A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 1, Bramber Rape (Southern Part). Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1980.
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The ancient parish of Broadwater (fn. 1) contained the formerly separate settlements of Broadwater, Offington, and Worthing. After the late 18th century it was increasingly dominated, and finally engulfed, by the growth of Worthing. The area of the ancient parish in 1875 was 2,735 a. (fn. 2) In 1894 that part within Worthing borough became a separate civil parish, (fn. 3) and in 1902 the rest of Broadwater civil parish was divided between Worthing borough and Durrington and Sompting parishes. (fn. 4) The present account deals with the history of the ancient parish, excluding Worthing hamlet and town, up to c. 1900. It also excludes the history of a detached part of the parish called Little Broadwater, c. 17 miles to the north near Horsham, (fn. 5) which contained 205 a. in 1875, (fn. 6) including Sedgewick Castle, and was amalgamated with Nuthurst parish in 1877. (fn. 7) Certain topics, however, including the history of institutions originating before c. 1900, are treated here up to 1977.
Broadwater parish lay on the southern slope of the South Downs and on the fertile coastal plain. (fn. 8) Nearly 4 miles long, less than 1 mile wide at its northern end, and 2 miles wide on the coast, it had an elongated and irregular shape. In the north the land reaches 600 ft., and includes a steep-sided coombe running up the south side of Cissbury Hill. The southern part is relatively flat. Part of the northern boundary ran round the northern side of Cissbury Ring, (fn. 9) and part followed presumably ancient banks or tracks. The western boundary followed roads and lanes in its central part. On the east a drove way, later Charmandean Lane, formed the boundary north of the Chichester-Brighton road; south of that road the Broadwater or Sompting brook carried the parish boundary south-east towards the sea. (fn. 10) The Teville stream runs from west to east, between the ancient settlements of Broadwater and Worthing, through ground which is in places below sea level, and is joined by the Broadwater or Sompting brook a short distance before reaching the sea. (fn. 11)
The low-lying lands near the Broadwater or Sompting brook and the Teville stream were evidently once tidal inlets, (fn. 12) and the name of the village is presumably derived from its position at the head of a short but wide expanse of water. (fn. 13) There was some inning in the Middle Ages, but the water level apparently rose during the 15th century, for marshland worth 10d. in the early 15th century was under water by 1493. (fn. 14) The land in the south-east of the parish remained marshy in the late 18th century, (fn. 15) and a decoy pond was recorded south-east of Broadwater village from the 18th century. (fn. 16) In 1820 the sea broke through the beach east of Worthing and briefly re-created the former tidal inlets along the Teville stream and the Broadwater or Sompting brook and its subsidiary brooks, apparently almost reaching Broadwater village. (fn. 17) From 1826 land along the two streams paid a special rate for protection against flooding by the sea. (fn. 18) Some land round the Broadwater or Sompting brook remained liable to floods in 1875. (fn. 19)
The parish lay on chalk, partly overlain by a narrow belt of clay running north-west between the ancient settlements of Worthing and Broadwater. (fn. 20) On Cissbury Hill and elsewhere there are patches of clay-with-flints. Overlying the lower part of the parish is a raised sea beach, which in turn is covered by Coombe rock washed off the downs. Near the coast the Coombe rock passes into or is overlain by brickearth. Alluvium covers the low-lying land round the Broadwater or Sompting brook and the Teville stream in the south-east part of the parish. (fn. 21)
The higher ground in the north has been used for feeding both sheep and cattle, (fn. 22) and for raising crops. Cultivation terraces on the southern slope of Cissbury Hill were said in the 19th century to represent former vineyards (fn. 23) and the area is known as Vineyard Hill, (fn. 24) though no evidence has been found to connect it with the vines recorded at Broadwater in 1300. (fn. 25) By the mid 19th century there was more arable land than pasture in the north part of the parish; (fn. 26) the amount of arable there continued to increase up to 1875 (fn. 27) but declined thereafter.
The alluvial soil along the Teville stream and the Broadwater or Sompting brook has been used as pasture and meadow, apparently from at least the 1580s. (fn. 28) There was further inning of land in the south-east of the parish in the 17th century. (fn. 29) With the growth of Worthing building has covered the area along the upper part of the Teville stream, which has been piped underground. Along the lower part of the stream c. 45 a. were drained to form Brooklands park, with a boating lake opened in 1958 acting as a tidal reservoir for surface water from the streams. (fn. 30) Further north Worthing's rubbish tips formed a prominent flat-topped mound in 1977, and north-west of those drainage and reclamation of the low-lying land continued, providing sites for trading estates and houses. Largescale production of fruit and flowers under glass started on the fertile brickearth in the southern part of the parish in the late 19th century, and Worthing became a national centre for glass-house produce. Nurseries and glass-houses were also established in other parts of the parish, but had almost entirely disappeared by 1977. (fn. 31) Broadwater and Offington had each had its own open fields. Offington's were inclosed apparently in the 16th or early 17th century, and Broadwater's under an Act of 1805.
There was a network of old roads and tracks before the 19th century over the higher ground in the north of the parish. (fn. 32) The Roman road from Chichester to Brighton crossed the parish north of Broadwater village, following a more northerly course than the modern road, through what were later the grounds of Charmandean House. (fn. 33) The modern line of road, however, existed by 1616. (fn. 34) In the Middle Ages Broadwater village had road communications in all directions, including roads to Sompting, Offington, and Findon recorded in the 14th and 15th centuries. (fn. 35) In 1445 salt fish was brought to Offington from London evidently over land. (fn. 36) The Broadwater-Littlehampton road apparently existed in 1419. (fn. 37) Brook Street, apparently South Farm Road, was recorded in the early 16th century, (fn. 38) and the north end of Broadwater Road, the road on the south side of Broadwater green, and the north part of Ham Lane, later Dominion Road, in the early 17th century. (fn. 39) In 1800 two roads from London, via Sompting and via Findon and Steyning, converged in Broadwater and ran south to Worthing. (fn. 40) Under an Act of 1802 a turnpike road from Worthing through Broadwater, Findon, and Washington was opened. The part south of Offington corner was disturnpiked in 1823, that to the north in 1878. (fn. 41)
Thirty-seven inhabitants were recorded in Broadwater in 1086. (fn. 42) The parish had 33 people assessed to the subsidy in 1296, 11 being in Offington township, and 160 paid the poll-tax, including 50 in Offington, in 1378. (fn. 43) In 1524 69 were assessed to the subsidy including 35 in Offington, and in the 1660s there were c. 42 households there. (fn. 44) There were 200 inhabitants over 16 in 1676, and c. 60 families in 1724, both totals evidently including Worthing residents. (fn. 45) In 1831 the population of the parish, excluding Worthing, was c. 560, and in 1841, when it may have included some holiday visitors, 643. (fn. 46) It rose from 600 in 1851 to 1,228 in 1871, but as a result of the northward extension of Worthing's boundary in 1875 had dropped to 841 by 1881. By 1901 it had increased to 1,187. (fn. 47)
The parish is overlooked by Cissbury Hill, the Saxon name of which, meaning 'the last stronghold', has been modified to suggest an association with the Saxon king Cissa. (fn. 48) Flint mines on the west side of the hill, worked from Neolithic times until the Bronze Age, were among the most important in the country. (fn. 49) Between c. 400 and 250 B.C. a hill-fort was built on the summit and across the flint-mining area. It was occupied until c. 50 B.C. Most of the area was cultivated during the Roman period, but the defences were renewed and strengthened in the 4th century or later. (fn. 50) There was a Saxon mint on Cissbury Hill, (fn. 51) and two beacons were placed there in 1587 as part of the defences against the Spanish Armada. (fn. 52)
The former village of Broadwater lies across the 25-ft. contour at the head of the shallow valley of the Broadwater or Sompting brook, in an area where there are many wells and springs. In shape it was long and narrow, extending first south-east from Broadwater green and then east, forking ¼ mile east of the church into the modern Sompting and Dominion roads. (fn. 53) The church lay centrally in the village, and also centrally between the settlements of Worthing, Offington, and Little Broadwater, and its size suggests that it was meant to serve a relatively large population. (fn. 54) The village had a very shabby appearance in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, (fn. 55) but had improved by 1811, apparently as a result of Worthing's prosperity. Several houses had then been built or rebuilt, including the rectory and manor-house. Some 18th- and early-19th-century houses remained north of the church in 1977.
Although buildings extended over most of the land to either side of the village street in the 1720s, (fn. 56) by 1780 those in the central part had disappeared. (fn. 57) The gap remained throughout the early 19th century, (fn. 58) but building had started there by 1875, and the gap was filled by 1909. (fn. 59)
Charmandean, a plain double-fronted house, was built west of Charmandean Lane after 1806 by John Penfold. (fn. 60) A south porch was added c. 1842 and later large east and west wings, a verandah and balconies, and a chapel. Elaborate gardens and an observation tower were recorded in the late 19th century. (fn. 61) The house, which from c. 1915 had had been used as a school, was demolished in 1963. (fn. 62) In the 19th century the existence of several such large houses near the village with small landed estates attached to them limited the extent of building beyond the village closes; large-scale building development was not possible until those estates were split up in the 20th century. (fn. 63) By 1896 some terraced cottages and semi-detached houses had been built at the east end of the village, (fn. 64) but land north of the village evidently sold for building in 1884 (fn. 65) remained undeveloped. (fn. 66) Although part of the area between the village and Worthing was increasingly filled by houses and glass-houses after 1850, the village remained separate from the town until the 20th century. (fn. 67) The later topographical history of Broadwater is treated under Worthing. Broadwater Road and Broadwater Street West had been widened by 1940, (fn. 68) and by the 1970s the old village had become a suburban shopping centre.
There was an inn at Broadwater in 1690. (fn. 69) The Maltsters' Arms in the village street is recorded from 1796, (fn. 70) and may have been called the Millwrights' Arms in the 1820s and 1830s. (fn. 71) The Brewers' Arms, with a brewery, was recorded at the SE. corner of the green from c. 1850 to 1872. (fn. 72) By 1878 it had become the Cricketers' Arms, (fn. 73) and in the 1970s it was the headquarters of Broadwater cricket club. (fn. 74) The Engineers' Arms, also near the SE. corner of the green, was recorded in 1897, (fn. 75) but had closed by 1928. (fn. 76) In 1890 a reading room was built by subscription near the SE. corner of the green, but in 1898 it was little used. (fn. 77) By 1900 it was run by the parish council and it continued as a parish room and reading room. (fn. 78)
There was apparently a small settlement in the Middle Ages called Little Broadwater (fn. 79) on the boundary between Broadwater and Sompting parishes, which was quite distinct from the settlement of the same name that formed the detached part of the parish in the north of the county. (fn. 80) It was recorded between the 13th century (fn. 81) and the 15th. (fn. 82)
Offington, north-west of Broadwater village, formed a separate township which may have been larger or more important than Broadwater in 1282. (fn. 83) Offington House was recorded from 1357, (fn. 84) and its park, recorded in the mid 15th century, (fn. 85) may have been enlarged in the 16th, (fn. 86) and was later noted for its beautiful trees. (fn. 87) The settlement there, presumably connected with the house, probably lay along Brook Street, (fn. 88) later South Farm Road. (fn. 89) That road led to lands of Offington manor along the Teville stream, (fn. 90) and South Farm may have marked the southern end of the settlement. Offington had its own pound in the late 15th century and early 16th. (fn. 91) By 1524 most of the people assessed to the subsidy in Offington were household servants of the lord of Offington, (fn. 92) and by the 1660s only Offington House and South Farm were recorded there. (fn. 93)
Broadwater green of c. 9 a., (fn. 94) a right-angled triangle, lies between Broadwater village and the former Offington park, (fn. 95) and its outline is recorded from the 1720s. (fn. 96) In 1805, and presumably earlier, it belonged as waste land or common to Broadwater manor. (fn. 97) The area was reduced by the allotment of a stone and gravel pit near the north corner at inclosure in 1810, (fn. 98) the building of a blacksmith's shop at the SE. corner by 1838, (fn. 99) and the building of a short new road, cutting off the SE. corner, the site of the future National school, in 1864. (fn. 100) In 1865 the ladies of the manor gave the rest to the Worthing local board as a recreation ground, which it has remained. The gravel pit, which the parish sold contemporaneously to the local board, (fn. 101) had become a pond by the late 19th century (fn. 102) and was later filled in. The blacksmith's shop, rebuilt in 1885, and the National school of 1873 beside it were prominent features of the green until demolished in 1937 for road widening. (fn. 103) The green was further curtailed at the north-east edge after 1959. (fn. 104) There was a ducking stool by a pond on the green in the late 18th century and early 19th. (fn. 105) Cricket was played on the green by the early 1720s and Broadwater cricket club, founded in 1771, continued to play there in 1977. (fn. 106) The Worthing cricket club, formed in 1855, (fn. 107) at first played on the green. (fn. 108) In the late 19th century fishing nets were dried round the edge of the green. (fn. 109) Fairs were held there in the 19th century and early 20th, (fn. 110) and were revived in 1975. (fn. 111)
In the early 19th century on May day there was dancing in the ring in Broadwater, and children carried garlands from house to house. (fn. 112)
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
The estate that became the manor of BROADWATER was held of King Edward the Confessor in 1066 by Wigot of Wallingford as 29 hides. Nine hides which lay at Aldrington later became part of Lewes rape; the remaining 20 were held by William de Braose in 1086, (fn. 113) and thereafter descended with the honor of Bramber. (fn. 114)
In 1086 William held 2 hides in demesne and the rest of Broadwater was held by Robert, evidently Robert le Savage, from whom a knight held 1 hide. (fn. 115) Robert was possibly the great-great-grandfather of Robert le Savage (fn. 116) who held 4 knight's fees in Broadwater, Sedgewick, and Goringlee in 1242. (fn. 117) Between 1242 and 1256 the manor was in dispute between Robert and Sir John de Gatesden, finally passing in the latter year to Sir John and his wife Hawise, (fn. 118) who was not, as is generally stated, Robert's daughter. (fn. 119) In 1259 Robert's widow apparently recovered her dower against them. (fn. 120) John died in 1262 (fn. 121) and Hawise held the manor afterwards, compounding in 1268 for castle-ward and murage at Bramber castle due from Broadwater and other manors. (fn. 122) At her death in 1269 (fn. 123) the manor passed to Sir John de Camoys and his wife Margaret, the daughter or granddaughter and heir of Sir John de Gatesden. (fn. 124) They held the manor in 1275, (fn. 125) and in 1279 when their claim to free warren was vindicated; (fn. 126) in the latter year Richard de Pevensey and his wife Isabel, perhaps representatives of the Savage family, released to them all their rights in the manor. (fn. 127)
At some time after 1277, (fn. 128) perhaps in 1285, (fn. 129) Margaret left her husband to live with Sir William Paynel, to whom Sir John had leased her inheritance before 1285, (fn. 130) and to whom he conveyed Broadwater and other manors in 1288. (fn. 131) Sir John de Camoys died in 1298, (fn. 132) and before 1300 Margaret married Sir William Paynel (d. 1317), (fn. 133) with whom she apparently held the manor in 1304. (fn. 134) She died in 1310 or 1311, and her son and heir Sir Ralph de Camoys (fn. 135) held the manor by 1312. (fn. 136) In 1336 he was succeeded by his son Sir Thomas, (fn. 137) who held the manor in 1361. (fn. 138) Sir Thomas (d. 1372) (fn. 139) was succeeded by his nephew, also Sir Thomas de Camoys, (fn. 140) who held the manor by 1375. (fn. 141) He died in 1421, his heir being his grandson Hugh de Camoys, (fn. 142) who died a minor in 1426 when his heirs were his sisters, Margaret wife of Ralph Radmyld and Eleanor wife of Roger Lewknor. (fn. 143) In 1433 Sir Roger de Camoys, a younger son of Sir Thomas (d. 1421) (fn. 144) quitclaimed his interest in the manor to Roger and Eleanor. (fn. 145) Margaret Radmyld died before her husband who held half the manor at his death in 1443, being succeeded by his son Robert, a minor. (fn. 146) Before 1457 a partition of the Camoys inheritance between Robert Radmyld and Roger Lewknor allotted Broadwater to Robert, who died in 1457 leaving a son and heir William, a minor. (fn. 147) William died in 1499 without issue, (fn. 148) and the manor had passed to Sir Reynold Bray by 1501, (fn. 149) possibly under a settlement of 1497. (fn. 150)
Sir Reynold died in 1503 (fn. 151) and under his will his nephew Edmund and his niece Margery were successive remaindermen to the manor. (fn. 152) Disputes between them were resolved in 1510 by an award of the manor to Margery and her husband Sir William Sandys of the Vyne (Hants), (fn. 153) who was created Lord Sandys in 1523. Margery died in 1539 and William in 1540, when the manor apparently passed to their son Thomas, who died in 1559. His heir was his grandson William Sandys, Lord Sandys, (fn. 154) but Broadwater was granted to his mother Elizabeth as part of her jointure, (fn. 155) and she held the manor, at first with her third husband Ralph Scrope (d. 1572), (fn. 156) until 1601. (fn. 157) In 1594 William sold the reversion to Miles Sandys of Latimer (Bucks.), whose son Sir Edwin married William's daughter Elizabeth in 1586. (fn. 158) Miles was succeeded in 1601 by Sir Edwin, (fn. 159) who in 1605 quitclaimed the manor to John Shirley. (fn. 160) John died in 1616 leaving a son and heir John, a minor, who died in 1631 leaving a son and heir, also John, who died under age in 1637 leaving as heir his sister Frances. (fn. 161)
By 1660 the manor was held by Sir Robert Houghton of Shelton (Norf.) in right of his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Isaac Sedley, Bt. After Sir Robert's death Elizabeth married Sir George Pretyman of Lodington (Leics.) in 1661, (fn. 162) and in 1672 they quitclaimed the manor to Sir Edward Hungerford, M.P., who had acquired an interest in it by 1670, (fn. 163) possibly as a creditor of Sir George. (fn. 164) Sir Edward mortgaged the manor several times, and in pursuance of a decree of 1707 he and his mortgagees sold it in 1709 to Fisher Tench and Samuel Thayer, trustees for Henry Travies, (fn. 165) a minor. He died between 1730 and 1734, when Tench and his wife Elizabeth and Thomas Thayer, Samuel's eldest son, and his wife Ann sold it to James Butler of Warminghurst. (fn. 166) Thereafter the descent followed that of Rowdell in Washington until 1793 when Patty Clough sold it to John Newland, apparently the tenant of Broadwater farm. (fn. 167) John (d. 1806) devised the manor to his eldest surviving son John (fn. 168) (d. 1848), (fn. 169) who appears to have been succeeded in his lifetime (fn. 170) by his brother Harry (fn. 171) (d. 1857). Harry was succeeded by his widow Ann (d. 1870) as life-tenant, (fn. 172) and she by the younger John's daughters Harriet (d. 1893), Frances (d. 1888), and Emily (d. 1892) (fn. 173) who in 1880 settled it on W. F. Tribe (d. 1887). His daughter Fanny held the manor c. 1895 and in 1905, having married G. H. P. Livesay in 1898. In 1911 W. F. Tribe's trustees sold it to the Misses Annie and Edith Nicholls. Edith died in 1928 and in 1929 Annie sold the manor-house with c. 11 a. to the Seaview Estates Development Co. (fn. 174) In 1930 it was bought by M. D. M. Neligan (fn. 175) who converted it into a boys' preparatory school, (fn. 176) which survived in 1977.
A manor-house was recorded in 1256 when there was a private chapel there. (fn. 177) The house, standing south of the church, had 7 hearths in 1664. (fn. 178) The present building is of several dates. The oldest part is the north wing which has rubble walls and a late-medieval roof. Its southern end abuts the north-east corner of the main house which is probably part of a longer 17th-century timberframed range extending both east and west. A south wing had been added to the east end of that range by c. 1720, (fn. 179) and in the early 19th century a new block was built in the angle between that wing and the main range. More recent alterations and additions have included new building north of the main house and the rebuilding of much of the 17th-century range.
OFFINGTON was held by Earl Godwin (d. 1053), but by 1086 William son of Norman held it of William de Braose. (fn. 180) Thereafter it descended with the rape. (fn. 181) William son of Norman also held Coombes and Applesham manors in Coombes, (fn. 182) and the mesne lordship descended with those manors until 1450. (fn. 183)
In 1328 the undertenant of the manor was William de Lychpole, (fn. 184) whose ancestors had apparently held all or part of it since at least 1253, when Andrew de Lychpole was dealing with land in Offington. (fn. 185) In 1254 Michael of Coombes recognized Andrew's rights in one plough-land there. Ralph le Uncle and his wife Maud and Geoffrey de Walcote and his wife Joan put in their claim, (fn. 186) and in 1255 Andrew acquired their interest in five hides in Offington, (fn. 187) where Michael of Coombes granted him 40 a. in the same year. (fn. 188) By 1285 Andrew had been succeeded by his son and heir William, (fn. 189) who with his wife Joan was sued in 1288 by Isabel, widow of Thomas de Offington, for her dower in 88 a. (fn. 190) William was dead by 1299 (fn. 191) and had apparently been succeeded by his son William by c. 1314. (fn. 192) William the younger (fl. c. 1341) (fn. 193) was succeeded by his daughters Joan (fn. 194) and Alice who, with their husbands John Piper and Luke de Vienne, quitclaimed the manor to Sir Andrew Peverel in 1355, (fn. 195) Luke and Alice possibly continuing to occupy the manor-house until 1357. (fn. 196) Sir Andrew (d. 1375) was succeeded by his two great-nephews Sir Edmund FitzHerbert and John Brocas as coheirs. (fn. 197) John died in 1378 when his share passed to Sir Edmund (fn. 198) (d. 1387), who was succeeded by his sister Alice (d. 1395), widow of Sir Thomas West. (fn. 199)
Offington descended from her son Sir Thomas West (d. 1405) (fn. 200) to his son, also Sir Thomas (d. 1417), and to Thomas's brother Reynold, later Lord de la Warr, (fn. 201) (d. 1450). It then descended with the title (fn. 202) to Reynold's son Richard (d. 1476) and Richard's son Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1525), who in 1485 received from Henry VII a large part of the Sussex estates of the attained duke of Norfolk. (fn. 203) Apparently he lived mainly at Offington, (fn. 204) and he was buried in Broadwater church. (fn. 205) His son Thomas, Lord de la Warr, moved to Offington unwillingly after the king had, in effect, compelled him to exchange Halnaker (in Boxgrove) for other lands in 1540. (fn. 206) He died there without issue in 1554, (fn. 207) devising Offington to his nephew William West for life. (fn. 208) William, however, had been attainted for trying to poison his uncle, (fn. 209) and in 1557 the Crown leased the manor and park for the support of William's wife Elizabeth and their children. (fn. 210) William, restored in blood in 1563 and created Lord de la Warr in 1570, (fn. 211) held Offington in 1583 (fn. 212) and died seised of it in 1595. His son and heir Thomas (fn. 213) apparently mortgaged it in 1598 or 1600 to Edward Barker of London, (fn. 214) who with Thomas and his son Thomas sold it in 1601 to the trustees of Edward Alford. (fn. 215)
The Alford family thereafter adopted Offington as their main residence. (fn. 216) Edward, M.P. for Colchester 1604-25 and 1628-9 (fn. 217) was an opponent of Stuart policies. (fn. 218) He died in 1631 (fn. 219) and was succeeded by his son John, M.P. for Arundel in 1628, and for Shoreham in 1626 and 1640, (fn. 220) who was a leading neutral in the Civil War. (fn. 221) He died in 1649, (fn. 222) having apparently conveyed the manor to his brother Sir Edward Alford. (fn. 223) Sir Edward, M.P. for Arundel, supported the king. He died intestate in 1653, (fn. 224) his son John being a minor, (fn. 225) and his wife Anne was living at Offington in 1664. (fn. 226) John, who had succeeded by 1667, (fn. 227) was M.P. for Midhurst in 1679 and afterwards for Bramber. He died in 1691, (fn. 228) and in 1726 his second son John sold the manor to William Whitebread of Ashurst. (fn. 229) William (d. 1746) devised the manor to his wife Frances (d. 1754) (fn. 230) for life, with remainder to his nephew John Margesson, (fn. 231) whose eldest son William sold the manor in 1816 to J. T. Daubuz, (fn. 232) a London merchant. He was succeeded in 1831 by his nephew J. B. Daubuz, (fn. 233) who sold the manor in 1858 to Thomas Gaisford (d. 1898). (fn. 234) He was succeeded by his son J. C. Gaisford, who after c. 1910 (fn. 235) sold it to Lady De Gex, widow of Sir J. P. De Gex, who lived there from c. 1914 to 1935. (fn. 236)
A manor-house was apparently recorded in 1357. (fn. 237) By the mid 15th century there was a large complex of buildings including at least one courtyard, a chapel, a guest-house, and a gate-house. (fn. 238) In 1524 there were c. 32 household servants there. (fn. 239) Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1554) seems to have made some alterations, and by the date of his death the house contained c. 68 rooms, including, besides the chapel, 15 storerooms, 2 halls, and 3 galleries. (fn. 240) Twenty-five hearths were recorded in 1664. (fn. 241) By 1780, and perhaps earlier, (fn. 242) the house had been rebuilt on a much reduced scale, (fn. 243) incorporating parts of the earlier building. At that date it was of stone, with two storeys, and two projecting wings on the E. front. (fn. 244) By 1824 a porch had been built on the E. front. (fn. 245) The house was repaired and enlarged in 1838 (fn. 246) and in 1858 Thomas Gaisford added a new wing on the W. front, a library, (fn. 247) and a chapel (fn. 248) which between 1859 and 1862 was Worthing's chief place of Roman Catholic worship. (fn. 249) After 1935 the house was divided into flats, and it was demolished in 1963. (fn. 250) In 1975 there remained only the Old Brewhouse, largely timber-framed, which may have been a 17th-century farm-house, (fn. 251) the stables, some out-buildings, and a cottage.
The manor of LITTLE BROADWATER in Broadwater and Sompting, (fn. 252) was perhaps identical with the ½ knight's fee there held of Wiston manor by Ralph Vesk at the end of the 13th century. (fn. 253) In 1359 Little Broadwater was held by John son and heir of John de Lyons and Alice at Dene, apparently his father's widow, (fn. 254) and in 1392 it was held by James Lucy and his wife Isabel. (fn. 255) In 1526 John Mill alias Cook held land in Little Broadwater of Wiston manor, and Roger Mill alias Cook (d. c. 1530) also held land of that manor there. (fn. 256) Alexander Mill quitclaimed Little Broadwater to Thomas Avery in 1551, (fn. 257) and Edward Jenny later acquired it from William Apsley (d. by 1583). (fn. 258)
The manor of LYONS, also in Broadwater and Sompting, may be associated with the Lyons family, members of which are recorded in those places between 1288 and 1366. (fn. 259) In the late 15th century it was held by Richard Grandford, who was succeeded by his granddaughter Parnel, wife of John Shirley of Isfield (d. 1527), (fn. 260) who held it in 1501. (fn. 261) In 1544 John's son Edward sold the reversion to Sir William Goring of Burton, nephew of John's second wife Margery, (fn. 262) and he was dealing with it five years later. (fn. 263)
In 1587 Edward Jenny granted Lyons and Little Broadwater together to Edward Apsley, perhaps his brother-in-law. (fn. 264) Sir John Caryll of Warnham held both in 1595, (fn. 265) and after his death in 1613 they descended with West Harting manor until at least 1680. (fn. 266) In that year Richard Penfold was apparently tenant. (fn. 267) Before his death in 1738 John Penfold had acquired the freehold, his heir being his son John. (fn. 268) Hugh Penfold apparently held the lands in 1770. (fn. 269) John Penfold (d. 1821) (fn. 270) held them in 1798 (fn. 271) and 1810. (fn. 272) By 1838 they were owned by Thomas Groome (fn. 273) who was succeeded by his son Charles c. 1857, (fn. 274) when the estate included c. 300 a. in Broadwater and Sompting. (fn. 275) Charles owned Lyons in 1862; (fn. 276) by 1884 it was owned by H. P. Crofts (d. 1890) of Sompting Abbotts, and his daughter Blanche Tristram held it in the 1920s. (fn. 277)
In the 18th and 19th centuries Lyons farm-house stood on the boundary with Sompting. (fn. 278) Development round the house had begun in the 1920s, and by c. 1943 the house and a small area of land immediately south of it were surrounded by roads and houses. (fn. 279) Worthing corporation bought the land and the house in 1950. The house was demolished in 1952 and the land became the Lyons Farm recreation ground. (fn. 280) Much of the Lyons farm land north of the Sompting road was occupied in the 1940s and in 1978 by Lyons Farm nurseries. (fn. 281)
Before 1285 Pynham priory held land in Offington, (fn. 282) which in 1454 amounted to 11 a. (fn. 283) In 1592 it was held by Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague. (fn. 284) In the late 13th or early 14th century William de Offington granted 5 a. of his demesne in Offington to Waverley abbey (Surr.). (fn. 285) Although in 1510 it was held by the lord of Offington, allegedly because it had been granted in mortmain without licence, (fn. 286) it once again formed part of the abbey's lands by the Dissolution. (fn. 287)
In 1086 Broadwater contained 20 hides and Offington two. There were three demesnes, two of 2 hides and one of c. 6 hides, of which one had 2 plough-teams with 3 servi and one had 1 team. In Broadwater 30 villani and 4 bordars had 10 teams. There were 60 a. of meadow. The woodland yielding 20 swine was probably the detached part of Broadwater near Horsham. The value of Broadwater had declined from £15 in 1066 to £14 in 1086; Offington at both dates was worth 26s. (fn. 288)
In 1300 two free tenants of Broadwater manor held their land by inter alia boon-works and personal services, namely singing once at Christmas and providing a bed when ordered on the arrival of a member of the lord's family or a stranger. Their successors in the 15th century owed the same services. Four tenants of the manor held their land in 1300 and in the 15th century by rent and boonworks, and two free tenants owed a corn-rent called 'parkseycorn'. (fn. 289) Four tenements which had been free were customary by the early 15th century, and during that century the number of free tenants of the manor in Broadwater, excluding unspecified tenants and parceners, declined from 18 to 16, and their holdings from 25 to 18. (fn. 290) Thirty-five customary tenants were recorded in the early 15th century including one in Little Broadwater, (fn. 291) and 24 in 1493. (fn. 292) Throughout the 15th century only one customary tenant owed labour services, the rest paying rent. (fn. 293) Customary lands were also recorded in the late 16th century, (fn. 294) when the custom of borough English obtained. (fn. 295) Between 1386 and 1388 two villein tenants were recorded at Offington. (fn. 296) In 1418 or 1419 land there was let to 16 tenants mainly on 12-year leases; at least two tenants owed labour services, suggesting that some demesne was still in hand. (fn. 297) Freehold and customary land was recorded there between 1494 and 1552. Much of it was heriotable, and in 1494, 1500, and 1502 some heriots were commuted for cash payments. (fn. 298) In the late 14th century and early 15th customary heriotable land was held of Little Broadwater manor. (fn. 299)
There were two or three groups of open fields in the parish, excluding those at Worthing: for Broadwater, for Offington, and apparently for Little Broadwater. Lark furlong, South furlong, North furlong, and the common field were recorded in 1300. (fn. 300) Charmandean common field was recorded from the early 15th century, (fn. 301) and West field (fn. 302) and South field (fn. 303) in the 16th. North, Middle North, South, the West Parsonage, and Charmandean or Upper North fields were recorded in the early 17th century, when some land at least had been inclosed. There were then also two common meadows or pastures, the Town mead and the Ham. (fn. 304) By c. 1725 the common fields in the south part of Broadwater had attained approximately the shape and extent which they retained until inclosure, (fn. 305) and by 1793 much of the northern part of the parish had ceased to be subject to common rights. (fn. 306) At inclosure in 1810 515 a. were inclosed, including c. 6 a. in West Parsonage field, 31 a. in South field, 79 a. in North field, 57 a. in Charmandean, and 205 a. on Broadwater or tenants' hill, the former common sheep-pasture. (fn. 307)
In Offington the Corn Ham and the West Ham were recorded from 1285, (fn. 308) South field in 1388, (fn. 309) and East field in 1418-19. (fn. 310) Offington field, containing holdings of between 1 a. and 22 a., was recorded between 1494 and 1527. The short, long, middle, and withy hedges there may indicate subdivision into furlongs. (fn. 311) In 1503 the manor court prohibited the pasturing of sheep and cattle on Offington field between Lady Day and All Saints Day. (fn. 312) Mention of agistment in the brooks in 1387, (fn. 313) of the brook pasture in 1419, (fn. 314) and of Brook close, a customary holding of 40 a. of land and pasture on the south, or in the south part of, Offington field in 1515, (fn. 315) suggests that that field lay somewhere between the modern Broadwater-Littlehampton road and the watercourse forming the parish boundary with Heene. (fn. 316) Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, was licensed in 1540 to impark and inclose inter alia 70 a. (fn. 317) which may have included all or part of Offington field, and which may later have been incorporated in South farm, part of the Offington estate by 1559. (fn. 318) Tenants of Offington manor were, however, still recorded in 1553. (fn. 319) A small amount of land in Offington field disputed between the lord of Offington and the rector of Broadwater in the early 16th century (fn. 320) was still claimed by the rector in 1635. (fn. 321)
The field of Little Broadwater was recorded in the late 13th century. (fn. 322)
Sagebrook and Swinebrook, the latter recorded from 1300, (fn. 323) comprising c. 100 a. of valuable meadow, formed part of Broadwater manor's demesne but were apparently let separately before the end of the 16th century. (fn. 324) In 1604 the lord of Broadwater granted them to Sir John Caryll of Warnham, (fn. 325) and they descended with Lyons farm until at least 1680. They can probably be identified with the East and West brooks comprising c. 80 a. in the south-east part of the parish which were let with Sompting rectory in 1638. The boundaries between the separate parcels of the brooks, which were apparently man-made watercourses, remained almost unchanged until at least 1875. (fn. 326)
In 1341 the tithe of sheaves was c. £23 and the tithe of wool and lambs 30s. Other crops mentioned then included apples, flax, and hemp. (fn. 327) In 1300 Broadwater manor included 357 a. of arable, 135 a. of meadow, 39 a. of pasture, and 325 a. of downland pasture; (fn. 328) in 1493 there were c. 45 a. less arable and c. 20 a. more meadow. (fn. 329) Vines were recorded in 1300, when the downland pasture produced over 13 weys of cheese and 8s. worth of butter. (fn. 330) Between 1583 and 1587 it was claimed that the sheep-down of Broadwater manor would support at least 1,000 sheep. The demesne farm of c. 540 a. also yielded corn and dairy produce (fn. 331) and the manor included a dairy farm, Pechwick, recorded from the late 13th century, (fn. 332) which may have been south-east of the village. (fn. 333) In the 1720s the inclosed parts of the manor south of the village contained 149 a. of arable, 135 a. of meadow, and 68 a. of pasture. (fn. 334) At Offington manor in the late 14th century surplus demesne pasture was leased out. (fn. 335) The estate evidently did not produce enough to supply the house at Offington in 1444 since livestock and corn had to be bought elsewhere, but surplus animal hides were sold. (fn. 336) In 1554 Offington was the head of a large estate engaged in mixed farming. (fn. 337)
Broadwater manor was presumably in hand in 1296. (fn. 338) In 1493 the demesne farm, containing c. 759 a., was leased, as were another four estates amounting to 113 a. (fn. 339) Considerable repairs to the farm buildings were carried out by Sir Reynold Bray in 1502. (fn. 340) Throughout the 16th century Broadwater manor was leased. (fn. 341) In 1418 or 1419 at least 155 a. at Offington, mostly manorial demesne, were let to 16 tenants, and in 1419 or 1420 five more holdings there were let besides a dovecote and a warren. (fn. 342) There was still a warren at Offington in 1454, (fn. 343) and in the late 15th century rabbithunting caused disputes between the servants of Broadwater and Offington manors. (fn. 344) The former chantry lands were let as part of Broadwater manor by 1548, (fn. 345) and a house and c. 85 a. in Broadwater and other parishes called the Chantry, held with the manor in 1602, may be what was later Chantry farm. (fn. 346) The chantry lands were leased separately from the manor in 1621, (fn. 347) and Chantry farm was recorded in the 1720s. (fn. 348) It included 34 a. in Broadwater in the 1780s, but is not recorded thereafter. (fn. 349) Broadwater farm included 834 a. in the 1780s. It had always been the largest and most valuable estate in the parish, and remained so until 1793 when John Newland sold to William Margesson of Offington 471 a., (fn. 350) being the north part of Broadwater farm including Cissbury Ring. (fn. 351)
In the 17th and 18th centuries wheat and barley were the chief crops, although oats and peas, and by the 1690s vetches and clover, were also grown, on a three-course rotation. Many sheep were kept; one farm had over 1,100 sheep and a large stock of wool in 1681, and there were c. 800 sheep at South farm in 1712. Most farmers also kept small dairy herds and produced cheese. (fn. 352)
In the 1790s the lord of Broadwater claimed heriots from 160 copyhold and 112 freehold tenements, 97 of which were in Broadwater itself, but in 1798 it was alleged that only 40 freehold heriots, including c. 16 in Broadwater, were recoverable. (fn. 353)
In 1810, at inclosure, 580 a. were allotted, including 65 a. of old inclosures; 214 a. of the total were copyhold. The lord of Broadwater received 70 a., including 17 a. for manorial rights, but the largest allotment, of 176 a., went to John Penfold, the owner of Lyons farm. There were a further 7 allotments of between 21 a. and 71 a. (fn. 354)
By 1848 the Broadwater manorial estate contained 319 a., divided between 5 farms of between 10 a. and 145 a. (fn. 355) After c. 1850 it began to contract (fn. 356) and by 1911 the manor-house with 11 a. of land formed a pastoral small-holding, as it did in 1929. (fn. 357) Decoy farm, south-east of the village, was originally part of the manorial estate. (fn. 358) It was enlarged in the early 18th century, containing c. 83 a. in 1792, and John Newland (d. 1806) devised it to a younger son, Richard, who was allotted 71 a. at inclosure. (fn. 359) As a dairy farm it provided most of Worthing's milk in the 1820s. (fn. 360) In 1848 it comprised 115 a. (fn. 361) It remained a dairy farm later, but the farm-house had been demolished by 1909 (fn. 362) and the ownership of the land was increasingly subdivided. (fn. 363)
In 1816 William Margesson occupied Offington House and c. 17 a. of land, but most of the remaining 872 a. of his estate were let. (fn. 364) Margesson's successor, J. T. Daubuz, also leased out most of his land, and in 1819 built Offington Warren farm-house for his tenant. (fn. 365) In 1848 J. B. Daubuz occupied Offington House and 195 a. himself; the remainder of his 965 a. was divided between two farms. (fn. 366) In 1858 the house was sold with 121 a., and in 1909 the estate included 85 a. of park-land and 23 a. of pasture. (fn. 367) South farm meanwhile had been sold from the Offington estate by 1816. (fn. 368) Comprising 95 a. in 1848 it was sold in 1854 to George Orme (d. by 1882), who in 1858 bought from J. B. Daubuz 61 a. north of the farm. Orme afterwards built Broadwater Hall south of the farm-house. (fn. 369) From c. 1908 South farm and the land around Broadwater Hall were increasingly divided and built over. (fn. 370) The Hall was used as a school in 1924. By 1952 the farm-house had been demolished and the Hall divided into flats; the Hall was demolished in 1972 (fn. 371) and the site built over in 1975.
Offington Warren farm, of c. 760 a. in 1861, belonged to Thomas Wisden the younger from 1865. (fn. 372) A keen farmer who specialized in breeding prize-winning sheep and cattle, he had built The Warren house east of the Broadwater-Findon road by 1867. (fn. 373) The largest estate in Broadwater, Offington Warren farm was divided between 2 farms in 1895. (fn. 374) Wisden died in 1904, and in 1905 the farm-house and over 500 a. were leased to Worthing golf club. The estate of 807 a. was broken up in 1919 when Lower Warren farm comprised c. 190 a. (fn. 375) From 1930 The Warren house was used as a girls' school. In 1966 it was sold to the Excess Insurance Co., which demolished it in 1972. (fn. 376) By the 1930s Lower Warren farm had also become a golf course. (fn. 377)
At some time in the 19th century oats were apparently grown on Cissbury Hill. (fn. 378) About 1848 413 a. of the higher ground of the parish were pasture and 571 a. were arable, including 86 a. in the north-east corner of the parish. Other arable land lay mainly north and west of the village, and other pasture to the south-east near the Broadwater or Sompting brook. (fn. 379) After c. 1874 the chief crops were wheat, barley, and oats, (fn. 380) and by 1875 a further 100 a. of the higher ground had been converted to arable. (fn. 381) In the late 19th century and early 20th the amount of arable decreased, and there was a great increase in horticultural and nursery land, mainly for fruit-growing under glass, (fn. 382) round the village itself, in the north-west corner of the parish, and especially along the railway line. (fn. 383)
Watercress beds were recorded east of the village in the area of springs astride the boundary with Sompting from c. 1896. (fn. 384) The land formed part of the Broadwater trading estate by 1975. Chalk was dug throughout the 19th century both for dressing the fields and for building. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries gravel, flint, and marl were also dug in the parish. (fn. 385)
Besides the usual non-agricultural occupations a chapman was recorded in 1481. (fn. 386) Shoemakers occurred in the early 18th century, as did a bricklayer, a mercer, and a surgeon; (fn. 387) there was a weaver in 1788 (fn. 388) and a sawyer in 1813. (fn. 389) From the 1820s growing numbers of tradesmen and builders were recorded. (fn. 390) Knowles's bakery, founded in 1817, formed part of Rank Hovis McDougall Ltd. in 1975. (fn. 391) Paine, Manwaring & Lephard Ltd., founded by William Paine, a blacksmith, in 1725, continued in 1976 on the SE. corner of Broadwater green as general and heating engineers and ironmongers. (fn. 392)
There was a water-mill at Broadwater manor in 1086, (fn. 393) and a water-mill and a windmill there in 1300. (fn. 394) In 1341 Broadwater church received 14s. from mill-tithes. (fn. 395) Cutmill water-mill and Greenfield windmill, belonging to Broadwater manor, had both been destroyed before 1493. (fn. 396) References to Mill-pond meadow north of the decoy pond in the 1720s, (fn. 397) and to Cutmill Lane in the same area in the early 17th century, (fn. 398) may indicate the site of the water-mill. A windmill belonging to Offington manor was recorded c. 1418, and in 1455 when it was let. (fn. 399) In 1554 the Offington mill was valued at 5s. 8d. (fn. 400) A windmill was recorded in 1601 (fn. 401) and 1604, (fn. 402) and by 1780 one stood east of the track leading from the Broadwater-Findon road to Cissbury Ring. (fn. 403) It was leased in 1816. (fn. 404) In the early 19th century it was apparently known as Offington mill, (fn. 405) and later as Broadwater mill. (fn. 406) It ceased to be used between c. 1901 and 1909 and was demolished c. 1914. (fn. 407) The 'sea mill', perhaps a tide mill, occurred in 1576 (fn. 408) and in 1622, on the Broadwater-Lancing parish boundary, (fn. 409) where the Sea Mills bridge had been built by c. 1752. (fn. 410)
In 1245 Sir John de Gatesden was holding an unlicensed market in Broadwater. (fn. 411) A payment for a stall there was mentioned in 1300, (fn. 412) and in 1312 Sir Ralph de Camoys was granted or confirmed in a weekly Monday market, (fn. 413) changed to a Saturday one in 1375, and back again in 1383. (fn. 414) In the early 15th century Broadwater manor had 14 stalls or shops in the market, (fn. 415) and in 1442, when it was held on Saturday again, it was alleged to be attracting business away from Steyning market. (fn. 416) The market had ceased by 1493, (fn. 417) but Broadwater was still recorded as a market town in 1637, (fn. 418) although the market's survival was then precarious. (fn. 419)
In 1312 Sir Ralph de Camoys was also granted a fair on the eve, feast, and morrow of St. Barnabas (11 June). (fn. 420) In 1390 Sir Thomas de Camoys was granted another 3-day fair at St. Luke's day (18 October). (fn. 421) Both fairs were held in 1493 and 1502. (fn. 422) They were still held in the late 18th century and early 19th for horned cattle, sheep, and horses, (fn. 423) and by the 1860s were cattle and toy fairs. (fn. 424) A Good Friday fair was held in 1891; (fn. 425) the June fair was held annually on the green until c. 1922, and was revived in 1975. (fn. 426)
In the mid 13th century the lord of Bramber rape agreed that the lord of Broadwater should be quit of suit to the hundred court. (fn. 427) In 1275 the lord of Broadwater had view of frankpledge and right of wreck, (fn. 428) but both rights were later challenged by the lord of Bramber. (fn. 429) In 1493 view of frankpledge was held twice yearly, and a court baron every three weeks. Two officers with unspecified duties were elected for Broadwater tithing, and three for Worthing. (fn. 430) Two court rolls survive for 1501, when the court baron had jurisdiction over inter alia land transactions, common rights, and the repair of roads and houses. (fn. 431) In the late 16th century courts were being held twice a year. (fn. 432) Tenants of Worthing manor then owed certain payments to the lord of Broadwater, including 'millwork' silver. (fn. 433)
Court records from 1640 onwards survived at the end of the 18th century, (fn. 434) but later disappeared. Throughout the 18th century the lord exercised right of wreck through his court baron, (fn. 435) and in 1749 arbitrators between the lords of Worthing and Broadwater decided that the latter was entitled to all wrecks thrown on the beach between Heene and Lancing. Broadwater's leet jurisdiction similarly apparently extended over Worthing. (fn. 436) In the late 18th and 19th centuries a constable or headborough was elected in rotation from Broadwater, Durrington, and Worthing for the three places together. (fn. 437) In 1803 Worthing was given its own local government machinery, (fn. 438) but the lord of Broadwater's right to appoint a headborough for Broadwater and Durrington tithings was preserved. (fn. 439)
Court rolls for Offington manor survive for 1386-8, c. 1418-20, and 1552-3, and intermittently for 1494-1511. In the late 1380s the court was held three times a year. Its main business then concerned tenures and the regulation of agriculture; officers included an inspector of carcases and overseers of the harvest. In 1388 two reeves were chosen. In the early 15th century courts were held in spring and autumn, and were mainly concerned with granting leases. In the late 15th century and early 16th the court heard pleas of trespass, and had jurisdiction over tenures, roads, ditches, and hedges, and the pasturing of animals. (fn. 440)
Court rolls for the manor of Little Broadwater survive for 1392 and 1402-6. Courts were held irregularly, and were mainly concerned with customary land transactions and the repair of houses and fences. (fn. 441)
Churchwardens are recorded intermittently from 1414 onwards. (fn. 442) In the late 17th century and the 18th there were usually separate churchwardens, and sometimes separate overseers, for Broadwater and Worthing. (fn. 443) In 1663 methods of relief used were the payment of weekly doles and of rent, and the provision of fuel and clothing. (fn. 444) In 1730 £6 12s. was spent on the poor of Worthing. (fn. 445)
In 1799 Broadwater joined East Preston united parishes, formed in 1791. (fn. 446) Poor-relief expenditure rose from £211 in 1776 to £835 in 1802-3 when c. 80 people received permanent outside relief and four were maintained in the union workhouse. (fn. 447) After reaching a peak of £3,384 in 1817-18, expenditure declined to £1,642 by 1822 when a committee appointed in 1817 to assist the parish officers, evidently in contravention of Gilbert's Act, (fn. 448) made rules restricting entitlement to relief. (fn. 449) In 1878 the former detached part of the parish, Little Broadwater, was transferred to Horsham union. (fn. 450) Between 1894 and 1902, when it ceased to exist, the main part of the parish, excluding Worthing, was in East Preston rural district.
In 1854 two overseers, an assistant overseer, a waywarden, and 10 constables were appointed for the parish, (fn. 451) and in 1855 it joined with Worthing to employ a parish surgeon. (fn. 452) In 1859 there was a parish medical officer. (fn. 453)
There was a church at Broadwater in 1086, (fn. 454) and rectors are recorded from c. 1145. (fn. 455) The advowson of the rectory descended with the manor of Broadwater until 1734. In 1280 Sir John de Camoys apparently vindicated his right to the advowson against William son of Richard Hubard, (fn. 456) and in 1285 Sir John and his wife Margaret granted the presentation to Sir William Paynel and Henry of Didling for one turn. (fn. 457) The advowson was disputed in 1378 between Sir Thomas de Camoys and Adam de Hartingdon, (fn. 458) and in 1432 between the joint patrons Ralph Radmyld and Roger Lewknor. The claim of Lewknor's presentee was confirmed, but only Radmyld's presentee (fn. 459) was later recorded as rector. (fn. 460) Roger Lewknor was patron in 1445 (fn. 461) and William Radmyld and Roger Freeland, possibly the chantry priest, in 1481. (fn. 462) William West, later Lord de la Warr, (fn. 463) presented for a turn in or before 1559, (fn. 464) and Sir Robert Chester of Royston (Herts.) in 1625. (fn. 465) John Thorpe presented for a turn in 1647 (fn. 466) and John Porter in 1661. (fn. 467) The Crown presented on the grounds of simony in 1668 (fn. 468) and 1670, (fn. 469) but in 1672 accepted as rector the lord of the manor's earlier presentee. (fn. 470) The executors of Thomas Gibson of London presented his nephew Samuel Terrick in 1745. (fn. 471)
In 1734 Thomas Thayer sold his moiety of the advowson to Sir Fisher Tench, who in 1736 conveyed the advowson, reserving one turn, to Dr. Richard Russell of South Malling (fn. 472) (d. 1759). (fn. 473) Russell's son William, as William Kempe, quitclaimed the advowson to Nathaniel Jefferys in 1773. (fn. 474) Jefferys sold it in 1774 to the Revd. Robert Wright, (fn. 475) whose trustees sold it in 1791 to Henry Wood of Henfield. (fn. 476) Wood's son Peter, rector from 1797, (fn. 477) devised it in 1853 to his great-nephew E. K. Elliott, (fn. 478) who in 1920, the year of his death, conveyed it to Mrs. F. M. Walter. She, reserving one turn, gave it before 1926 to the Martyrs Memorial and Church of England Trust, which remained the patron in 1975. (fn. 479)
In 1291 the benefice with, apparently, Worthing chapel, was worth £46 13s. 4d., (fn. 480) one of the eight richest in the county. (fn. 481) It was worth £36 in 1535 (fn. 482) and rose in value from £602 c. 1830 (fn. 483) to £650 c. 1888. (fn. 484) In the 12th century the tithes of 2 hides in Broadwater belonged to Sompting church. (fn. 485) In 1838 the rector of Broadwater claimed the great and small tithes from 69 a. of Lyons farm in Sompting; they were commuted in 1840 for a rent-charge of £32 15s. (fn. 486) About 42 a. in Little Broadwater and 128 a. in Broadwater and Worthing, including glebe, were exempt from tithes in 1847 when tithes from the three places were commuted for £800, the apportionment being confirmed in 1851. (fn. 487) The glebe, recorded in 1300, (fn. 488) included several houses in the churchyard in 1341, (fn. 489) and one was still there between 1616 and 1663. (fn. 490) In 1507 the glebe was held at farm, (fn. 491) and in the mid and late 16th century it was leased to the lord of Offington. (fn. 492) It amounted to nearly 50 a. in 1616, excluding the part in Worthing hamlet, which in 1635 amounted to 4 a., (fn. 493) but at inclosure in 1810 the rector had only 13 a. in the open fields, which with his common rights were replaced by an allotment of 18 a. (fn. 494) Of 46 a. of glebe in 1851, including that in Worthing, (fn. 495) 13 a. had been sold by 1887 (fn. 496) and a further 26 a. by 1907. (fn. 497) The small amount of remaining glebe, west of the rectory, was used as playing fields and tennis courts in the 1930s (fn. 498) and in 1975. (fn. 499)
A rectory house existed in 1554. (fn. 500) In 1662, when it was called the vicarage, (fn. 501) it had 11 hearths and was perhaps the second largest house in the parish. (fn. 502) By 1724 the incumbent had spent much on repairing both house and farm buildings, including a dovehouse. (fn. 503) A new house, on the same site facing the west end of the church, (fn. 504) had been built by 1804. (fn. 505) It had been given up by the church by c. 1924, (fn. 506) and thereafter incumbents lived in a house a short distance to the south. (fn. 507) The former rectory, known as Muir House, was demolished in 1959 or 1960. (fn. 508) It was a two-storey house of white brick with short single-storey north and south wings. On the east front two bay windows flanked a central porch. (fn. 509) An accompanying barn, nearly opposite the church, survived until 1927 or later. (fn. 510)
A chantry of St. Mary at Broadwater was recorded in 1289. (fn. 511) Its advowson descended with the manor. (fn. 512) By 1300 it had been endowed with land, (fn. 513) and in 1388 the chaplain had a house and c. 7 a. Seven chaplains were recorded between 1388 and 1485. (fn. 514) Sir William Sandys (d. 1540), soon after his acquisition of Broadwater manor between 1503 and 1510, dissolved the chantry, but although he himself took the rent of its land (fn. 515) the chantry was said to be worth 8s. in 1535. (fn. 516)
A fraternity of St. Mary was recorded in 1442. (fn. 517)
There were chaplains at Broadwater in the 13th and 14th centuries. (fn. 518) William le Savage, rector c. 1228, was probably the brother of the lord of the manor. (fn. 519) John de Chishull, rector in 1259 and later bishop of London, was licensed to hold an additional benefice, (fn. 520) and Walter Gest, rector in 1349 and treasurer of Chichester cathedral, was licensed to hold three benefices. (fn. 521) The rector in 1429 was also a Chancery clerk, (fn. 522) and two 15th-century incumbents were prebendaries of Chichester. (fn. 523) Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1525), lord of Offington, devised his garter robes to the church for two altar cloths, and his widow, Eleanor, in 1536 left an antiphoner, a pair of organs, and a chalice to her husband's altar in the chancel. (fn. 524) The rector was not resident in 1554. (fn. 525) A former monk of Boxgrove priory (fn. 526) had been recorded as curate from 1544 to 1547 (fn. 527) and there were curates in the 1550s and 1560s (fn. 528) although the rector, who was also rector of Shermanbury, (fn. 529) resided at Broadwater in 1563. (fn. 530) Francis Heydon, rector 1575-1625, (fn. 531) appears to have neglected the parish (fn. 532) until his last years. (fn. 533) In 1579 the rood-beam was still in position. Heydon had then demised the benefice to the lord of Offington, but the incumbent of Sullington preached quarterly sermons, the curate recited the homilies, and the children were regularly catechized. (fn. 534) In 1584 the curate usually preached every Sunday. (fn. 535)
The next rector, a prebendary of St. Paul's, (fn. 536) was resident in 1636 and in 1640 when he visited the sick diligently and held communion five times a year. (fn. 537) Edward Burton, rector 1646-61, was a chaplain to the king and sent money to Charles II during his exile. (fn. 538) His successor held other livings, employing a curate in 1662, (fn. 539) and the rectory house was leased in the 1660s. (fn. 540) William Wade, rector 1669-1714 (fn. 541) and probably related by marriage to the patron, (fn. 542) was resident, (fn. 543) as was Jeremiah Dodson, rector 1714-44 (fn. 544) and rector of Hurstpierpoint, (fn. 545) who in 1724 preached two Sunday sermons in summer and one in winter. (fn. 546) In 1737 he was said to administer communion often enough. (fn. 547)
From 1797 to 1905 there were only two rectors. Peter Wood, rector 1797-1853, (fn. 548) also rector of Rusper, and a prebendary of Chichester, (fn. 549) was much liked in the parish. (fn. 550) He lived at Broadwater, (fn. 551) and his curate, William Davison (d. 1852), who lived with him for many years, was the first chaplain of Worthing chapel of ease. (fn. 552) Between 1825 and 1831 Mrs. M. A. Daubuz presented gifts to the church but her nephew, J. B. Daubuz, lord of Offington, ceased to attend church in 1833 after a dispute with the rector, and ordered the family pew to be locked up. (fn. 553) In 1838 there were two Sunday services, (fn. 554) and in 1844 communion was administered seven times a year. (fn. 555) Assistant curates were recorded from 1845 to 1852, (fn. 556) and in 1851 c. 300 people attended church in the morning and c. 500 in the afternoon. (fn. 557)
E. K. Elliott, rector 1853-1905, (fn. 558) also lived at Broadwater, (fn. 559) where men and women still sat separately in church in 1854. (fn. 560) In the 1850s he organized programmes of evening lectures. (fn. 561) Communion services increased in frequency from monthly between c. 1853 and c. 1884 to two or three times a month in 1903. The rector visited the sick regularly and was promoting temperance in 1884, and in the 1860s and 1880s church attendance fluctuated with the Worthing season. (fn. 562) A mission room was opened in Queen Street in 1899 or 1900, (fn. 563) and district visitors, a lay reader, and the holding of mothers' meetings and bible classes were recorded in 1903. (fn. 564) Elliott, one of the best known Evangelicals in southern England, presented his son E. J. Elliott on his resignation in 1905, (fn. 565) and the church remained markedly Evangelical thereafter. (fn. 566) In 1929 St. Stephen's Hall in Angola Road was opened, replacing temporary accommodation used for bible classes for the parish's increasing population. It had been enlarged by 1938 when the whole parish had 500 Sunday school and bible class members. (fn. 567) In 1959 the hall was consecrated. (fn. 568) In 1975 there were two curates, one in charge of St. Stephen's church, and up to 400 people attended the parish church. (fn. 569) A new church hall for St. Stephen's was opened in 1974. (fn. 570)
The church of ST. MARY, so called by 1456, (fn. 571) is mostly built of flint rubble with dressings of Caen stone, sandstone, and Bath stone. It has a chancel, central tower with transepts and south vestry, and an aisled and clerestoried nave with north and west porches. It is one of the largest cruciform churches in the county. (fn. 572)
The central tower is all that remains of the mid12th-century church, whose chancel and nave were rebuilt, presumably on a larger scale, during the next hundred years. It is probable that there were no transepts at first, but that they were added in the late 12th century. Each transept appears to have had three apsidal chapels along its east side, which were possibly the sites of later altars to St. Symphorian, (fn. 573) St. Mary, and St. Nicholas. (fn. 574) It is possible that the south transept, and perhaps the north transept too, was originally two-storeyed. Their construction was the first stage of a building programme which included the heightening of the tower and the rebuilding of the chancel, which has four bays of quadripartite vaulting, and the building of a new aisled nave of four bays. By the mid 13th century the church was nearing its maximum size, and later work has consisted of minor alterations or repairs. In the 14th century the east window was enlarged, (fn. 575) the west wall was rebuilt with the addition of a porch, later destroyed, and a north porch was added. Some of the buttresses may also date from that period. Alterations made in the 15th century were mostly in the nave, where all but one of the original aisle and clerestory windows were replaced and the capitals and bases of the arcade piers were recut.
In the late 16th and early 17th centuries both nave and chancel were in bad condition (fn. 576) but they had been repaired by 1640. (fn. 577) The rector had reroofed the chancel by 1724. (fn. 578) A gallery was built at the west end of the church in 1819. (fn. 579) In 1826 the church was repaired; the south transept chapels were pulled down, the north transept chapels being apparently destroyed later, (fn. 580) and a north doorway with a porch was opened into the north transept. Galleries were built over the aisles, and the short shingled spire (fn. 581) was taken down. (fn. 582) By c. 1830 the tower had been embattled (fn. 583) and a beacon turret built on the newel staircase at its south-west corner. (fn. 584) By 1855 the chancel walls had been straightened, the roof renewed, the four-light east window replaced by a new one of three lights, and new arcading installed in the sanctuary. (fn. 585) The church was closed from c. 1862 to 1864 for further restoration including renewal of the nave roof. (fn. 586) Then or in 1866 the two-light chancel windows were replaced by lancets, a new vestry was built partly on the site of the former south transept chapels, and the tower's turret was demolished. (fn. 587) In 1887 the west front was rebuilt and a new west porch added. (fn. 588) Restoration and repair between 1936 and 1939, which uncovered a Saxon doorway in the south wall of the chancel, was Worthing's memorial to King George V. (fn. 589) The church was again reroofed c. 1970. (fn. 590)
Monuments include a brass effigy, with inscription, of John Mapleton, rector (d. 1432), a brass inscription to John Corby, rector (d. 1416), and a brass Latin cross with an inscription, but no name, possibly for Richard Crowner, rector in 1445. (fn. 591) The canopied altar tomb of Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1525), stands on the north side of the chancel. (fn. 592) The altar tomb of Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1554) (fn. 593) was in the south aisle until the 1820s, (fn. 594) and had been resited in the south transept by 1854. (fn. 595) There were also several monuments to members of the Alford family dating from the late 17th and 18th centuries. A tilting helmet, hung in front of the pulpit and used as a poor box in 1804, (fn. 596) is thought to have belonged to Thomas West, Lord de la Warr (d. 1525). (fn. 597) It was the object of controversy when it was sold in 1974. (fn. 598)
Traces of the rood-loft remained on the western tower arch in 1975. (fn. 599) The 15th-century chancel screen, much restored and retaining six stalls, also survived then, as did the ancient altar slab of Sussex marble embedded in the chancel floor. The pulpit of 1864 (fn. 600) replaced one probably of the early 17th century which, without its sounding-board and stairway, was first placed in St. George's and later in Holy Trinity, Worthing, where it remained in 1975. (fn. 601) The church's first organ was installed in 1854, (fn. 602) and a clock was placed in the church tower in 1903. (fn. 603)
Between 1442 and 1560 there were many bequests for repair of the bells, (fn. 604) of which there were five in 1640. (fn. 605) Six new bells by Samuel Knight were installed between 1712 and 1714, one being recast in 1874. In 1937 all six were recast and two new bells added. (fn. 606)
Three catholic recusants were recorded in Broadwater in the late 16th century. (fn. 609)
Part of a house was registered for protestant worship in 1820, a house in Broadwater street was registered in 1844, and a schoolroom there in 1845. (fn. 610) There was a Primitive Methodist cottage meeting in 1874, and in 1875 a stable was made into a Primitive Methodist preaching room which closed in 1888. (fn. 611) A preaching station of Worthing Congregational church, started in 1887, continued c. 1890, (fn. 612) and a meeting room opposite the NE. corner of Broadwater green, possibly Baptist, was recorded in 1888 and c. 1890. (fn. 613) Later nonconformist places of worship are described under Worthing.
The rector and his wife had established a Sunday school for poor children by 1805. (fn. 617) In 1818 there were separate Sunday schools for boys and girls, whose master and mistress were paid by the rector. There was also an adult Sunday school and a school for men and boys in the winter, both of which may have been in Worthing. (fn. 618)
An infants' school was established in 1817 which, with those in Worthing, was claimed to be among the earliest in England. (fn. 619) In 1818 it had c. 40 boys and girls, and it was supported by the parish and by W. Davison, chaplain of the Worthing chapel of ease. (fn. 620) In 1826 the north transept of Broadwater church was converted for the use of the school. (fn. 621) The school was supported by subscriptions and school pence in 1833. (fn. 622) By will proved 1835 Lucy Hawes left a quarter of the income from £1,000 to the free schools of the parish, which was still received in 1974. (fn. 623) A building grant was received in 1840, (fn. 624) and by c. 1847 the school was united with the National Society. It then had 23 boys and 40 girls on the roll, with one paid mistress, and it was supported by subscriptions and payments. (fn. 625) About 1848 it occupied a building at the east end of the village, (fn. 626) and c. 1849 it moved to a converted barn north of the church. (fn. 627) A new school, for both infants and older children, was built in 1873 on the site at the SE. corner of the green given by the ladies of the manor. The average attendance was 92 in 1874. (fn. 628) No fees were charged in 1893, (fn. 629) and by 1903-4 it was divided into mixed and infant schools with attendances of c. 145 and 80 respectively. (fn. 630) In the late 1920s it was reorganized as a junior mixed and infant school and there was an average attendance of 159 c. 1932. (fn. 631) In 1937 a new school was built in Rectory Gardens, the old one being demolished for road-widening. (fn. 632) In 1976 the school was a first and middle school with an average attendance of 388. (fn. 633)
Other schools founded in Broadwater ancient parish are described under Worthing.
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR. (fn. 634)
Dr. Chester's or the Poor's Ten Acres charity was founded by the rector, Grenado Chester, (fn. 635) who by will proved 1647 devised 10 a. in Worthing to the poor of Broadwater parish. (fn. 636) The income of £7 in 1662 had been reduced to £5 by 1676. In 1716 it was distributed among 10 people. In the early and mid 19th century the income of between £25 and £33 was distributed in coal. (fn. 637) The land, estimated as 9 a. in 1836 and let for £55 in 1903, was sold in 1919 to Worthing corporation for £4,000, (fn. 638) the income of c. £220 being distributed in coal in 1969.
Elizabeth Pinchback by will proved 1842 gave £50 in trust to buy bread for the poor of Broadwater parish. The gift was invested in stock and the annual income in 1970 was c. £1. (fn. 639)
Caroline Plumer by will proved 1869 left £700 stock to buy coal and clothes for the poor of Broadwater parish including the district of Christ Church, Worthing. In 1970 the annual income was £17 10s. (fn. 640)