A History of the County of Stafford: Volume 14, Lichfield. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1990.
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WALL WITH PIPEHILL
The civil parish of Wall, south-west of Lichfield, was originally a township in St. Michael's parish, Lichfield, 631 a. in area. It was adjoined on the north by Pipehill, also a township in St. Michael's and partly in the city of Lichfield, covering 580 a. (fn. 1) In 1879 a detached portion of Pipehill at Muckley Corner, comprising Muckley Corner hotel and the nearby limekilns, was transferred to Wall, while a detached portion of Curborough and Elmhurst township, comprising Pipehill Farm and a former tollhouse, became part of Pipehill. Wall then covered 645 a. and Pipehill 576 a. (fn. 2) In 1894 that part of Pipehill township which lay in the city of Lichfield was transferred to the civil parish of St. Michael; the rest of Pipehill was added to Wall, creating a new civil parish of 1,019 a. There were further boundary changes in 1934 when 93 a. of Burntwood parish, including Pipe Grange Farm, Hilltop Farm, and the fish ponds at Maple Hayes, were added to Wall. (fn. 3) In 1957 the parish was increased to 1,809 a. (731 ha.) by the addition of 696 a. from Shenstone. (fn. 4) In 1980 there were boundary changes with Hammerwich and Shenstone, creating the present civil parish of 1,871 a. (755 ha.). (fn. 5) This article deals with Wall and Pipehill according to the boundaries established in 1879, but excluding the Lichfield portion of Pipehill which is treated elsewhere in the volume.
Wall's boundary on the south ran along the line of the Roman Watling Street as far as Manor Farm. It then continued eastwards along what was presumably a medieval road as far as the former Lichfield-Shenstone road, which it followed north-west as far as another Roman road, Ryknild Street. On the south-west Wall's boundary followed the Lichfield-Walsall road to Muckley Corner. An area of waste called Wall Butts on the south side of Watling Street at Muckley Corner was included in the township. Pipehill's boundary on the north followed the upper reaches of Leamonsley (or Pipe) brook. (fn. 6) Most of the eastern part of Pipehill township was included in Lichfield city, apparently by the mid 17th century. (fn. 7)
The subsoil is Keuper Sandstone with an area of Mottled Sandstone west of Wall hamlet, through which a narrow gravel terrace runs north-west to a point south of Pipehill hamlet where it merges into an area of Boulder Clay. (fn. 8) The soil is loam. (fn. 9) The upper part of Wall hamlet lies at 370 ft. (114 m.) on the edge of a plateau; the lower part to the south on Watling Street lies some 50 ft. (16m.) lower. To the north-east on the Lichfield boundary at Aldershawe the land lies at 423 ft. (130 m.), and it is the same level at Pipehill hamlet and at Muckley Corner. Black brook (formerly Hammerwich Water) (fn. 10) runs below the gravel terrace west of Wall hamlet. A spring south of Pipe Grange feeds a stream which flows eastwards to Leamonsley brook. (fn. 11)
In 1666 Wall had 12 people assessed for hearth tax and Pipehill 10. (fn. 12) In 1801 Wall's population was 97 and Pipehill's 95. The figure for Wall was 84 in 1821, 91 in 1841, and 96 in 1851. A fall to 87 by 1861 was followed by rises to 101 by 1871 and 115 by 1881. The figures for Pipehill in 1811, 1821, and 1831, which probably included people living in the Lichfield portion of the township, were respectively 110, 92, and 110. The population, excluding the Lichfield portion, was 94 in 1841, 92 in 1851, 106 in 1861, 98 in 1871, and 119 in 1881. (fn. 13) The population of Wall and Pipehill together was 284 in 1901, 306 in 1911, and 330 in 1921; it had fallen to 292 by 1931 and 271 by 1951. The population of the much enlarged civil parish was 397 in 1961, 401 in 1971, and 368 in 1981. (fn. 14)
Although flints dating from the Neolithic period have been found at the upper part of Wall hamlet, (fn. 15) the first detailed evidence of settlement comes from the 1st century A.D. A Roman fort was probably established at Wall in or soon after 50 A.D. to accommodate Legio XIV, then advancing towards Wales. (fn. 16) A fort was certainly built in the area of the upper part of the hamlet later in the 50s or 60s, and Watling Street was constructed to the south in the 70s. A bath house was built on the lower ground south-west of the fort in the late 1st century for use by soldiers; it was later used by the inhabitants of a civilian settlement which developed along Watling Street. In the 2nd century the settlement covered c. 30 a. west of the later Wall Lane. By the 1st or early 2nd century there was a burial area beyond the western end of the settlement. In the late 3rd or early 4th century the eastern part of the settlement, covering c. 6 a. between the later Wall Lane and Green Lane and straddling Watling Street, was enclosed with a stone wall surrounded by an earth rampart and ditches. Civilians continued to live inside the settlement and on its outskirts in the late 4th and possibly in the 5th century. The excavated site of the bath house and a museum were conveyed to the National Trust in 1934 and are open to the public under the management of the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission.
The Roman name for the civilian settlement, Letocetum, derived from a Celtic name meaning 'grey wood' and describing the surrounding area. The native population apparently remained Celtic-speaking when the English settled the area, incorporating the RomanoBritish place name Luitcoit in the English name Lichfield. (fn. 17) The Celtic tribe of the Cornovii evidently had a shrine outside the Roman fort in the later 1st century A.D. The inversion of stones with pagan motifs in a villa-type building near the bath house may indicate the shrine's conversion to use by Christians, possibly as a house for a community of priests. (fn. 18) A bowl and stones with Christian symbols have also been found at Wall. (fn. 19)
The name Wall, recorded in the later 12th century, (fn. 20) was presumably derived from the physical remains of the Roman civilian settlement. The earliest medieval settlement may have been on the higher ground around Wall House which, though dating mainly from the mid 18th century, is probably on the site of the medieval manor house: manorial rights descended with the house. Wall Hall to the south also dates from the mid 18th century but replaced a house which existed in the later 17th century. The site of Church Farm opposite Wall Hall was occupied by the early 16th century, and there were cottages to the north by the late 18th century. (fn. 21) Manor Farm, at the corner of Watling Street and Wall Lane, was built in 1669 as a T-shaped brick house with stone dressings and mullioned windows; originally two storeys high, it was raised in 1844 when additions were made to the rear service wing. (fn. 22) It replaced an earlier house. (fn. 23)
By the late 18th century several houses on Watling Street west of Manor Farm formed a lower part of the hamlet. (fn. 24) An alehouse recorded in 1589 probably stood there. (fn. 25) An inn called the Wheatsheaf existed by 1764, and in the 1790s there was one called the Swan, possibly the Wheatsheaf under another name. (fn. 26) The Seven Stars, first mentioned in 1776, stood at the west end of the hamlet; it remained an inn until the mid 1920s. (fn. 27) The Trooper inn at the corner of Watling Street and Green Lane existed by 1851. (fn. 28) In the earlier 1950s ten council houses were built on the road called the Butts, (fn. 29) and two privately built houses were added later. Bungalows to the south in what was formerly Shenstone parish were built in 1982. The lower part of the hamlet was relieved of the heavy traffic using Watling Street by the construction of a bypass to the south, completed in 1965. (fn. 30)
Aldershawe, a name meaning alder wood, lies mile north-east of Wall hamlet and was inhabited by the early 13th century. (fn. 31)
Moat Bank, a mile west of Wall, was evidently a settled area at the end of the 16th century. (fn. 32) The name is derived from a rabbit warren there. (fn. 33) Lord Henry Paget (later 4th marquess of Anglesey), first master of the South Staffordshire Hunt, established in 1865, built the hunt's first stables and kennels at Moat Bank House, besides establishing a stud for racehorses there. In 1873 the kennels were moved to Fosseway Court in Pipehill. (fn. 34)
Muckley Corner on the south-west boundary was so called by 1660, but the name Muckley, meaning the great leah (a wood or clearing in woodland), was in use in the mid 13th century. (fn. 35) The area was inhabited by the early 18th century. (fn. 36) There was evidently an inn there by the 1790s when the Craddock family lived at Muckley Corner House, presumably on the site of the later hotel: James Craddock (d. 1808 or 1809) was both a farmer and a victualler. (fn. 37) By the mid 19th century petty sessions were held at the inn, where there was a lock-up. Defendants included people from the developing mining communities in the area, and by the later 1860s sessions were normally held once a month, with another monthly sitting in Shenstone. In 1883 the Muckley Corner sessions were transferred to Brownhills. (fn. 38) A police house, possibly over the boundary in Ogley Hay, was advertised for sale or lease in 1873. A police officer was living at Muckley Corner by 1897, presumably in lodgings: he was moved that year because there was no house for him. (fn. 39) A police station north of Muckley Corner hotel was opened in 1935 and closed in 1971. It then became a private house called Copper's End. (fn. 40) There were cottages adjoining the hotel on the north by the late 19th century. (fn. 41) One of them may have served as a post office, recorded in 1908 and closed c. 1930. (fn. 42) A row of cottages further north on the Lichfield-Walsall road dates from the early 20th century. (fn. 43)
Pipehill hamlet lies where the Lichfield-Walsall road crosses one from Burntwood to Lichfield and Wall, formerly an area of waste known as Pipe Marsh. (fn. 44) The hamlet was known as Hardwick or Pipe Hardwick in the 14th century, a name still used in the early 17th century and meaning a livestock farm. (fn. 45) The site of Pipehill Farm on the south-west edge of the waste was occupied in the mid 14th century and the present farmhouse is partly medieval. Pipe Hill House to the south dates from the mid 18th century but replaces an house in existence by the later 17th century. The site of Pipe Grange north of Pipehill Farm was occupied in the Middle Ages; the present house dates mainly from the 18th and early 19th century. Hill Top Farm to the north was built c. 1800. (fn. 46) Pipe Place Farm, south-west of Pipehill hamlet, dates from 1764. (fn. 47)
Five families were living at Pipe Marsh in the 1840s, and the number increased with the construction in 1878 of a row of six houses called Denmark Villas. (fn. 48) In contrast to Wall hamlet, where most of the working inhabitants were farm labourers in the late 19th century, several Pipehill householders were then artisans: the population of 45 in 1881 included a bricklayer, a carpenter, a boot and shoe maker, a coal miner, and two laundresses. (fn. 49)
Fosseway Court east of Pipehill hamlet on the edge of high ground overlooking Lichfield was built probably in the early 19th century by Samuel Hamson, otherwise Bradburne, of Pipe Hill House; either the house itself or a garden feature there was known as Bradburne's Folly in 1836. (fn. 50) In 1873 the kennels of the South Staffordshire Hunt were moved from Moat Bank House to Fosseway Court, whose owner, Maj. J. M. Browne, was hunt master; the kennels remained there until the pack was sold in 1885. In 1881 a whipper-in and a groom were living next to the kennels. (fn. 51) In 1986 part of the former kennel block was converted into flats.
The Lichfield-Shenstone road which formed part of the eastern boundary of Wall was turnpiked in 1729, and that stretch of the road was replaced in the early 1820s by a new line to the west. The road was disturnpiked in 1875. (fn. 52) The Lichfield-Walsall road was also turnpiked in 1729. A tollgate was set up in Pipehill hamlet in 1786, and a tollhouse was built north-east of Pipehill Farm in 1787 and enlarged in 1827. (fn. 53) In 1814 a bar was placed across the lane leading to the road from Moat Bank House, and another was set up on Watling Street east of Muckley Corner, where a house was built for the keeper. (fn. 54) The Lichfield-Walsall road was disturnpiked in 1879. (fn. 55) The Pipehill tollhouse survived as a cottage in 1909 but was removed probably soon afterwards. (fn. 56) The roundabout at Muckley Corner was built in the late 1950s. (fn. 57)
The Wyrley and Essington Canal, opened in 1797 and closed in 1954, (fn. 58) ran through Wall and Pipehill. It passed east of Muckley Corner, where there were limekilns and a wharf by 1845. (fn. 59) By the late 19th century there were two other wharves, one north of Muckley Corner served by the lane to Moat Bank House, and the other where the canal passed under the Lichfield-Walsall road south-west of Pipehill. (fn. 60) That wharf also adjoined the South Staffordshire Railway, opened from Walsall to Wychnor in Tatenhill in 1849. (fn. 61)
Electricity was supplied to Wall by Lichfield corporation from 1927; Pipehill had been connected by 1937. (fn. 62) There was a gas supply by 1940. (fn. 63) A sewage works was constructed in 1938; most of the parish had been connected by 1947. (fn. 64)
A lodge of Oddfellows, established in 1864, met at the Trooper inn in 1876; two other lodges of Oddfellows, one established in 1868 and the other in 1873, met at the Muckley Corner inn and probably drew most of their members from the Ogley Hay and Brownhills area. (fn. 65) There was a working men's club in Wall in 1910. It probably met in the village hall on Watling Street, known as the Institute in 1914. (fn. 66) A cricket club was formed in 1921, playing on a field in Market Lane owned by Walter Ryman of Manor Farm. It continued to play there in 1986. (fn. 67)
MANOR AND OTHER ESTATES.
The manor of WALL was formed between 1135 and 1166 out of the bishop's manor of Lichfield (later Longdon). It remained a member of the bishop's (later the Paget family's) manor of Longdon until at least the earlier 19th century. (fn. 68)
Rabel Durdent held Wall in 1166 evidently as 1/7; knight's fee. The manor may have been created for him by Bishop Durdent, 114959, presumably a relative; in the early 1150s Rabel was evidently a member of the bishop's household. (fn. 69) Robert of Wall, mentioned in the earlier 1190s, was lord in 12278, (fn. 70) and Ralph was lord in 12356. (fn. 71) Another Robert was lord in 12423, when he held of the bishop knight's fee and a further 1/18 knight's fee, both at Wall. (fn. 72) He may have been the Robert of Wall who held 1/16 knight's fee there in 12845. (fn. 73) Hugh of Wall, who held the manor as 1/15 knight's fee in 1298, was still alive in 1314, but by 1327 he had been succeeded by Ralph, possibly his son. (fn. 74) Ralph was dead by 1370 when Ellen, possibly his daughter, was lady of Wall. (fn. 75) She and her son Robert were assessed for poll tax in 13801. (fn. 76) Robert Swdnfen, probably Ellen's son, lord in 13889 and still alive in 141617, was succeeded by his son William Swinfen, otherwise known as William Pipe (d. 1419). (fn. 77)
William's heir was his daughter Margaret, who in 1435 married Sir William Vernon of Haddon (Derb.). Sir William was succeeded in 1467 by his son Henry, knighted in 1489 and appointed governor and treasurer to Prince Arthur. Sir Henry was succeeded in 1515 by his son Richard (d. 1516), and Richard by his son George, who was knighted in 1547 and died in 1565. (fn. 78) Sir George's heir at Wall was his daughter Margaret, wife of Sir Thomas Stanley of Winwick (Lancs.). (fn. 79) Sir Thomas died in 1576, and by 1584 his widow had married William Mather, who held Wall jointly with her. She died in 1596, and Mather evidently acquired Wall from her son Edward (later Sir Edward) Stanley. Mather was still alive in 1607. His son by a second marriage, Ambrose (d. 1625), inherited Wall. (fn. 80)
In 1627 Wall was acquired by John Popham of Littlecote (Wilts.) and his wife Mary. (fn. 81) In 1634 Popham owned a house and 125 a. at Wall held for life by Elizabeth Mather, the widow of Ambrose Mather, and 274 a. there was held at will by several tenants. (fn. 82) In 1636 he sold the manor to Thomas Dutton of Chesterfield and Francis Erpe of Lynn, both in Shenstone, and to Robert Wood, a London cook. They divided it amongst themselves, Dutton taking a half share which included the principal house, then called Mather's Farm, and Erpe and Wood each taking quarter shares. (fn. 83) In 1648 Erpe's widow Lettice sold land at Wall, presumably her husband's share, to Thomas Dutton, and her son John confirmed the sale in 1650. (fn. 84) In 1652 Wood's son William, a London barrister, divided his share, selling half to John Marshall, a London cook, and half to Thomas Dutton; in 1658 Marshall sold his portion to Dutton. (fn. 85) Having reassembled the manor, Dutton divided it again. He gave a quarter share to William Quinton, probably on William's marriage to his daughter Alice in 1658, (fn. 86) and devised on his death in 1689 a quarter share to his grandson Thomas Porter. Dutton's son Edward inherited what remained, except for the manorial fishpool and rabbit warren, both of which were devised to William Quinton. (fn. 87)
Edward Dutton, whose share was centred on the later Manor Farm, was succeeded in 1704 by his son Thomas. (fn. 88) Thomas was succeeded in 1755 by his brother William, a London draper, whose son Thomas, a London sugar cooper, sold Manor Farm and his share of the manor in 1769 to Ann, widow of Richard Burnes of Aldershawe. In 1777 she gave them to her son John Burnes Floyer. (fn. 89) Manor Farm then descended with Aldershawe until 1925, when it was sold to the tenant, Walter Ryman, who was succeeded in 1949 by his son Mr. W.J. Ryman, the owner in 1986. (fn. 90)
The share of the manor given to William Quinton centred on what was later known as Wall House. It descended on Quinton's death in 1699 to his son John, who was succeeded in 1714 by his brother Thomas. (fn. 91) Thomas died in 1736 and, subject to the life interest of his widow Elizabeth, divided his estate between his daughters Alice, then unmarried, and Anne, the wife of William Jackson, a Lichfield silversmith. (fn. 92) Thomas, however, had mortgaged the estate, which evidently through default came to Robert Porter, a Lichfield attorney. Porter had already in 1703 acquired the share bequeathed in 1689 to Thomas Porter, probably his brother. (fn. 93) Robert was succeeded in 1744 by his son Sheldon, and in 1754 Alice Quinton, then wife of James Garlick, a Lichfield surgeon, confirmed Sheldon's right to her share of the manor. (fn. 94) Sheldon died in 1765, leaving as his heirs his sisters Sarah (d. 1776), the widow of Edward Jackson of Wall Hall, and Penelope (d. 1782), a spinster. (fn. 95) Penelope died intestate, and her heir was a distant cousin Zachary Hill, a schoolmaster at Anslow in Rolleston, whose son Robert, formerly a Birmingham shoemaker, held the manor in 1808. Robert died in 1812, and the manor, which comprised Wall House with 30 a. in Wall and 12 a. in Shenstone and Moat Bank House with 94 a. in Wall, was sold in two parts in 1813. (fn. 96)
Wall House with the accompanying manorial rights was bought by William Mott, a Lichfield lawyer and deputy diocesan registrar. (fn. 97) William was succeeded in 1836 by his son John (d. 1869), whose heir was his son William (d. 1887). William's son and heir, the Revd. William Kynaston Mott, died at Wall in 1889. He was succeeded by his nephew, Roger Mott. (fn. 98) In 1919 Roger sold Wall House with 5 a. to Capt. Robert Hilton, who sold both house and land in 1920 to Col. (later Brig.-Gen.) Claude Westmacott, then living at Knowle Lodge in Lichfield. Westmacott died in 1948, and the estate was sold to Christina Bather of Lichfield. Following her death in 1984 the house was bought by Mr. Michael Bolland and his wife Janet, the owners in 1986. (fn. 99)
Wall House is constructed on a double-pile plan and was presumably built by Sheldon Porter: there is a rainwater head dated 1761 on the south side. Part of the structure and some of the interior panelling, however, are survivals from an early 17th-century house. Both main elevations were originally of three bays in brick with moulded cornices. In the early 19th century the interior was extensively refitted and new kitchens were built on the west.
A messuage and virgate at ALDERSHAWE claimed by Nicholas of Wyrley in the later 13th century (fn. 100) were probably the estate held there in 1414 by Sir William Newport of Abnalls in Burntwood. He was succeeded in 1415 or 1416 by another William Newport, presumably his son. (fn. 101) The later history of the estate is unknown until 1511, when what was probably the same land at Aldershawe was held by a John Hill. (fn. 102) In 1571 a later John Hill, of Little Pipe, then a detached portion of Curborough and Elmhurst but later in Farewell, was one of three men who between them held 120 a. at Aldershawe; the other two were Sir Thomas Stanley, lord of Wall, and Sir Edward Littleton of Pillaton in Penkridge. (fn. 103) Sir Edward, who had acquired Abnalls in the 1560s, was evidently the owner of Aldershawe, with Hill his principal tenant: in 1619 Sir Edward's grandson, also called Sir Edward, held 98 a. at Aldershawe, of which 48 a. were tenanted by John Hill of Little Pipe, probably great-grandson of the John Hill of 1511. (fn. 104) The Hill family's holding included the site of a house, called Motte house in 1633. (fn. 105)
In 1621 Sir Edward Littleton sold a moiety of his land at Aldershawe, formerly held by John Hill, to the tenant John Burnes. Burnes was a Lichfield upholsterer and one of the city bailiffs in 16234 and 16323. (fn. 106) In 1633 Thomas Burnes, a Lichfield mercer and probably John's son, acquired the rest of Aldershawe, including Motte house, from John Hill's son Edward. (fn. 107) Thomas was succeeded probably in 1648 by his grandson John, also a Lichfield mercer, who died in 1682, leaving a son Richard (d. 1692). (fn. 108) Richard's heir was his son, also Richard, who was succeeded in 1766 by his son John. John became the owner of Manor Farm in Wall in 1777, and as the adopted heir of John Floyer of Longdon he added Floyer to his surname. He died a lunatic in 1817. (fn. 109) His heir was his nephew, the Revd. Trevor Burnes Jones, who changed his surname to Floyer. On his death in 1871 Aldershawe passed to his nephew, Edward Corbett of Longnor Hall (Salop.). (fn. 110) In 1893 Corbett sold the estate to the tenant, W. B. Harrison, a colliery owner (d. 1912). In 1913 his son W. E. Harrison negotiated the sale of Aldershawe and Manor Farm to Sir Richard Cooper, Bt., who died later the same year. The purchase was completed in 1914 by his son Sir Richard. (fn. 111) The estate was broken up in 1925, when the house at Aldershawe was sold with 32 a. to Frank Allen, a cotton and tobacco planter of Rhodesia. (fn. 112) In 1946 Aldershawe was bought by Gordon Powell of Curborough House Farm in Streethay. Powell used the stables for training racehorses, and after his death in 1966 the stables, then known as Elkar Stud Racing Stables, were sold with 68 a. separately from the house. In 1983 both the house and the racing stables were bought by Mr. K. H. Fischer, the owner in 1986. (fn. 113)
Aldershawe Hall, of brick in Gothic style with timber-framed gables and terra-cotta dressings, was built in 1896 to the design of S. Loxton of Walsall and Cannock. (fn. 114) It replaced an earlier house, which was an irregular gabled building, probably of the 17th century. (fn. 115) On the north and west sides of the hall are pleasure grounds which include pools, grottoes, and plantations probably laid out by Trevor Burnes Floyer. Columns and arches removed from Lichfield cathedral in the 18th century were set up in the grounds, and a small brick chapel was built in 1845. (fn. 116) W. B. Harrison, a cricket enthusiast, laid out a cricket ground north of the house over the Lichfield boundary. (fn. 117)
Pasture in Wall called Ladyhey owned by the lord of Wall in 14423 is probably identifiable as the land with a cottage which the Lichfield guild of St. Mary and St. John the Baptist owned in 1525 (fn. 118) and which was later called CHURCH FARM. The estate passed presumably in 1545 along with other guild land to the trustees of the Lichfield Conduit Lands, who in 1661 held a house and 82 a. in Wall. (fn. 119) In the early 19th century the estate covered 50 a., of which 17 a. lay in Wall and the rest in Shenstone. (fn. 120) It was sold in 1912 to Walter Ryman of Manor Farm. His son W. J. Ryman sold the house and farm buildings in 1975 to R. G. Goodwin, who converted them into the present Church Farm. Mr. Goodwin remained the owner in 1986. (fn. 121)
An estate centred on HILL TOP FARM existed by 1720 when it was owned by William Pott (or Potts) of Lichfield. He died probably in 1725, leaving the estate to his nephew John Spateman. (fn. 122) It was later divided but was reunited in 1799 by George Addams, a Lichfield wine merchant. (fn. 123) Addams, who also owned the nearby Maple Hayes in Burntwood, sold Hill Top in 1803 to Richard Slaney, apparently the tenant. In 1808 Slaney sold it to John Atkinson, who had bought Maple Hayes from Addams in 1804. (fn. 124) Hill Top remained part of the Maple Hayes estate in 1986. (fn. 125) The farmhouse is a square brick building dating from c. 1800.
An estate centred on MOAT BANK HOUSE derived from a messuage granted in 1599 by Edward (later Sir Edward) Stanley, the son of Sir Thomas Stanley (d. 1576), to William Quinton and his brother Robert. (fn. 126) Robert was dead by 1619, when William acquired the wardship of Robert's son John. (fn. 127) William died in 1630, and the estate evidently passed to John He was succeeded in 1658 by his son William, who later the same year acquired a share in Wall manor, (fn. 128) with which the estate, known as Moat Bank by 1733, (fn. 129) descended. When Robert Hill's Wall estate was sold in 1813 what was called Moat Bank House and 94 a. were bought by the tenant Samuel Bradburne, the owner of the Pipe Hill House estate. (fn. 130) Samuel (d. by 1834) left Moat Bank to his second son, the Revd. Thomas Bradburne. (fn. 131) He was succeeded in 1859 by his nephew John Bradburne, who died in or shortly before 1879, when the house and 11 a. were offered for sale along with Pipe Place Farm. (fn. 132) The house was bought in 1980 by Mr. J. R. Alsop, the owner in 1986. (fn. 133) Moat Bank House incorporates in a back wing part of a 17thcentury building. The main range was built in the later 18th century with its front to the east; a new block, including a staircase, an entrance hall, and a west front, was added in the early 19th century at the south end of the main range.
An estate known as PIPE GRANGE by 1377 (fn. 134) was held of the manor of Longdon by the prior of St. John's hospital, Lichfield, in 1298. The prior's service included stocking the larder of the bishop as lord of Longdon, for which he received a larderer's fee. (fn. 135) In the early 18th century the house and adjoining land covered 81 a. and there were a further 137 a. of inclosed and open-field land nearby. (fn. 136) In 1921 the hospital sold the house with 14 a. to W. W. Worthington of Maple Hayes. (fn. 137) In 1950 it was acquired by the trustees of the Maple Hayes estate, who sold it in 1951 to Walter Boole. He sold it with 3 a. in 1975 to Mr. Nigel Bird, the owner in 1986. (fn. 138)
The house was assessed for tax on three hearths in 1666. (fn. 139) In the early 18th century it comprised a main block with a small west wing. (fn. 140) It was later altered, probably by Cary Butt, a Lichfield surgeon and apothecary, who was living there in 1779; it was then described as 'a low house with two bay windows and two large parlours'. (fn. 141) Further alterations were made by Canon Hugh Bailye, chancellor of Lichfield cathedral, who was the tenant in the 1820s. (fn. 142) The house, which is rendered, had a south front of two bays, with Venetian windows to the first floor and semi-circular windows to the attics; a ground-floor room was added on the south probably in the early 20th century. A large drawing room with a bedroom above was added on the east in the later 19th century. A long, single-storeyed rear-wing probably dates from the 18th century. There was a dovecot near the house in 1398. (fn. 143)
Land acquired in 1588 and 1593 by Nicholas Bull (d. 1627) (fn. 144) was evidently the estate centred on the later PIPE HILL HOUSE. His heir may have been Richard Bull (d. by 1655), whose son, also Richard, held land at Pipehill. The younger Richard died in 1660. (fn. 145) The Mr. Bull who occupied a house at Pipehill assessed for tax on five hearths in 1666 was presumably the Richard Bull of Pipehill, gentleman, who died in 1671. He was succeeded by his son Thomas, who was dead by 1689 with a son Thomas as his heir. (fn. 146) In the early 18th century the estate belonged to another Richard Bull, who sold it to Harvey Green of Lichfield. Green was succeeded in 1721 by his nephew, John Hartwell, a Lichfield cloth manufacturer, who in 1725 sold the estate to Randle Bradburne, a Birmingham ironmonger. (fn. 147) Randle's heir was evidently John Bradburne, who in 1751 advertised 200 a. at Pipehill for letting. (fn. 148) Most of the estate evidently comprised farmland south of Pipe Hill House and later centred on Pipe Place Farm, built in 1764. (fn. 149) John died in 1779 and was succeeded by his illegitimate son Samuel Hamson, otherwise Bradburne. (fn. 150) Samuel was still alive in 1824 but dead by 1834 when his widow Ann was living at Fosseway Court in Pipehill. (fn. 151) Samuel's son John died in 1834, leaving a son also called John, a minor. (fn. 152) John was succeeded in or shortly before 1879 by his son Henry (d. c. 1893). In 1894 an estate of 226 a. centred on Pipe Place Farm was offered for sale. (fn. 153) In the 1920s the land was farmed by Walter Ryman of Manor Farm, evidently the owner. (fn. 154) The land and Pipe Place Farm remained in his family in 1986. Pipe Hill House, a brick building dating from the mid 18th century, may have been separated from the estate after John Bradburne's death in 1834. It was owned in 1845 by his widow Mary, and in 1871 John's daughter Eliza Bradburne was living there. (fn. 155) Eliza was still there in 1900 but no longer by 1904, presumably having died. (fn. 156) The house was owned by Mrs. Winifred Elms in 1986.
An estate centred on PIPEHILL FARM originated as a messuage and 85 a. at Pipehill held by Adam Hardwick (d. 1349). (fn. 157) In the 15th century it was held by the Redehill family. (fn. 158) Robert Redehill gave it to Canon Thomas Milley, archdeacon of Coventry, who in 1504 included it in his re-endowment of a women's almshouse in Lichfield, later known as Dr. Milley's hospital. (fn. 159) By the mid 17th century part of the rent from the farm was 15 horseloads of coal delivered to the hospital on Midsummer Day or 7s. 6d. in lieu. The coal remained part of the rent until the late 18th century. (fn. 160) In the early 19th century the estate covered 68 a. (fn. 161) In the 1920 the hospital sold it to Joseph Hulme (d. 1954), (fn. 162) whose daughter, Miss Hilda Hulme, lived at Pipehill Farm in 1986.
Pipehill Farm incorporates in its western corner a bay of a medieval hall with cruck trusses; a cross wing at its south-east end may also be medieval. Beyond the cross wing is an addition which contains early 17th-century panelling on both floors. There are 18th- and 19th-century additions in brick to the north-east, and the cross wing has a Venetian window on the ground floor.
WALL HALL had been built by the later 17th century to replace a house to the south in Castle Croft on Watling Street, owned by the Jackson family of Chesterfield in Shenstone by the late 16th century. (fn. 163) In 1666 Henry Jackson was living at Wall Hall, then described as a new house. He was succeeded in 1694 by his son Edward. (fn. 164) Edward was succeeded in 1725 by his brother Henry (d. 1727), whose heir was his son Edward (d. 1760). Edward's heir was his brother Thomas, then of Dudley. (fn. 165) Thomas was succeeded probably in the early 1780s by his son, also Thomas, master of Dudley grammar school (d. 1794). (fn. 166) His successor was presumably Edward Jackson (d. 1830), whose widow Mary held 98 a. in Wall in 1844. (fn. 167)
Edward and Mary Jackson shared their home with Richard Croft Chawner, whom they brought up from childhood. Chawner (born 1804), the son of Dr. Rupert Chawner of Burton upon Trent, became a barrister but did not practise, preferring to pursue interests in farming and business. He ran a model farm at Wall Hall and was secretary of the Lichfield (later Lichfield and Midlands Counties) Agricultural Society, probably from its formation in 1838 and certainly from 1842. (fn. 168) He was also active in the South Staffordshire Railway Co., the South Staffordshire Waterworks Co., and the Cannock Chase Colliery Co. He moved to Abnalls in Burntwood in the mid 1850s and died there in 1870. (fn. 169)
On Mary Jackson's death in 1851 (fn. 170) the estate passed to Edward's sister-in-law Elizabeth Smith for her life. She died in 1860, and in accordance with Edward's will the estate then passed to John Pavier of Hammerwich Place Farm, son of Edward's sister Mary. John, who changed his name to Jackson to secure the inheritance, was succeeded in 1871 by his brother Thomas Pavier, who also changed his name to Jackson. He was succeeded in 1885 by his sister's grandson, John Jackson Smith of Wolverhampton, who added Jackson to his surname. He died in 1889, leaving a widow Mary, and in 1896 the estate was split up; it then comprised 185 a., of which 97 a. lay in Wall and the rest in Shenstone. The house was presumably bought by Thomas Andrews, who was living there in 1900; it was then called White House. In 1919 the house and 5 a. were bought by Col. George Kay, whose widow in 1942 sold the estate to W. J. Ryman, later of Manor Farm. In 1951 he sold the house and 2 a. to Peter Cutler, who in 1987 sold it to Mr. and Mrs. David Dunger. (fn. 171)
Henry Jackson's house, assessed for tax on five hearths in 1666, included in 1695 a hall, a parlour with a chamber over it, and a little parlour. (fn. 172) It may partly survive in the east part of Wall Hall, having become the service wing in the mid 18th century. A main range was then built to the west with a central staircase hall with rooms on either side and a west entrance. The enlarged house was presumably built by Edward Jackson (d. 1760); in 1753 he married Sarah, sister of Sheldon Porter of Wall House, (fn. 173) which was rebuilt about the same time. Further service rooms and a secondary stair were added to the north end of the house c. 1800, and in the earlier 19th century a new block was added in the angle between the 18th-century ranges. That block comprises a drawing room and entrance hall with rooms above, making a new south-facing front of three storeys with a Doric porch; the ground-floor windows on either side of the porch are formed in segmental bows. (fn. 174) Later in the 19th century the front was replastered with decorative architraves. The house in Castle Croft was known as the 'lower house' in 1727, when it included a 'house place' (perhaps an open hall), and great and little parlours. (fn. 175) Part of the building survived in the earlier 1790s, but it was then much decayed. (fn. 176)
The tithes of Wall belonged to the prebendaries of Prees (or Pipa Minor), Stotfold, and Weeford in Lichfield cathedral, and those of Pipehill to the prebendaries of Freeford, Hansacre, Pipa Minor, Stotfold, and Weeford. (fn. 177) The dean and chapter became the appropriators of the Stotfold tithes in 1803. (fn. 178) In 1694 Bishop Lloyd assigned the small tithes to the vicar of St. Mary's, Lichfield. (fn. 179) By the 1840s parts of both areas were exempt, in some cases in return for a prescriptive payment. The great tithes were commuted in 1845 for rent charges of 41 18s. 7d. to the dean and chapter (for tithes due to Stotfold from 193 a. in Wall and part of 71 a. in Pipehill) and 125 3s. d. to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners (Weeford from 331 a. in Wall and 502 a. and part of 71 a. in Pipehill, Pipa Minor from 102 a. in Pipehill and 90 a. in Wall, and Freeford and Hansacre from part of 71 a. in Pipehill). The vicar of St. Mary's was awarded 17 5s. for the small tithes of Pipehill but nothing for those of Wall.
In 1364 John Hardwick, a vicar choral of Lichfield cathedral whose family lived at Pipehill, was licensed by the Crown to endow a chantry at the altar of St. Catherine in the cathedral. The endowment included property in 'Pipe Lichfield', probably Pipehill. (fn. 180) By the 1440s the prebendary of Pipa Parva held pastures in Wall called Newland and Muckleys. (fn. 181) The vicars choral owned land in Wall in 1535. (fn. 182)
The endowments of a school at Kingsbury (Warws.) established in 1686 included 5 a. east of Pipe Place Farm. The school still owned the land in 1879. (fn. 183)
Assarting at Aldershawe is suggested by a rudding recorded there in the 13th century. (fn. 184) Three open fields at Wall were recorded in the early 17th century: Shaw field on either side of Green Lane, Little field on either side of Market Lane, and Street field (shared with the inhabitants of Chesterfield in Shenstone) east of the hamlet along Watling Street. (fn. 185) The Butts, lying on the west side of the hamlet, was arable by the late 16th century. (fn. 186) Pipehill had its own fields. Pipe field, mentioned in 1358 and lying partly in Edial in Burntwood, was still open in 1705. (fn. 187) Ash field, mentioned in 1393 and lying in the Lichfield part of Pipehill, was still open in 1651. (fn. 188) Mickehill field, south of Ash field and also lying mostly in the Lichfield part of Pipehill, was mentioned in 1577 and was still open in 1639. (fn. 189)
In the 1440s most of the income received by the lord of Wall for land in the manor held on lease came from pasture. (fn. 190) An area of waste near Moat Bank House survived in the late 17th century, and nearly 20 a. of waste south of Muckley Corner survived as Wall Butts common in the mid 19th century. (fn. 191) Pipe Marsh, an area of waste around which Pipehill hamlet grew, was mentioned in the later 14th century and covered 14 a. in the early 19th. (fn. 192) There was meadow along Black brook in the early 19th century. (fn. 193) Land called Goosemoor near the northern boundary of Pipehill in the mid 19th century may have been used as a feeding ground for geese. (fn. 194)
Livestock farming at Pipehill in the Middle Ages is suggested by the early name for the hamlet, Hardwick, and by the requirement on the tenant of Pipe Grange to supply the bishop's larder. (fn. 195) The overburdening of common pasture at Aldershawe led in 1370 to the imposition of a stint of 100 sheep, 6 oxen, 4 cows, and 4 heifers for each virgater. (fn. 196) The wool sent by the bailiff of the lord of Wall to a fuller in Tamworth in 14489 was probably from sheep at Wall. (fn. 197) Each inhabitant at Wall in 1580 was evidently allowed to pasture only 5 sheep for each acre held, while at Pipehill in 1586 the limit for cottagers was 10 sheep and for non-residents 6. (fn. 198) John Quinton had a flock of 200 sheep in 1658. (fn. 199) In the early 18th century land called Danwell Flat (Dunningham Flat in the mid 19th century) on the east side of Wall Lane straddling the boundary between Wall and Pipehill was a sheepwalk. (fn. 200) Turnips were grown in Wall in the late 18th century as food for sheep. (fn. 201)
Pastoral farming remained important in the 19th and early 20th century. Of 141 a. of titheable land around Wall hamlet in 1808, 50 a. were pasture and a further 33 a. were devoted to hay and clover; land devoted to cereals comprised 20 a. of wheat, 13 a. of barley, and 3 a. of oats; 22 a. were fallow. (fn. 202) One farmer in Wall in the early 19th century established a pedigree flock of Blackfaced sheep crossed with New Leicester and Southdown rams; another at Pipe Place farm in the later 19th century bred Shropshire sheep. (fn. 203) In 1917 Walter Ryman, who farmed 353 a. at Manor farm, had a flock of 400 Shropshires, 50 head of cattle, and 70 pigs. Sixty-five acres were then devoted to clover, 21 a. to swedes, 12 a. to turnips and kale, and 8 a. to mangolds, mostly to provide feed for the animals; other crops included 44 a. of oats, 43 a. of wheat, and 85 a. of potatoes. Ryman became noted for his potatoes, and by 1928, when farming some 600 a. which included Pipe Place farm, he was producing over 2,000 tons a year from 200 a.; the potatoes were sold to markets in the Black Country and at Derby. The potato fields were manured by large flocks of Shropshires and Dorset Downs. Ryman was also noted for his pedigree herd of pigs, for whose feed 20 a. were devoted to mixed barley and oats. Other crops grown by Ryman in 1928 were 120 a. of wheat, 30 a. of oats, and 20 a. of roots. (fn. 204)
Crops were grown on 564 ha. (1,393 a.) of the 673.5 ha. (1,664 a.) of farmland returned for Wall civil parish in 1984. Over half the cultivated land was devoted to barley, with sugar beet, potatoes, and wheat also being grown; cabbages, cauliflowers, and brussels sprouts were grown on nearly 41 ha. There was one dairy farm, and the animals recorded were 450 cattle, 886 pigs, and 276 sheep. (fn. 205)
Warrens and fishery.
There was a manorial warren in 1448, when rabbits from it were taken to Nether Seal (Leics.), a manor also owned by the lord of Wall. (fn. 206) The warren presumably lay near Moat Bank House, whose name derives from a warren built in the medieval form of an embankment with a protective ditch; there was land called 'coneygree' near the house in 1733. (fn. 207) There was presumably a warren at Aldershawe in 1420 when 100 rabbits belonging to William Newport were stolen there. (fn. 208) There was a fishpool in 1685 in Mill Lane at the west end of Wall hamlet. (fn. 209)
Mill field was recorded in 1456. (fn. 210) The fishpool in Mill Lane was evidently a mill pool.
A tobacco cutter named Daniel Reading lived at Pipehill in the early 1700s. He was a Quaker and had an interest in land in the Quaker territory of New Jersey, whence the tobacco may have come. At his death in 1704 he had 8 worth of goods in a tobacco house, comprising an engine, press, mill, dyer, two pairs of scales, and cut and uncut tobacco. (fn. 211)
There were limekilns and a wharf on the Wyrley and Essington Canal at Muckley Corner by 1845. The kilns were run by Strongitharm & Cooper, a partnership which evidently included George Strongitharm, who had a limeworks at Daw End in Rushall. (fn. 212) George and Horatio Stongitharm ran the Muckley Corner business in the 1860s and 1870s. The Daw End Lime Co. ran it in the 1880s and 1890s. The kilns apparently ceased working in the mid 1890s. (fn. 213)
Sand was dug at the southern edge of Wall Butts in the early 1880s. Working had ceased by the early 1920s, when there was another sand pit to the north-east on the south side of Watling Street. (fn. 214)
Wall and Pipehill attended Longdon manor's view of frankpledge, forming part of a tithing which also included Edial, Woodhouses, and Burntwood. In the late 1630s Wall and Pipehill became separate tithings, each with one frankpledge. A headborough was still appointed for each of them at the Longdon court in 1839. By the 14th century Wall and Pipehill were part of the constablewick of Pipe cum membris. (fn. 215)
The lord of Wall had his own court by the 1480s. It was presumably a court baron, like that held by the lord of Pipe in Burntwood. It was last recorded in 1713 when a court leet was held at Wall together with a court baron, although no court leet matters were recorded. (fn. 216)
There was a pinfold for Pipe and Wall by 1466, probably east of Pipehill hamlet near Mickle Hills Farm, where one stood in 1598. (fn. 217) The name Pinfold Croft recorded at Wall in 1693 suggests the existence of a pinfold at some time. (fn. 218) A pinner was chosen by Wall manor court in 1713, and in 1839 one for Wall was listed among the officers of Longdon manor. (fn. 219) In the late 19th century a pinfold stood at the junction of Watling Street and the road called the Butts. (fn. 220)
As part of St. Michael's, Lichfield, Wall had a sidesman in 1637, but in 1638, 1640, and the mid 1660s only a Pipehill sidesman was recorded; by 1733 there were sidesmen for both places. Their appointment continued after Wall parish was created in 1845, but the practice was discontinued in 1866. (fn. 221) There was an overseer of the poor for Wall and one for Pipehill c. 1805. (fn. 222) A new civil parish of Wall, including part of Pipehill, was created in 1894. (fn. 223) As part of Lichfield rural district Wall civil parish became part of the new Lichfield district in 1974.
Wall and Pipehill were included in Lichfield poor-law union formed in 1836. (fn. 224)
A graveyard was recorded at Aldershawe in the mid 13th century. (fn. 225) It was presumably used by the inhabitants of the area as a field cemetery. The general burial place, however, was evidently at St. Michael's, Lichfield, which became the parish church for the area. (fn. 226) By the 1730s some parishioners, notably from Pipehill, were baptized and buried at Hammerwich chapel. (fn. 227)
A church was built at Wall in 1843 on land given by John Mott of Wall House. (fn. 228) In 1845 a new parish was formed out of St. Michael's for Wall and the part of Pipehill outside the city of Lichfield. (fn. 229) The living, the patronage of which was vested in the incumbent of St. Michael's, (fn. 230) was styled a vicarage in 1868. (fn. 231) Since 1951 the benefice has been held in plurality with that of Stonnall, the patronage being exercised alternately by the vicar of Shenstone as patron of Stonnall and by the rector of St. Michael's. (fn. 232)
John Mott gave an endowment of 700 in 1843. It was augmented by funds which included 500 left by Robert Hill, probably the owner of Wall House who died in 1812 or a relative. Further money for the endowment was raised by subscription. (fn. 233) A tithe rent charge of 6 14s. 8d. was awarded to the incumbent by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1860, and in 1865 they assigned him a further 50 a year. In 1876 another tithe rent charge of 127 11s. 7d. was awarded, (fn. 234) and further augmentations of 25 a year were made in 1910 and 1914. (fn. 235) A vicarage house (Littlefield House in 1986), was built in Market Lane in 1863 and sold in 1952, the vicar of the combined benefices living in Stonnall. (fn. 236)
The church of ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, built of sandstone probably to a design by George Gilbert Scott, (fn. 237) consists of a short chancel, an aisleless nave, and a west tower with a spire. An interior view in 1859 shows box pews, benches in the centre of the nave and a two decker pulpit on the north side of the chancel arch. (fn. 238) In 1892 a peal of tubular bells was installed in the spire, and a clock was placed there in 1920 as a war memorial, the cost being met by subscription. (fn. 239) A graveyard was included in William Mott's grant of land for the church and was extended by a. in 1910 and a. in 1926. (fn. 240)
A mission chapel was opened at Pipehill in 1889. The site was given by Eliza Bradburne of Pipe Hill House, and the building cost was raised by subscription. (fn. 241) Built of brick with a porch and small spire, the chapel continued in use until 1963. It was sold in 1969 and was demolished soon afterwards. (fn. 242)
Elizabeth Rawlins, a widow living at Pipehill, was recorded as a papist in 1657. (fn. 243) John Hall (d. 1705), who refused to pay tithes in Wall in 1678, was one of the first members of a Quaker meeting based at Lynn and later at Chesterfield, both in Shenstone. By 1681 the meeting was attended by John Reading of Pipehill Farm. Other Quaker members of the Reading family were Daniel (d. 1704), a tobacco cutter, and his brother Job, a yeoman who moved to a farm at Woodhouses in Burntwood in the 1720s. (fn. 244) In 1821 Thomas Hickson registered a house on the site of the later Trooper inn for worship by protestant dissenters. (fn. 245)
A dame school in Wall, which was in union with the diocesan board of education by 1844, (fn. 246) was presumably the forerunner of the day and Sunday school which had a paid mistress and over 40 children in the later 1840s. (fn. 247) It seems to have been closed soon afterwards. (fn. 248) In 1867, largely owing to the efforts of the incumbent William Williams and his wife, a National school was opened in Market Lane on the vicarage grounds; it comprised a schoolroom, a classroom, and a mistress's house. The money for it was raised by subscription, with grants from government and the National Society. (fn. 249) Average attendance was over 50 in the later 1890s and had risen to c. 80 in 1911, when the building was enlarged. From 1936 it was a junior school, with senior pupils attending schools in Lichfield. As St. John's Church of England (Controlled) primary school, it was closed in 1978. (fn. 250) The buildings were later converted into a house.
By 1829 there was a girls' boarding school at Pipehill run by a Miss Holmes. It was probably long-established: when Elizabeth Gautherot took it over with 10 pupils in 1833, it was described as having existed for many years. (fn. 251) In 1841 it occupied a house near the tollhouse on the Lichfield-Walsall road. (fn. 252) Another girls' boarding school at Pipehill was opened in 1856 by the Misses Topham; it was presumably the one run in 1864 by Mrs. Henry Topham. (fn. 253)
CHARITY FOR THE POOR.
In 1860 John Jackson of Wall Hall settled a house in Lichfield in trust, of the income to be paid to the minister of Wall church and to be distributed among the poor of Wall and of part of Shenstone parish. The house was sold in 1962 and the capital invested. The income was 59 in 1986 and distributions continued to be made. (fn. 254)