A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 7, Acton, Chiswick, Ealing and Brentford, West Twyford, Willesden. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1982.
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The demesne of Ealing manor lay mainly in the east part of the parish, stretching from London Stile northward to Hanger wood. The submanor of Pitshanger, with its 140 a. of demesne, was in the extreme north, Coldhall at West Ealing, Gunnersbury in the east, and Boston manor at New Brentford. (fn. 1) The demesne of Ealing manor was exploited directly by the bishop between 1303 and 1339 (fn. 2) but farmed by 1363 (fn. 3) and the demesne of Boston was farmed by 1377, (fn. 4) whereas that of Gunnersbury was still in hand in 1378. (fn. 5) The fields of all five manors seem to have been separate: only the demesne of Coldhall and parts of Ealing demesne were distributed in open-field strips. (fn. 6)
Crops were sown on 169 a. of Ealing demesne in 1303 but on only 88½ a. in 1318 and 97½ a. in 1339. The main crop was rye, sown on 112 a., in 1303, but none was planted in 1318 or 1339. Maslin and wheat were sown on 35 a. and 22 a. respectively in 1303, 68 a. and 20 a. in 1318, and 80½ a. and 17 a. in 1339. There were 120 bu. of rye and 14 bu. of maslin in the granary in 1303 and the granary and grange together contained 571 bu. of rye, 914 bu. of oats, 12 bu. of wheat, 40 bu. of peas but no maslin in 1339, when there were 2 ploughs, several carts, 4 stots and 12 oxen. (fn. 7) The farmers sent 36 bu. of wheat and 72 bu. of rye to Fulham in 1392-3 and 112 bu. of oats in 1410. (fn. 8) Of the 140 a. of arable on Gunnersbury demesne in 1378, only 60 a. were sown, suggesting a twofield system: wheat was sown on 31 a. and rye on 29 a., but the value of the crops was reduced by flooding. (fn. 9)
Livestock was prominent on Gunnersbury manor in 1378, when 80 a. of the demesne were pasture and 4 a. meadow, (fn. 10) and also on Ealing manor. A switch to stock farming may explain the sharp fall in the sown area by 1318, (fn. 11) and the large store of oats in 1339 was probably needed for the 2 bulls, 27 cows, and 3 yearling calves, which the bishop kept in addition to draught animals, 190 sheep, and poultry. (fn. 12) A new byre was built in 1363-4, when another was repaired. (fn. 13) The sheep had gone in 1382, when a new lease of the demesne included 2 carthorses, 4 stots, 4 oxen, a bull, and 19 cows, (fn. 14) but in 1392-3, when a new lease was due, the bishop bought a further 200 sheep, (fn. 15) which remained in 1397 (fn. 16) and had disappeared by 1409. (fn. 17) There were repairs to the dairyhouse in 1399-1400 (fn. 18) and again to it, the byre, and the grange in 1409-10. (fn. 19) The bishop sold the stock to the farmer in 1411 (fn. 20) and thereafter no animals were included in leases.
There were five free tenements on Ealing manor in 1423: Absdons in the north, Baldswells at Drayton, Abyndons and Denys at Ealing village, and Sergeaunts at Old Brentford. It is likely that there had once been 32 copyhold tenements, (fn. 21) including at least 19 virgates of 20 rateable acres and 9 half virgates. (fn. 22) When the holdings were created the copyhold land presumably amounted to not more than 540 a., a total increased before 1423 by land at Castlebar Hill. Later additions were made at the expense of heath and woodland: Hicks on the Heath was a new tenement carved from the waste in the 15th century. (fn. 23) Of the 28 holdings whose acreage is known, 9 were at Ealing, 9 at Drayton, 9 at Old Brentford, and 1 at West Ealing. (fn. 24)
No open fields were recorded at New Brentford and little is known of the fields of Gunnersbury, Coldhall, and Pitshanger manors. (fn. 25) There were many fields of varying sizes on Ealing manor, the main ones apparently being Windmill or New Brentford field, Old Brentford field, and Popes field in the south part, Westfield immediately west of Ealing village, and Great and Little Northfield in the extreme west. The lands of individual tenements were scattered, Old Brentford tenements not being confined to land near Old Brentford, thereby probably contributing to the very active land market in existence by 1383. Several, if not most, holdings were no longer held in 1395 by the families after which they were named. (fn. 26) Only 7 holdings survived intact in 1423, when 4 were held by eponymous families. There were then 47 copyholders with estates ranging from 1 a. to the 3 tenements of Joan Virly and 2 each held by 5 other tenants. By 1438 there were 64 copyholders and by 1445, when only Thomas in the Hale had two tenements, there were 70. (fn. 27) The brief existence of some large estates was due partly to the grant of escheated lands only for one life and partly to inheritance by Borough English, which favoured the youngest son and so prompted tenants to divide their lands to provide for elder sons. Another factor was the demand for land by Londoners, who had acquired only manors in the 14th century: the first Londoner holding copyhold land appeared in 1400. (fn. 28)
The large acreage of open field and the comparatively small commons suggest that the early medieval tenants were predominantly arable farmers. Tenants left much stock between 1399, when John atte Cote owned at least 38 sheep, (fn. 29) although early 16th-century wills did not indicate the relative importance of animal husbandry. (fn. 30) Presumably it was to stock rearing that most farmers had turned from grain production by c. 1528, although it is not known whether the harvest then had been exceptional. Only 18 households in the parish had stocks of grain, 14 of them at Ealing or Drayton and only 4 in Lower or Old Brentford Side, and a further 5 had stocks at New Brentford. Some of the households, moreover, had too little grain for their own bread or for seed. Not enough corn was grown either at Ealing or at New Brentford, which produced less than a tenth of its needs, to keep the population in bread. All households with grain ate wheaten bread, sometimes supplemented with rye: 261 qr. of wheat were in stock, compared with only 12½ qr. of rye, but there were also 85 qr. of barley and as many as 464 qr. of oats. The move from cereal farming was most marked at Old Brentford: there were 648 qr. of grain in Upper Side and only 52 qr. in Lower Side, less than half the 121 qr. grown in the much smaller township of New Brentford. (fn. 31)
Inclosure accompanied the change from arable farming. By the late 18th century little remained of the open fields and in 1840 there were strips only in the West field, North, Brentford, Suswells, and Brencot fields. (fn. 32) The 15th-century consolidation of holdings may have contributed to inclosure and from the early 16th century the growing activity of Ealing manor court revealed tension between arable and pastoral interests. In 1553 animals were allowed to graze in open fields from Lammas to Candlemas, (fn. 33) but at other times were to be kept out with fences. (fn. 34) At Old Brentford in 1511 and later animals were forbidden to enter the fields until Michaelmas. (fn. 35) Detailed orders were frequently made, (fn. 36) but in 1697 it was stated merely that no beasts were allowed in common grain fields until after they were rid and no sheep until a fortnight later. (fn. 37)
Refusals to open land for common grazing occurred at Hicks on the Heath in 1520, 1566, and 1578, (fn. 38) and Elwickfield in 1604, (fn. 39) and general orders were often issued. Part of the problem arose from inclosure: in 1605 nobody was to inclose common field land without the consent of other tenants and large fines were prescribed. Orchards proved a more permanent obstruction: a brick wall surrounded one open-field orchard in 1616, others were recorded later. (fn. 40) Lammas rights survived over much of Ealing until the 19th century, over London Style farm in 1833 and still later over Walpole park, although they were not always exercised. (fn. 41) They had to be bought out, (fn. 42) like the similar rights over the Town Meadow and Old England at New Brentford in 1857. (fn. 43)
For grazing, 100 a. of pasture commons and the common fields were treated jointly. A stint was necessary by 1474, (fn. 44) offenders were frequently prosecuted, and those exercising rights of common were limited: inhabitants of Acton were repeatedly excluded from 1520 (fn. 45) and in 1545 those of New Brentford and Gunnersbury were excluded from Old Brentford field. (fn. 46) From 1582 rights were denied to strangers, (fn. 47) from 1615 to lessees of land in Ealing, (fn. 48) from 1630 to servants of inhabitants, (fn. 49) and from 1652 to out-parishioners. (fn. 50) Inhabitants of Old Brentford were denied access to Haven Green common, residents of Ealing village were shut out of Old Brentford field in 1524, (fn. 51) and tenants using Ealing common were restricted in 1525 and 1561. (fn. 52) The stint was 1½ sheep per acre of common field arable and 3 sheep per acre of common field meadow in 1611; owners of land in Ealing that was not commonable might pasture no more than 4 sheep and 2 kine and inhabitants of new cottages on the waste had no rights. (fn. 53) From 1630 until 1697 or later only those paying scot and lot were entitled to common grazing. (fn. 54) Repeated offences indicated a severe shortage of pasture.
The shift from cereal farming apparent c. 1528 continued only slowly: 37 per cent of Ealing's farmland was still arable in 1799. (fn. 55) The lessee of Ealing demesne in 1533 left livestock, ploughs, carts, harrows, and corn to his executors, (fn. 56) and other 16th-century testators left ploughs, draught animals, and corn. (fn. 57) At least two, in 1563 (fn. 58) and 1583, practised mixed farming. (fn. 59) It is not clear whether the grassland which replaced arable was for grazing or mowing. By 1590 the Brentford fields were evidently under grass for mowing. (fn. 60) The Boston home farm employed a dairy maid, a hog boy, and a poultry maid in 1659. (fn. 61) Market gardening, increasing from the late 16th century in Old Brentford and southern New Brentford but also to some extent in Ealing, was later claimed to have taken over arable rather than pastoral land. (fn. 62)
A Gunnersbury estate in 1785 contained 93½ a. of pasture and meadow and 131 a. of arable. (fn. 63) That was a much higher proportion of arable than in Ealing parish as a whole, since in 1799 only 1,027 a. were under the plough: 1,377 a. were grassland, 289 a. were market gardens, and 85 a. were gentlemen's gardens. (fn. 64) By 1814 arable had fallen to 800 a. while meadow and pasture had risen to 1,600 a. (fn. 65) Market gardens, whose rents were falling, (fn. 66) covered 469 a. by 1840 when arable remained stable at 834 a. but grassland had also apparently grown to 1,976 a. (fn. 67) At New Brentford in 1837 there were 121 a. of meadow and pasture and 37 a. of arable and market gardens. (fn. 68) Arable at Ealing and New Brentford decreased sharply to 307 a. in 1869 and 74 a. in 1887, and had disappeared by 1927. Meanwhile, despite inroads by building, the relative importance of grassland and market garden increased: Ealing and Brentford still had 1,812 a. under grass in 1887, 994 a. in 1907, and 156 a. in 1927. Fears in 1842 that declining traffic at Brentford would destroy the market for hay proved unfounded: (fn. 69) the area under hay reached a peak of 1,044 a. of mowing grass compared with 676 a. of grazing grass by 1887. The position was later reversed, until in 1927 there were 4 a. under hay and 152 a. of pasture.
About 1790 small tithes in Ealing were assessed on 119 cows and 1,170 sheep. The sheep were in 11 flocks, of from 30 to 200, and the cattle belonged to 29 owners, the largest herd numbering 14. (fn. 70) Cattle, 570 in 1808 and 800 in 1845, were kept by Smith & Harrington, distillers, because there were no cowkeepers near Brentford to take their grains. (fn. 71) In 1843 there were 269 agricultural horses, 324 grazing cattle, 279 cows, and 2,822 sheep in Ealing parish. (fn. 72) The number of horses at Ealing and Brentford fell to 242 in 1869, 162 in 1887, 81 in 1907, and 13 in 1927, while the number of cattle fell slightly to 506 in 1869 and then rose to 612 in 1887, before declining to 285 in 1907 and 44 in 1927. The increase before 1887 apparently consisted of milk cows, kept by firms such as Cotching, Son & Co. at their model Hanger Lane farm dairy near Ealing common in 1893. (fn. 73) By 1907 milk cattle were less important: 170 cows were in milk or calf and 104 were not. Sheep dwindled to 628 in 1869, 387 in 1887, and 158 in 1907, but recovered to 790 in 1917 and 450 in 1927. There were 166 pigs in 1869, 152 in 1907, and 100 in 1927; 105 pigs kept at the Fox and Hounds, Brentford, in 1873 and 100 kept in Clayponds Lane, South Ealing, in 1911 were removed as a danger to health. (fn. 74) In 1927 there were still 152 a. of pasture, with 13 horses, 44 cattle, and 450 sheep, besides 100 pigs, 223 hens, and a few ducks.
Nurseried And Market Gardens.
Ealing had an orchard in 1540 (fn. 75) and others in 1577-8 (fn. 76) and 1584. (fn. 77) Numbers thereafter increased, orchards often being taken out of open fields, by 1616 in Crowchmans field, (fn. 78) in 1680-1 in Popes field, (fn. 79) and in 1738 in Little North field. (fn. 80) Some lay as far north as the centre of the parish. (fn. 81) River Long field and adjoining closes at West Ealing contained 1,008 fruit trees in 1767, including 850 apple trees, 63 plum, and 63 cherry. (fn. 82)
Most orchards were around Brentford. At Old Brentford there was an orchard in 1578 (fn. 83) and at New Brentford there was apparently an orchard c. 1557 on what became the new market place c. 1580. (fn. 84) Two adjoining orchards were added to the market place c. 1620 and 1635, (fn. 85) and others at New Brentford were recorded c. 1603 and in 1611. (fn. 86) In 1642 it was claimed that royalist soldiers had greatly damaged the nurseries at Brentford, taking as much as 300 bu. of apples from a single man. (fn. 87) Orchards near the Butts were mentioned in 1656, 1668, and 1672. (fn. 88) At Old Brentford an orchard was planted in 1665 beside the Green Dragon to supply the choicest fruits to London, (fn. 89) and others existed by 1669 (fn. 90) and 1674. (fn. 91) In 1670 the 3-a. Great Orchard at Old Brentford was stocked with 35-year old trees: in 1673 the lessor complained that 300 had been destroyed and the lessee claimed to have replaced old stock with apple, pear, codling, and quince trees. (fn. 92) Orchards south of High Street in Old Brentford and New Brentford were recorded in 1699 and 1707. (fn. 93) In 1702 John Gillett, gardener of Ealing, left 3 a. lately converted to garden ground and a further 3 a. of garden in the open fields of Ealing. (fn. 94) In 1711 his widow leased 5 a. in Boston Road, already planted with mulberries, for apple and cherry trees and asparagus and strawberries. (fn. 95) By 1774 there were orchards all the way from Brentford to Ealing. (fn. 96)
Several Brentford gardeners achieved distinction. The stocking of all varieties of tree in 1721 by 'Mr. Green' (fn. 97) may have related to the nursery of the Greening family of Leominster (Herefs.) and Brentford, which between 1733 and 1742 helped to lay out or supply gardens for the duke of Marlborough and Lords Weymouth and Cornwallis. (fn. 98) Benjamin, elder brother of Horne Tooke, was credited with the introduction of the pine strawberry, (fn. 99) Mr. Bell of Brentford raised plants from seeds from the Crimea c. 1793, (fn. 100) and Nathaniel Swinden, author of The Beauties of Flora Displayed (1778), was active at Brentford End and Old Brentford c. 1768-1805 (fn. 101) and a member of a family of local gardeners dating from 1681 or earlier. (fn. 102) Best known, however, were Hugh Ronalds & Sons of New Brentford. Hugh Ronalds the elder (d. 1788) occurred in rate-books c. 1754, (fn. 103) lived at the Butts by 1760, (fn. 104) and was a nurseryman and seedsman in 1786. (fn. 105) By 1774 he occupied a house adjoining the Vicarage called Lamberts, (fn. 106) probably Noy's House, with 2 a. between the church, the Ham, and the Brent, (fn. 107) which was the firm's chief nursery in 1841. (fn. 108) Ronalds occupied Butts closes of 9½ a. between the Butts and Boston Manor Road in 1774, (fn. 109) and his firm in 1839 also occupied Isleworth nursery. (fn. 110) Hugh Ronalds the younger (d. 1833) was noted for fruit trees, growing 300 varieties of apple in 1829, (fn. 111) and commemorated in his Pyrus Malus Brentfordiensis (1831). He supplied many plants to Kew Gardens from 1801 to 1816 (fn. 112) and his firm provided 14,000 shrubs for Kensal Green cemetery. (fn. 113) Robert Ronalds (d. 1880) still occupied the nursery by St. Lawrence's church in 1863. (fn. 114)
In 1819 there were c. 3,000 a. of market garden in the parishes around Brentford, (fn. 115) which itself in 1850 was almost all market garden. (fn. 116) There was little at New Brentford in 1837 (fn. 117) but most of Ealing's 469 a. of market garden in 1840 were nearby. (fn. 118) Brentford was the 'great fruit and vegetable garden of London' in 1843, when it was common to grow a low crop under the trees. (fn. 119) Such was the practice in 1833 on London Style farm in the extreme south-east, at 96 a. the largest market garden in Ealing: 18½ a. of fruit trees had green vegetables underneath, 3 a. had asparagus, and 10 a. had soft fruit; vegetables and soft fruit were also grown independently. (fn. 120) In 1844 a lessee covenanted to leave 960 raspberry, currant, and gooseberry bushes beneath the apple and pear trees on a 9½-a. market garden. (fn. 121) Much labour was needed: it was estimated that 35-40 people per acre were employed during the fruit season in 1819 (fn. 122) and 30 per acre in 1843. Many of the workers were women, who in 1843 were twice as numerous as men. (fn. 123)
Market gardens formed 23 per cent of the 2,900 a. of farmland at Ealing and New Brentford in 1887. (fn. 124) As the cultivated area contracted, the proportion of market garden rose to 38 per cent in 1907 and 65 per cent in 1927. There were 275 a. of orchard, of which 117 a. had soft fruit under the trees, in 1887 and 152 a. of orchard, of which 90 a. had soft fruit below, besides 74 a. of soft fruit grown separately, in 1907. There were 164 a. of orchard and 88 a. of soft fruit in 1917 but only 66 a. of orchard and 5 a. of soft fruit in 1927. Green vegetables covered 405 a. in 1887, 294 a. in 1917, and only 50½ a. in 1927. Root crops were important until 1887, and as many as 347 a. in 1877 and 389 a. in 1887 produced unspecified 'green crops'. Cabbages were widely grown by 1897 and rhubarb in 1917.
Market gardening was concentrated at Old Brentford by the period 1907-27, when the area was entered separately. Between 83 and 85 per cent of Old Brentford's cultivated acreage was market garden, compared with 20 to 36 per cent in the Upper Side of Ealing and an insignificant proportion at New Brentford up to 1917; in 1927, however, 49 a. of orchard and 5 a. of soft fruit survived among the 62 a. cultivated at New Brentford. Well known gardeners included Robert Addey of Ealing Road, who grew c. 15 cwt. of mushrooms each week in season. (fn. 125) Informal dealing at Kew Bridge Road led in 1893 to the building of an enclosed market (fn. 126) and as late as 1903 many gardeners' wagons left High Street for Covent Garden, whence they returned with manure. (fn. 127)
Ealing demesne in 1318 had a windmill, (fn. 128) which was rebuilt in 1363-4. (fn. 129) The new one was destroyed in or before 1409 and was still out of order in 1418-19, (fn. 130) but may have been repaired by 1431, when it was again broken. (fn. 131) Another windmill stood in Old Brentford near Boston Manor Road in 1698 and 1703 (fn. 132) and had given the name Windmill field to the former New Brentford field by 1670. (fn. 133) A watermill had been built over a common sewer at Old Brentford by 1564. (fn. 134)
In 1377 there was a horsemill on Boston manor. (fn. 135) In 1738 the lord leased the right to a mill on the Brent. (fn. 136) Presumably it was that mill, recorded from 1746, (fn. 137) which stood at the west end of the Butts from 1777 (fn. 138) until its demolition in 1905. (fn. 139) It was one of five mills existing in 1792: others were associated with malthouses south of High Street and the turpentine and starch works. (fn. 140) Mills at Old Brentford also served the distillery, (fn. 141) malthouses, and breweries.
In 996 King Ethelred granted half of a fishery in the Thames at Brentford to the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Winchester. (fn. 142) Although the pope confirmed the rights of Winchester cathedral priory in 1205, (fn. 143) they apparently fell into disuse. In 1162 the sheriff of Surrey accounted for the king's fishery at Brentford (fn. 144) and by 1173 Henry II had granted it to the prior of Merton (Surr.). (fn. 145) In 1252 fishing was permitted only as in the time of the king's ancestors. (fn. 146) After suing the chapter of St. Paul's in 1233, (fn. 147) the prior conceded limited rights to St. Paul's and its tenants of Sutton manor, Chiswick, at a distance from his own weirs at Brentford and Mortlake. (fn. 148) In 1241 the sheriffs of Middlesex and Surrey were to seize the tackle of those infringing the prior's fishery, and in 1242 a net was to be restored to Robert de Beauchamp. (fn. 149) Merton's fishing rights were confirmed in 1340. (fn. 150)
The bishop of London as lord of Ealing had a fishery at Old Brentford by 1257, when the king ordered the keepers sede vacante to provide 8,000-10,000 lampreys and other fish. (fn. 151) The fishery was called Brentford weir by 1424. Then and in 1470 it included a weirditch and adjoining meadow, (fn. 152) which in 1517-18 was described as 10 perches square within the Thames and was presumably an islet. (fn. 153) In 1339 the bishop owned a boat for the fishery at Brentford. (fn. 154) In 1313 and 1470 he covenanted to provide the lessee with materials each year for repairs. (fn. 155) In 1262-3 the fishery yielded 13s. 4d. in half a year. (fn. 156) It had been destroyed by rebels in 1458 but was repaired by 1464. (fn. 157) It was not recorded after 1509, when it had not been leased for a long time. (fn. 158)
A common fishery in the Brent had been appropriated by Thomas Maidstone in 1381. (fn. 159) The abbot of Westminster was said to have a fishery there in 1450 (fn. 160) and the chapel of All Angels held one from Brentford bridge to the Thames at the Dissolution. The chapel's fishery was granted in 1547 to Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset, (fn. 161) and presumably reverted to the Crown on his attainder. In 1583-4 it was claimed that the fishery had been held in turn from c. 1550 by Sir John Thynne, Mr. Godwin, and Mr. Buckfolde, who leased it to inhabitants of Isleworth; they fished both sides of the river until the lessee of Boston manor, claiming the fishing on the Brentford side, took away their equipment. (fn. 162) In 1585 the fishery of the former chapel was conveyed to Henry Buckfolde, Thomas Allycock, and others, (fn. 163) and in 1598 Allycock conveyed it to Henry Butler. (fn. 164) Fishing rights in the Brent were mentioned in the 17th century (fn. 165) and rights perhaps once belonging to Boston manor were alienated by James and Henry Hawley in 1738. (fn. 166)
In 1423 tenants of Ealing manor rented three fisheries in the Thames, one of them attached to Sergeaunts free tenement (fn. 167) and presumably among those conveyed in 1521 to John and Alice Pattishall. (fn. 168) About 1712 a fisherman of Old Brentford held several lodges on the Thames, where he caught eels. (fn. 169) Thomas of Brentford, fishmonger, held property in London in 1327 (fn. 170) and a London fishmonger rented land by the Brent at Old Brentford in 1466. (fn. 171) Royalists were accused of burning boats and cutting nets there in 1642. (fn. 172) Ealing parish paid in 1723 to replace the boat and tackle of an Old Brentford fisherman. (fn. 173) Pollution from Brentford gasworks had destroyed most of the fish by 1828, when many fishermen's apprentices were idle. (fn. 174) In 1845 it was claimed that the number of families supported by fishing had fallen from 100 to 20 over fifty years, with disturbance by steamboats and increasing sewage. (fn. 175) In 1848 it was also claimed that there had been no fish for ten or twelve years, because of the steamboats and gasworks. (fn. 176)
Markets And Fairs.
At the request of Queen Margaret a weekly market and a fair for six days at New Brentford on the feast of St. Lawrence (10 August) were granted to the priory of St. Helen, Bishopsgate, in 1306. (fn. 177) All the prioress's rights were leased in 1534 to John Rollesley, by whom the market was conveyed to Hugh Eston, who obtained confirmation from Elizabeth I. Eston conveyed his interest to Jerome Hawley, lessee of Boston manor, who brought a lawsuit over the market between 1579 and 1587 (fn. 178) and whose family apparently paid no rent to the Crown until both market and fair were abolished in 1610. A new licence was issued to James Hawley, after local protests, and a weekly market and six-day fairs on 1 May and 1 September were granted in 1635 and confirmed in 1666. (fn. 179)
Stallholders were restricted by the narrowness of New Brentford's High Street until Eston moved them north to an orchard which he had acquired behind the Crown. The square which became Market Place existed there by 1635 and was later enlarged and furnished with a market house. (fn. 180) New Brentford was called Great or Market Brentford by 1593 (fn. 181) and trade thereafter prospered with the growth of traffic to London by road and river, while Brentford fair was mentioned in Samuel Butler's Hudibras of 1663. The old market house was replaced c. 1850 by a town hall and market house, in front of which markets continued to be held. (fn. 182) Suppression of the fair was sought before 1845 (fn. 183) and Brentford Town Hall and Market House Co. in 1890 was accused of often allowing the market to be used for 'semi-fair purposes'. (fn. 184) The county council acquired the licence in 1891 and, after pressure from the U.D.C. and its successor, the fair was finally abolished in 1932 and the market in 1933. (fn. 185)
In the late 19th century market gardeners set up stalls in the roadway north of Kew bridge, causing such traffic congestion that in 1893 the local board bought 2 a. of the Gunnersbury House estate for a market, which opened on the north side of Chiswick High Road in 1893. A large building of yellow brick with terracotta dressings was built in 1905, after the site had been extended, and, as Brentford Market, remained in use until 1974, when the traders moved to Southall. In 1980 the former covered market served as a skateboard park. (fn. 186)
At Ealing a fair was held on the green in 1822, when William Cobbett was diverted by crowds of Cockneys on their way there. (fn. 187) The fair, of unknown origin, was held from 24 to 26 June (fn. 188) until its suppression in 1880. (fn. 189)
Trade And Industry: Ealing.
Inhabitants had business connexions with Londoners by 1344, when a London goldsmith owed money to John of Bristol of Ealing, himself a debtor to citizens in 1346 and 1353 and to Queen Philippa's butler in 1350. (fn. 190) More dealings were recorded in 1360, with a Londoner, (fn. 191) and in 1410, with men from Westminster and Holborn. Four out of five Ealing tradesmen executed in 1443 were also of London; one was also of King's Lynn (Norf.), another of Bury St. Edmunds (Suff.), and a third of Horndon-on-the-Hill (Essex). In 1469 an Ealing fisherman had dealings with an Enfield maltman. (fn. 192)
There was a tailor in 1293-4 (fn. 193) and from 1388 apparently always a carpenter. (fn. 194) A ploughwright was recorded in 1408, a chapman in 1410, a smith in 1414, a tanner in 1437, (fn. 195) a painter, a scrivener, and a baker in 1443, (fn. 196) and a thatcher in 1455. (fn. 197) In the 1650s there were references to a butcher, a miller, a fellmonger, a cordwainer, a cheesemonger, a tallowchandler, three tailors, and a brickmaker, (fn. 198) in 1668 to a sawyer, a bricklayer, and a brewer, and in 1670 to a hempdresser. By 1704 there was a barber. (fn. 199) All were individual craftsmen in a predominantly agricultural parish; the only industries were small-scale brewing and brickmaking and tilemaking.
Lewis Furnell had a brewhouse at Ealing in 1728 (fn. 200) but in 1733 only a malthouse remained. (fn. 201) Other malthouses occurred between 1780 and 1796, at Gunnersbury, (fn. 202) and in 1739. (fn. 203) A house at Ealing village, leased to T. P. Oakley in 1806, had been converted by 1810 into the Lion brewery, which had failed by 1822. (fn. 204) Another brewhouse, late of Dr. Nicholas, existed on the rectory estate in 1838. (fn. 205) William Griffiths was a brewer at Ealing Dean in 1845 and 1855 (fn. 206) and David Nolden in Ealing Road in 1853. (fn. 207)
There were frequent references to brickearth and in 1668 there was a brickworks in the open fields. (fn. 208) A kiln stood in tilekiln close east of Hanger Lane from 1654 until at least 1761; (fn. 209) it was omitted from leases after 1804 (fn. 210) and a pond occupied most of the field in 1810. (fn. 211)
Late 19th-century growth was mainly residential, and new firms were all small, including W. J. Cocks's bicycle factory at no. 32 High Street in 1893 (fn. 212) and a mineral water works at Gower House, St. Mary's Road, in 1894. (fn. 213) In 1901 the largest employers of men were the building trade, with 1,458, and the transport industry, with 995. There were 495 clerks and still 405 workers in agriculture. (fn. 214) Numbers in the building industry rose to 1,935 in 1911 but fell back to 1,458 in 1921, while those in transport increased steadily to 2,161 in 1921. By then 2,774 clerks formed the largest single group, although they were less prominent than in some suburbs, such as Hornsey. (fn. 215) Other important trades in 1921 were related to interior decoration and clothing. Women worked mainly in domestic service and laundries. Servants numbered 4,616 in 1901, 5,545 in 1911, and 4,004 in 1921. Laundries, including the Ealing Park laundry of Darwin Road, which advertised its drying grounds c. 1903, employed 387 in 1901 and c. 500 in 1911. (fn. 216) Of the 16,589 residents who worked elsewhere in 1921, 11,479 travelled to the City, Westminster, and other parts of London, and 4,194 to Acton, Brentford, or elsewhere in Middlesex. Of 4,715 workers who commuted into Ealing, presumably most were employed in domestic service or shops.
Twentieth-century Ealing came to be largely hemmed in by industry along Western Avenue and the Great West Road, at Park Royal, Acton, and Brentford. Since the First World War several firms have moved into Ealing without seriously affecting its generally residential character.
W. Ottway and Co., scientific instrument makers, occupied workshops, warehouses, and offices off New Broadway by 1908. (fn. 217) They manufactured components and sighting equipment for the Ministry of Defence in 1966, as a subsidiary of the Hilger & Watts group, but closed in 1968. (fn. 218)
Wolf Electric Tools, founded in 1900, opened the Pioneer works in Hanger Lane in 1935 and acquired extra office and factory space on an adjoining site in 1976. The firm, innovators in making certain portable electric tools, in 1978 had 850 people at the works, which was also its headquarters. (fn. 219)
Film production began in Ealing in 1904, when William George Barker bought West Lodge, Ealing Green, with 3 a. adjacent to Walpole park. Studios, said to be the largest in England, (fn. 220) were built by Barker Motion Picture Photography Ltd. and in 1920 acquired by General Film Renters, which leased them to various companies. The site was bought in 1929 by Union Studios, which quickly failed, (fn. 221) and then by Associated Talking Pictures, which built a sound studio in 1931 and turned a house on Ealing Green into offices and the main entrance. (fn. 222) Michael Balcon became head of production in 1938 and the company, called Ealing Studios Ltd., made films which included, after the Second World War, the famous Ealing comedies. The studios were sold in 1955 to the B.B.C., which still used them in 1980, while Balcon bought Nile Lodge in Queen's Walk as his headquarters and produced further Ealing comedies elsewhere until 1958. (fn. 223) B.B.C. Enterprises had offices in Villiers House, Haven Green, in 1980.
Several large companies had offices in Ealing in 1980. Those in Uxbridge Road included Percy Bilton at Bilton House, Transworld Publishers (Corgi books) at Century House, no. 61, Consolidated Pneumatic Tools Co. at no. 97, and Curry's, the electrical retailers, at no. 46. Taylor Woodrow occupied Western House, at the corner of Western Avenue and Hanger Lane. (fn. 224)
Trade And Industry: Brentford.
One inhabitant owed money to a Londoner in 1367 (fn. 225) and another to a Salisbury man in 1383. Others stood surety to a man from Sittingbourne (Kent) in 1390 and to an Uxbridge chapman in 1441, (fn. 226) and from 1469 many had dealings with Londoners. (fn. 227) In 1501 a yeoman had property at Holborn, Knightsbridge, and Brentford, (fn. 228) in 1510 a London grocer was also of Brentford, (fn. 229) and in 1591 a haberdasher traded at both London and Brentford. (fn. 230)
The main road and the two rivers produced distinctive occupations. The road was lined with inns and served by local carters, carriers, and later stagecoachmen. (fn. 231) The rivers gave rise to basket makers, fishermen, and watermen. Osiers were cultivated on aits in the Thames by 1397, (fn. 232) the Godwins in early 18th-century New Brentford (fn. 233) and the Bowdens from 1791 to 1843 being the leading basket makers. (fn. 234) Fishing and water transport, sufficiently common in 1666 to justify the appointment of a pressmaster, (fn. 235) were the chief occupations in 1733, (fn. 236) although there had long been many others. A baker occurred in 1255, (fn. 237) a draper in 1384, (fn. 238) a ploughwright in 1410, (fn. 239) a mason in 1423, (fn. 240) a cardmaker in 1429, (fn. 241) and a butcher in 1497. (fn. 242) By c. 1600 trades included those of tanner, chapman, baker, tiler, miller, and shoemaker; (fn. 243) between 1606 and 1628 a chandler, clothmaker, cordwainer, saddler, poulterer, butcher, brewer, glover, merchant, and vintner were also recorded. (fn. 244) Other occupations included those of a cooper in 1642, (fn. 245) mealman in 1653, (fn. 246) hempman and bricklayer in 1654, fellmonger, wharfinger, weaver, glazier, shipwright, (fn. 247) tobacco pipemaker, surgeon, clockmaker, hempmaker, distiller, apothecary, and lodesmith by 1670, (fn. 248) woollen draper, gunsmith, bargeman, tobacconist, and cowleech by 1678, (fn. 249) and flaxdresser, upholsterer, scrivener, pattenmaker, barber, haberdasher, excise officer, coalfactor, stationer, and stonecutter by 1719. (fn. 250) In 1720 there were 60 different trades at New Brentford alone, including those of stagecoachman, hatter, milliner, pewterer, and bodicemaker, (fn. 251) and, as in 1774, (fn. 252) many shops. Brentford had 10 academies, 14 bakers, 18 bootmakers, 17 coalmerchants, 13 market gardeners, and 29 victuallers in 1826 (fn. 253) and 62 listed trades in 1834. (fn. 254)
Many of the earliest industries, mentioned more fully below, were extractive. They included gravel digging, (fn. 255) lime burning, brickmaking, and tilemaking, and all owed their growth to river or canal transport. Tanning also required a plentiful supply of water and the gunpowder whose storage caused alarm in 1700 (fn. 256) was presumably brought to Brentford by boat. The growth of malting and allied trades from the late 17th century depended on the existence of New Brentford's corn market. From the mid 18th century granaries proliferated (fn. 257) and extractive industries expanded until in 1791 there was a large distillery, a large flour mill, and extensive brick, tile, and pottery works. The main road was important (fn. 258) and so too, from the 1790s, was the Grand Junction Canal. The same industries were employing great numbers in 1800. (fn. 259) By 1816, however, the brick and pottery works were depressed (fn. 260) and in 1819 recent industries, presumably Corson's turpentine works and Johnson's starch mill, were said to have disappeared. (fn. 261) Almost immediately new industries were introduced including a gasworks (fn. 262) and the Grand Junction waterworks, (fn. 263) and in 1826-7 Montgomery's sawmills and the soap factory were noted. (fn. 264) The distillery, gasworks, and soap works attracted more attention than the kilns, breweries, and malthouses in 1845. (fn. 265) Most industry had moved out of New Brentford and the distillery at Old Brentford had closed by 1859, but Brentford dock was opened and the gasworks was increasingly dominating High Street. New factories included Beach's jam factory, the Star Chemical works at the Ham by 1872, (fn. 266) a foundry north of High Street in 1912, (fn. 267) the York Mineral Water Co. in 1909, (fn. 268) Water Softeners Ltd. in 1911, (fn. 269) and by 1921 an indiarubber factory employing 344 people. (fn. 270) Since most were small businesses, the chief firms in 1898 were much as in 1859. (fn. 271) All the lesser breweries had closed by 1908, Montgomery's timberyard by 1911, and the Royal brewery in 1923, leaving only the gasworks and the waterworks and firms mostly with under 50 employees by 1933. (fn. 272)
Closures were counterbalanced by the opening of factories along the Great West Road. Hudson Essex Motor Co.'s factory was authorized in 1925, (fn. 273) the Firestone Tyre Co.'s works opened in 1929, (fn. 274) the factories of Trico-Folberth, Smith's potato crisps, (fn. 275) Sperry Gyroscope, and R. B. Pullin soon afterwards, and Macleans by 1938. (fn. 276) By 1938 Brentford had manufacturing chemists and makers of scientific instruments, motor cars, aeroplane accessories, and other products, providing virtually full employment. (fn. 277) The turnover of firms was extremely rapid: Beechams, the Jantzen Knitting Co., the Raleigh Cycle Co., and the British Oxygen Co. (B.O.C.) had premises in the Great West Road in 1954, (fn. 278) by which date manufacturers were being replaced by warehouses and offices, which employed many fewer local people. (fn. 279) Few factories remained in 1978, when buildings included the large headquarters of Mowlem, Honeywell Information Systems, and Beechams, the offices of Brentford Nylons, (fn. 280) and the distributive centres of Mercedes-Benz (G.B.), Honda, Agfa Gevaert, Peugeot Automobile U.K., and Fiat. The central portion of Wallis, Filbert & Partners' white Firestone factory, which 'for sheer panache had no equal in Britain', was demolished in 1980. (fn. 281)
Brentford gasworks closed in 1964, followed by the Grand Junction waterworks, Brentford dock, and the Brentford Soap Co., leaving no large-scale industry in Brentford town itself. Remaining firms, such as the Grafton Paper Manufacturing Co. in Brook Lane, (fn. 282) were relatively small. By the late 19th century Brentford had also been supplanted as a retail centre of more than local importance.
Water freight was presumably received at Brentford long before the first watermen were recorded in 1613. (fn. 283) Fruit, bricks, (fn. 284) and probably fish were shipped to London in the 17th century, the return cargoes including dung by 1609, when there was a dung wharf, (fn. 285) and coal, used by 1679 for brickmaking. (fn. 286) By 1733 water carriage was a leading occupation. (fn. 287) In 1782 corn was an important cargo (fn. 288) and in 1791 boats carried market produce to Hungerford (Berks.) and Queenhithe (Lond.) by every tide. (fn. 289) Coal, in the absence of local wood, was probably also used for lime, tile, and pottery kilns and for malting. In 1791 coke powered William Johnson's starch mill (fn. 290) and from 1821 it was processed at Brentford gasworks. (fn. 291) Several coal warehouses existed from the 1790s, (fn. 292) when coal from the Midlands probably supplanted that brought via London. In 1841 boats wrecked at Brentford included 2 from Tipton (Staffs.) loaded with coal, 2 others from Tipton with coal and peas, 2 from Bloxwich (Staffs.) with hoop iron, and 2 from Stourbridge (Worcs.) with wheat. There were also 3 large coal barges at Brentford End, 5 large barges with wheat and linseed, and a barge with slate and stone from Nuneaton (Warws.); other craft came from Wolverhampton, Brierley Hill (Staffs.), and Tipton. (fn. 293) In 1879 a wide boat, 27 narrow canal boats, and 4 tugs, were registered at Brentford, the narrow boats mainly for use on the Grand Junction canal, on which 6 would go to Birmingham, 1 to South Staffordshire, and 2 to Oxford; 8 carried general merchandise, 2 iron, 3 grain, 2 coal, 12 building material, and 2 ammunition. (fn. 294) As many as 35 canal boats were recorded at Brentford in 1891 and 36 in 1911, but only 9 in 1921. (fn. 295) Water traffic in 1930 was declining every year. In 1975 the barges of the Thames & General Lighterage Co., the largest company on the Thames, travelled mainly between Brentford and London docks. (fn. 296) The Grand Union canal at Brentford was then still heavily used for freight. (fn. 297)
Wharves, such as the Hollows, (fn. 298) were first recorded in the 17th century and ultimately lined the whole waterfront. They became increasingly elaborate and permanent, such as T. B. Rowe's canal basin. (fn. 299) Town Meadow dock, rented by Brentford U.D.C. in 1875 and bought soon afterwards, (fn. 300) was unused in 1929; a plan to renovate it in 1930 was opposed by Clements Knowlinge, whose Goat, Victoria, and Ferry wharves could handle most craft but were frequently idle. (fn. 301) Tunnel Cement, a subsidiary of Portland Cement, distributed cement from Essex in the 1950s, (fn. 302) and Clements Tough, a subsidiary of the Dickenson Rob Group, in 1977 still provided handling and warehousing at Ferry Lane. (fn. 303) In 1978 many other wharves at Brentford were disused.
Brentford dock was erected by the G.W.R. to the designs of I. K. Brunel and opened in 1859, (fn. 304) to connect river and canal traffic with the railways. The site in Isleworth and New Brentford, bought in 1855 from James Montgomery, timber merchant, consisted of Old England, on the western bank of the Brent and eastern bank of the Grand Junction canal at their junction with the Thames, together with land west of the canal and east of the Brent. (fn. 305) Brunel's covered wooden dock was destroyed by fire in 1920 and replaced by 1923 by a steel and iron structure. From 1918 the Thames frontage was adapted for boats of up to 300 tons and in 1923 craft ranged from heavy down-river barges to light canal boats, including sailing barges. There were customs and weighing facilities, a coal-tip, and 3 sidings and 1,000 waggons to serve the south and west of England, South Wales, and the Midlands. (fn. 306) A great variety of goods, together with coal for ships in the Pool of London, was still handled in 1964, when the dock was closed. (fn. 307)
Boat building was attested by a shipwright at Old Brentford in 1659 (fn. 308) and by the devise of a copyhold boatyard there in 1731. (fn. 309) In 1853 Mr. Sims had a barge building yard at the Ham, New Brentford, (fn. 310) and in 1898 Messrs. Radford had a barge and waggon works at the confluence of the Thames and Brent. (fn. 311) Works were built at Old Brentford for the Thames (later Thames & General) Lighterage Co. in 1881 (fn. 312) and enlarged in 1926 by slipways on Lot's Ait. (fn. 313) A 34-ton tug to tow strings of 7 barges from London docks to Brentford was built there in 1958 (fn. 314) and although boat building ceased c. 1965 (fn. 315) the yard in 1978 remained an active maintenance yard for the company. E. C. Jones & Son were building Bantam boats, small tugs to manouvre barges in confined spaces, in 1953 (fn. 316) and survived in 1978.
Tanning was recorded in 1591 (fn. 317) and 1714. (fn. 318) A tanyard on the Brent, west of Market Place and north of St. Lawrence's church, was continuously occupied between 1720 and 1853. (fn. 319) James Band, from a family of Bermondsey tanners, established his own firm of parchment makers at a tannery in Boston Road near Park chapel in 1845. The firm moved c. 1910 to Plough Yard, the premises being extended during the Second World War. There were 70 employees c. 1960 and 80c. 1975 but only 15 in 1978, by which date they also produced chamois leather and all kinds of vellum. (fn. 320)
Soap making was practised at Old Brentford c. 1603, when tenants were not to put soap-ash on the waste. (fn. 321) William Seagar managed a soap works there from 1764 or earlier (fn. 322) until c. 1792, when it passed to Roger Griffin and Peter Warren. (fn. 323) Another firm, in which Griffin, Alexander Corson, and others were partners, went bankrupt by 1796. (fn. 324) Lawrence Rowe acquired land in 1800 near Ferry Lane, (fn. 325) presumably to the west, (fn. 326) and by 1827 Brentford was the main centre of hard soap production in southeastern England. (fn. 327) A prominent landmark c. 1827 (fn. 328) and described as very extensive in 1845, (fn. 329) T. B. Rowe & Co.'s Thames Soap Works occupied a large site between Ferry Lane, Town Meadow, and the Thames in 1888. (fn. 330) The factory was acquired by Messrs. Lever in 1916 and closed in 1933. Employees then opened the Brentford Soap Co. at the former Beehive brewery in Catherine Wheel Yard, New Brentford, where 150 worked by 1958 (fn. 331) and which, after a fire, reopened temporarily in 1961.
A brickmaker of New Brentford contracted in 1502 to supply 400,000 bricks to Syon abbey. (fn. 332) In 1671 bricks were shipped to London (fn. 333) and in 1687 an Ealing brickmaker had 180,000 bricks in stock. (fn. 334) In 1774 hundreds of loads were stockpiled and so much brickearth had been dug around Brentford that the surrounding fields were stated, wrongly, to be exhausted. (fn. 335) Brickmaking was often carried on with tilemaking: in 1679 tile kiln close adjoined Ferry Lane, Old Brentford, (fn. 336) and in 1731 there was a tile kiln south of Old Brentford High Street. (fn. 337) The Barrett family, brickmakers in 1729 and 1748, were noted for pantiles. (fn. 338) The partnership of Trimmer and Clarke, which managed a tile kiln in 1776, (fn. 339) already existed in 1742, (fn. 340) presumably for the same purpose, and had an extensive business in 1791. (fn. 341) Conducted from 1786 by Samuel Clarke and from 1807 by John Clarke, the old tile kiln, together with a new one, was run from 1800 by Messrs. Trimmer, (fn. 342) who had their own tile kilns from at least 1772 until 1835 over the boundary in Chiswick, with access from Kew Bridge Road. (fn. 343) By 1834 part of the business had been taken over by George Robinson, (fn. 344) who had acquired the rest by 1845 (fn. 345) and managed the tile kiln and brickfield by the Potomac pond in Gunnersbury park until at least 1861. (fn. 346) Bricklayers, working only in the summer, were said to be well paid and responsible for increasing crime in 1828. (fn. 347)
Potters were working in New Brentford in 1691, 1693, and 1699. (fn. 348) Thomas Edwardes owned a pottery at Bull Lane, Old Brentford, in 1766, which was let to Messrs. Johnson and Turner from 1770, to Daniel Turner alone from 1772 to 1781, and then to members of his family until c. 1820. (fn. 349) The business expanded greatly between 1774 (fn. 350) and 1791 (fn. 351) but the stock was auctioned in 1820, probably because of the failure of T. W. Turner (d. 1833). (fn. 352) It had been taken over by 1823 by Trimmers (fn. 353) and by 1840 by George Robinson, (fn. 354) who had relinquished it by 1849, (fn. 355) and was managed by George Wood in 1853 (fn. 356) and J. T. Greenwood in 1870-2. (fn. 357)
Another pottery at Old Brentford was managed by Daniel Roberts from 1773 and a Mr. Shepherd in 1790. (fn. 358) James Ashford ran Coleshole pottery, Old Brentford, in 1853 (fn. 359) and James Collier was a tile and pottery maker in 1859 (fn. 360) and 1870. (fn. 361) Garden pots were still made by traditional methods c. 1946. (fn. 362)
Lime burning was practised in 1659 by Robert Tunstall, whose kiln near the Hollows, Old Brentford, supplied builders and farmers in both Middlesex and Surrey (fn. 363) and was probably the one mentioned in 1669. (fn. 364) Robert Tunstall, cooper, owned several lime kilns at the Hollows, Old Brentford, in 1679 (fn. 365) and a namesake in 1790 leased two lime kilns, probably at the Hollows, to James Trimmer, (fn. 366) described as a lime burner in 1791. (fn. 367) Mr. Watkins was a lime merchant of Brentford in 1845. (fn. 368)
Timber was bought at Brentford by Westminster abbey in 1607. (fn. 369) A timber yard between High Street and the Brent, New Brentford, in 1638 and 1667 (fn. 370) had disappeared by 1693, (fn. 371) having been leased by Robert Tunstall, cooper, who himself kept 100 loads of timber in stock in 1667. (fn. 372) Another timber yard, recorded in 1690, was occupied in turn by William Baldwin, carpenter and builder of houses in the Butts, and Robert Mundy. (fn. 373) Yet another yard faced the Half Acre, New Brentford, in 1717 (fn. 374) and a new one was established near the Butts and Windmill Lane by 1735. (fn. 375)
A wharf between the Brent and High Street, Old Brentford, was later said to have been a timber yard from c. 1750. (fn. 376) It belonged by 1790 to the Shairpe family, (fn. 377) who leased it in 1806 to William Anthony and James Montgomery and in 1818 to Montgomery alone, then described as timber merchant of Old Brentford. (fn. 378) Montgomery, who in 1826 also dealt in coal, (fn. 379) occupied 2¾ a. in 1840 (fn. 380) and bought the freehold in 1853. (fn. 381) In 1845 he had a spacious wharf and sawmills, employing many people and with a range of buildings and stock greater than any other in Middlesex. (fn. 382) The business continued as James Montgomery & Son until 1911, when the site was sold to Water Softeners Ltd. (fn. 383)
A timber yard by the Brent was managed by Messrs. Joseph and Dawson in 1841 (fn. 384) and another at the Hollows, between High Street and the Thames, Old Brentford, was offered for sale in 1907. (fn. 385)
Malthouses, breweries, and distilleries, relying on Brentford's corn market, were noteworthy from the late 17th century, some maltsters being also dealers in corn and coal. New Brentford had the greater number of businesses but the larger firms were at Old Brentford.
Most of New Brentford's malthouses were attached to inns, including ones at Catherine Wheel Yard in 1679, (fn. 386) at the Royal Oak, Market Place, in 1702, and at White Horse Yard, off Market Place, in 1702 (fn. 387) and 1738. (fn. 388) The latter was disused in 1768 (fn. 389) and many malthouses operated only briefly, since four were vacant in 1741 and three in 1750. (fn. 390) Some families managed several malthouses: the Lowe family had three c. 1690-1705; (fn. 391) the Banks family had one in 1743 and two, probably south of High Street, between 1772 and 1812, besides four at Old Brentford between 1790 and 1817; (fn. 392) and the Jones family's coal, corn, and malting business, based on Catherine Wheel Yard until 1821, included at least two malthouses from 1779, one at Plough Yard and another at the Black Boy and Still inn. (fn. 393) In 1791 Thomas Jullion, jeweller, and Thomas Whitbread ran distilling and rectifying businesses. (fn. 394)
A brewhouse by the Thames at Old Brentford in 1685 was acquired in 1696 by John Clarke, distiller, of London (fn. 395) and later of Old Brentford. (fn. 396) A distillery and malthouse on the site were surrendered by William Lonsdale in 1735, (fn. 397) occupied by four partners, including Percival Hart and Daniel Roberts, from 1763, (fn. 398) by Hart's son-in-law David Roberts from 1773, (fn. 399) and by him in partnership with Thomas Smith and Thomas Harrington from 1792. (fn. 400) Another Thames-side brewhouse at Old Brentford acquired by maltsters in 1740 was occupied by Hart in 1760. (fn. 401) After his death a malthouse stood on the site, (fn. 402) which was occupied from 1773 by David Roberts, (fn. 403) whose premises in 1777 covered a large area between High Street and the Thames. (fn. 404) In 1790, besides the premises south of High Street, Roberts, Smith, and Harrington also had land to the north, where their principal distillery stood. Considerable by 1791, (fn. 405) the distillery was the fourth largest in England in 1802. (fn. 406) In 1817 it was sold to Messrs. Booth of Clerkenwell, who by 1819 had also acquired Moses Banks's four malthouses and other property from Smith and Harrington. (fn. 407) Despite a major fire in 1837 (fn. 408) the distillery in 1845 was described as one of the most complete in the world, producing nearly a million gallons of spirit every year. (fn. 409) Sold in 1851 to Messrs. Haig, it was still operating on a large scale in 1855 but apparently had ceased production by 1859. (fn. 410) From 1864 parts of the site were used for housing. (fn. 411)
A distillery and malthouse south of Old Brentford High Street in 1735 were settled in trust on Abraham Harvest and his wife Anne Trimmer in 1748 (fn. 412) and owned by Abraham Trimmer, brewer, in 1790. (fn. 413) There were two malthouses on the site in 1796, which were worked from c. 1814 by John Newton, (fn. 414) the purchaser in 1801 of a brewery by the Thames at Old Brentford; that brewery had been Francis Harvest's in 1735 and Thomas Stump's since 1774. (fn. 415) Newton's brewery was sold in 1817 to Messrs. Thompson of Chiswick and passed in 1825 to John Hazard, (fn. 416) probably already a partner of Booth & Co. The name was apparently changed from the British to the Red Lion brewery and in 1832, after a visit by William IV, to the Royal brewery. (fn. 417) The business was sold to Messrs. Carrington and Whitehurst in 1851 (fn. 418) and run by Montagu Ballard from 1880 until 1923, when brewing ceased. (fn. 419) About 1926 the building was replaced by extensions to the gasworks. (fn. 420)
The Grand Junction brewery, Catherine Wheel Yard, New Brentford, was worked from 1826 by James Crooks, (fn. 421) in 1845-8 by William Gearey, (fn. 422) in 1853 by Sophia and Charles Gearey, and in 1862 and 1866 by George Gearey. (fn. 423) The buildings apparently were taken over by William Gomm, mentioned in 1843, (fn. 424) whose Beehive brewery was in High Street in 1853 (fn. 425) but later in Catherine Wheel Yard. W. Gomm & Son advertised ten brews in 1893 (fn. 426) and operated until 1900 or later. (fn. 427) Their business had been acquired by Fuller, Smith & Turner by 1908, when the Catherine Wheel Yard premises were for sale. (fn. 428)
Breweries in Boston Manor Road included Thomas Tearle's Star brewery in 1848 (fn. 429) and the Metropolitan and Provincial Joint Stock Brewery Co. in 1853. (fn. 430) Thomas Lawrence's Boston brewery, almost opposite Boston House, (fn. 431) functioned from 1862 or earlier until 1896 (fn. 432) but evidently had been taken over by Fuller, Smith & Turner by 1900. (fn. 433) High Street contained David Allen's Albion brewery between 1851 and 1866, and Richard Hunt's Harefield brewery in 1853. (fn. 434)
The leading 19th-century maltsters were Messrs. Jupp. In 1802 William Jupp occupied a single malthouse at Old Brentford, first mentioned in 1780, (fn. 435) and in 1855 the premises, east of Ferry Lane and north of Goat Wharf, were very extensive. (fn. 436) The firm had other malthouses near Kew bridge in 1877, when it planned to rebuild them, (fn. 437) and from at least 1826 until 1896 Jupp & Sons were also coal and corn merchants. (fn. 438)
Starch making was recorded in 1603. (fn. 439) Dr. William Johnson's premises in Catherine Wheel Yard in 1791 included steam mill, coke house, starch house, and laboratory piggeries. (fn. 440) The business may have existed in the 1770s (fn. 441) and was much admired (fn. 442) but proved unsuccessful, often changing hands. (fn. 443) Described as Messrs. Burrell's starch manufactory in 1811, (fn. 444) it was not recorded after 1812. (fn. 445) Richard Thoroughgood and John Wallace had another starch factory at Old Brentford in 1791. (fn. 446)
Mrs. Sumner had a printing office at Brentford in 1774. (fn. 447) Philip Norbury of High Street, New Brentford, was rated from 1769 (fn. 448) and printed sermons in 1775. (fn. 449) The family firm continued to print until at least 1859 (fn. 450) as part of a business which, in 1848, included the selling of stationery, medicines, and perfumery, besides a circulating library and the post office. (fn. 451) Other printers were W. H. Jackson, in High Street in 1872, (fn. 452) the Brentford Publishing Co., Albany Road, between 1901 and 1956, (fn. 453) and Walter Pearce & Co. in 1939. (fn. 454)
Alexander Corson, surgeon, leased a turpentine works, laboratory, and warehouse in Catherine Wheel Yard in 1792. (fn. 455) He had occupied the laboratory before 1791, when he was granted more land on the west of the Ham, (fn. 456) and a counting house, mill house, and distillery stood on the site in 1792. (fn. 457) On the failure of his soap making concern, (fn. 458) the Ham premises were sold in 1797 (fn. 459) and thereafter often changed hands. (fn. 460) Turpentine was still made in 1813. (fn. 461)
T. W. Beach moved from Isleworth to Brentford in 1867, leased a jam factory at Walnut Tree Road, Old Brentford, in 1886, and formed a limited company with three factories in Middlesex and Worcestershire in 1887. His sale of jam made from whole fruit in glass bottles earned the description 'father of the jam trade' in 1902. Beach's sons assigned the lease on the Brentford factory in 1930. (fn. 462)
The firm of Trico-Folberth was formed in 1928 and established in a new factory in the Great West Road in 1930, making windscreen wipers and other motor accessories. It had 700 employees in 1948 (fn. 463) and survived in 1963 (fn. 464) but not in 1975. (fn. 465)
The Sperry Gyroscope Co. was formed in 1915 and moved from Shepherd's Bush (Hammersmith) to the Great West Road in 1931, with 250 employees. (fn. 466) There were c. 2,500 employees when it moved to Feltham c. 1950. (fn. 467)
R. B. Pullin & Co. was founded in 1932 and moved in 1935 to Phoenix works in the Great West Road. The company made electrical equipment and precision instruments in 1948 (fn. 468) and extended the buildings in 1958. (fn. 469) Taken over as part of the industrial division of Rank Precision Industries by 1968, (fn. 470) it had 800 employees in 1972. (fn. 471) It was called Rank Pullin Controls in 1978, when there were 500 employees (fn. 472) and the works also housed a film library and laboratories.
The Permutit Co. originated in the amalgamation of two firms in 1914 and moved in the 1930s to Permutit House, Gunnersbury Avenue, where it made water softeners and purifiers. The engineering workshops were moved c. 1955 and the offices to Isleworth in 1966, leaving only the laboratories at Permutit House in 1978. (fn. 473)
The British Oxygen Co. occupied buildings on the north side of the Great West Road in 1938 and 1940, where in 1978 Great West House was the headquarters of the company's gases division, employing 150 in making medical gases. (fn. 474)
Beechams Ltd., the international pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food group, established laboratories in the Great West Road in 1944. Its Lucozade factory moved there by 1951 (fn. 475) and Beechams' main offices followed in 1955, occupying premises used since 1947 as the headquarters of B.O.A.C. (fn. 476) In 1978 the building housed only research and administrative staff. (fn. 477)
The Strand Glass Co., renamed Strand Glassfibre in 1966, operated from no. 79 High Street before moving to the Brentway trading estate c. 1968. It employed 140 people in distributing materials in 1978. (fn. 478)
Polco Products was founded in 1956 at Covent Garden (Westm.) to make or import motor car accessories, notably vacuum cleaners. The firm moved to the Brent works, Catherine Wheel Yard, in 1972 and had 37 staff in 1978. (fn. 479)