A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 4, Harmondsworth, Hayes, Norwood With Southall, Hillingdon With Uxbridge, Ickenham, Northolt, Perivale, Ruislip, Edgware, Harrow With Pinner. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1971.
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OTHER ESTATES. (fn. 1)
One of the few estates that was entirely freehold was the New College property, which can be traced back through the transactions of London citizens to 1410-11 when Richard Walworth and his wife Agnes conveyed land in Harrow and Great Stanmore to Henry Harburgh, clerk. (fn. 2) In 1420 Harburgh conveyed it to John Franks and others, who five years later granted it to Thomas Charlton and John Rich. (fn. 3) In 1436 Charlton granted it to Richard Cotes and others, (fn. 4) who in 1451 enfeoffed Helen Hall, a widow. Eight years later she granted it to several people, including Joan Langton, who conveyed it to her son, John, a saddler, and his wife, Agnes, in 1466. (fn. 5) Langton's title was challenged in 1478 by Thomas Cornyssh, (fn. 6) who apparently removed the title deeds from Saddlers' Hall and altered them, (fn. 7) and it was not until 1503 that Raphael Cornyssh, Thomas's son, acknowledged the title of Elizabeth Langton, widow, (fn. 8) and Robert Sherborne, Dean of St. Paul's (later Bishop of Chichester), who had been associated in 1501 in an instrument for uses. (fn. 9) In 1504 Sherborne and Elizabeth Langton granted the estate to New College, Oxford, (fn. 10) which leased it, as Mease Place, to Elizabeth for an annual rent of 1 lb. of pepper for 51 years. (fn. 11) Elizabeth was probably dead by 1520-1 and thereafter the estate was usually held on leases of 10-20 years. (fn. 12) It comprised 62 a. north of Colliers Lane, (fn. 13) with the farmhouse in the west on the edge of Weald Common, and 53 a., called Levels or Lovells, along the Hertfordshire border. (fn. 14) During the late 18th century Mease Place Farm was leased to George Drummond, to whose executors the college surrendered it in 1807 in exchange for Anderson's Farm, an estate of equal size (116 a.), (fn. 15) lying further south, to the west of Kenton Lane. The farm-house of Mease Place was in 1782 a large lath and plaster house with several barns. It was rebuilt in brick by George Drummond and in 1807 was considered vastly superior to Anderson's house. (fn. 16) The old farm-house, at the Lower End of Weald, was leased to labourers and by 1837 a more commodious one had been built where Kenton Lane turns sharply to the east. (fn. 17) The estate continued to be leased out as a farm until the college began to sell land for building in 1926. (fn. 18)
A freehold virgate in Sudbury was granted in 1400-1 by John Sadler, a dyer, and his wife Matilda to Robert Twyere, a skinner of London. (fn. 19) It descended to Robert's son, Elias, and afterwards to his daughters, Alice and Joan. Alice, wife of Richard Chandler, a London draper, seems to have inherited the Sudbury estate, which was held by Cornyssh and sold in 1470 to Gilbert Clerk, a husbandman who had already inherited property there. (fn. 20) Gilbert's wife, Margaret, apparently remarried and the property descended before 1509 to her son, William Finch, a yeoman of Harrow. (fn. 21) In 1547 William Finch held two freehold virgates, Chandler's (20 a.) and Clerk's (20 a. and Acreman Field), two crofts known as Hyde crofts (10 a.), next to Flambards, and Acreman croft (1 a.). (fn. 22) A note beside this entry on a later rental reads 'Ilotts'. (fn. 23) Finch's estate was therefore presumably the one described in 1599 as a messuage or tenement, Ilotts, with about 27 a. in closes, including Great Acreman Field. (fn. 24) The Finches, who lived in Watford, leased out Ilotts for most of the next 200 years. In 1640 they owned 39 a., (fn. 25) which by 1663 had developed into two estates, one a messuage, a cottage with only one hearth, the other the messuage Ilotts, probably a small farmhouse with three hearths and nearly 50 a. (fn. 26) In 1789 Ilotts Farm consisted of 56 a. in an are around the north of Hempstall, the part of Sudbury Court Farm adjoining the farm-house. Ilotts farm-house stood on high ground at the western end of the estate, abutting Sudbury Common. (fn. 27) In 1800 Ilotts was sold to Richard Page, (fn. 28) whose devisees sold it in 1805 to George Heming. (fn. 29) He in turn conveyed it two years later to Lord Northwick. (fn. 30) In the next decade the boundaries were rearranged, although the old names survived. Thus Thomas Trollope, father of the novelist, leased 157 a. from Lord Northwick as Ilotts Farm, which also included land from the Sudbury Court and Flambards estates. (fn. 31) Trollope, who came to Sudbury between 1813 and 1815, (fn. 32) leased the property for 21 years from 1819. (fn. 33) On a commanding site to the north-west, but not on the original Ilotts land, (fn. 34) he built a house which he called Julian Hill, supposedly after an estate in Royston (Herts.) which he hoped to inherit. (fn. 35) When his expectations were disappointed, he let Julian Hill to John W. Cunningham, (fn. 36) and moved to a farm-house on the land, presumably the original Ilotts Farm, which Anthony used as the model for Orley Farm. After a few years at a farm in Harrow Weald, Thomas returned to Ilotts and apparently rebuilt the farm-house, spending more than £3,000. (fn. 37) The expense, combined with the agricultural depression, left him unable to pay his rent, and in 1834 the Trollopes fled to Belgium, taking with them as much as possible before the bailiffs arrived. (fn. 38) Ilotts Farm, its bounds still roughly following those of Trollope's estate but excluding Julian Hill, was leased to John Hinxman and then to Henry Green, each of whom combined it with Sudbury Court Farm. (fn. 39) The old farm-house had been a school for some time by 1900 and it disappeared soon afterwards. (fn. 40) In 1969 Julian Hill, although surrounded by modern houses, retained its secluded garden and was approached by a long tree-planted drive from the west. As originally built with a two-storied low window, verandah, and canopied balcony, the house may have inspired the drawing of Orley Farm by Sir John Millais in the first edition of Trollope's novel (1862). (fn. 41) The staircase hall, dining room, and bow-ended drawing room are all part of the original house. A northern extension, now a separate dwelling, was built in the mid 19th century and later an entrance hall and billiard room were added on the west. The former stable block, converted to a house, stands to the north of Julian Hill.
A small freehold estate of 62 a., Woodfield and Roses in Alperton, (fn. 42) was held in 1547 (fn. 43) by John Lyon, grocer of London. (fn. 44) It remained with the Lyons of Twyford until 1637-8 when George Lyon sold it to Robert Moyle. After the death of Walter Moyle in 1687, it passed to his sister Margaret Bennet, (fn. 45) who conveyed it to the Newman family, which already held property in Alperton (fn. 46) and Wembley. Henry Newman's daughter and heir, Susannah, married Richard Page c. 1745 and their son, Richard, sold Woodfield c. 1800 to Thomas Bowler, who was related by marriage to another branch of the Pages. (fn. 47) At inclosure Bowler owned about 100 a., mostly in the south-west corner of Alperton. (fn. 48)
The nucleus of Dove House Farm or Tyndales was a messuage and 9 a. called Wapses, in Hatch End, held by Henry Sharp in 1547. (fn. 49) It had passed to Francis Tyndale by 1629 (fn. 50) and possibly by 1613. (fn. 51) Other freehold closes were in Dean Tyndale's hands by c. 1642. (fn. 52) The property passed to John Norwood c. 1649 (fn. 53) and may be represented by the 12 hearths which were chargeable to Norwood in 1664. (fn. 54) It was owned by the Boys family in 1770 (fn. 55) and at inclosure the farm, 79 a. of inclosed land in north-east Pinner, was leased from John Boys. (fn. 56) Dove House farmhouse stood by 1759 (fn. 57) on a moated site, presumably that of a much earlier house. (fn. 58) In the early 19th century it was the home of Mr. Tilbury, the horse dealer, who gave his name to the two-wheeled carriage. Napoleon III visited Dove House and copied Tilbury's magnificent stables for his palace at Chantilly. (fn. 59) Tilbury apparently let his farm: in 1845 and 1851 it was in the hands of Richard Roadnight, farmer and head jockey. (fn. 60) New Dove House or the Mansion, Hatch End, was built for Tilbury's brother. (fn. 61) Dove House was still standing at the end of the century, (fn. 62) although the building of the railway and the Royal Commercial Travellers' Schools split up the estate. (fn. 63) The house was demolished c. 1965, when a block of flats was built on the site. (fn. 64)
The Harrow School estate developed from a head tenement in Preston, described alternatively as ½ hide and 1 hide, held by the Lyons at the end of the 14th century. (fn. 65) When Agnes Bugbeard, a sister of William Lyon, died in 1435-6, another copyhold ½-hide passed to her nephew John Lyon. (fn. 66) In 1553 another John Lyon held the two head tenements in Preston and much underset land. (fn. 67) He bought a freehold messuage and some land in Alperton from Richard Nicholl and his wife Catherine in 1572 (fn. 68) and acquired eight tenements, out of 25 listed in contemporary rentals, in Harrow-on-the-Hill. (fn. 69) In 1575 he settled his Preston and Harrow Town property on himself and his wife Joan for life, with remainder to the governors of Harrow School. (fn. 70) John Lyon was dead by 1592 and his widow died in 1608. (fn. 71) The governors leased out the property, which yielded £45 6s. 8d. a year in the mid 17th century. (fn. 72) In 1797 they acquired by exchange 66 a. in Kenton which John Hunter of Gubbins (Herts.) had just purchased from the Grahams. (fn. 73) In the 16th century John Lyon had begun to inclose common-field land in Preston (fn. 74) and on the eve of parliamentary inclosure Preston Farm consisted of 144 a. stretching north from the farm-house as far as Kenton. There were 7 a. scattered in Alperton village and 22 a. in Harrow Town. Allotments in lieu of open-field land totalled 115 a., mostly in Preston. (fn. 75) By 1852 Preston Farm consisted of 243 a., and there were 18 houses in the centre of Harrow Town. (fn. 76) Most of the land bought by the school around Harrow-on-the-Hill in the late 19th century was used for playing fields, but a small farm was created in the corner between Watford Road and Pebworth Road to replace Preston Farm, which was sold for development in the 1920s. (fn. 77)
The hamlets in the east of the parish, Kenton, Preston, Uxendon, Wembley, and Tokyngton, were dominated by sub-manors which became concentrated in the Page family from the 16th century onwards. In Pinner there were the Marshes, Edlins, Readings, Streets, and Birds, although none became as powerful or persisted for so long as the Pages. (fn. 78) The Marshes, who took their name from Pinner Marsh, held small amounts of land in Pinner in the 14th century. (fn. 79) In 1463 Richard Marsh conveyed 3 messuages, 3 carucates, 300 a. of pasture, 20 a. of wood, and 40s. rent in Harrow and Pinner to Richard Danvers and others. (fn. 80) By 1553 (fn. 81) most of his property was in the hands of the Edlins, including one freehold hide, which c. 1600 was described as 'late Richard Danvers'. (fn. 82) The Edlins had lived in Pinner and Harrow Weald at least since c. 1300. (fn. 83) Some had built up estates during the next two centuries, (fn. 84) and in 1522-3 they ranged from John, a labourer worth 20s. in wages, to Richard, the lessee of Woodhall manor, worth £20 in goods. (fn. 85) At least six Edlins held land (fn. 86) in 1553. (fn. 87) The two main branches were the Edlins of Woodhall manor, and later of Pinner Marsh, and those of Parkgate. Their principal home throughout the 16th century and possibly until 1623 (fn. 88) was Woodhall manor, which was leased in 1553 and c. 1609-10 (fn. 89) to Richard Edlin. In 1553 he also held one hide, ½ virgate, and 29 a. of freehold land, most of which had belonged to Richard Marsh, and a ½-hide head tenement, called Rowheads. By 1573-4 (fn. 90) Richard Edlin of Woodhall had acquired another head tenement, Cockparkers, (fn. 91) from John Street. At the same date a Richard Edlin of the Marsh was holding a virgate head tenement, Clobbes in West End, which in 1553 had been held by Richard Fearne. With the exception of Rowheads and Cockparkers, which passed to Andrew Smith by 1629 and to Sir Charles Palmer by 1770, all this land had passed by 1629 to the Edlins of the Marsh. (fn. 92) They owned and later lived in the manor or farm known as Marshes Place in 1547 (fn. 93) and 1685, (fn. 94) which can probably be identified with Pinner Place. They had lost some property by c. 1642 (fn. 95) and by 1692 the house itself was in the hands of Mountjoye Kirton, whose son conveyed it in 1757 to Thomas Lord and Thomas Corne. (fn. 96) Corne relinquished his share to Lord, a paviour of London, in 1765. (fn. 97) There was a resident called Aldwin in 1767 and another called Budworth in 1792 at Marshes or Pinner Place, where John Zephaniah Holwell (d. 1798) also lived. (fn. 98) In 1805 the house and 50 a., mostly in old inclosures, were held by Edward Aubrey or Abrey. (fn. 99) By 1851 the property had passed to James Garrard, described as a landed proprietor, (fn. 100) who was still there in 1886. (fn. 101) Another estate belonged to the Edlins of Parkgate. It seems to have been entirely freehold, including Richard Danvers's hide, and some of it lay on the borders of Pinner and Harrow Weald. (fn. 102) It was still in their hands c. 1642 (fn. 103) but its descent thereafter is obscure, although it may have passed to the Waldos. In 1770 a Mrs. Edlin paid the highest rent in Pinner (fn. 104) and in 1795 William Edlin died seised of 24 a. at Bury Pond Hill, property which was granted to William Legge, Earl of Dartmouth (d. 1801) who surrendered it to John Spranger. (fn. 105)
Part of the Marsh lands passed to the Readings, who were mentioned in 1315-16. (fn. 106) One ½-hide head tenement, which had belonged to Thomas Eastend, descended in 1516-17 to his daughter, Elizabeth, wife of Nicholas Marsh. Their daughter Elizabeth married Thomas, son of Richard Reading of Headstone, to whom the property was surrendered in 1549-50. (fn. 107) On the death of Simon Reading in 1703 the holding passed to his daughter Mary, wife of John Davy. (fn. 108) The descent is thereafter obscure, but the property may be identifiable with the head tenement called Marshes in East End. Sarah Street died seised of it in 1793 and her heir, William Street, surrendered it in 1795 to William Burrows of Alperton, (fn. 109) who was still in possession in 1817. (fn. 110) When it was enfranchised in 1871, it was held by Henry John Pye. (fn. 111)
In 1527-8 Richard Marsh, who had married the widow of William Reading, conveyed a ½-hide head tenement called Downers to his stepson, Richard Reading. (fn. 112) In 1553, besides Headstone manor, which he had leased since 1535, Richard Reading held four head tenements and some freehold. (fn. 113) The property was held by his son Thomas in 1573 (fn. 114) and most of it was still held by Readings c. 1600, (fn. 115) although they had lost almost all by the middle of the next century. The estate was split up into several farms, roughly corresponding to the ancient head tenements. One was Sweetmans or Swetmans, in West End, a ½-hide named from the Pinner family which held it in the 14th century. (fn. 116) It was in the hands of John Reading by 1393 and in 1593-4 was sold by Thomas Reading to Henry Nicholas (d. 1611) of Hayden in Ruislip. A descendant, also called Henry Nicholas, sold Sweetmans in 1720 to Gideon Lot (d. 1731). Although it was sold in 1812 by John Lot to Daniel Wilshin, the house and 37 a., of which half was open-field land and half old inclosures, mostly in West End, was listed under Elizabeth Lot at inclosure. (fn. 117) When Wilshin died in 1822, most of his property, including Sweetmans, was left in trust for his family. In 1884 Emily Soames enfranchised the estate, (fn. 118) then comprising 18 a. inclosed out of Down Field in addition to the old inclosures. In 1887 it was sold to Henry Davison, from whom it passed after 1925 to Guy Berridge and Westbury Trust Ltd. In 1966 Sweetmans Hall was a 16th-century timber-framed building with a tiled roof.
Cannons Farm originated in a ½-hide head tenement named after the family which held it throughout the Middle Ages (fn. 119) until 1542-3, when George Cannon conveyed it to Richard Reading. (fn. 120) It was held by the Readings during the later 16th century (fn. 121) but passed before 1629 to Thomas Hutchinson, (fn. 122) whose descendant John sold it in 1682 to Sir Edward Waldo, whose grandchildren sold it to John Carter. (fn. 123) Joshua Glover bought it from Carter's son in 1763 (fn. 124) and most, if not all, of the property was in the hands of Elizabeth Glover at inclosure. In 1760 it had consisted of Cannons mansion-house, a farm-house abutting the mansion, (fn. 125) a cottage called Dells, 45 a. of inclosure, and 70 selions and a virgate of common-field land. (fn. 126) In 1817 Elizabeth Glover owned 43 a. of open-field and 36 a. of inclosed land around Cannons Farm, at the point where the River Pinn turns westward. (fn. 127) In 1821 Cannons Farm, consisting of 80 a., was owned by Joshua Glover Etherington, possibly the son of Elizabeth Glover. A Miss Etherington was the owner in 1869, but the Etheringtons did not live in Pinner and the farm was leased out throughout the 19th century. (fn. 128) Most of the other Reading lands, including two head tenements, had passed to the Stanboroughs by c. 1642. (fn. 129) In 1732 Joseph Stanborough enfranchised one, a capital messuage abutting east on East End Green, with 6 a. of inclosures and 54 a. of open-field land. (fn. 130) The Stanboroughs had disappeared by 1770 and some at least of their property passed to Sir Charles Palmer, (fn. 131) who paid £1 18s. 7d. rent in 1770, the third highest in Pinner. (fn. 132) His property included Paines Place, East End, and Cockparkers. Cockparkers was a virgate which in 1553 was held by John Street, whose family was mentioned in 1315-16 (fn. 133) and which accumulated land between the 15th and the 17th century. The estate in West End was still held by Streets in the 19th century. (fn. 134) The branch represented in 1553 by John Street of Love Lane (fn. 135) had lost its property to the Edlins by c. 1600. (fn. 136) Other property passed to Elizabeth Aldwin on the death of her father, Henry Street, in 1743. (fn. 137)
The Birds, another local family, were mentioned in 1287. (fn. 138) In 1553 John Bird was the lessee of Pinner Park and Francis and Thomas held three head tenements and miscellaneous holdings. (fn. 139) One of Thomas's head tenements, a ½-hide called Crouches, was held by his descendants in 1698 (fn. 140) but not in 1770. (fn. 141) A John Bird of the Marsh, however, was one of the principal inhabitants in 1720, (fn. 142) and Richard Bird owned a wastehold cottage and orchard in Pinner in 1736. (fn. 143) Some of Francis Bird's scattered property was in the north, including Galpers Grove and parcels of waste at Pinner Wood, upon one of which Edmund Bird built a house. (fn. 144) Of Francis Bird's head tenements, one had passed to John Fearne between c. 1600 (fn. 145) and 1629, (fn. 146) and the other to Henry Sedgewick between 1629 and c. 1642. (fn. 147) The second, a ½-hide called Blakes or News, may be identifiable with a head tenement called News and 20 a. of old inclosures which were enfranchised by Philip Aldwin in 1733 (fn. 148) and still in his possession in 1770. (fn. 149) The other head tenement was a virgate called Ponders or Eastends, near Nower Field. (fn. 150) It was probably one of three held by a Mr. Fearne at the end of the 17th century (fn. 151) and later it seems to have been confused with Howells and Hungerlands, freehold closes of 20 a. east of Hooking Green, which were disputed among the Bird family at the end of the 16th century. (fn. 152) Howells and Hungerlands were enfranchised by Matthew Fearne in 1733. (fn. 153) In 1770 Matthew Fearne paid the highest rent in Pinner after Mrs. Edlin. (fn. 154) Howells and Hungerlands were sold in 1772 to the Commissioners of Queen Anne's Bounty, (fn. 155) and the rest of Matthew's copyhold estate, (fn. 156) 13 a. of inclosed and 33 selions of open-field land, passed in 1788 to his daughter Mary, wife of Henry Sayer. (fn. 157) In 1817 Henry Sayer owned 36 a. of inclosed land in Headstone and 46 a. in Harrow Weald. (fn. 158)
Few families flourished for so long as those from Pinner. The Warrens, however, held a ½-hide head tenement in Harrow Weald from 1395 (fn. 159) until 1691- 2, when it passed to William Warren's sister, Mary, wife of James Marsh. (fn. 160) In 1740 their son, James, secured the enfranchisement of the property, described as a head tenement called Weeles in the Lower End of Weald and 67 a. (fn. 161) Its later descent is obscure but by inclosure it was probably part of the large estate of George H. Drummond. (fn. 162) In 1553 another branch of the Warrens held a 1-hide head tenement, called Trums after a medieval family, (fn. 163) which by c. 1600 had passed to William Deering and by 1629 to Henry Finch, who was still the holder c. 1642. The property may have been a head tenement called Deerings which was enfranchised in 1742. (fn. 164) It was then held by John Street of West End and consisted of 28 a., mostly in old inclosures at the Lower End of Weald.
The Waldos were also of some importance. Daniel Waldo, a clothworker of London, acquired about 73 a. around Hooking Green, between Pinner and Roxeth, from Thomas Page in 1640-1. (fn. 165) Sir Edward Waldo of London bought Cannons in Pinner in 1682 (fn. 166) and acquired property in Harrow Weald by 1688. (fn. 167) By 1695 all the property was united in his hands but some land in the Weald was apparently sold after his death in 1707. (fn. 168) A head tenement, 70 a. in Hatch End, was retained (fn. 169) until 1790 when Charles Waldo sold it, then totalling 97 a. and known as Waldo's Farm, to the miser Daniel Dancer. (fn. 170) After the death of Dancer in 1794, (fn. 171) a dispute between his brother Henry and Sir Henry Tempest, Bt., (fn. 172) was finally settled in 1799. (fn. 173) Waldo's Farm was surrendered to Henry Sayer and his wife Mary, as trustees for both parties, and in 1817 (fn. 174) they sold it to Daniel Wilshin, who obtained its enfranchisement in 1821. (fn. 175) On the eve of inclosure the estate consisted of 80 a. of inclosures at Hatch End and 30 a. in the open fields of the Weald. (fn. 176) After the death of Charles Waldo, before 1804, (fn. 177) his property in Pinner and Roxeth passed to his widow, Elizabeth Catherine, who, as Mrs. Charles Walsh, claimed in 1805 for a mansion-house, a farm-house, and 157 a. (fn. 178) She was dead by 1813 (fn. 179) and in 1814 Richard Burnett, her nephew and heir, and James Sharp, a trustee, sold the estate to William Smith of Hammersmith. (fn. 180) The property, which included Roxeth Farm, was owned by Smith's trustees in 1852. (fn. 181)
The Waldo property in Roxeth originated in underset holdings which became detached from their head tenements. In Roxeth, where land was held from both Harrow and Rectory manors and also from Roxeth manor, (fn. 182) considerable undersetting, fragmentation, and combination made it hard even for contemporaries to identify holdings. (fn. 183) One estate, less obscure than most, was built up by the Osmonds. In 1553 Richard Osmond held a ½-hide head tenement, Goodwyns, through his marriage with Joan Hurlock, whose family had been prominent in medieval Roxeth. (fn. 184) Between c. 1600 (fn. 185) and 1629 (fn. 186) Hurlocks passed to Henry Martin, (fn. 187) but meanwhile William Osmond acquired Webbs and Walters, and John Osmond acquired Margarets, all 1-virgate head tenements. By c. 1642 (fn. 188) they were united by William Osmond, who had also acquired a ½-hide head tenement since 1629 from Thomas Burton. In the late 17th century a William Osmond exchanged land and built up a more compact estate out of selions scattered in the common fields. (fn. 189) He sold Margarets in 1664 (fn. 190) but still had three head tenements in 1698. (fn. 191) In 1717 (fn. 192) William Osmond sold everything but one head tenement to Samuel Sandford, who also acquired Margarets. (fn. 193) Isaac Hollis succeeded Sandford in 1746, (fn. 194) and in 1817 (fn. 195) Isaac's son or grandson John (d. 1824) (fn. 196) possessed 35 a., mostly in old inclosures in the southern corner of the hamlet, between the common fields and Northolt Road. Field-names suggest that Hollis's farm-house, Grove Farm, might be Webbs head tenement. (fn. 197) 'The Grove' was the name given to the head tenement as early as 1721. (fn. 198) In 1852 Grove Farm was owned but not occupied by J. H. Antony, (fn. 199) who was still the owner in 1875. (fn. 200)
Hugh Millett, who had died by 1462-3, had 42 a. of freehold and one cotland in Sudbury. (fn. 201) His heirs, especially Richard Millett (d. 1525-6), acquired more land, (fn. 202) and by 1553 Henry Millett held 6½ cotlands, 42 a. of freehold and other small pieces of land. (fn. 203) Another cotland was acquired by c. 1600. (fn. 204) The property was held by the heirs of William Millett in 1629 (fn. 205) but had passed by c. 1642 to Edward Claxton, a London mercer, (fn. 206) who already had a small estate in Sudbury. In 1513-14 William Wilkinson had conveyed a cotland once of Baldwin Harris to Roger Wright, (fn. 207) whose son Hugh by 1547 held a messuage north-east of Sudbury Common, 49 a. of freehold and 9 a. of copyhold. (fn. 208) His land passed to Sir Gilbert Gerard, Master of the Rolls and elder brother of William Gerard of Flambards, and by c. 1600 to Sir Thomas Gerard. (fn. 209) The estate, misleadingly called 'the manor or farm of Sudbury', was sold c. 1622 by Sir Charles Gerard to Edward Bryers, who in turn conveyed it to Edward Claxton. (fn. 210) In 1640, after acquiring the Millett estate, Claxton owned 90 a. held in demesne and 139 a. divided among 8 undertenants, (fn. 211) but when the estate was sold after his death to Tanner Arnold in 1689 it comprised 320 a. in Sudbury, of which 157 a. were in hand, the rest being leased to 9 tenants. (fn. 212) The home farm of Sudbury Place, 'very large, built with timbers', (fn. 213) was probably the house with 23 hearths for which Claxton was assessed in 1664. (fn. 214) Claxton's total estate was nearly 400 a., including small estates in Wembley, Roxeth, and Alperton, some of them once part of the Millett property. The Wembley estate, two head tenements (1 virgate and ½ hide) totalling 71 a., had been held by the Wembley Pages in the 16th century but passed before 1629 to Thomas Nicholas and by c. 1642 to Edward Claxton. (fn. 215) At the end of the 17th century it was divided among 5 under-tenants. In 1707 besides the Sudbury Place farm (140 a.), which was then leased out, there were three smaller Sudbury farms: (fn. 216) one of 55 a. leased to Richard Watson, (fn. 217) one of 30 a. and one of 20 a.; there was one very small farm at Wembley which apparently followed the descent of the Sudbury property. (fn. 218) Another small farm abutting south on Wembley Green was sold in 1713 to Thomas Graham, (fn. 219) who acquired other property in 1728. (fn. 220) The three small Sudbury farms, all freehold, were sold to Rebecca Houblon in 1757, by which time Watson's farm-house had disappeared. (fn. 221) The farm, apparently leased by the Watsons throughout the century, passed to William Wright before 1784 and was sold by Edward and Mary Wright to Lord Northwick in 1805. (fn. 222) Some of Rebecca Houblon's property, however, formed the Houblon charity and in 1817 comprised 56 a. in the corner of Sheepcote Lane and East Lane. (fn. 223) Henry Arnold in 1806 said that his father had disposed of his considerable property to pay his father's debts, (fn. 223) but Sudbury Place apparently remained and may possibly be identified with Hundred Elms Farm. (fn. 224) In 1817 the farm-house and 32 a. around were held by Henry Arnold, but another 40 a. south-west of Sudbury Common was described as belonging to Henry Arnold and Walsh. (fn. 225) In 1852 the farm-house and 115 a. were owned by them and farmed by William Greenhill. (fn. 226)
In Greenhill the five medieval head tenements remained intact longer than in most hamlets. In 1553 two head tenements, a ½-hide called Finches or Coles and a virgate called Dyaches or Dyetts, and a tenement held from Rectory manor, were held by Henry Finch. (fn. 227) They descended in his family (fn. 228) until 1798 when Hannah, daughter of Henry Finch, surrendered all the Finch property in Greenhill and Pinner to the use of herself and her husband, Daniel Hill, for life. (fn. 229) In 1817 the Greenhill property included a mansion-house, 112a. of inclosures and 62a. in Greenhill and Harrow Weald common fields. (fn. 230) The house stood west of Greenhill Lane with most of the farm-land stretching westward to Headstone manor; another block lay to the east, south of Dirty Lane. In 1852 the farm-house, 179 a. and several cottages, were held by Henry Finch Hill, (fn. 231) who was still in possession in 1880. (fn. 232)
The other three Greenhill head tenements were in 1553 held by John and Henry Greenhill. Of the two head tenements held by John in 1553, one, a virgate called Lampitts, passed to John Uxton or Ortin by c. 1600 (fn. 233) and was held by Greenhill Ortin in 1629 and c. 1642. (fn. 234) It then disappears from the rentals. The other head tenement, a hide called Hawkins, had passed c. 1600 to Simon Wilkins, who still held it in 1629. (fn. 235) It had passed to Simon's granddaughter, Sarah, wife of John Anderson, by c. 1642. (fn. 236) Their son, John Anderson, still had an interest in the property in 1712 (fn. 237) but Tanner Arnold held it in 1698 (fn. 238) and Richard Hoare was admitted in 1738, after the death of his mother Sarah, who was said to hold during the life of John Arnold. (fn. 239) In 1763 John Arnold's widow, Elizabeth, and other relations conveyed the property to Sir John Rushout, Bt., (fn. 240) to become a demesne farm. (fn. 241) The head tenement held in 1553 by Henry Greenhill was a hide which had once belonged to Thomas Hutton, (fn. 242) described c. 1692 as a house, farm-house, and 83 a., including 44 selions in the open fields. (fn. 243) In 1803 it was conveyed by Elizabeth Greenhill and her son, Thomas, neither of whom lived there, to George Heming. (fn. 244) When Mary Ann Heming secured its enfranchisement in 1868, it consisted of a head tenement, three tenements, and 95 a. in Greenhill. (fn. 245) The tenements all lay in Greenhill village, west of Greenhill Lane. The land was in two blocks on the south-east and northwest of Greenhill Lane.
The Greenhill estate was only one among many acquired by the Heming family. In 1783 18 a. in Kenton common fields were surrendered to George Heming of New Bond Street, a silversmith. (fn. 246) He acquired 16 a. in Greenhill in 1787 (fn. 247) and a small amount in Kenton in 1805, (fn. 248) when he was living in Stanmore. The next year he acquired all the property of Mrs. Jane Edlin, (fn. 249) probably Oxhey Lane Farm (116 a.) on the northern borders of Pinner and Harrow Weald. (fn. 250) In 1807 George Heming was succeeded by his cousin, Richard Heming, (fn. 251) who in 1817 owned four messuages, four cottages, and 400 a., divided into farms in north Pinner, Greenhill, and Kenton. (fn. 252)
The Drummonds of Charing Cross, who had a home in Stanmore, were also large landowners in Harrow. In 1766 John Drummond (d. 1774) bought Woodhall, and in 1774 a wastehold cottage in Harrow Weald was surrendered to his use by Samuel Higgs. (fn. 253) Cornerhall Farm, about 60 a. in the south-east of Harrow Weald, which had been held by William Page in 1696 and passed in 1728 to his sister Sarah Daniel, and after her death in 1730 to her son, William Cranwell, was sold in 1782 by his son, Thomas Cranwell, to George Drummond (d. 1789). (fn. 254) A messuage called Roodes, near the farm, was conveyed to Drummond in the same year (fn. 255) and in 1787 he acquired another cottage and 13 a. and 43 selions in the common fields from Richard Smith. (fn. 256) In 1795 George Harley Drummond (d. 1855) received two head tenements from John Gibson. (fn. 257) One of them, Underhills, had been reduced to 7 a. and in 1694-5 had passed from Anna to Isaac Bennet, who in 1728 conveyed it to John Gibson. (fn. 258) The other, to which 89 a. were still attached, was called 'Richard Adownes' and may have been the ½hide described as Richard Downers or atte Downes. (fn. 259) It was held in 1553 by Richard Downer but by 1573 had passed to Randall Nicholls, in whose family it remained until c. 1642. (fn. 260) Before 1688 John Hutchinson of Lichfield sold it to Sir Edward Waldo. The messuage, by this date known as Hillhouse, (fn. 261) was sold by Waldo's trustees to John Gibson, whose grandson sold it to Drummond. (fn. 262)
A 50-acre farm, Mays Farm, which originated in a head tenement in Harrow Weald, was conveyed in 1796 by John Page of Finsbury Terrace to George H. Drummond. (fn. 263) Its history is unknown but by 1796 the premises formed one farm. Two more head tenements, Astmiss and Causeway Gate, were acquired by Drummond in 1800. (fn. 264) The origin of Astmiss, which comprised 14 a. and 10 selions, is obscure, but Causeway Gate, only a messuage and two pightles, may have been a virgate held in 1553 by Henry Hatch. It had passed by 1573 to Henry Finch and in 1785 a Henry Finch conveyed it to Daniel Dancer. (fn. 265) Under the settlement following the death of Dancer, Astmiss and Causeway Gate passed to Sir Henry Tempest, who in 1798 surrendered them to the Marquess of Abercorn, (fn. 266) who in turn conveyed them to Drummond in 1800. Drummond also acquired considerable freehold property and leased an estate from New College, becoming the largest landowner in Harrow after Lord Northwick. (fn. 267) Apart from Woodhall Farm in Pinner and a small amount in Greenhill, his estates lay in a block on the south-eastern borders of Harrow Weald, stretching into Stanmore. (fn. 268) In 1840, however, George H. Drummond, who was a spendthrift, sold his estates, mostly to the Marquess of Abercorn. (fn. 269)
After the Marquess of Abercorn had bought Bentley Priory (fn. 270) he began to extend the estate southwards by acquiring wastehold property at Brookshill in the 1790s, by inclosing part of the waste himself, and by considerable purchases at the time of parliamentary inclosure. (fn. 271) In 1817 he had 297 a. on the north-east borders of Harrow. (fn. 272) The Drummond acquisitions included Kenton Lane Farm (280 a.), the Levels Farm (100 a.), and Dancer's Farm (30 a.), and by 1852 (fn. 273) the Abercorn estates amounted to 1,344 a. in Harrow and Stanmore, of which over 800 a. lay in Harrow. (fn. 274) Most of the property was sold during the 1850s and early 1860s, (fn. 275) although the family still owned the two head tenements comprised in Dancer's Farm in 1863. (fn. 276)