A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1974.
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The ancient parish of Charlton Mackrell, often known as West Charlton, had an area estimated at 2,021 a. in 1861, (fn. 1) but no accurate assessment for its earlier extent survives. Within its boundaries lie many detached areas formerly belonging to Charlton Adam, which were absorbed when the civil parish was united with that of Charlton Adam in 1885. (fn. 2) In the same year two small detached areas in the north-west of the parish were transferred from Somerton, (fn. 3) giving a total area for the civil parish of 3,499 a. in 1901. (fn. 4) The parish lies 2½ miles east of Somerton and nearly 4 miles north of Ilchester, being bounded on the north by Kingweston, on the east by Charlton Adam and Babcary, on the southeast by West Camel and Podimore Milton, on the south by Ilchester and Yeovilton, on the southwest by Kingsdon, and on the west by Somerton. It extends for 4 miles from north to south and nearly 3½ miles from east to west, although its irregular shape gives it a breadth of only ½ mile at its centre.
The soil of the parish is generally clay, the subsoil limestone and lias. Traces of Keuper Marl are found in the extreme west of the parish, and alluvium along the banks of the Cary. (fn. 5) On the northern boundary the land lies above the 225 ft. contour. This falls away slightly to form a small plateau known as Windmill or Snap hill in the north-west of the parish; the land drops sharply at Green Down on its southern side to the Somerton road and the river Cary, and more gradually on the east towards the village around Charlton House. The ground rises steeply again above 100 ft. further south in the area of the church and more gently to the south-east beyond Rookery Farm. A ridge runs south from Tout above the 100 ft. contour, sloping gradually to the river Cary in the south and the Foss Way in the south-east. The southern point of the parish and its south-eastern area are flat and low-lying. The river Cary enters the east of the parish on its boundary with Charlton Adam and flows north and east of Cary Fitzpaine to the south-eastern boundary, passing under the Foss Way at Popple bridge, across the southern point of the parish. Thereafter it forms the southwestern boundary until it passes into Somerton at Willmoors. Two small streams flow into the Cary in the area of Cary Fitzpaine: one from Charlton Adam in the north meets it just north-west of the farm, and the other, forming the south-eastern parish boundary, just before Popple bridge. Park brook runs into the southern extremity of the parish from Podimore, entering the river at Cary bridge. Another stream from Kingweston runs south through the village around Charlton House and flows north of, and below, the church, past Rookery Farm, to join the Cary below the Somerton road. It formerly drove Peck Mill in Charlton Adam. Chalkbrook or Chabrick Mill Stream ('Chalbrouke' in 1393), (fn. 6) marking the western boundary of the parish, also flows into the same river.
The road system is irregular. The Foss Way from Ilchester forms the extreme south-western boundary of the parish, and runs north-east into Charlton Adam, severing Cary Fitzpaine from the remainder of the parish. It was turnpiked in 1753. (fn. 7) The road linking Somerton and Castle Cary, known as Butwell Road in 1757, (fn. 8) the Glaston highway in 1787, (fn. 9) and more recently as Snap Hill, passes through the north-western corner of the parish, leaving it at Christians Cross, referred to in the 13th century as 'Crispine Croy'. (fn. 10) It was also turnpiked in 1753. (fn. 11) From this road, at its point of entry, Somerton Lane, called Windmill Hill Road in 1757, (fn. 12) crosses Windmill hill to the village around Charlton House. From the same starting point Somerton Road skirts the southern extremity of Windmill hill and Green Down to the area of medieval settlement around the church. Until the 19th century this continued south-west to Tout and Cary Fitzpaine, (fn. 13) but subsequently that portion lying within the village was stopped up, leaving the present road which runs west past the church. From this road two lanes run north to the area around Charlton House, the western one known as West Charlton Road and the eastern one formerly running through the grounds of Charlton House, from which it was diverted in the 18th century, (fn. 14) to Christians Cross, known as Kingweston Road. A small lane running south-west then south from Snap Hill Road across Windmill hill is called Green Down Road in 1810, (fn. 15) and in 1970 was known as Boxhill Lane up to the crossing of Somerton Lane, and as Sug Hill thereafter. Originally it continued beyond the Somerton road into Summerleaze common beside the river Cary. (fn. 16) Two lanes run east to Charlton Adam, one from Charlton House and the other further south. Ridgeway Lane formerly ran south from a field between the parishes known as Twixt Towns to join the Foss Way, (fn. 17) but the portion forming the boundary with Charlton Adam, before it crosses the road to Cary Fitzpaine, is now closed. A lane running east from Lytes Cary crosses the river at Cary bridge and continues to Kingsdon village. Rag Lane, mentioned in 1664, (fn. 18) serves fields north-east of Cary Fitzpaine, and two other lanes link that settlement with the Foss Way to the west, and the Langport-Wincanton road to the south. A footpath ran south-west from Rookery Farm to Kingsdon. It crossed the Cary at Pimple bridge, mentioned in 1752 (fn. 19) and rebuilt in 1790. (fn. 20)
Of the two medieval open arable fields in Charlton Mackrell manor, East field appears to have lain in the north-east of the parish on both sides of the Kingweston road, and West field evidently stretched from Wellham in the west to Boxwell and Christians Cross in the north, and Windmill hill in the south. (fn. 21) The 16th-century four-field system which developed from this cannot be traced precisely. North field appears to have included lands at Paddock hill and Boxwell hill beyond Snap Hill Road in the northwest of the parish, and also areas north-east of the Kingweston road at Rush Plot, Fatmoor, and Bulland. West field included most of the lands in the area of Windmill hill and Green Down, and at Wellham. South field lay between Cary Lane and Ridgeway Lane, south-west of the old village. East field was largely inclosed by this time but had lain north-east of Ridgeway Lane and north-west of the Foss Way, being known as Easter field by 1810. (fn. 22) Apart from South field, the arable fields had been divided into smaller units by 1810, the largest being Wellham, Green Down, Top of Hill, and Hind Hearne, all formerly part of West field, and Snap field, Boxwell Hill, Paddock Corner, and Bulland, all in the area of North field. (fn. 23)
There was common meadow at Willmoors and Upmead along the river Cary in the extreme west of the parish from the 13th century, (fn. 24) and common pasture at Summerleaze, known as Bullditch common in 1810, stretching south from Somerton Road along the east bank of the Cary. (fn. 25) Former open fields in Cary Fitzpaine manor may be represented by the field names Great Cary field and Little Cary field to the east of the farm there, and West field between the Foss Way and the Cary, all mentioned in 1810. (fn. 26) Common pasture within the same manor probably lay in Great Broad Leaze and Little Broad Leaze south-west of the farm, and over East Leaze in the extreme east of the parish. (fn. 27)
Evidence of Roman and Romano-British occupation rests chiefly on two villa sites: (fn. 28) the first evidently lay at the south-western edge of Windmill hill, where finds included 'herringbone' walls, tiles, a hoard of coins, and three stone coffins. (fn. 29) The second was sited near the river Cary, north-west of Lytes Cary, where a hypocaust was uncovered. (fn. 30) Miscellaneous small finds of pottery, implements, and burials have also been unearthed north and south of the area around Charlton House. (fn. 31) Medieval settlement was probably concentrated in the area between the church and the manor-house (Rookery Farm) on both sides of the Somerton road where, in 1810, many of the small tenements of the manor were sited. (fn. 32) These were largely demolished during the 19th century, those on the south side of the road (including the poorhouse) by the Dickinson family of Kingweston and by fire, (fn. 33) and those on the north side by the extension of the churchyard and rectory house grounds. (fn. 34) There remains a group of cottages in the area of the chantry farm, to the east of which modern housing has been erected, and the 19th-century school, lying east of the church.
A second village grew up about ½ mile north of the church, separated from the latter by a detached area formerly belonging to Charlton Adam which includes Manor Farm and Priory Farm. (fn. 35) This second village now forms the principal area of settlement in the parish, centred upon Charlton House. A number of the tenements which comprised the rectory manor were sited here, some of which were demolished when the grounds of Charlton House were extended in the late 18th century. (fn. 36) The buildings in this area date from the 17th century and include Georgian Cottage, the Reading Room, the Woods, Sheppards Orchard, and the Greyhound inn. Modern housing development extends northwest along the eastern side of the Kingweston road, and along a short lane north-east of Charlton House. The medieval settlements of Lytes Cary and Tuckers (now Cooks) Cary lie close together on opposite sides of Cary Lane, and Cary Fitzpaine, formerly a hamlet but now little more than a single large farm, is situated in the south-east corner of the parish. Wellham farm, in the extreme west of the parish, and Withy farm, south-east of the church, are both 19th-century creations. (fn. 37)
The Greyhound inn, lying south-east of Charlton House, is mentioned by name in 1861, (fn. 38) but was probably first licensed by the Hockey family in c. 1837, having previously served as a beer shop. (fn. 39) In 1970 it was the only public house in the parish.
The West Charlton Friendly Society was founded in 1855 and was discontinued c. 1912. (fn. 40) The Reading Room was built in the 19th century by the Brymer family for the use of parishioners. (fn. 41) The building is mentioned in 1855, although the present structure is dated 1859. (fn. 42) The room was given to the parishes of Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam by W. J. Brymer in 1937. (fn. 43)
Apart from the major houses in the parish, treated subsequently, (fn. 44) Sheppards Orchard, occupied by Ann Sheppard in 1810 (fn. 45) and lying east of the Greyhound inn, is of two storeys, rubble, and thatched, with brick and stone stacks. The casements are modern but the building probably dates from the 17th century. The Woods, occupied by William Woods in 1810, (fn. 46) lies west of West Charlton Road, comprising two storeys of rubble and rough ashlar, with thatch, wooden casements, and stone stacks, and is 18th-century in date. Most of the houses in the parish are constructed of the local lias and are thatched or tiled.
The population of Charlton Mackrell stood at 268 in 1801, but after a small drop to 239 in 1811 rose steadily to 405 in 1841 and, after a brief recession, to 419 in 1871. It then plummeted to 290 in 1881 and to 231 in 1891. (fn. 47) The last available figure, for 1901, showed a small rise to 288, (fn. 48) but the cumulative totals for Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam together indicate that the parishes are only now returning to the population which they possessed in 1911. (fn. 49)
Henry (I) Lyte (c. 1529–1607) of Lytes Cary is remembered as the translator and editor of Dodoens' Cruydeboeck or Herbal, known subsequently as Lyte's Herbal, which he first published in 1578. (fn. 50) The work included references to 'the Cary Bridge Pear' and 'the Somerton Pear, an excellent pear, ripe before Kingsdon's feast'. (fn. 51) His son Thomas (III) Lyte (c. 1568–1638) compiled a fanciful pedigree deriving James I from Brutus the Trojan, for which the king presented him with a jewel containing the royal portrait in miniature. (fn. 52)
Charles Summers (1827–78), the sculptor, was born at Higher Sandpits in the parish and came of a family of Charlton masons. He left the parish in his youth and his most celebrated works were executed in Australia and Italy. (fn. 53)
Manors and Other Estates.
The manor of CHARLTON MACKRELL (fn. 54) was held T.R.W. by Roger Arundel, the Saxon owner of 1066, Alverd, having been dispossessed. (fn. 55) No further reference to the ownership of the manor has been traced until 1220, when it appears as parcel of the Arundel barony, (fn. 56) centred upon Powerstock (Dors.), which was held by Roger Arundel in 1086. (fn. 57) Roger was succeeded by Robert Arundel, living in 1135, and subsequently by Roger (II) (d. 1165), who left as heir his sister Maud, wife of Gerbert de Percy (d. 1179). Maud left two daughters, Sibyl and Alice, who divided the barony and manor between them. (fn. 58)
Sibyl married first Maurice de Pole, whose son Roger died without issue on the crusade of 1190. Roger's brother Robert also died childless in 1198, when he was succeeded by his half brother Robert (I) FitzPayn, presumably by a second husband of Sibyl. Robert died c. 1217–22, and was followed by his son Roger FitzPayn (d. 1237). (fn. 59) In 1224 Roger quitclaimed his rights in the other moiety of the manor and advowson to Roger de Newburgh, husband of his father's cousin Maud, and to Roger's sister, Margery Belet. (fn. 60) Roger FitzPayn was succeeded by his son Sir Robert (II) (d. 1281), who held a carucate of land in the manor of Charlton in 1251–2. (fn. 61) This moiety of the manor was described in 1284–5 as 1/5 fee, and in 1303 as ½ fee. (fn. 62) Robert (III), Lord FitzPayn, son and heir of Robert (II), died in 1315, when he was said to hold the hamlet of Charlton under John Apadam, (fn. 63) although no other reference to this overlordship has been found. Robert (III) was succeeded by his son Robert (IV), Lord FitzPayn (d. 1354), who in 1354 settled the moiety on his nephew Robert Grey of Codnor (Essex) (d. 1393), who subsequently took the name FitzPayn. (fn. 64) The latter's daughter Isabel (d. 1394) married Richard de Poynings, Lord Poynings, (fn. 65) and was followed by her son Robert, Lord Poynings (d. 1446). (fn. 66) His son Sir Richard de Poynings (d. 1429) left a daughter Eleanor, heir to her grandfather, who married Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland. (fn. 67) After the latter's attainder in 1461, the moiety was granted to the king's brother George, duke of Clarence, in 1463. (fn. 68) Clarence was attainted in 1478, and the moiety was apparently restored to Eleanor, countess of Northumberland, who held it at her death in 1484. (fn. 69) It then passed to her son Henry, earl of Northumberland (d. 1489), (fn. 70) and continued in the family until 1536, when Henry, earl of Northumberland (d. 1537), granted it to the Crown. (fn. 71) Thereafter it was probably amalgamated with the manor of Cary Fitzpaine which, with the moiety of the advowson, was evidently granted to Henry, marquess of Exeter, attainted in 1538. (fn. 72) In 1539 Henry VIII granted it to John, Lord Russell, (fn. 73) who conveyed it in the following year to Sir John Horsey, owner of the other moiety. (fn. 74)
The second moiety apparently passed to Alice, daughter of Gerbert de Percy, wife of Robert of Glastonbury, whose heir was her daughter, Maud, wife of Roger de Newburgh (d. 1194). (fn. 75) Their son Robert de Newburgh (d. 1246), who held the moiety in 1220, (fn. 76) was succeeded by his son Henry de Newburgh, who sold the manor of Hurcot, in Somerton, and other lands to Queen Eleanor in 1276. (fn. 77) By virtue of this grant the Queen evidently took the overlordship of the Charlton Mackrell moiety, which she claimed to hold in 1286. (fn. 78) In 1305 John de Newburgh, son of Henry, recovered ½ fee in Charlton Mackrell held by the Queen, (fn. 79) but no further reference has been found to this overlordship.
In 1194 Robert Belet purchased the wardship of Robert de Newburgh, then a minor, (fn. 80) and subsequently arranged a marriage between his son William Belet, and Margery de Newburgh, Robert's sister. (fn. 81) In 1227 Robert de Newburgh granted the mesne lordship of the moiety to his sister Margery Belet, to be held of him for the service of 1/5 fee. (fn. 82) In the same year she further subinfeudated the property by granting the moiety, described as ½ hide, to William (I) de Horsey, to be held under her by the same service. (fn. 83) William purchased the mesne lordship from William Belet, son of Robert and grandson of Margery Belet, at a date given variously as 1239–40 and 1256–7. (fn. 84) John (I) de Horsey, son of William, held the moiety, described as 1/5 fee, in 1286 (fn. 85) and died in or before 1294, when the moiety was held as ½ fee. (fn. 86) His son William (II) de Horsey held it in 1316, but died in or before 1327, leaving a son John (III). (fn. 87) On the latter's death without issue in or before 1337 the moiety passed to his brother Ralph de Horsey (d. 1354), (fn. 88) succeeded in turn by his son John (IV) (d. 1375), and grandson John (V). (fn. 89) In 1415 John (V) Horsey granted the moiety to his son William (III) (d. c. 1420), and the latter's wife Joan, (fn. 90) later wife of John Tretheke. (fn. 91) On her death in 1430 the moiety passed in turn to William's brothers Henry Horsey (d. 1460), who died childless, (fn. 92) and Thomas Horsey (d. 1468). (fn. 93) It was then inherited by Thomas's son John (VI) (d. 1531), (fn. 94) and grandson Sir John (VII) Horsey (d. 1546), who acquired the other moiety of the advowson and probably the rest of the manor in 1540. (fn. 95)
Sir John (VII) Horsey left the manor to his second son Roger, (fn. 96) but it nevertheless passed to his eldest son Sir John (VIII) Horsey, who settled the property for life on his intended wife Dorothy, widow of Sir George Speke, in 1589 and died the same year. The manor, presumably on Dorothy's death, was divided between Sir John's coheirs, his sister Mary, wife of Richard Arnold, and his nephew Reginald (later Sir Reginald) Mohun. (fn. 97) The undivided moiety held by Mary Arnold (d. 1611) was inherited successively by her son Robert (d. 1626), (fn. 98) and grandson Ralph of Armswell in Buckland Newton (Dors.) (d. 1657). (fn. 99) On the death of Ralph Arnold's two sons George and Hubert, without issue, the freehold of the moiety vested in their two sisters Ann, wife of John Henley of Armswell, and Mary, wife of Thomas Green of Motcombe (Dors.), who conveyed it to Sir John Cutler of Westminster, Bt., in 1689. (fn. 100) On Cutler's death in 1693, the moiety passed to his daughter Elizabeth (d. 1697), wife of Charles Bodville, earl of Radnor. (fn. 101) Radnor sold it to James Samson of Podimore Milton in 1710, (fn. 102) who left it in 1713 to his son James Samson of Cary Fitzpaine. (fn. 103) In 1733 the latter conveyed the moiety to Thomas Lockyer, who subsequently purchased the rest of the manor. (fn. 104)
The other moiety, held by Sir Reginald Mohun, was conveyed in 1613 to Robert Henley (d. 1614) of Leigh, Winsham, (fn. 105) who was succeeded by his son Henry (d. 1639). (fn. 106) The moiety continued in the Henley family until in 1717 Henry Henley sold it to John Hardy of Charlton Mackrell, (fn. 107) who conveyed it to Charles Lockyer of London in 1718. (fn. 108) On his death in 1752, the latter left the moiety to John Lockyer of Colehall in Ealing (Mdx.), who sold it in 1759 to Thomas Lockyer of London (later of Ilchester), (fn. 109) owner of the second moiety. Thomas died in 1785, leaving the reunited manor to his daughter Mary, wife of Samuel Smith, for life, with remainder to his grandson Thomas Smith of Sunninghill (Berks.). (fn. 110) Thomas and Mary Smith conveyed it to trustees for sale in 1799, (fn. 111) and it was purchased by William Dickinson of Kingweston in 1802. (fn. 112) On his death in 1837 the manor passed first to his son Francis Henry Dickinson (d. 1890), and then to his grandson William Dickinson (d. 1914). (fn. 113) The latter's son, William Francis Dickinson, subdivided and sold the estate in 1922 and 1930, (fn. 114) but the lordship itself was retained and in 1970 was held by his daughter, Mrs. J. Burden of Kingweston. (fn. 115) In 1970 the manor farm was held with Charlton Mackrell Court by Mr. I. L. Phillips. (fn. 116)
The manor-house is first mentioned in 1327, when it formed part of the moiety held by the Horsey family. (fn. 117) During the second subdivision of the manor the property was initially held in divided moieties, (fn. 118) but by 1717 was held entirely with the Henley moiety. (fn. 119) In 1757 it was identified with Rookery Farm, which then comprised 162 a. (fn. 120) By 1800 it had been combined with all lands within the manor not previously enfranchized, to form a farming unit of 344 a. leased to Hugh Penny. (fn. 121) The buildings were stated to be in a 'bad plight' in 1802, (fn. 122) and the house was probably rebuilt by the Dickinsons in the early 19th century. The present farm-house is a plain two-storeyed lias building with a slated roof.
The manor of CARY FITZPAINE, sometimes called LITTLE CARY, (fn. 123) was held in 1066 by two thegns, Alinc and Lovinc, who by 1086 had been dispossessed by Roger Arundel, of whom the manor was held by Robert. (fn. 124) It is possible that the latter may be identified with Robert de Gatemore, who held other lands in Somerset under Roger Arundel. (fn. 125) The Gatemore family held lands in Charlton Mackrell c. 1271. (fn. 126) The overlordship of the manor was held in 1281 by Anselm de Gournay, (fn. 127) and in 1284–5 by Robert FitzPayn. (fn. 128) By 1315 it had passed to John Apadam, (fn. 129) who had married Anselm de Gournay's granddaughter, (fn. 130) but in 1323 and thereafter the manor was stated to be held in chief. (fn. 131) A mesne lordship held by Robert of Aumale is mentioned in 1284–5. (fn. 132)
In 1281 the manor was held by Sir Robert (II) FitzPayn as ½ fee, (fn. 133) suggesting that it had descended with that moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor held by the FitzPayns, as part of the Arundel lands allotted to Sibyl de Pole. (fn. 134) Subsequently it descended with that moiety, and was granted to Sir John Horsey, owner of the second moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor, by John, Lord Russell, in 1540. (fn. 135) Like Charlton Mackrell it was split into moieties between the coheirs of Sir John (VIII) Horsey (d. 1589). (fn. 136) The moiety formerly held by the Arnold family was sold by the earl of Radnor to James Samson (d. 1713) in 1710, (fn. 137) who was succeeded by his son James. (fn. 138) In 1733 the latter partitioned the manor with Thomas Lockyer, owner of the other moiety. (fn. 139) By this agreement Samson secured those lands belonging to Cary Fitzpaine which lay largely south-east of the Foss Way and formed the major part of the manor. Lockyer received the remainder of Cary Fitzpaine manor and Samson's moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor. (fn. 140) Those areas of Cary Fitzpaine manor taken by Lockyer were probably combined with the latter's manor of Charlton Mackrell. Samson died without issue in 1763, leaving the manor to his sister, Hester. (fn. 141) On her death in 1765 it passed in turn to her nieces Grace (d. c. 1768) and Elizabeth Shute. (fn. 142) By Elizabeth's will, proved in 1783, her lands were to be divided between Thomas Harris, a Bristol merchant, and the Revd. Henry Shute of Stapleton (Glos.), (fn. 143) and all the Shute lands in the Charltons passed to Harris when the estate was partitioned. (fn. 144) Thomas Harris died in 1797, stating in his will that, as his son, Thomas, had 'manifested an utter dislike' of the manor and hamlet of Cary Fitzpaine, if the latter lived in the mansion there more than 60 days in any one year the property was to pass to the Revd. Henry Shute. (fn. 145) The son survived his father by only two years, and his mother, Mercy Harris (d. 1819), married James Sutton of Bristol. Sutton retained and occupied the property until his death in 1824. (fn. 146) The manor then passed to the Revd. Henry Shute (d. 1841), who was succeeded by his son Henry, of Winterbourne (Glos.) (d. 1864). (fn. 147) The Shute trustees sold the manor in 1865 to the present owners, the Ecclesiastical (now Church) Commissioners. (fn. 148)
The manor-house, known as Phippens (i.e. Fitzpaine's) Cary in the 16th century, and Cary Farm or Little Cary Farm in the 17th and 18th centuries, is first mentioned in 1551, when it was granted as a copyhold with 252 a. within the manor to the Creech alias Powell (later Creech) family. (fn. 149) This family continued to occupy the property until the late 16th century, despite a succession of Chancery suits between 1564 and 1620. (fn. 150) The freehold of the moiety of the farm was granted by Henry Henley of Colway in Lyme Regis (Dors.), to his grandson Thomas Henley in 1694, when the property was held under lease by James Samson. (fn. 151) Samson purchased both moieties of the farm in 1700 and 1701, (fn. 152) and reunited it with the manor in 1710. (fn. 153) The house was still standing in 1810, (fn. 154) but had been demolished by the late 19th century. (fn. 155)
The manor of LYTES CARY (fn. 156) is first mentioned in 1284–5 as 'Kari', (fn. 157) but the present form of the name, adopted from its owners, has not been traced before 1333. (fn. 158) It may possibly be identified with the larger of two Domesday manors called Cary, both owned in 1086 by Humphrey the chamberlain. (fn. 159) Before the Conquest this had been held 'in parage' by Leving, who may be identified with Living, one of the two brothers who held the smaller manor, under Brihtric son of Alfgar, and with Lovinc who held part of Cary Fitzpaine. (fn. 160) Brihtric's lands appear to have been bestowed by William I on his queen Maud, who gave many of them to Humphrey the chamberlain. (fn. 161) His successor was probably Henry de Orescuilz, whose son Ellis left a son Richard and two daughters, Maud and Alice. On Richard's death his lands were divided between his sisters. (fn. 162) Maud married William son of John of Harptree (d. 1232) and was succeeded by her grandson Robert de Gournay, son of Thomas of Harptree. (fn. 163) Their descendant, Anselm de Gournay (d. 1286), was stated to hold the overlordship of Lytes Cary in 1284–5. (fn. 164) The second sister Alice married Roger (I) de Vilers, whose grandson Roger (III), son of Roger (II) de Vilers, was overlord of lands in Tuckers Cary in 1265. (fn. 165) Roger (III) died without surviving issue, and his lands were divided between his sisters, Mabel and Maud. (fn. 166) The former married Roger (I) de Studecumb and either he or his son Roger (II) occurs in 1284–5 as mesne lord of Lytes Cary under Anselm de Gournay. (fn. 167) The overlordship is not mentioned again until 1523, when it was held by Leonard Knoyle (d. 1532). (fn. 168) It occurs again in 1566, when it was held by Leonard's son, Edward Knoyle, (fn. 169) and finally in 1638, when it was owned by Edward Knoyle. (fn. 170) It is not referred to thereafter, nor is the mesne lordship mentioned again.
It is not known when the subinfeudation of the manor occurred. The manor was held in 1284–5 by William de (or le) Lyte by service of ¼ fee. (fn. 171) William is mentioned as witness to a deed of land in Tuckers Cary in 1255–6, (fn. 172) and he held a carucate of land there in 1265, when he was declared to be a rebel adherent of Brian de Gouvis, lord of Kingsdon. (fn. 173) On his death c. 1316 the manor passed either to his son Robert (I) le Lyte or to his grandson Robert (II) le Lyte. (fn. 174) Robert (II) appears to have been succeeded by his son Peter le Lyte (d. 1348), and subsequently by his grandson Edmund Lyte (d. 1418). (fn. 175) Edmund's son John (I) Lyte (d. after 1453) left a son Thomas (I) Lyte, on whose death c. 1468–9 the manor passed to his son John (II). (fn. 176) The latter's son Thomas (II) Lyte had succeeded his father by 1512 and died in 1523, (fn. 177) being followed by his son John (III) (d. 1566), whose arms and initials with those of his wife Edith Horsey are to be found throughout the house at Lytes Cary. (fn. 178) The manor then passed to their son Henry (I) (d. 1607) (fn. 179) and grandson Thomas (III) Lyte (d. 1638). (fn. 180) It was then inherited in turn by Thomas's son Henry (II) (d. 1666) and grandson Henry (III) Lyte (d. 1711). (fn. 181) The latter's son Henry (IV) (d. 1685) left issue Henry (V) Lyte, living in 1706, but in 1711 the manor evidently passed to Thomas (IV) Lyte, son of John (d. 1698), and grandson of Henry (III). (fn. 182) Thomas (IV) secured heavy mortgages on the estate and in 1755, with his son John (to whom he had conveyed his interest in return for an annuity in 1748), sold the manor to Thomas Lockyer of Ilchester. (fn. 183) Lockyer died in 1785, leaving the manor to his daughter Mary Smith and to her son Thomas. (fn. 184) They sold it to William Dickinson of Kingweston in 1802. (fn. 185) Thereafter it descended with the manor of Charlton Mackrell until 1907 when it was sold by William Dickinson to Sir Walter Jenner (d. 1948). (fn. 186) Sir Walter left the manor to the National Trust, the present owners. (fn. 187)
The manor-house of Lytes Cary is probably of 14th-century origin. The presentation of a chaplain to a chapel at Tuckers Cary by Peter le Lyte in 1341, and the fact that before this date the Lytes are referred to in connexion with lands lying at Tuckers Cary, suggests that they were originally tenants of the FitzPayn family there. (fn. 188) The institution of a chaplain to Lytes Cary chapel in 1343 (fn. 189) probably indicates that the house was originally built by Peter le Lyte shortly before this date. Thereafter it was evidently occupied continuously by the Lyte family until the 18th century, with the exception of a lease for 5 years to Robert Mere in 1583. (fn. 190) At least part of the house was rebuilt in the 15th century, perhaps by Thomas (I) Lyte (d. c. 1468–9), and it was much altered and extended by John (III) Lyte nearly 100 years later. The medieval and Tudor building formed a rectangle around a small courtyard with the chapel, initially detached, joined to the house at its eastern corner since the 15th century. Today only the north-east and south-east ranges and the chapel remain, a late18th-century farm-house having been erected in place of the north-western range, and a 20thcentury south-west wing built by Sir Walter Jenner on the site of buildings demolished before 1810. (fn. 191) The house is built of the local lias with Ham stone dressings. (fn. 192) With the exception of the chapel the oldest part is the north-east range which contains a 15th-century hall with a screens-passage across its north-west end. The building of the 18th-century farm-house beyond the passage has obliterated any medieval service rooms which may have stood there. The hall retains an original fireplace and roof. The latter is of four bays and has arch-braced collarbeam trusses, three tiers of cusped windbraces, and a cornice of pierced quatrefoils with carved angels at the base of the principal rafters. Nearly all the other features of the hall represent alterations carried out by John Lyte in the second quarter of the 16th century. Large three-light mullioned windows with four-centred heads to the lights were inserted and a two-storeyed porch and a projecting bay or 'oriel' were added to the front. The latter, at the dais end of the hall, consists of a small room on each floor, the lower one divided from the hall by a wide stone arch, carved with panelling, in which there was formerly a wooden screen. Both porch and oriel have bay windows resting on moulded corbels on the upper floors and their gables are surmounted by heraldic finials of the Lyte and Horsey families. Another stone-panelled arch leads to the staircase in the angle between the hall range and the southeast, or solar, wing. A small cusped window at the foot of the stair may have belonged to an earlier stair-turret. The solar wing, together with other, now vanished, buildings round the courtyard, was the work of John Lyte. At the centre of the southeast front is a two-storeyed bay window of eight lights with an embattled parapet pierced with quatrefoils. The bay is dated 1533 with the arms of Lyte impaling Horsey. Windows on this front originally contained heraldic glass recording the various marriages of the Lyte family. (fn. 193) The principal ground floor room, lit by the central bay and two flanking windows, is the great parlour. It was later enriched with Jacobean panelling and Ionic pilasters, and includes a fine chimneypiece. Immediately above, the great chamber is lit by windows identical with those on the ground floor. The barrel ceiling has plaster decoration in a geometrical design of moulded ribs, ornamented alternately with the arms of Lyte and Horsey, a very early example of such work. The frieze at one end carried the arms of Henry VIII. Entrance to the room is gained through an inner porch of linenfold panelling. The range to the south-west of the courtyard, built by Sir Walter Jenner after 1907, is mainly in the style of the later 17th century. Its elaborate internal fittings include carving from one of Wren's city churches. (fn. 194)
A chantry chapel in the court of Tuckers Cary, mentioned in 1341, (fn. 195) had evidently been transferred to Lytes Cary manor-house by 1343, (fn. 196) as in the 15th century it is referred to as the chantry of Lytes Cary alias Tuckers Cary. (fn. 197) The patronage descended with the manor of Lytes Cary, though the bishop collated in 1343, (fn. 198) and John de Draycot presented in 1351. (fn. 199) The last presentation was made in 1433, (fn. 200) although the chalice, vestments, altar cloths, and cruets are mentioned in 1546 and 1559. (fn. 201) The chaplain in 1421 was given leave to serve a cure elsewhere for a year in consideration of the poverty of the chantry. (fn. 202) The chapel, comprising three bays, is of lias with Ham stone dressings, and the style agrees with the date of c. 1343 supplied above. It has an arch-braced roof with collar trusses and is lit by late Decorated windows. The east window is pointed, of three lights, filled with 19th-century glass in 13th-century style, and there are two square-headed two-light windows in the side walls, all three having reticulated tracery. The building is entered by a door in the north wall with two-centred head, and a small window in the west wall contains some medieval glass inserted by Sir Walter Jenner. Fragments of an early piscina may have been brought from the former chapel at Tuckers Cary. The chapel was restored in 1631 by Thomas (III) Lyte. It was he who initiated the painted coats of arms forming a frieze round the west, north, and south walls to commemorate marriages made by his family. He also erected two tablets, one recording the restoration of the building, and the other a copy of a medieval window formerly in the north aisle of the parish church, depicting his earliest known ancestors, William and Agnes le Lyte. Most of the woodwork dates from Lyte's restoration, but the screen at the west end was evidently inserted by Jenner. (fn. 203) Besides restoring the house and chapel in the early 20th century, Sir Walter Jenner laid out the gardens in their present form. His work included a water-tower in the guise of a circular dovecot, closing the vista from the north-east front of the house.
The manor of TUCKERS CARY, TUCKS CARY, or LITTLE CARY later known as COOKS CARY or LOWER LYTES CARY, is first mentioned in 1321, (fn. 204) but occurs as a place name from 1255–6 ('Towkerekary'). (fn. 205) It may possibly be identified with the smaller of two Domesday manors called Cary, both owned in 1086 by Humphrey the chamberlain. (fn. 206) In 1066 this had been held 'in parage' by two brothers, Ordric and Living, and, like other of Humphrey's manors, had formed part of the estate of Brihtric son of Alfgar. (fn. 207) By 1480 and at least until 1638 the manor was held under that of Cary Fitzpaine by fealty, suit of court, a rent of 12d., and ½ lb. of cummin. (fn. 208)
Richard de Gatemore, whose family may have held Cary Fitzpaine in 1086, (fn. 209) granted his lands in Tuckers Cary to Sir Roger FitzPayn in c. 1271. (fn. 210) In 1280 John de Gatemore, Richard's son, failed in an attempt to recover land and rent there from Sir Roger. (fn. 211) By 1321 the manor was held by Ellis FitzPayn and Gillian his wife, (fn. 212) but by 1345–6 his lands had passed to his widow and to their son John. (fn. 213) They were succeeded by Sir John FitzPayn and his wife Eleanor before 1380–1, (fn. 214) and in 1384 the manor was settled on their son Ellis. (fn. 215) In 1412 it was held by Sir Thomas FitzPayn, (fn. 216) but by 1428 had passed to his son John, (fn. 217) and by 1439 to John Austell, husband of Margaret FitzPayn. (fn. 218) In 1439 Austell conveyed his lands in 'Lytilkary alias Tokeryskary', then held for life by John Plasman, to his daughter Agnes, wife of Thomas Burton. (fn. 219) Agnes married Sir Nicholas St. Lo (d. 1486) (fn. 220) and was succeeded in turn by her son Sir John (d. 1499), (fn. 221) and grandson Nicholas St. Lo (d. 1508). (fn. 222) The latter's son, Sir John, sold the manor to John (III) Lyte (d. 1566) of Lytes Cary in 1540, (fn. 223) and thereafter the manor descended with that of Lytes Cary. (fn. 224) In 1720 Thomas (IV) Lyte sold it to his step-father Thomas Cooke, husband of Catherine Lyte; (fn. 225) it has been known since then as Cooks Cary. Cooke's widow and children conveyed the manor to Thomas Freke of Bristol in 1732, (fn. 226) from whom it passed to his daughter Frances and her husband John Willes of Astrop (Northants.). (fn. 227) Their son John Freke Willes, by will dated 1799, left the manor to his cousin the Revd. William Shippen Willes of Cirencester (Glos.), who sold it to William Dickinson of Kingweston in 1803. (fn. 228) Thereafter it descended with the manor of Charlton Mackrell, (fn. 229) although Cooks Cary farm was sold to the Dickinson tenant, Mr. F. Attwell, in 1930. (fn. 230)
It may be presumed that the manor-house, now Cooks Cary farm-house, existed in 1341, when a priest was instituted to the chantry 'in the court of Toukereskary'. (fn. 231) The present two-storey house is built of lias and tiled, but includes no identifiable features earlier than the 19th century.
An estate held in 1317 by Richard Lovel and Muriel his wife was described then as the manor of CHARLTON MACKRELL. (fn. 232) Lovel's heir was his granddaughter Muriel, wife of Sir Nicholas de Seymour (d. 1361). (fn. 233) The Seymours also held a house and land in Charlton Adam under Thomas Horsey, which was granted to Henry Power (d. 1361) during the minority of Richard, son of Sir Nicholas Seymour. (fn. 234) Both Richard Seymour (d. 1401) and his son Richard (d. 1409) were stated to hold two houses and lands in Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam under Nicholas Paulet, (fn. 235) suggesting that the two estates had been combined. These lands descended to Alice, wife of William, Lord Zouche (d. 1463), and subsequently to their son William (d. 1469), when they were described as the manors of CHARLTON ADAM AND CHARLTON MACKRELL. (fn. 236) In 1480 they were held of Cary Fitzpaine manor and known as Knyghtysplace. (fn. 237) John, Lord Zouche, William's son, was attained after Bosworth, and the manors were granted in 1486 to Sir William Willoughby. (fn. 238) The Zouche attainder was reversed in 1489, and it seems likely that their estate in the Charltons was restored, for in 1540 Richard, later Lord Zouche, sold lands and tenements called Lanchers and Clearkes in the two parishes to John (III) Lyte of Lytes Cary (d. 1566). (fn. 239) Thereafter the estate descended with the manor of Lytes Cary, (fn. 240) and in 1626 and 1637 a farm called 'Lanchsheare' was acknowledged to be held as a freehold of Cary Fitzpaine manor by fealty, suit of court, and a rent of 1d. or a pair of gloves. (fn. 241) In 1702 the lands, then comprising two amalgamated tenements of 100 a. known as Lanchers farm and Bellamys tenement, were settled on Thomas Lyte (d. 1748), third son of Henry (III), before his marriage. (fn. 242) It was he who rebuilt the house attached to Bellamys tenement, subsequently known as Charlton House, in 1726. (fn. 243) In that year the premises were settled on his daughter Silvestra on her marriage with Thomas Blackwell, rector of St. Clement Danes, London, whose two daughters Silvestra, wife of James Monypenny, and Mary sold them to John Pyne of Low Ham in 1758. (fn. 244) On his death in 1791 John Pyne left the house and lands to his son William, who conveyed them to Robert Clarke of Castle Cary in 1794. (fn. 245) Clarke sold the estate to John Jerritt in 1800; it was resold to Lionel Lukin in 1806, to John Whitelocke in 1809, and finally to William Dickinson in 1811. (fn. 246) It subsequently descended in the Dickinson family with the manor of Charlton Mackrell, until its sale by William Francis Dickinson in 1930. (fn. 247)
When John Pyne acquired Charlton House in 1758 it was held with the original estate of 100 a. (fn. 248) Pyne purchased three houses adjoining the house, Jerritt a further nine, and Whitelocke two more. These were demolished and the lands added to the gardens. (fn. 249) Jerritt also used the acquired lands to divert the road running from Charlton Adam to Kingweston further to the west, and to convert the old road into a carriage drive past the house. (fn. 250) The farm buildings adjoining the house were demolished, new cottages erected in their place, and much of the farm lands sold off. (fn. 251) Thus by 1806 the gardens had been extended from 2 a. to 15 a. (fn. 252) and by 1810 the total lands held with the house had been reduced to 64 a., farmed from a house on the north side of Somerton Lane towards its eastern end. (fn. 253) When Charlton House was sold in 1930 only the gardens remained. (fn. 254) The size and character of the property led to its occupation under the Dickinsons by a succession of prominent inhabitants of the parish. These included Capt. Robert Page (1819–52), (fn. 255) the Revd. William Pyne (1853–81), (fn. 256) Edwin Langdale Christie (1891–1905), (fn. 257) and Sir Arthur Theodore Thring (1905–32). (fn. 258) The house is a large building of stone and slate, having two storeys with an attic above. The largely unaltered front, seven bays wide, has rusticated quoins, bolectionmoulded architraves, a heavily moulded stringcourse, and a parapet cornice swept up in the centre and at the angles. Niches flank the central bay on both floors. Lead rainwater-heads are dated 1726, one bearing the Lyte swan, the other blank. The Tuscan porch is a later addition. Of the two slightly recessed flanking wings, one is of the original date and the other appears to have been rebuilt or remodelled in the early 19th century. Internally there is a staircase of c. 1726. At the north-east corner of the house stands an 18th-century dovecot, two storeys high, with nesting boxes on the upper floor.
The lands of the chantry in the south aisle of the parish church, founded by Ralph Horsey in 1342, originally comprised 2 virgates (80 a.) of land and 12 a. of meadow within the parish. (fn. 259) A house had been built there by 1374, (fn. 260) and the lands appear to have been retained by the chaplains until the chantry was dissolved in 1548. (fn. 261) At that date the estate was estimated to contain 30 a. of land and 8 a. of meadow. (fn. 262) A grant of the chantry and lands to Sir Thomas Bell of Gloucester and Richard Duke of London in 1548 (fn. 263) never appears to have taken effect. The lands had evidently formed part of the manor of Cary Fitzpaine and at the dissolution reverted to the lord of that manor, Sir John Horsey. (fn. 264) In 1548 the lessee had been John Drewe, probably father of the last incumbent, and Drewe purchased them from Horsey in 1553, when they comprised two messuages, a cottage, and 107 a. of land. (fn. 265) John Drewe died in 1570 and was succeeded by his grandson Henry. (fn. 266) The latter entered on the premises in 1582 when the lands were valued at 29s. 8d. and the chantry at 26s. 8d. (fn. 267) The Drewe family continued to hold the property until it was sold by John Drewe to John Eastment of Sherborne (Dors.) in 1664. (fn. 268) The latter's granddaughter and heir, Dorothy Eastment (d. 1742), married Carew Hervey Mildmay of Hazlegrove in 1718. On his death in 1784 Mildmay left his estates to his greatniece Jane, wife of Sir Henry Paulet St. JohnMildmay. (fn. 269) They sold the farm and 97 a. of land to John Jerritt in 1807, (fn. 270) and he conveyed them in the same year to William Dickinson. (fn. 271) The buildings were sold in 1922 (fn. 272) and in 1970 were held with Rookery farm and Charlton Mackrell Court by Mr. I. L. Phillips. (fn. 273) Included with the estate in 1588 was a building called the Chantry House, (fn. 274) which can possibly be identified with a two-storeyed lias cottage, set back from the south side of Somerton Road. Its eastern half, which has a large chimney and the remains of a smoke chamber at the gable-end, may date from the early 16th century. The ground floor formerly consisted of a single room with a panelled screen dividing it from a cross-passage. Beyond the passage the west end of the cottage has been rebuilt as a separate dwelling. Against the south, or back, wall of the original room, and entered from it by a stone doorway with a four-centred head, is a staircase projection. The back wall also has a moulded stonemullioned window of three slightly pointed lights. There is a similar four-light window in the front wall and, further west, a reset two-light window. The latter probably replaces the original front doorway of the screens-passage.
A farm-house and lands of 93 a. in the parish formed the principal estate held by Young's School in Trent (Dors.) evidently purchased by the trustees between 1678 and 1705 from Thomas Hodges. (fn. 275) The inclosure award of 1810 reduced the acreage to 76 a., and the farm was exchanged for lands in Trent with Edward Newman in 1846. (fn. 276) Newman sold the property to William Dickinson in the same year. (fn. 277) The farm-house, dated 1791, is now known as Georgian Cottage.
In 1086 Charlton Mackrell manor was assessed at 3 hides; there was land for 6 ploughs, although only 4 were mentioned. A ½ hide was held in demesne by Roger Arundel with 1 plough, and there were 3 villeins, 9 bordars, and 4 serfs who worked the remaining 2½ hides with 3 ploughs. There were 30 a. of meadow and 2 a. of wood, and stock comprised only 1 packhorse, 14 swine, and 15 sheep. At the same date Cary Fitzpaine was wholly held in demesne by Robert under Roger Arundel. It gelded for 1 hide less 1 ferling, worked by 1 plough, and was evidently farmed as a single unit. There were 4 cottars there, 20 a. of meadow, 10 beasts, and 9 swine. Of the two other Cary manors, the larger, possibly Lytes Cary, was assessed at 2 hides and there was land for 3 ploughs. The demesne comprised 1 hide and 1 virgate, and 24 a. of meadow, with 2 ploughs, and the remaining land was farmed by 3 villeins and 3 bordars with 1 plough. The smaller Cary manor, possibly Tuckers Cary, gelded for 1 hide and 1 ferling, with 1 ploughland. Like Cary Fitzpaine it was all held in demesne, with 1 bordar and 2 cottars holding 7 a. of land. There were 20 a. of meadow, 12 beasts, and 100 sheep. (fn. 278)
In 1327 the demesne lands of Charlton Mackrell manor comprised a capital messuage, 60 a. of land, and 12 a. of meadow. (fn. 279) Ralph Horsey granted 85 a. of land and 12 a. of meadow to found a chantry in 1342, (fn. 280) but this property was evidently not part of the demesne. His remaining lands, constituting half of the manor, then totalled 244 a. of land and 41 a. of meadow. (fn. 281) In the early 17th century the demesne lands contained 56 a. and were leased on lives in separate moieties to Hugh Ball and John Fawkner. (fn. 282) The property was physically subdivided between these men, for in 1615 Ball claimed that Fawkner had neglected his own moiety and entered upon Ball's lands. (fn. 283) By 1757 the farm had been extended to include 162 a. of the manor, (fn. 284) and by 1800 the whole manor, comprising 344 a., had been combined to form a single farm. (fn. 285)
The manor of Cary Fitzpaine was initially cultivated as a demesne farm. In 1733 most of the lands within the manor which lay north-west of the Foss Way were conveyed to Thomas Lockyer, (fn. 286) and were probably united with Charlton Mackrell manor. The manor-house was leased out on lives by the mid 16th century (fn. 287) and in 1616 was held with lands of 252 a. (fn. 288) Lytes Cary and Tuckers Cary both appear to have been cultivated as single farms, and no significant expansion or diminution of their lands has been traced.
No comprehensive figures are available for medieval land use within the parish; nor does the inclosure award supply details of cultivation. In the 17th and 18th centuries the impression is given of a preponderance of arable land in the area of Charlton Mackrell manor, and of grassland in the three Cary manors. In 1690 Lytes Cary and Tuckers Cary together contained 126 a. of arable, 120 a. of meadow, and 248 a. of pasture, (fn. 289) and in 1757 Cary Fitzpaine comprised 93 a. of arable, 108 a. of meadow, and 163 a. of pasture. (fn. 290) After the inclosure of 1810 much of the arable land was evidently converted to meadow or pasture, and by 1905 exactly 2/3 of the total acreage in Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam parishes was permanent grassland. (fn. 291) When 696 a. of the Dickinson estate were sold in 1930 only 116 a. were then arable land. (fn. 292) This trend has continued to the present.
The income from Charlton Mackrell manor fell from £6 in 1066 to £5 in 1086, (fn. 293) and this had risen only to 102s. by 1327. (fn. 294) Subsequent figures relate to a moiety of the manor: £2 9s. 11d. in 1330, (fn. 295) £10 in 1490, (fn. 296) £39 12s. 11d. in 1670, (fn. 297) and £58 12s. in 1680. (fn. 298) The total rental of the moiety, which stood at £4 12s. 11d. in 1626, (fn. 299) continued at about the same level, falling slightly to £4 12s. 3d. in 1670. (fn. 300) Cary Fitzpaine's Domesday value was £1, the same figure as in 1066. (fn. 301) It was valued at £5 in 1490, (fn. 302) but no estimate is available thereafter. The total rental in 1616 was £10 7s. 2½d., and in 1626 £10 6s. 10½d. (fn. 303) The larger of the two Cary manors mentioned in Domesday, possibly Lytes Cary, had increased in value from £1 to £2 between 1066 and 1086, and the smaller, possibly Tuckers Cary, from 30s. to 40s. (fn. 304) A moiety of Tuckers Cary manor was valued at £5 in 1508, (fn. 305) but no other estimates for the two manors have been found.
In Charlton Mackrell manor in 1327 there were two free tenants paying £1, four nativi paying 32s. and holding a fardel of land each, and six cottars paying 6s. (fn. 306) Customary labour was then valued at 5s. but no subsequent reference to such service has been found. (fn. 307) In 1626 the manor comprised 232 a. of land, of which 146 a. were held by four copyhold tenants, 29 a. were overland held under lease by six tenants, and there were four cottagers holding by copy. (fn. 308) At the same date Cary Fitzpaine manor contained 728 a. of land, of which 686 a. were held by nine tenants in holdings varying in size from 91 a. to 28 a., and one cottager. (fn. 309) There were also freeholders of both manors, six owing suit of court to Cary Fitzpaine in 1613. (fn. 310)
Both of these two manors had similar customs, probably by virtue of their common descent. All tenements paid heriots, were held on 1, 2, 3, or 4 lives, and widows estate was recognized in respect of copyholds not composed of overland. (fn. 311) Tenants were forbidden to lease their pasture to outdwellers if any tenant or parishioner was willing to pay an equal price. (fn. 312) By the late 17th and early 18th century those tenements in the two manors which had not been enfranchized were generally held on leases for 99 years or 2 or 3 lives. (fn. 313)
In 1613 the rectorial manor comprised 130 a., let in 9 tenements. (fn. 314) The fact that three of these had an area of about 21½ a. each, (fn. 315) and that in 1670 the manor was stated to comprise 6 tenements, (fn. 316) suggests that the holding was originally leased to 6 tenants each farming 21½ a. In 1724 tenements were leased for a single life, tenants paying heriots and entry fines, and admission and surrender were performed by delivery of a 'mote' or pen. (fn. 317) All tenants owed one day's labour to the rector at harvesttime, and had common rights in Summerleaze and 'Powditch'. (fn. 318) During the 18th century as customary tenants died their holdings were granted to members of the families of successive rectors, and by 1794 98 a. had been repossessed in this manner. (fn. 319) Further tenements were enfranchized in 1802 and 1810 to extend the gardens of Charlton House. (fn. 320)
In the early 13th century there were two common arable fields, East and West; and there was common meadow at Willmoors. (fn. 321) By c. 1564–6 a four-field system had emerged, based on North, South, East, and West fields. (fn. 322) Piecemeal inclosure had already begun, and by 1690 East field had been almost completely inclosed, and the parish reduced to a threefield system. (fn. 323) In 1637 Thomas Strangways was presented for pasturing sheep in the South field when he had already inclosed the lands there to which he was entitled. (fn. 324) Field-name evidence indicates that Cary Fitzpaine may have possessed a three-field system and Cary North field remained in strips as late as 1758, but early inclosure and common descent with Charlton Mackrell manor led to the tenure of arable holdings in the common fields of the latter. (fn. 325) The manors of Lytes Cary and Tuckers Cary never appear to have developed openfield systems of their own and also possessed small holdings in the fields of Charlton Mackrell manor. (fn. 326) Common pasture in Summerleaze was held by the tenants of Charlton Mackrell manor and the rectory manor in the form of beast leazes belonging to each tenement. (fn. 327) Most of the remaining common meadow and pasture was inclosed by the early 17th century. (fn. 328) The inclosure of both Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam parishes, together with the conversion of tithes into corn-rents, was first proposed in 1802, in consequence of a tithe dispute between the rector and landowners of Charlton Mackrell. (fn. 329) At inclosure there were 28 common fields in the two parishes, varying in size from 93 a. to 3 a. They totalled 447 a., about 100 a. of which were detached areas of Charlton Adam parish lying in Charlton Mackrell. (fn. 330) The parishes were inclosed simultaneously because their common boundary was very complicated. For the same reason it took 8 years to complete the process of allotment. (fn. 331)
At the time of the 1810 inclosure about half the parish, 1,090 a., was owned by William Dickinson, and included the manors of Charlton Mackrell, Lytes Cary, and Tuckers Cary, leased to three farmers. (fn. 332) By c. 1835 the Dickinson lands had been reorganized to form more viable farming units. (fn. 333) The principal improvement was the creation of a new farm in the former open fields at Wellham to which were allotted 106 a. from Charlton Mackrell manor, of which 45 a. lay in Charlton Adam. (fn. 334) Lytes Cary farm contained 336 a. and Cooks (formerly Tuckers) Cary farm 176 a. (of which about 20 a. lay in Charlton Adam). (fn. 335) The rest of the lands which formed Charlton Mackrell manor farm (later Rookery farm) had been combined with the farm formerly held by the Mildmays and acquired in 1807 to form a new farm of 228 a. (fn. 336) A farm of 116 a. adjoining the church, purchased from Thomas Bryan in 1805, was increased in size to 151 a., of which 32 a. lay in Charlton Adam. (fn. 337) With the exception of the last these holdings were still dairy farms in 1970. The only other large property in 1810 was Cary Fitzpaine, comprising 526 a., of which 67 a. lay in Charlton Adam. (fn. 338) During the 18th century the estate had included four small farms, (fn. 339) but by 1842 and until 1885 the lands were held by two tenants. (fn. 340) Since 1885 it has been farmed as a single unit. (fn. 341) The glebe with the rectory manor had measured 153 a. in 1810, (fn. 342) 145 a. in c. 1840, (fn. 343) and 171 a. when sold in 1922. (fn. 344) The Charlton House estate and the farm held by Trent school trustees, together totalling 140 a. in 1810 (of which 23 a. lay in Charlton Adam), were acquired by the Dickinsons in 1811 and 1846 respectively. (fn. 345) The small farm held by the York family in 1810, comprising 76 a. (of which 14 a. lay in Charlton Adam), (fn. 346) was still owned by them c. 1840. (fn. 347) It was later purchased by the Dickinsons and the farm-house leased as a cottage holding. (fn. 348)
Few parishioners followed non-agrarian pursuits. Lias building stone was evidently quarried in the Charltons from Roman times, (fn. 349) but most of this activity was confined to Charlton Adam. In the 19th century quarries in Charlton Mackrell were sited near Tuckers Batch and south of Tout, and masons, stonecutters, and allied craftsmen occur regularly in the parish registers from 1814. (fn. 350) The common arable field called Sandpits in the extreme north of the parish probably indicates the site of earlier excavations. (fn. 351) A poultry packing station existed by 1930, and a haulage business based on Cooks Cary farm was established in 1931. (fn. 352)
A water-mill was held in moieties with the manor of Charlton Mackrell in 1294. (fn. 353) Two millers in Charlton tithing were presented for taking excessive tolls at their mills in 1392, one of which, owned by John FitzPayn, probably lay in Charlton Mackrell. (fn. 354) Walter the miller of Charlton was presented for a similar offence in 1393, (fn. 355) as were John Donfoll and Edmund Rose, millers, in 1436 and 1437, (fn. 356) and John Larder and Richard Ball in 1452 and 1456. (fn. 357) The last probably occupied the mill known as Chalkbrook mill, evidently held by Edward Ball in 1573 and 1574, (fn. 358) and by Hugh Ball in 1619. (fn. 359) In 1613 the joint tenants of Charlton Mackrell manor-house and lands were ordered to repair the water-mill, (fn. 360) and a Charlton Mackrell miller was mentioned in 1621. (fn. 361) Between 1680 and 1687 'Chalbrooks' mill was occupied by Richard Bartlett, (fn. 362) and in 1717 by Thomas Bartlett, when a moiety of the mills, described as a water grist mill, was conveyed with a moiety of the manor. (fn. 363) By 1738 it had been acquired by James Samson, (fn. 364) lord of Cary Fitzpaine manor and of a moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor. It descended with the manor of Cary Fitzpaine until 1783, when it was evidently purchased by the occupier, Thomas Bryan. (fn. 365) He sold it to Thomas Harris c. 1795, and it continued to be held with Cary Fitzpaine until at least 1832. (fn. 366) It is doubtful whether the mill was still being worked at this date, since no buildings are shown on the inclosure map of 1810. (fn. 367)
A windmill on the summit of the present Windmill hill is first mentioned in 1616, when it was conveyed with other lands held by Andrew and Mabel Walton to trustees. (fn. 368) It may, however, be one of two mills settled by William Brytte on his daughter and son-in-law in 1476. (fn. 369) In 1626 it was described as 'Mr. Thomas Baskett's windmill', Baskett having died in 1592, (fn. 370) and the mill evidently descended with the Manor farm estate in Charlton Adam from Baskett to the Strangways family. (fn. 371) It still existed in 1757, (fn. 372) but had been demolished by 1810. (fn. 373)
Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam were always regarded as a single tithing within Somerton hundred, but Cary Fitzpaine was considered to be a tithing of Whitley hundred in 1327, (fn. 374) and owed suit of court there as late as 1821. (fn. 375) Lytes Cary and Tuckers Cary both formed part of Kingsdon tithing. (fn. 376)
There is a 1480 court roll for Cary Fitzpaine manor. (fn. 377) Draft manor court rolls survive for the Henley moieties of Charlton Mackrell and Cary Fitzpaine: in respect of the former for the years 1613–14, 1626–38, and 1653–75, and for the latter, 1610–14, 1626–39, 1653–96, and 1719, although in 1633, 1660, and 1664 joint courts were held for both moieties of the two manors. (fn. 378) The court met at varying dates once or twice a year for each manor, and was generally described as curia baronis, but occasionally as curia manerii or simply as curia. (fn. 379) The breach of the fields was made at the court from 1637, by agreement between Thomas Lyte and Thomas Strangways for the freeholders, the rector for himself and the tenants of the rectory manor, and John Fawkner and Henry Creech for the tenants of Charlton Mackrell and Cary Fitzpaine manors respectively. (fn. 380) The same bailiff appears to have served for the moieties of both manors for the period for which court rolls survive. A hayward was appointed for Charlton Mackrell in 1613 and 1653, and another for Cary Fitzpaine in 1628 and 1635. A keeper of the fields was elected for Cary Fitzpaine manor in 1664. (fn. 381)
Court rolls for the rectory manor of Charlton Mackrell survive for 1672 (fn. 382) and 1724–1854. (fn. 383) Courts were held at very irregular intervals, presided over by the steward or his deputy, and described throughout as 'court baron'. Business conducted by the court almost wholly comprised admissions and surrenders, with isolated orders to repair tenements. A hayward was appointed in 1808 and 1834. (fn. 384) There is nothing to show that courts were ever held for the manors of Lytes Cary or Tuckers Cary.
By the 19th century the vestry appointed one or two parish surgeons (1819–34), two churchwardens (1825–97), two overseers (1837–94), one or two waywardens (1837–94), two or more constables (1842–72), and a hayward (1864). (fn. 385) The vestry subsidized the emigration of poor families to New Zealand in 1841 and to Canada in 1842 and 1848. (fn. 386)
A poorhouse is mentioned in 1789, and was built probably at about that date. (fn. 387) Surviving plans show a long two-storey building divided vertically into four units, each with a separate entrance, comprising ground-floor room and bedroom above. (fn. 388) The house was sold to Francis Henry Dickinson in 1838 (fn. 389) and subsequently demolished. (fn. 390) The parish became part of the Langport union in 1836. (fn. 391)
The church of Charlton Mackrell is first mentioned in 1217. (fn. 392) A vicarage then existed, charged with an annual payment of 50s. to a rector instituted in that year. (fn. 393) No further reference to a vicar has been found, and from 1248 the benefice was always a rectory. (fn. 394) The benefices of Charlton Mackrell and Charlton Adam were united in 1921. (fn. 395)
The advowson descended initially with that moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor held by the FitzPayn family. Robert FitzPayn (I) presented Robert de Meisy as vicar between 1198 and 1217, and was described in 1329 as the first to exercise patronage. (fn. 396) The right of alternate presentation was conveyed by Roger FitzPayn to Margery Belet, owner of the second moiety of the manor, in 1224, (fn. 397) and subsequently passed with that moiety to the Horsey family. A dispute in 1329 between Sir Robert FitzPayn (IV) and John Horsey (III) as to which of them held the next presentation was resolved in favour of FitzPayn. (fn. 398) In 1426 John Tretheke presented as second husband of Joan, widow of William Horsey (III), (fn. 399) and in 1472 and 1477 the feoffees of Thomas Horsey (d. 1468) held the advowson. (fn. 400) The moieties were reunited in the person of Sir John Horsey in 1540. (fn. 401) In 1567 John Sprynt presented, and in 1571 Henry Bayly, both by grant of the Horsey family. (fn. 402) The advowson, like the manor, was again divided after 1589 between the coheirs of Sir John Horsey. (fn. 403)
In 1609 William Lockett presented his son Giles, on behalf of Reginald Mohun, (fn. 404) and Giles's brother the Revd. William Lockett, with Robert and John Whetcombe, presented Simon Whetcombe in 1646, the latter having married Constance Lockett in 1644. (fn. 405) This moiety had reverted to Henry Henley by 1684, (fn. 406) who reserved his right to the advowson when he sold his moiety of the manor in 1717. (fn. 407) Henry presented William Dodd (rector 1718–60) in the following year. (fn. 408)
The second moiety was held by Hubert Arnold in 1670, (fn. 409) and the next presentation was granted to William Raven, whose executor presented Richard Carter (rector 1686–1718). (fn. 410) Carter purchased this moiety from the earl of Radnor in 1704, (fn. 411) and it was acquired from his family by his successor, William Dodd, in 1731. (fn. 412) Dodd was reinstituted in that year, although the patron was again described as Henry Henley. (fn. 413)
Dodd apparently acquired the Henley moiety, and was sole patron at his death in 1790. (fn. 414) The advowson then passed to his eldest daughter Jane and her husband, Edward Cheselden (rector 1760– 80) of Somerby (Leics.), and Cheselden himself was instituted at their joint presentation. (fn. 415) Their daughter Wilhelmina Jane Cheselden was patroness in 1780. (fn. 416) Lydia Munday of Andover (Hants) acquired it from her, and presented her future husband Richard Ford in 1783. (fn. 417) At his death in 1817 Ford left the patronage to his sister-in-law Harriet Munday, who evidently sold it to Alexander Brymer of Bathwick, patron in 1818 and 1821. (fn. 418) He was succeeded by his son John Brymer, who held the patronage between 1861 and 1875. (fn. 419) His trustees held it between 1883 and 1906. (fn. 420) John George Brymer, rector of Ilsington (Devon), was patron between 1914 and 1919, (fn. 421) but on the union of the benefice with Charlton Adam in 1921 it was agreed that the Brymer family should have two presentations and the Bath and Wells Diocesan Trustees one. (fn. 422) The last presentation made by the Brymers was in 1950. Since that time the Diocesan Board of Patronage has been sole patron. (fn. 423)
The rectory was valued at £16 13s. 4d. in 1291, (fn. 424) at '£20 to bide on and 20 marks to let out' in 1521, (fn. 425) and £16 0s. 1½d. in 1535. (fn. 426) By c. 1668 the common reputed value was £80, (fn. 427) although the true figure was probably nearer that of £120 supplied by a survey of 1670. (fn. 428) By 1831 the income had risen to £499 net, a figure which remained steady until at least 1875. (fn. 429)
Small tithes, oblations, and obventions produced £5 8s. 8d. in 1334. (fn. 430) Predial tithes and tithes of wool were valued at £9 13s. 4d. in 1535, oblations and personal tithes being worth £4 11s. in that year. (fn. 431) In 1613 the rector took all tithes in kind, receiving 2d. an acre for the first share of 'stock' meadow. (fn. 432) A series of law suits brought by the rector for non-payment resulted in an agreement in 1803 to give him not less than £300 in corn rents, though the allotment of 1810 was only £280 12s. 0¾d. (fn. 433) The income from corn rents fell to £264 in 1874, and to £160 in 1902. (fn. 434)
In 1334 the rector held a close, 4 bovates of land, and 5 a. of meadow which, with rents and perquisites, were valued at £4 4s. 8d. (fn. 435) The demesne lands were worth 40s. in 1535 and perquisites of court from the rectory manor produced a further 6s. 8d. (fn. 436) The glebe lands in 1613, including the rectory manor, comprised 129 a. of arable in the common fields, 26½ a. of meadow, and 24 a. of pasture, with common in Summerleaze, the manor producing an annual rental of 51s. 10d. (fn. 437) In 1810 the total glebe comprised 154 a., (fn. 438) was reduced by 6 a. in 1823, (fn. 439) and stood at 145 a. by c. 1840. (fn. 440) The rectory manor was last mentioned in 1858. (fn. 441) In 1919 there were 130 a. of glebe, in 1923 50 a., and between 1931 and 1939 37 a. (fn. 442) There was no glebe in 1972. (fn. 443)
The rectory house is first mentioned in 1521, when it was stated that John Walgrave (rector 1504c. 1541) had 'builded a fair mansion place out of the ground of stone and slated, very well finished and glazed, with goodly orchards about it, walled close round about'. (fn. 444) Richard Ford (rector 1783– 1817) found the house 'very ruinous' and had it 'completely repaired'. (fn. 445) This repair evidently involved much reconstruction and may probably be ascribed to c. 1792. (fn. 446) The house was sold in 1922 after the union of the benefice with Charlton Adam, and has since been known as Charlton Mackrell Court. (fn. 447) It is a large, three-storeyed house, retaining in part the thick walls and basically medieval plan of the early-16th-century building. In 1922 it appears to have consisted of a twostoreyed range, one room deep, from which the screens-passage, hall, and parlour have survived along the present south front. At the east end of the house a single-light stone window in a deep reveal, part of the original parlour, was opened up in the 1960s. (fn. 448) There is evidence that extensions had been made at the rear before Richard Ford's major alterations of c. 1792. Ford rebuilt the south front of the house as a nearly symmetrical threestoreyed elevation, giving it an embattled parapet, sash windows with Gothic glazing bars, and a double centred porch with Tudor arches. Because of the off-centre position of the original screens-passage entrance, he was forced, in the interests of symmetry, to include one of the hall windows beneath the porch. The Gothic taste of the period is again evident in the delicate three-bay screen across the entrance hall and in the cast-iron balustrade of the curved staircase behind it. (fn. 449) Alterations were made at the west or service end of the house by Mr. I. L. Phillips in the mid 20th century.
The high value of the rectory led to its tenure by a succession of distinguished men, a number of the earlier ones holding in plurality. In 1248 William de Warneford was authorized to hold the church with two other benefices, (fn. 450) and William of Charlton, rector in 1297, was succentor and later canon of Wells. (fn. 451) William Bykenell (rector 1426–44) held four canonries while at Charlton, and enjoyed other smaller livings at the same time. (fn. 452) His successor, John Perch (rector 1444–6), was a fellow of Magdalene Hall, Oxford, and while rector was canon and chancellor in South Malling college (Suss.). (fn. 453) Thomas Markham (rector 1451–72) was granted leave to hold a second benefice in 1457, (fn. 454) and John Joy (rector 1473–7) was prior of Boxgrove (Suss.). (fn. 455) William Horsey (rector 1499–1502) was principal of Peckwater Inn, Oxford, and held other livings in Somerset and Dorset while at Charlton. (fn. 456) In 1554 William Squire was deprived as he 'was married and doth not minister'. (fn. 457) Since 1609 all incumbents have held degrees, with the exception of Thomas Jarvis (rector c. 1657–70) who left Oxford without one. (fn. 458) W. T. P. Brymer (rector 1821–52) was archdeacon of Bath, and both his successors, A. O. Fitzgerald (rector 1853–76) and F. A. Brymer (rector 1877–1917), were archdeacons of Wells. (fn. 459)
In 1815 services were accustomed to be held once every Sunday, but as the rector held no other benefice at that time he gave his parishioners 'double service'. (fn. 460) The two services held on Census Sunday in 1851 were attended by 66 in the morning and 118 in the evening. (fn. 461) Holy Communion was celebrated monthly by 1870. (fn. 462)
A curate was mentioned in 1532 (fn. 463) and another occurs during the years 1601–7. (fn. 464) Thereafter rectors were generally resident, but assistant curates are found regularly from the mid 18th century. (fn. 465)
In 1593 it was stated that there had been a church house in the parish from 'time immemorial', held by successive trustees for the benefit of the church. (fn. 466) In that year a Chancery suit was begun by the churchwardens to recover the building from Richard Arnold, lord of a moiety of Charlton Mackrell manor, to whom the house had been surrendered to discharge the personal debts of the surviving trustee. (fn. 467) The property was evidently recovered, for it was held by the parish in 1613, (fn. 468) although its site and subsequent history have not been traced.
Ralph Horsey received a licence in 1342 to alienate lands valued at 16s. a year to a chaplain to celebrate daily in the parish church for the souls of Ralph and his ancestors. (fn. 469) These were seized by the Crown in 1374 but restored seven years later, (fn. 470) and it is evident that a chantry had been founded in a chapel called 'Horsiesele', now the south transeptal chapel. (fn. 471) A chaplain was presented by the Crown in 1378, after the chantry had been seized, (fn. 472) but the first incumbent was restored to his position and lands in 1381. (fn. 473) The chantry was dissolved in 1548, but there were no ornaments nor plate, and the last incumbent, John Drewe the younger, received a pension. (fn. 474) The lands of the chantry, stated to be worth 26s. 8d. in 1535, (fn. 475) were granted in 1548 to Sir Thomas Bell and Richard Duke, (fn. 476) and their subsequent descent has already been traced. (fn. 477) After the Dissolution Horsey's aisle descended jointly with the manors of Cary Fitzpaine and Charlton Mackrell, for in 1639 responsibility for the repair of its windows was attributed to Henry Creech and John Fawkner, then occupiers of the two manor-houses. (fn. 478) Similarly in 1805 it was divided equally between William Dickinson and James Sutton as owners of the two manors. (fn. 479)
Roger Roundel granted 2 a. of land to the rector in c. 1358 to ring the curfew every night and early in the morning, 8 a. of land to supply lights to burn in two cressets within the church on every double feast, and 10 a. of land and 2 a. of meadow to provide a lamp to burn daily before the high altar. (fn. 480) These lands were seized by the Crown in 1374 because they had been alienated without licence. (fn. 481) The brothers and sisters of the 'sepulture light' there occur in 1541, (fn. 482) and a further 8 a. of land and 1 a. of meadow, given to maintain seven lights 'called a beam light' in the church, are mentioned between 1568 and 1572. (fn. 483) A parcel of land in the parish, formerly given to provide a light in the church, was granted to John and William Mershe of London in 1574. (fn. 484)
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN lies on the north side of the road from Somerton, near the summit of a small hill in the centre of the old parish. Claims that the church was originally dedicated to St. Martin cannot be substantiated. (fn. 485) The building comprises chancel, nave, north and south transepts, and central crossing tower. It underwent very considerable renovation between 1792 and 1794, when the roof was wholly replaced, (fn. 486) and again in c. 1847, when the porch, windows, and probably much of the fabric were reconstructed, and a vestry added on the north side of the chancel, replacing one on the south side. The church contains an early 13th-century font with a circular bowl and a 'water-holding' base, but the fabric itself dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. The oldest surviving work is at the crossing and in the north transept. The chancel is also 14th century in style but appears to have been largely rebuilt in 1847. The north transept has an original north window of c. 1330–40 containing five lights, the tracery consisting of reticulations and a large circle. This transept was originally held by the owners of Lytes Cary and known as Lytes aisle; (fn. 487) the north window formerly contained medieval glass depicting the Five Joys of Our Lady and the kneeling figures of William le Lyte and his wife. The latter's Purbeck marble tomb, now a shapeless mass in the churchyard, was formerly sited here, but this, the glass, and other monuments of the family were removed at the restorations. (fn. 488) The trussed-rafter roof of the north transept has unusual trefoil-headed arcading above the wall plates. A squint, combined with a piscina, is cut through into the reveal of a chancel window. There is a corresponding squint in the south transept. A tomb recess, now behind the organ, probably once held a Horsey effigy. The nave and embattled central tower may have been completed in the 15th century. The latter has twolight openings filled with Somerset tracery at the belfry stage and a south-west stair-turret crowned by a modern spirelet.
A singing gallery, mentioned from 1750, (fn. 489) was probably removed at the second restoration. A number of 16th-century bench ends survive, mostly straight-headed but some with poppyheads. They include a representation of the Percy arms and a figure identified as Titivillus. The cover of the 13th-century font lies in the churchyard by the south wall of the church. Also in the churchyard, near the south porch, stands a 15thcentury cross raised on three steps, the octagonal base bearing the symbols of the four Evangelists and having four square attached shafts. The cross was restored in 1800, and again in 1923 when the shaft and figures were added. (fn. 490)
The plate includes an Elizabethan cup and cover of 1570 given to the church in 1822. (fn. 491) There are six bells: (i) 1833, T. Mears of London; (ii) 1788, William Bilbie of Chewstoke; (iii) 1912, Taylor of Loughborough; (iv) 1665(?), 'T.C.'; (v) 1855, Taylor of Loughborough; (vi) 1833, Mears. (fn. 492) The registers are complete from 1575. (fn. 493)
William Fawkner and Edith his wife, who had been presented for not attending service nor taking communion in 1623, (fn. 494) were again presented in 1626 as 'popish recusants' with William Nipp. (fn. 495) Edith Fawkner was presented in 1639 as a 'popish recusant' and for standing 'excommunicated and aggravated'. (fn. 496)
The manor-house of James Samson at Cary Fitzpaine was licensed for Dissenting worship in 1697. (fn. 497) A house was registered for Quaker meetings in 1738, (fn. 498) and Charlton Mackrell inhabitants were among those petitioning for an Independent meeting-house at Charlton Adam in 1787. (fn. 499) The dwelling-house of Henry Thomas Woodward was licensed by the Baptists in 1816 (fn. 500) but nonconformity seems to have been stronger in Charlton Adam, and most dissenters probably met in that parish.
In 1818 there were two Sunday schools in the parish, supported by voluntary contributions and attended by 41 pupils. (fn. 501) By 1826 the numbers had risen to 65, and it was stated that liberal provision had been made for schools by local landowners and the rector. (fn. 502) An infant and daily National school for 70 children was started in 1830, supported by subscriptions. (fn. 503) A single weekly payment of 1d. entitled a family to send any number of children to the school. (fn. 504) By 1846 the numbers had increased to 82 pupils, and the school comprised a single room and teacher's house. (fn. 505) The Sunday school was attended by 65 children in 1833 (fn. 506) and was probably held in the same premises.
W. T. P. Brymer (d. 1852), rector, left £1,500 in trust to pay £30 a year to the master or mistress of the Sunday and day-school and the residue to the rector to defray the expenses of running the schools. (fn. 507) A new school building was erected in 1853 on land given by Francis Henry Dickinson, subsequently known as the West Charlton National School. (fn. 508) In 1868 the endowment produced £105, of which the schoolmaster received £90. The school was then educating children from outside the parish, including tradesmen's sons from Ilchester. (fn. 509) An evening school was also held during the winter. (fn. 510) Pupils were received from Charlton Adam Infants school when they reached the age of 7 or 8. (fn. 511) In 1894 the average attendance was 70, (fn. 512) and by 1903 there were 100 children on the books, of which 17 were infants. (fn. 513) It was then described as 'an excellent county school' where great attention was paid 'to personal cleanliness and to the neatness and arrangement of the schoolroom'. (fn. 514) The establishment became a junior school in 1940 and was attended by 62 children in 1969. (fn. 515)
Charities for the Poor.
In 1810 the parish owned lands, the income from which was applied by the overseers to the general relief of the poor. (fn. 516) In 1823 it was not known when, nor under what circumstances, the lands had been given. (fn. 517) Part was sold in 1838, (fn. 518) but the remainder continued to be let until at least 1879. (fn. 519) No subsequent reference to the charity has been traced.