which William de Millom and Avice his wife (see Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 40) gave to Henry son of William son of Swain the fourth part of two burgages (in Preston), formerly tenanted by Norasius and Aldwin, with all appurtenances, white gloves being payable at Preston fairs; Lytham D. at Durham, 3 a, 2 ae, 4 ae, Ebor. no. 3. The grantee was rector of Whittington, and his son Henry gave the tenement to Lytham Priory; ibid. no. 2.
  • 33. Abram, op. cit.; dated Westminster, 16 Mar. 1226–7. The same king at Windsor, 29 Oct. 1252, allowed that an appropriation of 324 acres which the burgesses had made under Fulwood belonged to the borough and not to the king's wood. The boundary reached to Eves Brook from Ribbleton Scales to the point where the brook fell into the Savock, and then along the Savock to the old dyke which formed the boundary between Preston and Tulketh. Thus the land seems to have been what was later known as Preston Moor. The burgesses had liberty to cultivate the land as they pleased, up to within 40 perches of the cover of Fulwood, and their old rights of turbary outside and of fencing wood within Fulwood were admitted; Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 406. In 1227 a five years' grant of dead wood from Fulwood for burning had been made to the men of Preston; Cal. Pat. 1225–32. p. 112.
  • 34. Abram, op. cit. 4; dated Westminster, 27 Nov. 1328. Four charters were produced—those of Henry II, John, and Henry III (2). The inspeximus is recorded in Chart. R. 2 Edw. Ill, m. 1, no. 6.
  • 35. Abram, op. cit. 8. The first clause of the Custumal seems to be referred to— 'That they [the burgesses] may have a guild merchant with hanse and other customs and liberties appertaining to that guild.'
  • 36. The charter, dated 18 Sept. 1235, is printed in Farrer, op. cit. 414. It may have been merely a confirmation of the liberties referred to in the charter granted by Henry II to Preston. It allowed a guild merchant with all its liberties; the burgesses might pass through the king's dominions, trading freely, and quit of toll, passage, pontage, ulnage, &c., and themselves have in their borough soc and sac, toll, infangenthef, and other jurisdictions. Similar liberties for Preston are recorded in clause 4 of the Custumal. In 1551 two inhabitants of Preston complained that they had been compelled to pay tolls at sundry places in Yorkshire. For Pontefract it was alleged that the right to charge dues was earlier than the exemption claimed; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Edw. VI, xxviii, B 2.
  • 37. Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 385. The charter they alleged was that of King John (1199), still extant. They paid £15 a year to the king for their liberties. The weekly market, nominally held on Wednesday, was actually on Saturday. As the charter did not specify the liberties, and as the burgesses were not able to prove the customs of Newcastle, the town lost its cause for the moment. The 'gallows' does not reappear.
  • 38. Ibid. 387. The lord of Penwortham had the other moiety.
  • 39. The Custumal is printed in Engl. Hist. Rev. xv, 496–500, with a commentary by Miss Mary Bateson, who divided the document into forty-eight paragraphs. She considers that the phrase at the end, de lege Bretonica, refers to the laws of Breteuil, on which the statutes of a number of early English boroughs were founded; ibid. 73, 302–see especially p. 318, where the phrase lex Britannie occurs. A reduced facsimile of the Custumal is given in Fishwick's Preston, 16. The date is inferred from the heading which Randle Holme prefixes to his transcript—'Libertates Gilde Mercatorie confirmate per Edwardum Regem.'
  • 40. Miss Bateson considers that the first four paragraphs have come from a royal charter, and that clause 36 was at one time the ending. Clause 47 is a sentence from 32, and 35 seems to be included in 4.
  • 41. Even a 'native' who obtained admission to the guild and remained a year and a day undisturbed became absolutely free; clause 3. In the phrases 'burgensis de curia' (no. 18, 20, 22) and 'burgensis de villa' (no. 32) Miss Bateson sees an opposition, as if the distinction between out and inburgesses had already been fixed. The 'burgensis de curia' of no. 20 may be an error for 'pretor de curia.'
  • 42. Clauses 5, 6, 16. A curious provision was that 1d. was to be paid to the pretor's servant for his testimony to the fact of entry. A disputed title was settled by the oath of the tenant's 'prepo situs' and two neighbours at least, affirming that he had held it a year and a day; no. 7. A burgess might sell his burgage, but the next of kin had a right of pre-emption. If he had only one burgage he must on selling pay 4d. for liberty to go; no. 30. Nothing is said of an annual rent to be paid for the burgage, but this was probably 12d. In an undated charter William de Euxton granted a burgage in Preston to Richard the Smith, a rent of 12d. being payable to the lord of the fee; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1099. No plot of land is named in the Custumal as appurtenant to a burgage, but from charters and inquisitions it may be inferred that some land was normally held with a burgage. In later times it was customary for a burgess to pay 7d. on 'renewing his freedom' at each guild celebration; Abram, op. cit. 65 (quoting Kuerden).
  • 43. Among other by-laws it was ordained that if a burgess bought anything and gave an earnest or instalment the seller might rescind the bargain on repaying double the earnest; but should the purchaser have handled his purchase he might either retain it or accept 5s. from the seller instead; Custumal, no. 12. A stranger might not share in any bargain with one of the burgesses; no. 29.
  • 44. One rule was that if anyone were taken and convicted for robbery or breach of trust (infidelitas) the prosecutor should 'do justice' on him; no. 19.
  • 45. Clause 10. A burgess was not to be compelled to go with his lord on a military expedition unless he could return home the same day; no. 43.
  • 46. Clause 9. If one burgess wounded another and they desired to agree their friends might impose a penalty of 4d. for each thumb-length of wound in a covered part of the body and 8d. for each in an open place. The assailant must also make good any money loss due to the wound and pay the doctor; no. 21. The final clause of the by-law seems to mean that the wounded man should swear upon his arms that he had been wounded and was willing to accept the composition agreed upon. If a burgess should be fined 12d. three times for breach of the assize of bread and ale, the fourth time he should pay a heavier fine, or else go to the cuckstool (ad cukestolam); no. 31. Should anyone carrying false money be captured the 'prepositus' must account for the money and send the criminal to the king for punishment; those who caught him should have the clothes; no. 41.
  • 47. Clauses 18, 22. Should there be wager of battle between a burgess and a knight the latter must fight in person; no. 45. In 1184–5 a fine of 5 marks was levied by the king because a man had been put 'at the water' without warrant; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 55.
  • 48. Clause 23. Succession to property is regulated by no. 32.
  • 49. Clauses 24, 25.
  • 50. Clause 36.
  • 51. Clause 27.
  • 52. 'Pretors' occur at Clitheroe also. Ralph the reeve of Preston occurs about 1200, together with Roger his son; Lancs. Pipe R. 335. Roger, 'pretor' of Preston, apparently the reeve, attested a local charter about 1220; Kuerden MSS. iv, C 25b. Roger reeve of Preston, Ralph his son and Robert the Clerk of Preston occur about the same time; Add. MS. 32106, no. 378. Baldwin de Preston was reeve in 1246, and chose the jury of twelve (including himself) who came from the borough; Assize R. 404, m. 19b. There seems to have still been no 'mayor' in 1292, when the bailiffs appearing for the town were Adam son of Robert and Robert son of Roger. To a charter already quoted Roger Pade, 'then chief bailiff of Preston,' was a witness; OO, no. 1099. Local charters to about 1320 are usually attested by the two bailiffs of the town; but in one early deed Adam brother of Filbard, mayor, and William and Roger brother of Roger (?), reeves, were principal witnesses; ibid. no. 1101. In 1311–12 William son of Robert the Tailor granted to John del Wich land in the new field under Fulwood, and the witnesses were the mayor, Robert son of Roger, six bailiffs—Adam de Bury, William son of Nicholas, William son of Paulin, Henry Banastre, Roger Salley, Albred son of Adam—and the clerk of Preston, William de Wigan; Towneley MS. DD, no. 2198. In the guild of 1328 the mayor and two bailiffs are named, and the government at that time was conducted in the name of the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses. The community had a common seal as early as 1250; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), i, 220–1. A seal of 1376 is in the British Museum (Birch, Catalogue, no. 5315); it shows the Agnus Dei, statant regardant, with banner flag, and on the lamb's shoulder a shield bearing the duchy arms. It is surrounded with the legend + SIGILL' COMVNE BVRGENCIVM DE PERSTON. The seal of 1415 is the same, with the addition of three P's round the lamb, thus: [consult printed volume] About the end of the 17th century the statant posture was altered to couchant. The seals of 1415 and the present time are shown in Fishwick, op. cit. 36, 37. In 1349 the king granted a seal for recognizances of debts; the greater piece was to remain in charge of the mayor and the smaller piece with a clerk deputed by the king; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 266. William Clifton was appointed to be keeper of the smaller piece in 1423; ibid. 1422–9, p. 101. The Moot Hall is named in a deed of 1377, by which Thomas de Molyneux of Cuerdale and Joan his wife gave the mayor, bailiffs and community of Preston a small piece of land (12 ft. by 12 ft.) adjoining the said hall, at a rent of 6s.; OO, no. 1506.
  • 53. This does not seem to be mentioned in any of the early charters. The original farm of the town was £9, but in or before 1179 was increased by £6; Farrer, op. cit. 42, 131. In 1212 the burgesses held three plough-lands in Preston by a rent of £15; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 45, 138, 289. The diminution from the six plough-lands of Domesday Book is probably accounted for by the separation of Fulwood and Ribbleton.
  • 54. Clause 11.
  • 55. Clause 41.
  • 56. 'Curia nostra'; no. 9.
  • 57. If a stranger claimed a debt before the reeve and the debtor would not pay the 'pretor' paid it out of the king's purse, and then seized the debtor's chattels or took possession of his house; no. 33.
  • 58. Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 186. The tolls which might be levied are printed in Fishwick, Preston, 25. Other grants were made in 1328 (for two years) and in 1333 (for five years); Cal. Pat. 1327– 30, p. 270; 1330–4, p. 408. At a trial in 1334 it was alleged that the men of Preston had obtained pavage charters for five and then for three years, and then, the town being sufficiently paved, purchased another charter to last for five years, 'to the great oppression of the people of those parts.' Nicholas de Preston and three others appeared for the community to aver that the additional paving was required, but the decision was against them, and they had to pay a fine. The pavage dues were stated to amount to 10 marks a year; Coram Rege R. 297, Rex m. 21. In 1337 an inquiry was made at to the right of pasture in Fulwood; Lansdowne MS. 559, fol. 66/36b. The taxation of the ninth of the borough of Preston in 1340 has been preserved and supplies forty-four names of persons taxed; Subs. R. bdle. 130, no. 15. In 1341 a commission was appointed to inquire into a suspected misappropriation of the pavage money raised; Cal. Pat. 1340–3, p. 313. Another grant of pavage was made by Duke Henry in 1356; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 344. In 1582 Richard Stirrop was admitted burgess in consideration of his making the post-holes in the market stead at the yearly fairs and repairing the causeway between Barkhouse Hill and the windmill at the east end of the town; Abram, Mem. of the Guilds, 33.
  • 59. By Richard II in 1379, preserved at Preston; see Cal. Pat. 1377–81, p. 340. By Henry IV in 1401, also at Preston; a new clause was inserted, allowing the burgesses to use any of the liberties, &c., granted by former charters, even if they or their predecessors had not hitherto fully availed themselves of the same. By Henry V in 1414. By Henry VI in 1425, now at Preston. By Philip and Mary in 1557, at Preston. For the charters of 1401 and 1414 see also Charter R. 2 Hen. IV, pt. i, no. 8; 1 Hen. V, pt. iii, no. 3.
  • 60. The charter probably ratified customs in the government of the town which had grown up in the course of time. At the guild of 1500 it was ordained that the mayor should nominate two 'ancient, discreet and honest burgesses,' called elisors, who in turn were to nominate twenty-four burgesses, not bearing office in the town, to choose fit persons to be mayor, bailiff and sub-bailiff; the mayor, after his election, chose a second bailiff and a serjeant for the mace; Abram, Mem. of the Guilds, 23. In a writ de quo warr. issued in 1487 the corporation were called upon to show by what title they claimed to elect a mayor. The £15 a year rent to the Crown is named; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 13 Hen. VII. For part of the reply see Kuerden MSS. iv, P 10 (the markets). In 1527 Sir Richard Hoghton made a lawless attempt to impose on the town his own nominees as mayor, bailiff and serjeant. It was then the custom to nominate priests as elisors; Fishwick, Preston, 38–42, quoting Duchy of Lanc. Pleadings, Hen. VIII, rii, F 1; viii, W 9; vi, W 11. Sir Thomas More was then Chancellor of the duchy; he rejected the Hoghton claims and made certain 'ordinances' for the peace of the town and the election of mayor; ibid. 43–4, quoting Pleadings, vi, W 11. Sir Richard again, interfered with the election in. Oct. 1534; ibid. 45. Disputes arose as to the nomination of both elisors by the mayor, and the charter of 1566, while confirming the mode of election of the twenty-four, gave them. the choice of one of the elisors. A three weeks court for trying causes of debts, &c.; the view of frankpledge on the days 'accustomed from ancient times,' the markets and fairs (with court of piepowder), were all expressly ratified by the charter, to be held by 'the ancient rent and farm due to the Crown.' The charter did not allay all the internal disputes which had been going on respecting the choice of the mayor, who, it will be seen, had large powers. It gave the elisors the right to choose an entirely new body of capital burgesses each year, but in practice no doubt the same persons were re-elected, if willing, and in 1598 there is mention of a permanent body of aldermen, who were eight in number. It was ordered that 'the whole number of benchers, commonly called aldermen,' should stand and remain as they then were until the next guild merchant, and that the mayor should be chosen annually from this body, beginning with the senior member, and descending yearly according to seniority; ibid. 34. This rule was confirmed by the guild of 1602, which also decreed that out-burgesses who came to reside within the town should not be eligible as mayor or bailiff till they had resided for seven years; ibid. 36. In 1642 it was ordered that on an alderman dying a successor should be appointed from the members of the common council; ibid. 47. An attempt to disfranchise two burgesses was defeated by their appeal to the Exchequer Court in or before 1582; Abram, op. cit. 33.
  • 61. Abram, op. cit. 26–8. The decision seems to have been adverse to the town; Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 236, 256. An earlier claim to this immunity was investigated in 1521, when the mayor and burgesses also claimed all the goods of felons, fugitives, &c., and view of frankpledge; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 36.
  • 62. Abram, op. cit. 40. The making of bricks for sale was likewise forbidden, so that the 'wastes' of the town might not be impaired. There are other evidences that at that time the established guilds or trade companies were jealous of the growth of independent traders. The rules of the Preston Company of Drapers, Mercers, Grocers, Salters, Ironmongers and Haberdashers of 1628 prohibited the sale by any 'stranger' of goods belonging to these trades; ibid. 41–2. In 1633 the Society of Skinners, Whittawers and Glovers in Preston and other places made a petition against unlicensed traders; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1633–4, p. 330.
  • 63. The records from 1653 to 1813 are preserved in three folio volumes at the Town Hall. An account of them, with copious extracts, was published in 1905, Mr. Anthony Hewitson being editor. The court leet was held twice a year. The Inquest, sometimes called the court baron, sat frequently. The Mayor's Court was held on the Friday before St. Wilfrid's Day for the election of mayor, bailiff and serjeant; their inauguration was on the feast itself. The old procedure is related in Whittle's Preston (1821), 194–206. The principal matters in the records relate to the right to carry on a trade and to pasture cattle on the marsh. The court leet became extinct in 1835, having long ceased to be of any utility in the changed conditions of the town.
  • 64. In 1504–5 the sheriff was directed to call for £45, the rent due to the king for three years from the mayor and bailiffs of Preston; Kuerden MSS. iv, P 118.
  • 65. Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 448. The intermediate surrender of the purchase in 1660, as evidence to the loyalty of the corporation, is printed in Manch. Guard. N. and Q. no. 375.
  • 66. Abram, op. cit. 51–5. The guild meeting was continued for six weeks to allow of the codification. The orders were classified under the following titles: The Sabbath; the oaths; the town lands, rents, and other revenues; the marsh, mere and town field; geese on the marsh; swine; brick and digging of sods; preservation of the common, &c.; buying and selling between foreigners and others, and the tolls, stallages, pickages, lastages and other customs due for the same; householders and their duties; officers; manner of holding a council; weights and measures; foreign burgesses; restraining of foreign burgesses; duties of foreign burgesses; alehouse-keeping, tippling and victualling; bailiffs and other inferior officers; office of a serjeant; streets and scavengers. 'About 2,200 burgesses were enrolled at the guild of 1662, of whom something less than 900 were foreign burgesses.'
  • 67. Ibid. 56–7.
  • 68. Ibid. 68; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxiv, 222.
  • 69. Abram, op. cit. 135. A description of the old-fashioned way of 'beating the bounds' at Preston is given in Hewitson's Preston, 121. It is included among the former sports of the place.
  • 70. Abram, loc. cit.; Act 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 64. The six wards were: St. John's, south-east from Church Street to the Ribble, including part of Fishwick; Christ Church, to the west; St. George's, to the north-west; St. Peter's, north of Maudland; Trinity, the east central part of the town (including the Town Hall) to the northern border; Fishwick, the eastern suburb of Preston, and the greater part of Fishwick township. Changes of area were made in 1881, and St. George's and Trinity were re-named Maudland and Park respectively.
  • 71. Under an Improvement Act of 1880, 43 & 44 Vict. cap. 118.
  • 72. Under the Ribble Navigation Act of 1883, 46 & 47 Vict. cap. 115. The enlargement came into force in 1889.
  • 73. Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 31607.
  • 74. See above—introduction.
  • 75. About 1800 the watchmen were provided by private subscriptions and a corporation grant. In 1832 a police station was opened in Avenham Street, the force numbering six men. A new station, with magistrates' court, still used, was opened in Lancaster Road in 1858. The bench of magistrates was anciently regulated by the charters, as already described; since the passing of the Municipal Reform Act in 1835 the justices have been appointed by the Chancellor of the duchy. There is also a fire brigade, with station in Tithebarn Street. In 1271 Thurstan de Holland complained that one Henry son of Mirre had destroyed one of his houses at Preston; but it was shown that there was a fire in the town, and Thurstan's house and some others had been destroyed to check the flames; Curia Regis R. 201, m. 7 d.
  • 76. The seneschal, later the recorder, is named in the charters of 1566 and 1663. He presides at the three weeks court and the quarter sessions of the borough.
  • 77. The offices, at the west end of Fishergate, were opened in 1882. The chief county officials have their offices in the building. The prison, at the east end of Church Street, was erected in 1789 to replace the old house of correction in the Friary. A court-house was built in 1829 adjoining. The new county sessions house, already mentioned, has replaced it. The county police offices are part of the new building, in which is also the County Hall, used for the meetings of the county council.
  • 78. The town records mention five principal wells: Mincepitt, near the gas company's land; Market-place, 1654; Fishergate, 1666; Lady Well, west of Friargate; Goose Well, outside Church Street bars. The old 'cistern' was built in Avenham in 1729, R. Abbot, a Quaker, was the maker. See Hewitson, Ct. Leet Rec.; Hardwick, Preston, 44.5. In 1743 a new cistern was made at Syke Hill, from which water was distributed through wooden pipes; see Hewitson, Preston, 378–80.
  • 79. Priv. Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 27.
  • 80. 16 & 17 Vict. cap. 48. See Hewitson, op. cit. 381–3. Further large reservoirs have lately been constructed at Longridge. The works supply not only the borough but several adjacent townships, north and south of the Ribble.
  • 81. Ibid. 267.
  • 82. Hardwick, op. cit. 444; Gerard, Stonyhurst, 125. The first works were in Avenham Lane (Glover Street).
  • 83. Act 55 Geo. III, cap. 22; 2 & 3 Vict. cap. 3. Additional gasometers have been erected in North Street and at Ribbleton and Walton-le-Dale.
  • 84. Hewitson, Preston, 208–9. An omnibus service to Fulwood began in 1859, superseded by the tramway in 1879. Other tramway lines, from Ribbleton through the town to Fishergate Hill and to Ashton, were opened in 1882.
  • 85. Ibid. 287–98. The new Harris Library, built for it between 1882 and 1893, was opened in 1894. Dr. Shepherd's library (1759) is housed with it. The Law Library, founded in 1831, is a private subscription one; the building is in Chapel Walks, Fishergate.
  • 86. Ibid. 312–14. The museum was at first (1841) in Cross Street. An observatory, privately founded, was acquired by the corporation in 1879 and anew building erected in 1881 in Deepdale Road.
  • 87. The building was erected in 1849 in Avenham Lanc as an Institute for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, originally organized in 1828. Declining in usefulness it was re-endowed by the trustees of E. R. Harris as a Technological and Science and Art School in 1882; Hewitson, op. cit. 235, 276.
  • 88. This building, in Corporation Street, is managed by the council of the Institute, who have acquired the old buildings of the School for the Blind (1871), which has been removed to Fulwood.
  • 89. For example, baths and wash-houses were opened in 1850 and refuse destructors in 1887 and 1892. Formerly there was a public cold water bath at the western end of the town, called the Spa Bath. It was closed about 1860; Hewitson, Preston, 242. There was a spa well there; ibid. 385.
  • 90. This building was opened in 1867. See Hewitson, op. cit. 359–66.
  • 91. It was first erected by the corporation in 1822–4, and after enlargement was re-opened in 1882. There is accommodation for 3,600 auditors It has a large organ. The corn market is held there on Saturdays; at the front are sold eggs and poultry. The pork market was formerly held at the rear, but was discontinued in 1881; Hewitson, op. cit. 254.
  • 92. It is in Lancaster Road, on the site of the old 'Orchard,' and was built in 1870–5. Fruit and vegetables are sold there; Hewitson, op. cit. 308. In Whittle's Preston (1821), 116–20, is a description of the former markets. The Old Shambles, a street leading from the Market Place to Church Street, were on the east side of the Town Hall. The Strait Shambles, erected in 1715 by Thomas Molyneux, went north from Church Street opposite Avenham Street. They were pulled down in 1882 to make room for the Free Library. Separate slaughter-houses were erected in 1818 near Syke Hill. The fish stones were on the northern side of the market-place; they were removed in 1853. Whittle further states that then the market days were Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. A bell was rung at 9 a.m. when the sale of provisions and fish began; it was rung again at 10 a.m. when 'forestalled, hucksters and badgers' might purchase to sell again; and at 11 a.m. when the corn trade began. 'The various markets shall now have their place as to where they are held according to ancient usage. The cattle market in Church Street. The goose and pork market immediately under the church wall. The country butchers and others hold their market on the south side of Church Street.' The marketplace was apportioned to various kinds of produce. On the south side butter and poultry; at the east corn and peas; in the centre earthenware, glass and toys; to the north, clothiers; west of the obelisk, confectionery, hats, boots, cutlery, small wares. The cheese market and fruit stalls on the west side of the square, with vegetables on both sides of Cheapside, which leads down to Fishergate. Still earlier arrangements as described by Dr. Kuerden about 1680 are printed in Hardwick's Preston, 209. The cattle market was in Church Street, swine were sold opposite the church, and sheep on the west side of the market-place; the horse market was in Fishergate.
  • 93. While the town was still quite small the corporation in 1696–7 obtained from Alderman Lemon a piece of ground on Avenham, used as a walk, and thus secured it for public use. It was planted with trees, and forms a conspicuous object in Buck's 'Prospect' of 1728; Hewitson, op. cit. 320, 236. Thoresby, the antiquary, who visited the town at the 1702 guild, described it as 'a very curious walk and delicate prospect'; Thoresby, Diaries, i, 389–91. Avenham Park, to the south-west of it, occupies 27 acres by the Ribble side. Between 1843 and 1852 the corporation purchased the land, and formed it into an attractive pleasure ground in 1861–7; work being thus provided for the factory workers made idle by the American Civil War; ibid. 319–22. Miller Park, 11 acres, lies further to the west; the land was given by Alderman Thomas Miller, and, after being laid out, was opened in 1867; ibid. 323. Fine views of the Ribble Valley can be obtained from these parks. The moor to the north of the town was inclosed by the corporation in 1834. From 1786 to 1833 horse-races had been run there, in opposition to those favoured by the Earl of Derby on the adjacent Fulwood Moor. Racing had taken place much earlier, an 'intended horse course' being marked in 1695. A park of 110 acres has gradually been formed of the land inclosed. The Marsh, another part of the old common land, is used as a recreation ground; it measures 22 acres. Haslam Park was presented to the town in 1908 by Miss Haslam.
  • 94. Hewitson, op. cit. 249.
  • 95. See the introduction.
  • 96. A full description is given in Trans. Hist. Soc. (new sen), xiii, 1–47.
  • 97. For the history see Hewitson, Preston, 394–410.
  • 98. A dispensary was established in Fishergate in 1809 and a house of recovery in Great Shaw Street in 1813. The latter was removed to 'the Moor' in 1833. The two institutions are combined in the present infirmary, on the last-named site, opened in 1870; Hewitson, op. cit. 284.
  • 99. The earliest newspaper, of no long continuance, was the Journal, 1744. Of the existing newspapers the Guardian was established in 1844 and the Herald in 1855. The daily papers are the Lancashire Post and Northern Telegraph; the weekly ones the Preston Guardian, Preston Herald (Wednesday and Saturday), Preston Argus, and Catholic News. For a full account of the newspapers up to 1882 see Hewitson, op. cit. 341–4.
  • 100. The site does not seem to be known exactly. A charter of 1311–12 describes a piece of land as situated under this hospital and extending to Swaghwell Syke; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, 580. This name is probably the same as the Sewalle Syke of the Cockersand Chartul. i, 217. Possibly the well was one known later as Atherton's Well, near the canal bridge on Fylde Road; Hewitson, Preston, 385. Spital Moss was close by. Charters of the hospital are in the Duchy Great Coucher, i, fol. 80, &c. The history of the hospital is narrated in the account of the religious houses of the county. After its confiscation by Edward VI it was in 1549 granted to John Doddington and William Ward; Pat. 3 Edw. VI, pt. vi. They sold it to Thomas Fleetwood in 1550, and in 1560 Thomas sold the estate to John Fleetwood of Penwortham; Preston Chron. 12 Oct. 1861. Thomas Fleetwood is here called 'of Hesketh'; he was the brother of John, who died in possession in 1590; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 34.
  • 101. See the account of the religious houses. Part of the building was granted to William Breres of Preston and Oliver Breres of Chorleytn 1539–40, and Oliver was in possession in 1545; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xv, p. 564; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 178. In 1540 the whole site was granted to Thomas Holcroft; Pat. 32 Hen. VIII, fol. iv. The building was used as a house of correction from about 1640 to 1789; Hewitson, Preston, 281.
  • 102. The Hospitallers' lands in Preston were in 1544–5 given to Richard Crombleholme; Pat. 36 Hen. VIII, pt. xvii.
  • 103. Lytham charters at Durham, 3 a, 2 ae, 4 ae Ebor. no. 1–5. These are grants of rents by the heirs of Richard son of Roger of Woodplumpton.
  • 104. The tenement seems to have been known as Tinkler House, and a rent of 2s. was derived from it; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals bdle. 4, no. 7, 8; Mins. Accts. bdle. 136, no. 2198.
  • 105. Richard de Derbyshire gave land in Jugeler Ridding and in Woodholm (formerly Robert son of Stephen's) to Stanlaw Abbey; Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 465.
  • 106. Richard Rufus (? Russel) gave half of a toft in Fishergate to Sawley; Harl. MS. 112, fol. 74. This as a burgage was afterwards demised by the abbey to Hugh le Sposage, at a rent of 12d. to the abbot, 12d. to the king (as chief lord) according to the use and custom of the vill, and 8d. to the heir of Hugh Fitton. By Adam son of Hugh le Sposage it was granted to Roger son of Adam son of Suard, by whom it was surrendered to the abbey; ibid. Russel was an early surname in Preston; De Banco R. 195, m. 331; 248, m. 44.
  • 107. Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), i, 216–25; iv, 1262–3. The lands seem for the most part to have been acquired by Master William de Kirkham and handed over to the canons. The charters contain a number of details as to the people and place-names. The latter include Sicling Moor, Oldfield, Platfordale, Sewall Syke, Woodholme, Whitacre, Dustesahe Field and Gildhouse. Roger son of Robert Woodward in 1326 granted Thomas Banastre and Joan his wife land held of the Abbot of Cockersand and having a kiln-house upon it; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1114. Alice daughter of Adam de Rufford and widow of Simon released to the canons her claim in Thimsacre; Towneley MS. DD, no. 10. In 1281 Amy widow of Robert son of Cecily claimed dower in two messuages, 4 acres of land and a burgage in Preston against the Abbot of Cockersand, Adam de Bury and William son of Adam Albin; De Banco R. 42, m. 15.
  • 108. Assize R. 408, m. 8. The plaintiff was Walter son of Jordan de Kirkham, brother of Master William de Kirkham, son of Richard. The abbot alleged bastardy, but an agreement was come to, and Walter released all his claim in the tenement.
  • 109. Of the Crown, mostly in free burgage: Isabel widow of John Talbot, 1432; and John Talbot of Salesbury, 1449; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 41, 55. Alexander Hoghton of Hoghton, 1489; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 66. A similar statement is made in the later inquisitions in the case of this and other families. John Singleton of Broughton, 1521; ibid. v, no. 45. Sir Thomas Boteler of Warrington, 1522; ibid. v, no. 13. Lawrence Starkie, 1532; ibid. ix, no. 21. One of his daughters married Humphry Newton; see note 134. James Anderton of Euxton, 1552, in socage; ibid, ix, no. 14. James Forshaw of Penwortham, 1563; ibid. xi, no. 41. Sir Richard Molyneux of Sefton, 1569; ibid, xiii, no. 35. George Hesketh of Poulton, 1571; ibid. xiii, no. 15. Richard Greenacres of Worston, 1578; ibid. xiv, no. 16. Richard Chisnall [see Chisnall], 1587, 3 acres; ibid, xiv, no. 39. John Grimshaw of Clayton, 1587; ibid. xiv, no. 53. Thomas Standish of Duxbury, 1599; ibid. xvii, no. 54. Of the Corporation, i.e. the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses: John Skillicorne, 1478, four burgageg, by a rent of 2s.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 105. William Farington of Leyland, 1501; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 67. Richard Taylor (see Bretherton and Longton), 1596; ibid. xvii, no. 25. Another of the name died in 1631, leaving a son Henry, aged sixteen; ibid, xxvii, no. 63. Robert Hankinson (see Newton with Scales), 1604; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 135; ii, 123. John Stopford of Ulnes Walton; ibid. i, 169; ii, 72. George Rogerson, 1620, the Water Willows, &c.; ibid. ii, 189. Thomas Shireburne of Heysham, 1635–6; Towneley MS. C 8 13 (Chet. Lib.), 1083. William Critchlow of Lea, 1637–8; ibid. 252. Edward Lussell of Osbaldeston, 1637; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 78. Other tenures: Robert Singleton of Broughton, 1501; of St. John of Jerusalem by a rent of 3d.; ibid. iii, no. 63. Robert Singleton of Brockholes, 1525; of the heir of Adam de Brockholes, by three grains of pepper; ibid. vi, no. 64. William Moore of Bank Hall, 1602; of Sir Richard Hoghton; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 13. The unrecorded tenures include those of Balderston of Balderston, Clifton of Westby, Harrington of Westleigh, Hesketh of Rufford, Langton of Walton, Leyland of Morleys, and Travers of Nateby. Of the above it may be noticed that the Moores retained their Preston estate till 1691; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 226, m. 22. The Feet of Fines give some particulars of other families. For instance, in the 16th cent., Park, bdle. 12, m. 63, 144, 290; Newsham, bdle. 20, m. 63; Arkwright, bdle. 43, m. 200; Forshaw, bdle. 49, m. 77; 57, m. 160; Haighton, bdle. 58, m. 173. The following persons were recorded as freeholders in Preston in 1600: Henry Ascroft, Thomas Banastre, Richard Blundell, Richard Cuerdall; Henry, James, Richard and William Hodgkinson; Edmund Lemon,—Preston, George Sollom, Anthony and Thomas Wall, James and —Walton; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 233.
  • 110. Kuerden's collections, especially iv (P) and the folio volume (C, D), contain much relating to the local families. Numerous Hoghton deeds are in Add. MS, 32106. The Guild Rolls also are valuable for their pedigrees. For the earlier generations some assistance may be derived from the witnesses to charters; e.g. about 1260 there appear Adam brother of Suard de Preston, Roger and William his sons; Add. MS. 32106, no. 451.
  • 111. The following references to the Plea Rolls, &c., will show that different families used this surname. A Gamel son of Gamel was admitted to the freedom of Preston by a charter of King John in 1199, confirming one granted when John was Count of Mortain; Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 26. In 1246 it was recorded that two burgages and 4 acres of land had escheated to the king. Adam son of Suard held them at half a mark rent; Assize R. 404, m. 19 d. Robert son of Stephen de Preston unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and 3 acres against various persons; ibid. m. 4. A Henry son of Baldwin de Preston did fealty on succeeding in 1254; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 187. See also Rot. Lit. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i, 430; Cal. Close, 1279–88, p. 265. Roger son of Adam de Preston in 1262 acquired a toft, at 1d. rent, from John de Balderston and Alice his wife; Final Conc. i, 135. In 1277 Maud widow of Roger son of Roger de Preston claimed dower in Preston against Robert son of Adam, Roger son of Belota, Paulin de Preston, and others; De Banco R. 19, m. 14 d. Two years later Alice widow of Master William de Preston claimed a messuage, &c, against William son of Master William, and land against Nicholas son of Roger de Preston and Alice his wife; ibid. 29, m. 17; 31, m. 9. Agnes widow of Adam de Hoghton in 1290 claimed dower in houses, bakehouse, &c., in Preston against Alice widow of Roger son of Adam de Preston; ibid. 83, m. 127 d. In 1291 Geoffrey son of Roger son of Adam de Preston and Ellen his wife unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and 3 acres of land in Preston against Maud de Brockholes, William de Slyne and Eva his wife. It appeared that Ellen was daughter of Adam de Brockholes and Eva daughter of Adam de Preston (who had enfeoffed her fourteen years before). Geoffrey's father Roger is also called 'son of Avice'; Assize R. 1294, m. 8 d.; 1299, m. 16. The same Geoffrey and Ellen sued William the Carpenter of Preston and Eva his wife; Assize R. 407, m. 4; 1294, m. 9. In this claim Eva daughter of Adam the Clerk of Brockholes was found to have been born out of wedlock; she had an elder brother William; Assize R. 408, m. 7, 9, 38 d. The following belong to the year 1292: Robert de Ribbleton and Cecily his wife claimed the fourth part of a messuage and toft against Roger son of Anot de Preston and Ellen his wife; it was proved that Ellen was in seisin before she married Roger; Assize R. 408, m. 3, 44 d. Roger son of Avice de Preston was defendant in another plea; ibid. m. 36 d. Robert son of Adam de Preston complained of a trespass by William the Tailor of Preston; ibid. m. 3, 17 d. William the Tailor was non-suited in a claim for debt against Hugh and Robert sons of Adam son of Philip de Preston; ibid, m. 32. Robert son of Adam son of Siward held the moiety of a messuage claimed by Agnes wife of William de la Launde, on the ground that her mother Maud (sister of Alice daughter of Ivette) had held it; ibid. m. 34. Robert son of Adam defended his title to land in Preston against Henry le Pestur and Christiana his wife; ibid. m. 32. Robert son of Adam son of Philip also defended his title against Richard son of Henry del Wra; ibid. m. 44 d. Robert son of Adam de Preston was charged with trespass by Alan son of Master Thomas de Lancaster and others; ibid. m. 103. Robert de Preston was defendant to a claim by Cecily widow of Jordan de Claughton; ibid. m. 54 d. Robert son of Adam de Preston defended his claim to certain land (claimed by Nicholas de Burnhull) by saying that he had received it from Alan de Catherton; ibid. m. 49. Christiana widow of Henry Mirreson de Preston cliimed dower in various tenements against Robert son of Adam de Preston and Alice widow of Adam, against Adam son of Richard de Preston and against Paulin de Preston; ibid. m. 49 d. She also claimed against William son of Roger, when Robert son of Roger de Preston warranted William and by leave rendeied dower to the claimant; ibid. m. 61. William son of Roger de Preston claimed a debt from William son of William; ibid. m. 102. William son of Roger son of Adam de Preston demised land to Richard the Teinturer, who refused to pay the balance of the amount he promised and was ejected; ibid. m. 54. Robert son of Roger son of Adam de Preston was, together with Alice me widow of Roger, defendant as to a claim by William the Lister; ibid. m. 58. Hugh son of Wimark de Preston and Margery his wife claimed small plots of land against William son of Roger Fitz Award de Preston and Robert son of Adam son of Ralph the Barker of Preston; ibid. m. 7. Albred another son of Adam son of Ralph was defendant; ibid. m. 43. Hugh son of Hugh de Preston defended his title against William son of Pain de Preston; ibid. m. 44 d. William son of Hugh de Preston had demised a messuage and lands to Roger son of Adam de Preston in consideration of maintenance, but on this failing he claimed damages against Alice the widow of Roger and others, and was allowed 72s.; ibid. m. 99. The same Alice was defendant to a claim for money owing put forward by Paulin de Preston, and Amota widow of Richard son of Richard son of Malbe de Preston; ibid. m. 103. Adam and William sons of Paulin de Preston had a dispute about a charter; ibid. m. 37 d. Alice daughter of William son of Ralph de Preston claimed a tenement against Alice daughter of Alexander de Preston; ibid. m. 24. Another Alice daughter of Ketel de Preston and wife of Simon son of Amabil de Ribbleton claimed land; ibid. Roger son of Richard le Pestur of Preston (alias Richard de Preston) claimed parcels of land against Robert the Tailor, Richard son of Uctred de Preston and Avice his wife, Richard de Aldware and Robert son of Roger de Preston; ibid. m. 41. In another claim the same plaintiff showed the following pedigree: Award de Preston –s. Roger -s. Richard -s. Roger (plaintiff). Award had given a messuage to Henry de Penwortham and Christiana his wife and they had died without issue; ibid. m. 65 d. Adam son of Agnes de Preston, Amery his vrife, Robert son of Beatrice and Alice his wife claimed a strip of land (100 ft. by 1 ft.) against William son of Roger de Preston; ibid. m. 52 d. Ellen widow of Adam son of Philip de Preston claimed against Roger son of Adam Russel of Preston and Maud his wife, but was non-suited; ibid. m. 54 d. Maud daughter of Fulk de Preston was a plaintiff; ibid, m. 91 d. Cecily daughter of Hugh Asellison claimed a tenement against Geoffrey son of Roger de Preston; ibid. m. 58. In 1301 Robert son of Adam son of Philip de Preston was sued for dower by Amery widow of William Aldeware; De Banco R. 136, m. 46. William son of Roger Mirreson had a dispute in 1305 with Henry son of Robert Attownsend of Preston; Assize R. 420, m. 8. Pleadings of 1308–14 show us Albric and Avice children of Adam son of Ralph de Preston contending with Ralph son of Henry son of Ralph; Assize R. 423, m. 5 d.; 424, m. 5. Adam son of Robert de Preston gave a release to John son of Robert son of Adam de Preston respecting six messuages and various lands; Alberic the brother of John and Nicholas ton of William de Preston are named; ibid. m. 2 d. Robert son of William son of Roger de Preston and William son of Nicholas de Preston were defendants in other pleas; ibid. m. 1 d., 9. Christiana widow of William son of Roger de Preston and Robert son of Roger son of Adam de Preston were concerned in suits of 1324–5; Assize R. 426, m. 9. Other references might be added, but the above will show how generally the surname was used. In the following cases somewhat fuller details than usual were alleged: In 1323–4 William de Wigan claimed against Albred son of Ralph de Preston and Henry son of Robert Adcockson certain land which had been given by Benedict the Clerk to William son of Adam de Preston in free marriage with Cecily his daughter, and which should descend to plaintiff as son and heir of William son and heir of Cecily; De Banco R. 252, m. 114 d. The Prior of Burscough claimed against Robert son of John de Preston a tenement granted by Nicholas the Prior (temp. Henry III) to Robert son of Adam de Preston by a rent of 18d.; ibid. 340, m. 430 d. Richard son of Adam son of Margery de Preston claimed an acre against Albred son of Robert son of Adam de Preston in 1346; ibid. 345, m. 152 d. In 1352 Alice daughter of John (who married Margaret) son of Albred son of Adam son of Ralph de Preston claimed two messuages, 24 acres, &c., against Adam Skillington and Alice his wife (in her right), Geoffrey de Hacconsall and John son of John son of Albred son of Adam son of Ralph de Preston (who was to inherit after the death of Alice Skillington); Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. 3 d. (Pent.), Margery daughter and heir of Adam son of William Mirreson claimed against Thomas son of William Mirreson; ibid. m. 1 d. (July). John son of Geoffrey son of Robert son of Cecily de Preston did not prosecute a claim put forward in 1355 against Roger son of Adam son of Margery de Preston; ibid. 4, m. 5 d. John Preston of Preston had a pardon in 1391; Cal. Pat. 1388–92, p. 369. George Preston, drover, died in 1602 holding of the corporation in free burgage; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 103 (will recited).
  • 112. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 237; there is a somewhat fuller one in Fishwick, op. cit. 222–3. This is perhaps the family referred to by Kuerden about 1690 in his notice of the former Molyneux Square to the north-east of the market-place: (Most of which belongs to that worthy person and purchaser of the Townend, the ancient estate formerly belonging to the family of Prestons, but now in possession of Mr. Rigby, Paternoster Row in London'; Hardwick, Preston, 210. Townend stood near the present St. Peter's Church; ibid. 211. Henry son of Robert Attownend has been already named in 1305. Henry Preston, who died in 1549, married Isabel Argham, widow, and had for heir a son apparently posthumous. His principal house was held of the Hospitallers by a rent of 10d., but he held other lands of the heir of Nicholas Skillicorn (by 18d. rent), William Stanley (14d.) and the borough of the vill of Preston (4d.); Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 19; x, no. 10. Henry the son, whose will is recited, died in 1599 holding his father's lands, with the addition of Arom's house and lands lately acquired of William Arom, deceased, held of the mayor and burgesses. William, his son and heir, was seventeen years old; ibid. xviii, no. 45. William died in 1640 holding the same estate and leaving as heir a son Henry, aged thirty-five; ibid. xxix, no. 8. The pedigree states that Henry died about 1654, leaving a son William, aged eighteen in 1664. Henry was a Royalist, and his estate was sequestered by the Parliament; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 2822. The arms of Preston of Preston have the chief gules in Dugdale's visitation, but its tincture is sable in the visitation of 1613.
  • 113. An earlier barony of Preston is said to have been conferred upon the family, 1360–90. See G.E.C. Complete Peerage, iv, 55. The arms of Preston Viscount Gormanston are Or on a chief sable three crescents of the field.
  • 114. An outline of the family deeds, as extant about 1480, is printed in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, 574, &c. It is not possible to compile a clear descent therefrom. The Preston deeds mostly range from about 1290 to 1350, and refer, it appears, to two families chiefly, one derived from an Award de Preston -s. Roger (the Tailor) -s. Robert (the Tailor) -s. Henry -bro. Roger; and the other from an Adam de Preston -s. William -s. Robert. Thus Roger son of Robert the Tailor of Preston made a grant of land to William de Preston, burgess of Drogheda. This family are often erroneously described as 'lords of Preston'; they were merely burgesses, as appears from their charters and the Guild Rolls. In 1397 Christopher son of Robert de Preston—perhaps there were two of the name—was admitted as a burgess, and Christopher and Robert his son in 1415; Preston Guild R. 2, 5, 7. The following local names occur in the deeds: Fishwickgate, Fishergate, Avenhamends, Broadlache, Broughton Bridge (1312), Gerelriding, Ingolriding, Quintacre, Pepperfield, Newfield under Fulwood, Platfordale, Moorplat, the Friars' Garden, Swaghwell Syke near the Magdalene's Hospital. In 1458 Thomas Nelson acquired lands in Longton and Preston from Robert Preston of Drogheda, and four years later Matthew Bolton and Margaret his wife purchased all or part from Thomas Nelson and Agnes his wife; Final Conc. iii, 121, 131. Isabel widow of James Harrington of Wolfage in 1518 held lands of the heir of William de Preston in burgage; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 2. Ewan Browne of Ribbleton in 1544 held two burgages in Preston of Lord Gormanston by a rent of 12d., and George Browne likewise in 1567; but James Browne in 1586 held of the mayor, &c., in socage and by suit of court; ibid. vii, no. 24; xi, no. 4; xiv, no. 42. Thomas Skinner in 1577 purchased Christopher Lord Gormanston's estate in Preston and district; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 39, m. 97. Later deeds regarding Skinner's estate were enrolled in the Common Pleas, Trin. 1599, rot. 15; Mich. 1599, rot. 27; Trin. 1600, rot. 9.
  • 115. Thomas son of Thomas Banastre claimed 3 acres in Preston in 1292 against Simon the Clerk and Margery his wife, and it was found that one Richard Banastre had disseised Thomas Banastre the father; Assize R. 408, m. 56. Richard Banastre then was defendant in another plea; ibid. m. 101. Also later, in 1306; De Banco R. 158, m. 115 d. For others of the family, ibid. 152, m. 215 d. Nicholas and Hugh sons of Paulin de Preston claimed land by inheritance in 1305 against Richard Banastre of Preston, Henry de Kirkstile and others; Assize R. 420, m. 8. Henry son of Richard Banastre of Preston is named in 1313; Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 53. Ellen widow of William de Southworth in 1323–4 claimed 20 acres against Henry Banastre of Preston; De Banco R. 251, m. 117d. Amery widow of Roger at Kirkstile claimed dower against Henry Banastre of Walton and others in 1334; ibid. 300, m. 109 d. The Banastres of Bretherton had land, &c., in Preston; it descended like Balderston, but the tenure is nowhere stated; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 16, &c. In 1465 Richard Banastre of Preston the younger received from the mayor, &c, land on Siding Moor between the new intake of John Breton and Bromefield Bank (that had been Henry Banastre's); Kuerden MSS. iv, P 12. William Banastre and Grace his wife were defendants in 1494–5; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 79, m. 9d. Lawrence Banastre of Walton died in 1558 holding a capital messuage in Preston of the mayor and burgesses in free burgage; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 58. Richard Banastre appears as vendor in 1548 and later; he and his wife Isabel in 1570 and 1572 made settlements of messuages and lands in Preston and Walton; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 124; 27, m. 148 (water-mill); 32, m. 73; 34, m. 161. Among several Banastres at the guilds of 1562 and 1582 were Richard Banastre of Peel Hall, with sons Thomas, Lawrence and George; Preston Guild R. 20, 32. See also the Maudlands deeds in Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 330–4. Peel Hall seems to have been near Deepdale Road station.
  • 116. Collections of the deeds of this family are in Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 96b/137b; 2042, fol. 171. They show that the estates in Preston and neighbouring townships had been acquired from various sources. William son of Adam the White gave lands to Cockersand Abbey about 1240; Cockersand Chartul. i, 216. 'White' may be Blundell. Richard Blundell and Joan his wife had two burgages in Preston in 1367; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 101b/142b. Two years later William son of Richard Blundell had lands in Cuerden; ibid. 100b/141b. William del Ashes in 1373 complained that Richard Blundell had been depasturing his land at Preston; De Banco R. 451, m. 163. William Rose of Ingol in 1377–8 granted Richard Blundell of Preston land in Ingol in Ashton formerly belonging to Robert son of John de Blackburn, and Richard occurs again the following year; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 99b/140b, 101b/142b. In 1387–8 Richard Blundell and John his son appear; ibid. fol. 98/139. John married Agnes daughter of John de Middleton about that time; Harl. MS. 2042, foL 171. Agnes was a widow in 1420; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 98/139. Richard son of John Blundell made a feoffment in 1435–6; ibid. In 1454–5 various lands in Preston, Broughton, Ingol, Brockholes and Lancaster were granted by the feoffees to John Blundell (son of Richard son of John) and to Agnes widow of John Blundell the grandfather; ibid. fol. 100b/141b. In the following year John Blundell and Alice his wife made a settlement; ibid. An assignment of dower was made to Alice widow of John Blundell in 1493–4; ibid. The succession is not quite clear. John seems to have been succeeded by brothers William and Richard; ibid. In 1511 Alice wife of John Blundell was bound to stand an award in matters disputed between her and Richard the brother of John Blundell; ibid. fol. 98/139. John Hogson and Elizabeth his wife (daughter and heir of Richard Blundell) in 1524 gave lands in Preston, Broughton, Haighton, &c., to Agnes Blundell sister of Elizabeth; ibid. fol. 101b/142b. The heir male seems to have been Richard son of Robert Blundell, described as cousin and heir of William Blundell, who in 1534 gave lands in Preston to Ellen Blundell, widow; ibid. fol. 99/140. This Richard seems to have had a son John, livingin 1546; ibid. fol. 100/141. Richard had also a brother Henry, to whom he became bound in 1543; ibid. fol. 99b/140b. Richard and Henry his brother were both burgesses of Preston Guild in 1542, and the latter seems to have been ancestor of the later Blundells; Fishwick, Preston, 356. From a fine of 1558 it appears that Joan daughter of Richard Blundell, deceased, had married Henry Nicholson; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 20, m. 73. The estate was in Preston, Broughton, Ingol, Brockholes and Lancaster. Henry Blundell was in possession in 1560; ibid. bdle. 22, m. 93. Robert Blundell of Ince died in 1615 holding a messuage in Preston of the king in socage; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 28.
  • 117. Sir Thurstan de Holland, perhaps about 1270, granted a burgage in Preston to Nicholas de Burnhull; Dods. MS. liii, fol. 88 b. Roger son of Adam and Henry son of Mirre, then bailiffs, attested, and the appended seal is curious as showing three bulls' heads with a chief vair, and the legend + s: THVRSTANI: DE: HOLAND. Robert de Burnhull and Beatrice his wife purchased a messuage in 1352; Final Conc. ii, 134.
  • 118. The name appears at the end of the 14th century among the mayors and clergy of the parish church. William de Ergham (Arkholme) was guild mayor in 1397, and the name, degenerating to Arrom, appears down to the 17th century. It has been shown above that Arom House was sold to the Preston family; it is said to have been acquired later by the Pattens, who on the site erected their great mansion, afterwards the town residence of the Earls of Derby; Fishwick, op. cit. 75. William Arram and Anne his wife had a messuage, &c., in Preston in 1583; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 45, m. 28.
  • 119. Gilbert de Fishwick held a messuage and 1½ acres claimed by Roger son of Baldwin the Kirkman in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 39 d. Maud widow of Hugh de Preston in 1323–4 claimed dower against John the Marshal and Hugh de Fishwick; De Banco R. 248, m. 120 d. Hugh son of Richard Mabbeson of Fishwick was defendant in 1333; ibid. 294, m. 186 d. William son of Roger de Fishwick of Preston was defendant in 1346–7; ibid. 347, m. 158 d.; 352, m. 338 d. There was a dispute in 1360 concerning seven messuages, &c., between William son of William son of Richard de Ribbleton and others plaintiffs, and John de Fishwick and Christiana his wife defendants; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 8, m. 11. In 1420 Thomas son of Nicholas Fishwick acquired a messuage from John Tyrell; Final Conc. iii, 78.
  • 120. Geoffrey de Hacconsall and Margery his wife were among the defendants to a claim for dower brought in 1339 by Margery widow of Henry son of Robert de Preston; De Banco R. 279, m. 192 d. Geoffrey in 1340 obtained land in Woodholme from Albred son of Adam son of Ralph de Preston; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 2, m. iii d. William the son and Margery the widow of Geoffrey were defendants in 1356, when Simon de Preston claimed certain land; ibid. 5, m. 26. This Simon was son of John son of Robert son of Adam de Preston, and brother and heir of Robert son and heir of John; Assize R. 435, m. 9. A claim made by Thomas son of Nicholas Deuias son of Agnes daughter of William the Smith shows that this William and Alice his wife had made a grant to William son of Geoffrey de Hacconsall. Nicholas Deuias had died at Calais, leaving Thomas his son under age in 1353; ibid, m. 22. William the Smith was living in 1338; Kuerden fol. MS. fol. 396. John the grandson of Geoffrey was outlawed and hanged for felony at Berwick, and in 1406 his heir was found to be his brother Roger. A pedigree is given, but the tenure of the burgages, &c., is not recorded; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet Soc.), i, 81–3. In 1411a charter was enrolled by which Robert Hacconsall gave William Dutton a house in Fishergate and a rood of land annexed to the same and 3 acres in the moor near the highway to Ribbleton; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 10.
  • 121. Richard the Marshal of Preston complained in 1292 that William son of Paulin de Preston had detained his wife Milla in prison for a week; Assize R. 408, m. 20. William the Marshal was a defendant in 1302; De Banco R. 144, m. 319. Alan the Marshal occurs in 1329; ibid. 279, m. 192 d. John the Marshal in 1330 received a messuage from William son of Adam de Tyrel of Preston; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 224. Alexander the Marshal in 1347 obtained a messuage, &c., from William son of John de Ashton and Alice his wife; Final Conc. ii, 124. In 1352 Cecily widow of Alexander son of William the Marshal acquired the fourth part of certain messuages owned by Roger Starkie and Maud his wife; ibid. 134. John the Marshal and Alice his wife in 1376 obtained 2 acres from John Hunt and Agnes his wife; ibid. 191. It is possible that Alice was the widow of Roger de Birewath, about whose lands inquiry was made in 1394–5, when it was found that Roger had died without heir and that his widow had married John le Marshal; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 56; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 527. Roger was living in 1372; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 224. James Marshall was a burgess in 1459; Preston Guild R. 11. In 1483 he held lands in Preston in conjunction with Grace his wife; the tenure is not stated; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 119–20. From a fine of 1526 it appears that George Henryson married Grace daughter of Lawrence Marshall; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 168.
  • 122. Roger de Leyland and Maud his wife in 1307 claimed an acre against Richard son of Adam Russel; De Banco R. 162, m. 198. John son of Thomas de Leyland was plaintiff in 1344 against John de Leyland of Preston and others; Assize R. 1435, m. 43d. Margaret widow of John de Leyland and Cecily his daughter and heir, who had married Henry son of John de Coppull, appear in 1358; Assize R. 438, m. 13 d. Another John Leyland and Cecily his wife occur in 1387 and 1422; Final Conc. iii, 30, 81.
  • 123. Ibid. ii, 135, 148. This estate seems to have been afterwards held by Lord Mounteagle; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 64. In 1560, however, his Preston lands were held as part of the lordship of Hornby; ibid, xi, no. 1.
  • 124. William Pelle son of Adam in 1303 claimed a messuage and 1¼ acres against Ismania Pelle, who had entry by Richard Pelle, to whom Adam had demised when (so it was alleged) he was of unsound mind; De Banco R. 148, m. 43; Assize R. 420, m. 5.
  • 125. A Thomas Wall occurs in the guild of 1415; Preston Guild R. 7. The family did not attain any prominence till the first half of the 16th century, when two brothers Lawrence and Evan Wall acquired estates; Add. MS. 32109, fol. 119. Fines of 1556 and later refer to their possessions; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 17, m. 126; 25, m. 183, &c. At the guild of 1562 Thomas Wall was mayor, Evan his brother was a seneschal and Lawrence clerk of the guild, while Anthony son of William (apparently deceased) and heir of Evan Wall was enrolled; Preston Guild R. 20. See a subsequent note.
  • 126. In 1319–20 Roger son of Henry son of Wasce de Cuerdale granted half a burgage to John son of Geoffrey de Walton; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1096. William de Walton and Alice his wife made a settlement in 1386; Final Conc. iii, 27. John de Walton, a mercer, was living in the time of Richard II, and acquired messuages, &c., in Preston and Ashton; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 226. He made a feoffment of his lands in the townships just named and in Fishwick in 1407; Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 167b. He occurs again in the time of Henry V and his widow Agnes in 1419; Kuerden MS. ii, fol. 224. Henry Walton of Marsden in 1437–8 released his right in the family estates to Richard son of John Walton of Preston; ibid. A little later, in 1444–5, the feoffees gave lands to John Breton and Agnes his wife—apparently the widow above-named—with remainders to Richard Walton of Preston, &c.; ibid, fol. 226. Various members of the family or families occur in the pleadings about this time; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 8, tn. 13, 31b; 9, m. 10b, 16, 19b. A William Walton, spicer, and Joan his wife were living in 1465; Kuerden MSS. iv, P 120, no. 41. John Highfield (temp. Edw. IV) made claims against John the son and Isabel the widow of Richard Preston and against John the son and Joan the widow of William Walton; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 23, m. 6. James son of Richard Walton was a burgess in 1459; Preston Guild R. 11. In 1485–6 the feoffees gave to James son of Richard Walton certain burgages, &c.; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 227. James the son of Richard occurs from 1462 onwards, but was dead in 1499, when his widow Ellen and son James are named; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 1059 (the collection contains other Walton family deeds). From pleadings of 1528–32 the latter James appears to have had two sons Richard and Thomas, the latter settling at Bermondsey, while Richard was succeeded by his son James, called 'the younger,' and his lands were in part the rectory lands, held on lease from the Dean and Chapter of the New College of Leicester by a rent of 13s. 4d.; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 5–8. The elder and the younger James Walton were aldermen of the guild of 1542; Preston Guild R. 15. In 1544 James Walton the elder purchased two messuages or burgages, &c., from John Stodagh; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 132. In 1558 Richard son and heir of James Walton—'the younger' according to the Guild Roll—gave lands in Preston and Fishwick to George Walton his brother; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 227. Grace widow of James Walton and Richard their son and heir appear in 1564; ibid. Richard Walton died in 1569 holding certain burgages and a horse-mill of the queen in socage as of her manor of East Greenwich; other burgages and lands, &c., in. Preston, Fishwick and Ashton of the queen by a rent of 7s. James, the son and heir, was only four months old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 26. James Walton died in 1598 holding the same estate, and leaving a son Richard ten years old; ibid, xvii, no. 66. Richard Walton was an alderman of the guild of 1622, and his sons James and William were then enrolled; Preston Guild R. 65–6. James Walton died in 1635 holding the estate described; his son and heir Richard was only two years old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 34. Richard died the same year, leaving an infant sister Anne as heir; ibid, xxviii, no. 63. Anne afterwards married Edward French. Besides this main line there were other branches of the family well known in Preston.
  • 127. Fishwick, op. cit. 274–6. James Werden, mercer, died in 1607 holding burgages, &c., in Fishergate, Hepgreave, Cawsey Meadow and Great Avenham of the king in free burgage by 2d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 97. He left a son and heir Edmund, aged twelve. His will is recited in the inquisition.
  • 128. In 1325–6 William son of Paulin de Preston claimed land against John son of Roger del Wich and against John son of Adam del Wich; De Banco R. 260, m. 50. John (perhaps the second of these) in 1328 purchased a messuage in Preston from Adam Agnesson and Amery his wife; Final Conc, ii, 70. Adam son of Adam del Wich appears in 1335 and 1348; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1117; Kuerden MSS. iii, P 7. A Roger son of John de Wich was in 1339 pardoned for the death of William son of Nicholas de Preston. He had broken out of prison at Lancaster and had abjured the realm; Cal. Pat. 1338–40, p. 337. John del Wich was a bailiff of Preston in 1347, and Roger del Wich was mayor in 1366; OO, no. 1105, 1116. Alice widow of John del Wich recovered a messuage, mill, &c., in July 1351 against Roger son of Roger de Birewath; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 4. At the same time Roger del Wich and Ellen daughter of Adam del Wich were defendants in a Mirreson suit; ibid. The messuage of Roger del Wich escheated to the duke for felony, and in 1359 was regranted to Roger and his heirs at a rent of 2s.; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 340.
  • 129. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 49. Anthony Wall, the grandson and heir of Evan (already named), terminates the descent. He acquired Chingle Hall in Whittingham by his mother, Ann Singleton. He died in 1601 holding nine messuages, a windmill and lands in Preston (tenure not stated), and lands in Whittingham and Haighton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 6. William his son and heir, then aged eight, died at Whittingham in 1626, leaving a son William, eight years of age; ibid, xxvi, no. 50.
  • 130. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 323. Their arms are Argent a bend gules between three boars' heads couped sable armed argent. For the later descents see Fishwick, Preston, 241. In 1664 the Walls of Moor Hall also recorded a pedigree; Dugdale, op. cit. 324. They were descended from the abovementioned Lawrence, brother of Evan Wall. Further descents may be seen in Fishwick, op. cit. 243–4.
  • 131. Dugdale, Visit. 25. Their arms were entered as Argent a pair of waterbougets sable, on a chief of the field three fleurs de lis of the second. One of the later members of the family is supposed to be the 'brave Banastre,' innkeeper, who entertained 'Drunken Barnaby'; Fishwick, op. cit. 350.
  • 132. Dugdale, op. cit. 40. Blundell of Preston differenced the arms of Blundell of Ince by changing their canton into argent with a squirrel sejant gules.
  • 133. Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 93, 95. See also Fishwick, op. cit. 323–7.
  • 134. Oliver Breres purchased a messuage and land in Preston in 1544 from Humphrey Newton and Etheldreda his wife, and made a further purchase in 1564 in conjunction with Elizabeth his wife, from Richard Greenacres; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 135; 26, m. 58. Oliver Breres and John his son and heir were at the guild of 1562; Preston Guild R. 20. Oliver died in 1572, leaving as heir his above-named son John, then twenty-seven years of age, and husband of Elizabeth daughter of William Lister. The site of the Grey Friars, the church, belfry, cemetery, &c., was held of the queen by knight's service; a kiln house, horsemill, windmill, &c., were held of the mayor and burgesses by free burgage; there were also lands in Bowland; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 13. Oliver's widow Cecily was living in 1592; Exchequer Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 7. In 1608–9 Oliver Breres of Hamerton, Mary his wife, Thomas his brother and Bridget his wife conveyed toRogerLangton of Preston a burgage in the market-place with 1½ acres appurtenant, the house of the Friars Minors or Grey Friars and lands therewith, with right of turbary in Penwortham Moss, and a windmill in Preston; Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xiv, 73. From other deeds (p. 74) it appears that the burgage referred to was the Castle Inn. For the Langton family see the account of Broughton.
  • 135. Dugdale, Visit. 12; they were a branch of the Ashtons of Croston, whose arms, Argent a cheveron between three chaplets gules, they differenced with a crescent.
  • 136. Ibid. 82; see also Fishwick, op. cit. 329. They bore the arms of Chorley of Chorley.
  • 137. Dugdale, Visit. 112. The family was descended from Matthew French, rector of North Meols, whose son Edward, as already stated, married Anne daughter and heir of James Walton of Preston. No arms were exemplified.
  • 138. Dugdale, Visit. 137; a branch of the family of Whitehill in Goosnargh. They differenced the arms of Hesketh of Rufford with a canton argent.
  • 139. Ibid. 142. They bore arma Or a cross quarter-pierced and five cinquefoils vert. An account of the family, with pedigree and abstracts of deeds, appeared in the Pal. Note Bk. iv, 163, 188, 221. Among other local names appear the Rushy heys, the Knoll heys (between a venella called Ribbleton Lanc on the south and a road called Daykergate on the west), Rawmoors and Farthing Hill. Luke Hodgkinson, who had adhered 'to the forces raised against the Parliament in the first war,' compounded for his 'delinquency' in 1649. He had a horse-mill and some land in Preston; Royalist Comp. P. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 231. Two of the name, Luke and Henry Hodgkinson, were attainted for taking part in the rebellion of 1715; Fishwick, op. cit. 66; Preston Guild R. 169. For a Lancashire Jesuit named Charles Hodgkinson, 1700–70, see Foley, Rec. S. J. vii, 363.
  • 140. Dugdale, Visit. 164; they came from Welch Whittle and bore arms Argent a lion passant gules, on a chief or three acorns vert.
  • 141. Ibid. 167; see the account of Cuerden.
  • 142. Ibid. 178. Their arms were Argent an eagle double-headed displayed vert.
  • 143. A branch of the family of Legh of Lyme, whose arms, Gules a cross engrailed argent, they differenced with a canton or; ibid. 182.
  • 144. Ibid. 184; a Walton-le-Dale family. A continuation of the pedigree may be seen in Fishwick, op. cit. 234. There is also printed the inventory of the goods of Edmund Lemon, 1609, showing the shop fixtures and household stuff of a prosperous townsman; ibid. 226–30. By William Lemon's will the estates went in 1724 to his kinsman John Winckley; ibid. 232. No arms were exemplified in 1664.
  • 145. Dugdale, Visit. 212, where no arms are given. Adam Mort, mayor, killed when Preston was captured by the Parliamentarians in 1643, has been mentioned. The family occurs also in Leigh and Hulton. What became of the Preston branch is not dear; Fiihwick, op. cit. 323. From the Royalist Comp. P. (iv, 196–8) it appears that Adam Mort of Preston was the third son of Adam Mort of Tyldesley and in 1622 married Elizabeth daughter of Seth Bushell of Preston. The younger Adam had two children (Seth and Janet), who petitioned the Sequestration Commissioners in 1651, Seth's estate having been 'secured for acts of delinquency supposed to have been done by him.'
  • 146. Dugdale, Visit. 233. Their arms are Ermine three lozenges conjoined in fesse sable, quartering Kay and Parkinson.
  • 147. Ibid. 259; they traced their ancestry to 'William Shaw of Shaw Hall in Leyland,' and bore arms Argent a cheveron ermine and a canton gules. The pedigree is continued to the present date by Fishwick, op. cit. 341. A junior branch acquired the manor of Fishwick (q.v.).
  • 148. Dugdale, Visit. 334. See further in the account of Brockholes.
  • 149. Thomas Addison, haberdasher, and his three sons were burgesses in 1582; Preston Guild R. 44. Thomas Batty Addison was recorder of the borough till his death in 1874.
  • 150. William Patten and his two sons were members of the guild in 1642; ibid. 101.
  • 151. a Tne inheritance passed by an heiress to the Stanleys of Bickerstaffe and so to the Earls of Derby; see the account of Thornley in Chipping.
  • 152. Richard and Thomas, sons of Thomas Pedder, deceased, were burgesses in 1682; ibid. 173. The Pedders were bankers and acquired great wealth and many estates in the neighbourhood, remaining till the bank stopped payment in 1861. Abram (Blackburn, 728) gives the descent thus: Thomas Pedder, d. 1680 -s. Richard, d. 1726 -s. Richard, d. 1762 -s. Edward, d. 1818 -s. Edward of Walton-le-Dale, d. 1835. The last-named had brothers Thomas and James. James Pedder of Ashton Lodge died in 1846. Colonel Charles Denison Pedder served in the Crimean War; Hewitson, Preston, 376.
  • 153. Fishwick, op. cit. 350–3.
  • 154. The Walmesleys seem to have inherited the estate of the Walls of Moor Hall above-mentioned. A fine was made in 1739–40 concerning thirty-four messuages, lands, &c., in Preston, Fulwood, Haighton and other places, the deforciants being Lawrence Wall and Elizabeth his wife, Nicholas Walmesley, Elizabeth his wife and Margaret Wall; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 322, m. 118. Four years later the same estate appears to have been divided between Nicholas Walmesley and Elizabeth his wife on one side and John Hardman and Margaret his wife on the other; ibid. bdle. 330, m. 63. From the pedigree in Fishwick (op. cit. 244) it would seem that Elizabeth and Margaret were daughters and co-heirs of James Wall, elder brother of the Lawrence named.
  • 155. John Cross made a purchase of lands in 1773; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 400, m. 150. Notices of the families of Prichard and Grimshaw are given in Fishwick, op. cit. 335, 353.
  • 156. Some cases have been already named. The lands of Thomas Shepherd of Preston were declared forfeit in 1652 and sold; Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3134. In 1649 Thomas Vavasour compounded for his 'delinquency' in taking arms against the Parliament 'in both wars'; ibid. iii, 2012. This surname does not occur in the Guild Rolls. Two-thirds of the estate of Grace Wilkinson, deceased, had been sequestered for her recusancy, and a discharge was granted in 1655; ibid, v, 3220. She was perhaps the Grace Wilkinson named in connexion with land in Whittingham in 1598; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 397.
  • 157. Richard Jackson and Anne Hodgkinson; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Non-jurors, 97, 155.
  • 158. Hewitson, Preston, 471–5, where the monuments are described. One of the incumbents, Robert Harris, B.D., formerly Fellow of Sidney Sussex Coll., Camb., held it for the long period of sixty-four years, from 1797 to 1862. The vicar of Preston is patron. Descriptions of this and other modern churches with lists of incumbents will be found in Fishwick, op. cit. 153, &c.
  • 159. Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb.
  • 160. The site was formerly known as Patten Field. The money for it was raised by subscriptions and the sale of pews. It had at one time the most influential congregation in the town; Hewitson, op. cit. 475–6. A parish was assigned to it in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb. The vicar of Preston presents.
  • 161. The original cost was defrayed from 'the million grant.' The spire was added in 1852. A tombstone in the graveyard commemorates Richard Turner (1846) as 'author of the word Teetotal, as applied to abstinence from intoxicating liquors'; Hewitson, op. cit. 478. The parish was formed in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb. The vicar of Preston it patron.
  • 162. This church also was built from the parliamentary grant; Hewitson, op. cit. 478. The parish was formed in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb. The vicar of Preston is patron.
  • 163. Hewitson, op. cit. 481. The mission room in Savoy Street originally belonged to the Methodists, but was sold by them in 1880; ibid. The patronage is vested in trustees.
  • 164. The builders styled themselves the 'Primitive Episcopal Church'; they were unable to pay for it. It was first a chapel of ease to the parish church, but consecrated in 1841 for an independent parish; Hewitson, op. cit. 485–92. The vicar of Preston presents. The district was created in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb.
  • 165. Hewitson, op. cit. 485. The patronage is vested in trustees.
  • 166. The cost was defrayed by the Hyndman fund, and Miss Hyndman's trustees are patrons; ibid. 484.
  • 167. The origin of the church is interesting. A number of poor working men began subscribing for a new church for a clergyman who, as curate, had endeared himself to them; it was therefore called the 'poor man's church'; ibid. 492. The patronage is vested in trustees.
  • 168. Ibid. 493. The parish was formed in 1860; Lond. Gaz. 3 Aug. Simeon's Trustees are patrons.
  • 169. Hewitson, op. cit. 495–7. The church occupies the site of the old Baptist chapel, 1783. After being purchased in 1859 it was used for service till 1866 and then pulled down for the erection of the present church, opened in 1868. The parish was formed in 1869; Lond. Gaz. 16 Apr. The vicar of St. James's presents.
  • 170. Hewitson, op. cit. 495. The parish was formed in 1866; Lond. Gaz. 2 Jan. The patronage is exercised alternately by the vicar of Preston and the trustees of Christ Church.
  • 171. Hewitson, op. cit. 497. The parish was formed in 1871; Lond. Gaz. 4 July. The vicar of Preston presents alternately with the incumbent of St. Peter's.
  • 172. Hewitson, op. cit. 483. The Bishop of Manchester collates.
  • 173. Ibid. 498. The parish was formed in 1885. The Bishop of Manchester collates.
  • 174. Trustees have the patronage at present, but it will go to the Bishop of Manchester eventually. St. Philip's, 1871, and St. Barnabas's, 1872, were school chapels of ease to St. Thomas's and St. Paul's, but have been disused for service since St. Jude's was opened.
  • 175. It was built by those connected with St. Philip's chapel of ease, who were dissatisfied with St. Jude's Church.
  • 176. The Methodist preachers first visited Preston about 1777; Hewitson, op. cit. 519.
  • 177. Preston was included in Colne circuit in 1776, in Blackburn in 1787, and became head of a circuit in 1799. Wesley visited the town in 1780, 1781, 1784 and 1790; Fishwick, Preston, 170–1.
  • 178. This was afterwards sold and used as a warehouse; Hewitson, op. cit. 520.
  • 179. Ibid. 521; lists of ministers are given.
  • 180. Ibid. 526. In 1868 this church became the head of a second circuit in Preston.
  • 181. Ibid. 526.
  • 182. Ibid. 525.
  • 183. In St. Mary Street (1865) and Acregate Lanc. There are also some mission rooms.
  • 184. Ibid. 536. In addition to those named in the text there was an iron chapel in Fylde Road from 1879 onwards.
  • 185. Ibid. 534–5. The congregation which first built Orchard Chapel were known as Protestant Wesleyan Methodists; Hardwick, Preston, 483.
  • 186. B. Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. i, 21–47. The author, of whose work great use has been made in the present history, has since 1888 been minister of Cannon Street Church.
  • 187. This building was turned into offices and shops; it was at the western corner of Chapel Street and Fishergate.
  • 188. Nightingale, op. cit. i, 48–60. The first minister, William Manning Walker, had been, the minister of the Unitarian congregation. Another notable pastor was Richard Slate, 1826–61, author of a Life of Oliver Heywood, &c.
  • 189. Nightingale, op. cit. i, 60–66.
  • 190. W. Shaw, Fishergate Baptist Ch. (Preston, 1883). It is an error to regard these Baptists as belonging to the Arminian or General denomination.
  • 191. Some of the Preston Baptists were members of this congregation, which dates back to about 1635.
  • 192. The cause appears to have been a struggling one; it was 'in a low condition' in 1794; Rippon, Reg. 7.
  • 193. St. Saviour's Church stands on the site of it; see above. The (Harris) Institution was used for service pending the erection of Fishergate Church.
  • 194. The Fishergate congregation was augmented by a small Scotch Baptist church formed about 1829. Hardwick (quoting Baines) calls themSandemanians; they had a room in Church Street and from 1845 occupied a small chapel in Meadow Street.
  • 195. This section acquired a chapel called St. Mark's, built in 1826 for the Calvinistic Methodists of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, who had previously met in Cannon Street; Baines, Lancs. Dir. 1825, ii, 488.
  • 196. This and other information as to the Baptists is due to the Rev. Dr. Whitley, minister of the Fishergate Church.
  • 197. It was built originally for the New Connexion of Methodists about 1814, but was in 1819 sold to a 'body of semiEpiscopalians,' and called St. Paul's; the service followed the form of the Established Church, but the minister was not ordained; Baines, op. cit. Afterwards the Wesleyans had it, then the Baptists and others.
  • 198. Hardwick (quoting Baines) states that this congregation sprang up in 1833 and met in Cannon Street.
  • 199. Hardwick, Preston, 482.
  • 200. Hewitson, op. cit. 537.
  • 201. The celebrated Nonconformist, Isaac Ambrose, formerly vicar, resided in the town from 1662 till his death in 1664. There is evidence of other Nonconformists living and preaching there; Nightingale, op. cit. i, 9, 68. In 1689 licences for two Nonconformist meeting-places were granted; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 232. John Turner, the minister in 1715, who was 'a Calvinist of the most strict and rigid form,' actively assisted the government forces during the Jacobite occupation of the town, he and his congregation being employed by General Wills as scouts; Nightingale, op. cit. i, 11.
  • 202. Hewitson, op. cit. 515–17. Mr. Nightingale, however, brings evidence to show that Unitarianism did not prevail till about 1770; op. cit. i, 22–3.
  • 203. A meeting-place was registered in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 231. The registers begin in 1660 and the minutes of the Fylde (now Preston) monthly meeting in 1700; Fishwick, op. cit. 172. George Fox visited Preston several times, but it is not recorded that he preached there.
  • 204. Hewitson, op. cit. 517–19.
  • 205. Ibid. 536.
  • 206. Ibid. 535.
  • 207. Ibid. 537.
  • 208. Zoar Chapel, named above.
  • 209. The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion and the Methodist New Connexion have been mentioned. Hardwick (op. cit 483) states that a Primitive Episcopalian Chapel was built in Gorat Street in 1837 for Mr. Aitkin's New Christian Society. Nothing is known of this now, and there may have been some confusion with the original of St. James's Church.
  • 210. Ibid. 538.
  • 211. Mass appears to have been said at Cottam, Tulketh, Broughton and Fishwick.
  • 212. The story that a chapel existed there as early as 1605 is not supported by any definite evidence. It could not have remained in use during the Commonwealth period. In 1689, however, we learn that 'the soldiers unslated the Popish chapel,' so that one had been opened, perhaps in the time of James II; Hewitson, Bellingham Diary, 73. The Jesuits served the Preston mission. 'Mr. Gray,' i.e. Gilbert Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury, was in charge in 1701, with a salary of £10; Foley, Rec. S. J. v, 320. A house at the lower end of Friargate was used about that time and is supposed to have been that purchased by Fr. Alexander Leigh in 1733; it was called Greystocks and St. Mary's is on the site of it. The first chapel of the name was built in 1761. 'The greatest caution was used; the chapel was built behind the front houses in Friargate so as to be quite shut out from view. The mysterious building was carried on in the name of Mr. Clifton of Lytham, and passed by the name of the "New Building"'; ibid, v, 395. In 1750 the priest in charge had a stipend of £40 and 520 'customers'; the numbers of those confirmed and of Easter communicants were 274 and 940 in 1784 and 488 and 1,302 in 1793 5 ibid, v, 321–5.
  • 213. Gillow, Bibl. Diet. of Engl. Cath. ii, 146; Foley, op. cit. viii, 719.
  • 214. Hewitson, op. cit. 501–2. The chapel, a small plain building, has been lined with marble.
  • 215. Ibid. 503–6. Joseph Dunn, S.J. (vere Earpe), was priest in charge from 1776 till his death in 1827, and won a high position in the town. The House of Recovery and the gasworks were due to him; Gillow, op. cit. ii, 143–7.
  • 216. Hewitson, op. cit. 507. It was the first church in Preston which had a spire. The school for boys was opened in a building erected as a 'hall of science' by local Secularists.
  • 217. Ibid. 508. The dedication was due to a remarkable cure attributed to the use of St. Walburge's oil; N. and Q. (Ser. 1), x, 186. The church stands, it is believed, on or near the site of the old Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene.
  • 218. Hewitson, op. cit. 508. St. Augustine of Canterbury is the patron; see Gillow, op. cit. ii, 481–3.
  • 219. Hewitson, op. cit. 515. A schoolchapel served from 1862 till 1874.
  • 220. Ibid. 513. The 'Martyrs' named are St. Thomas of Canterbury and St. Alban. A school-chapel was opened in 1865 and the church in 1867, but this was not completed till 1888.
  • 221. The last-named community occupy Lark Hill, formerly the residence of Samuel Horrocks, cotton spinner, M.P. for Preston 1804–26. The English Benedictine nuns of Ghent, driven from their house by the Revolution in 1792, resided in Chapel Street till 1812, when they removed to Staffordshire.