A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 14, Malmesbury Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1991.
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Hullavington church is 6 km. SSW. of Malmesbury and 9 km. NNW. of Chippenham. (fn. 1) The parish, 4 km. from north to south and 7 km. from east to west, contains Hullavington village, Bradfield hamlet, and the site of the former hamlet of Surrendell. In 1084 Surrendell was in Dunlow hundred and was later a tithing of that hundred which was absorbed by Chippenham hundred: (fn. 2) references to a road called the Hundred way (fn. 3) and to a field and farmsteads called Dunley (fn. 4) suggest that the meeting place of Dunlow hundred was in the tithing. Hullavington parish was 3,255 a. (1,317 ha.) until 1884 when 49 a. of Norton at its north-east corner were transferred to it. (fn. 5) At its south-west corner 216 a. were transferred to Grittleton in 1934, and in 1989 the parish was 1,249 ha. (3,087 a.). (fn. 6)
For more than half its length the parish boundary follows roads and streams: the Roman Foss Way marked the western boundary, Gauze brook part of the southern and a small part of the northern. Hullavington's boundaries were recited in no early charter that survives, but references to the streams dividing Hullavington from Grittleton and Norton and to the road dividing Hullavington from Corston in Malmesbury in early recitals of the boundaries of those other places (fn. 7) suggest that they are early, and the Foss Way is likely to have been an early boundary of Hullavington as it was of Norton and Grittleton. (fn. 8) A road marked the whole boundary between Hullavington and Surrendell, Gauze brook most of that between Hullavington and Bradfield. (fn. 9)
The parish slopes gently downwards from west to east. The highest point is 126 m. in the south-west corner, the lowest below 76 m. in the northeast corner. Clay of the Forest Marble outcrops in the higher west part of the parish, Cornbrash across the centre, and Kellaways Clay in the lower north-east part. Kellaways Sand outcrops as a low ridge north-east of Hullavington village. Gauze brook has deposited a narrow strip of alluvium across the parish and more in the north-east corner. (fn. 10) The Kellaways Clay favours pasture, the Cornbrash tillage; the clay in the west has been used for both. Hullavington's open fields were on Cornbrash south and east of the village, on clay north-west of it. (fn. 11) Bradfield's land was mainly Cornbrash and Kellaways Clay, Surrendell's entirely clay of the Forest Marble. Some of the flat land south-east of Hullavington village was used for an airfield in the mid 20th century. (fn. 12)
The Malmesbury—Chippenham road, called Kingway c. 1100, (fn. 13) crosses the eastern corner of the parish. Many lanes link Hullavington village with its fields and neighbours, and their pattern has changed little since the mid 18th century. (fn. 14) Hullavington Street, West Field Lane leading south from it, and Down Lane leading north from it may have been parts of a Corston—Grittleton road but, if so, the northern end, which may have been the lane called Corston Lane in 1592, had gone out of use by the mid 18th century. (fn. 15) The Street and Down Lane make a crossroads with Bradfield Lane, leading from Norton and Easton Grey, and Topsail Lane, so called in 1764, which divides into branches leading north-east and, as Tining Lane, south-east to the Malmesbury—Chippenham road. (fn. 16) In 1756 the Malmesbury—Chippenham road was turnpiked, (fn. 17) and in 1820 West Field Lane, Hullavington Street, and Topsail Lane and its north-east branch to the Malmesbury -Chippenham road were turnpiked to form a link between that road and a Draycot Cerne to Grittleton turnpike road south of the parish: (fn. 18) all the turnpike roads in Hullavington parish were disturnpiked in 1874. (fn. 19) At the north-west corner of the parish the Hullavington—Sherston road apparently followed the parish boundary until, presumably at inclosure c. 1611, (fn. 20) a new straight section, Town Leaze Lane, was made on the south-west; and at the time of further inclosure c. 1670 a new road, presumably Oarhedge Lane or Dean Bottom Lane, was made for carrying tithes from Surrendell to Hullavington. (fn. 21) Three lanes in the west have gone out of use: in 1764 neither Oarhedge Lane nor Dean Bottom Lane reached Surrendell, (fn. 22) in the early 19th century a road from Alderton and Luckington to Leigh Delamere across the south-west corner of the parish was closed, (fn. 23) and Pig Lane, leading from Sherston towards Leigh Delamere and marking the boundaries between Surrendell's land and Hullavington's and Hullavington and Grittleton parishes, has become impassable near Surrendell Farm where it has never been made up. For nearly the whole of its length on Hullavington's west boundary the Bath—Cirencester section of the Foss Way was made up as part of a Sherston to Yatton Keynell road. The road leading towards Castle Combe along the parish's south-east boundary between the Malmesbury—Chippenham and Draycot Cerne to Grittleton roads went out of use after the road through Hullavington Street was turnpiked in 1820. (fn. 24)
In 1903 the main London and south Wales railway was opened across Hullavington parish with, north of the village, a station with a siding and a weighbridge. (fn. 25) Hullavington station was closed to passengers in 1961 and entirely in 1965. (fn. 26)
A long barrow south-west of Surrendell Farm, and what may have been a cromlech to the east, are the only prehistoric remains to have been found in the parish. (fn. 27) Settlement was nucleated, and Hullavington is a street village. In the Middle Ages Bradfield and Surrendell seem to have been hamlets but later were single farmsteads; several other farmsteads were built in the west part of the parish, but there has been little new settlement away from the village in the east. With 177 poll-tax payers the parish was populous in 1377. (fn. 28) The population rose rapidly in the early 19th century, from 395 in 1801 to 708 in 1851, and reached a 19th-century peak of 734 in 1871. It had fallen to 543 by 1891, was inflated to 823 by the presence of c. 275 building the railway line in 1901, and reached a 20th century low point of 478 in 1921. The population was reduced by c. 20 when part of the parish was transferred to Grittleton, but in the 1950s and 1960s new housing in Hullavington village and on the airfield led to a rapid increase, from 600 in 1951 to 1,123 in 1971. The population was 1,021 in 1981. (fn. 29)
Hullavington church is near the middle of the Street on the west side. The church and Hullavington manor belonged to the abbey of St. Victor-en-Caux (Seine Maritime) in the earlier Middle Ages and Court House north-west of the church is presumably on the site of the chief messuage of the manor. The abbey had a priory in England, and between the mid 12th century and the early 15th monks may sometimes have lived in the chief messuage. (fn. 30) Its buildings were in poor condition in 1416: rooms and a chapel on the east side of the hall, a room on the west side of the hall, the kitchen, an east gatehouse, and a great barn and other farm buildings were all said to be unroofed or to have collapsed. (fn. 31) Either those dilapidations were exaggerated or much had been repaired by 1443 when the hall was said to be well built. It still incorporated a chapel, had rooms and a kitchen to the north, a granary to the south, and a gatehouse. (fn. 32) Court House has been adapted from a medieval building of which one two-centred timber doorway survives. The house has a central cross passage with the hall south of it. In the early 17th century, when the house was lived in by Thomas Ivy, (fn. 33) an upper floor and a chimney stack were built in the hall and a north crossing and, to the south, an east cross wing were added or rebuilt. A two-storeyed east porch was built, probably in the later 17th century. In the early or mid 18th century, when it was lived in by the Jacob family, (fn. 34) a room in the south wing was panelled, a rear projection containing a new staircase was built, and much of the house was refenestrated. The whole house was reroofed in the 18th century. An upstairs room contains reset early 17th-century oak panelling.
The pattern of settlement in Hullavington Street suggests early planning. On both sides copyhold farmhouses faced the Street and behind them were farm buildings and small inclosures of pasture; on each side the north-south boundaries of the plots joined to make long clear boundaries parallel to the Street. Those boundaries were possibly fixed in the 1440s when hedges were planted at east and west Townsend, (fn. 35) presumably to separate the fields from the farmyards behind the Street. That was the pattern of settlement in 1764 and it remained visible in 1989. Court House, the demesne farmhouse, and May's Farm, possibly the farmhouse of a large freehold, were apparently the only substantial houses behind the Street in 1764. (fn. 36) May's Farm is a 17th-century stone house, L-shaped and gabled, with an 18th-century rear extension: the house has end chimneys which may have replaced a central chimney, and its main west front has been much altered. Of the farmhouses facing the Street in 1764 about nine survive: characteristically they are of local stone, with roofs of stone slates, and gabled, and nearly all seem to have been built in the 17th century. Two other large houses were built in the Street between 1764 and 1840, Darley House on the west side near the church, and Hullavington House on the east side near the south end; in the same period the vicarage house was enlarged. (fn. 37) Darley House was restored in 1914. (fn. 38) The Star, on the west side, and the Queen's Head, a possibly 18th-century building on the east side, were open as public houses in 1819 (fn. 39) and 1989. About 1900 the Star was rebuilt, and in 1903 the Queen's Head was refronted. (fn. 40) Few cottages earlier than 1700 survive in the Street, but many cottages and small houses of the 18th and 19th centuries are on both sides. Eton College (Bucks.) was lord of Hullavington manor (fn. 41) and in 1935 and 1936 Eton College Housing Society built Jubilee Cottages, (fn. 42) two terraces of four angled to look like a crescent, and there has been other 20th-century infilling. A church house was built on the east side of the churchyard facing the Street (fn. 43) between 1504 and 1535. In the 19th century it was an inn called the Plough, (fn. 44) closed by 1877, and it was demolished in the late 19th century. (fn. 45)
Until the later 20th century all Hullavington's land was worked from buildings in the Street, (fn. 46) on each side of which lanes led between the houses to the farm buildings behind. In 1764 a few houses and cottages stood in the lanes, especially Watts Lane, where an early 18th-century house survives, and Frog Lane, (fn. 47) and in the earlier 19th century a nonconformist chapel was built in each of three of them. (fn. 48) After the Second World War new housing was built on the pasture closes behind both sides of the Street and at the north end. On the west side 22 council houses were built in Greens Close in 1950, 4 council bungalows in Hill Hayes Lane in 1956 (fn. 49) and 14 in Latimer c. 1976, (fn. 50) and a total of c. 60 private houses and bungalows in Parklands and Mere Avenue in the late 1960s. On the east side 4 council houses were built in Watts Lane in 1956, (fn. 51) and in the 1970s and 1980s small groups of larger private houses were built in Royal Field Close, Frog Lane, and Watts Lane, and larger groups north of Watts Lane and near the south end of the Street. Farm buildings behind the Street were still in use only on the east side at the north end in 1989: others to survive, especially in the centre on the west side, had been converted for residence.
A short distance north of the village a small house was built in a back lane west of the Street in the late 18th century. In the early 19th century cottages, one of which is dated 1829, were built in the lane, and in 1840 a nonconformist chapel and c. 10 cottages were there. (fn. 52) More small cottages had been built by 1885 when the settlement was called Newtown, more were built in the late 19th century or early 20th, (fn. 53) and in 1937 eight council houses were built. (fn. 54) The building of houses at the north end of Hullavington village after 1945 joined Newtown to the main part of the village. Also a short distance north of the village a small group of cottages on the waste from 1764 or earlier (fn. 55) was called Piccadilly in the later 19th century: (fn. 56) a pair of late 19th-century cottages was on the site in 1989.
Until the 20th century the only cottages away from the village were a few in Hill Hayes Lane where several of the 19th and 20th centuries survive. Three cottages were built near Hullavington station c. 1903, and in the later 20th century four houses were built near Bradfield Manor Farm and four bungalows at a market garden beside the Malmesbury—Chippenham road. R.A.F. Hullavington was opened in 1937. (fn. 57) The airfield included c. 159 a. south and south-east of Hullavington village but most of the runways were in Malmesbury parish and most of the offices in Stanton St. Quintin. Two pairs of hangars were erected in Hullavington parish, and near Hullavington village, to which Frog Lane connected them, 94 houses were built in Wellington Place in the period 1955–7. (fn. 58)
At the crossroads north of the village a cemetery, in the charge of a parochial burial committee, was opened in 1922 (fn. 59) and a telephone exchange was built in 1939. (fn. 60) In Hill Hayes Lane a new village hall was built in 1971. (fn. 61)
Bradfield. It is likely that Bradfield was a hamlet in the early Middle Ages, when Bradfield manor apparently had customary tenants, and in 1377 Bradfield had 21 poll-tax payers. In the later 15th century, however, Bradfield manor house and its farmstead were almost certainly the only buildings there. (fn. 62) In 1989 a pair of mid 19th-century cottages and a later 20th-century bungalow were the only others, but the nearby buildings between them and the old Hullavington station again gave Bradfield the appearance of a hamlet.
Surrendell was presumably a hamlet in 1249 when it had a church and five men living there were named, (fn. 63) and was probably a group of farmsteads near the site of the present Surrendell Farm. A reference to Surrendell street in 1316, (fn. 64) however, may not have been to a village street. Surrendell had 37 poll-tax payers in 1377. (fn. 65) A new manor house was built between 1545 and 1575, and in the early 17th century, probably shortly before 1631 and apparently to replace the former chief messuage which stood in 1577, Surrendell Farm was built. (fn. 66) From the 17th century new farmsteads stood elsewhere and the hamlet may have consisted of only the church, manor house, farmhouse, and farm buildings. The church was in ruins in the late 17th century, (fn. 67) and the manor house was demolished c. 1871 when a fireplace was taken from it for use elsewhere. (fn. 68) The manor house stood near and to the west of Surrendell Farm: a drawing of part of what survived in the mid 19th century shows a gabled range of the earlier 17th century with mullioned and transomed windows. (fn. 69) Surrendell Farm consists of a single range of two storeys and attics and has three large gables to its north and south elevations and ovolo-moulded stoneframed windows. A large granary was built against the east end in the 18th century. Beside Pig Lane a pair of cottages was built in the earlier 20th century (fn. 70) and rebuilt as a house in the later 20th.
Farleaze Farm, north of Surrendell Farm, is a T-shaped house of the earlier 17th century with additions of the later 18th and of c. 1930. Its farm buildings include a stone barn of the late 18th or earlier 19th century. North of it a pair of cottages was built in the early 20th century (fn. 71) and another pair in 1946. (fn. 72) North-west of Farleaze Farm a farmstead called Kingsthorns standing in 1736 (fn. 73) was taken down soon after 1820. (fn. 74) Dunley Farm was in the west corner of the parish in 1773: (fn. 75) the farmhouse was presumably Dunley House, so called in 1688. (fn. 76) Part of a ruined building is all that remains on its site. In 1842 a new farmstead, East Dunley Farm, was built north-east of it. (fn. 77) Also west of Surrendell Farm a barn and a small house were built in the 18th century, before 1773: (fn. 78) the house was later extended in brick. Fosse Lodge, a Gothic lodge with an octagonal turret, was built in 1835 at the Elm and the Ash on the Foss Way near the site of a chapel in Grittleton parish. (fn. 79)
The population of Surrendell tithing was 26 in 1801, 41 in 1841, and 23 in 1851. (fn. 80)
Manors and other Estates.
Hullavington belonged to Earl Harold in 1066, and after the Conquest may have been given to Roger Mortimer. Roger's son Ralph held it in 1084 and 1086. (fn. 81) Ralph was succeeded by his son Hugh (d. 1148 X 1150) and in turn by Hugh's sons Roger (d. by 1153) and Hugh (d. 1180–1). One of the Hugh Mortimers gave HULLAVINGTON manor to the abbey of St. Victor. That the donor mentioned his brother Roger in the charter suggests that he was the younger Hugh. (fn. 82) The overlordship apparently descended in the Mortimer family like that of Bradfield manor, (fn. 83) but was not expressly mentioned after 1275. (fn. 84)
By 1194–5, when a monk was killed at Hullavington, the abbey of St. Victor may have had a cell there. (fn. 85) Later it had a priory sometimes called after Hullavington and sometimes after Clatford in Preshute where it also held an estate, and the prior represented the abbot as owner of Hullavington manor. (fn. 86) Although not expressly mentioned after 1338 (fn. 87) the manor was among the possessions of Clatford priory in the king's hands 1338–60 and 1369–1414 because of the war with France: the king usually appointed the prior as keeper. When the alien priories were suppressed in 1414 the manor was among possessions granted to Queen Joan (d. 1437), relict of Henry IV, as dower and in 1439 to Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, for life. In 1441 Henry VI granted the reversion to Eton College, and in 1443 Humphrey surrendered the lands of the former priory to the college. (fn. 88) From 1443 to 1958 Eton College held Hullavington manor (fn. 89) which was expressly confirmed to it in 1444. (fn. 90) A house in Malmesbury was held with Hullavington in 1086: (fn. 91) it was one of the houses in respect of which an obligation to repair part of the town wall was imposed. (fn. 92) Eton College owned a house in High Street until 1652 or later. (fn. 93)
In 1568 Eton College leased the demesne lands and, with minor exceptions, the whole lordship of the manor to Giles Ivy: (fn. 94) at intervals and for large fines it renewed the lease on almost the same terms until 1866. (fn. 95) Leases passed from Giles (d. 1592) (fn. 96) to his son Thomas (fn. 97) (d. 1642), (fn. 98) to George Ivy (d. 1676), (fn. 99) to George's son Thomas, (fn. 100) and to that Thomas's son St. John. (fn. 101) In 1691 St. John Ivy mortgaged the lease to Thomas Jacob, and Jacob may have entered on the lands in 1696 when Margaret Ivy, relict of St. John's father Thomas, conveyed her life interest to him. (fn. 102) Jacob (d. 1730) was succeeded by his son John (d. 1742). (fn. 103) John's relict Anne held the lease until her death in 1762 when it passed to his cousin John Jacob (d. 1776). It passed in turn to that John's sisters Anne Jacob (d. 1787) and Mary Clutterbuck (d. 1790). Mary's heir was her nephew Robert Buxton (fn. 104) (cr. a baronet 1800). (fn. 105) In 1809 Buxton, who took the surname Jacob, contracted to sell the lease to William Chandler (d. 1821): the purchase money was paid but the conveyance not completed. In 1825 Buxton and Chandler's nephews S.B. Chancellor and Cornelius Chancellor sold it to John Christie who in 1829 sold it to Joseph Neeld (fn. 106) (d. 1856). Leases passed as part of Neeld's Grittleton estate from him to his brother Sir John Neeld, Bt. (fn. 107) The last lease of the lordship of the manor expired in 1885. Thereafter, until 1952, Eton College leased only the demesne, 453 a. in 1885, to Neeld and successive owners of the Grittleton estate as annual tenants. (fn. 108) From 1829 Joseph and Sir John Neeld, as lords farmer, granted copyholds of the manor, other than cottages, only to their own trustees. (fn. 109) In 1885 Sir John held c. 1,124 a. by copy, (fn. 110) and with his freehold land held c. 2,500 a. in the parish. (fn. 111) The copyhold was converted to leasehold, (fn. 112) and by exchange and sale in 1928 Eton College in effect sold the freehold of c. 250 a. to Sir Audley Neeld. (fn. 113) In 1952 the college ended L. W. Neeld's lease of the demesne and bought his lease of the former copyhold, a total of 1,320 a. between the Street and Pig Lane and in the north-east corner of the parish. (fn. 114)
In 1958 Eton College sold its land to a syndicate of farmers who bought the land which they occupied. (fn. 115) Court farm, 509 a., was bought by George Edwards and Miss E. E. Edwards: in 1975 their executors sold it, then 444 a., to Mr. T. G. Butler, the owner in 1989. (fn. 116) Newman's and Gardener's farm, 437 a., was bought by Mr. R. L. Hawker, who owned Gardener's farm in 1989. (fn. 117) Green's farm, 178 a., was bought by Mr. W. J. Greenman (d. 1988), whose executors owned it in 1989, (fn. 118) and the Green farm, 56 a., by B. W. Greenman and Mr. H. W. Greenman, the owner in 1989. (fn. 119) Blick's farm, 71 a., was bought by N. T. Woodman: c. 1961 most of it was bought by Mr. L. J. Irvine, the owner in 1989. (fn. 120) In the north-west corner of the parish 59 a. were bought by Col. W. H. Whitbread and, with c. 100 a. of Newman's and Gardener's farm bought from Mr. R. L. Hawker, (fn. 121) added to Farleaze farm. In 1974 Col. Whitbread sold the 160 a. to Mr. J. H. Richards: the land was later sold in two portions. (fn. 122)
The Mortimers or the abbey of St. Victor granted c. 10 yardlands in Hullavington as freehold. Before 1203 a hide descended from Hugh of Hullavington to his son Ralph. (fn. 123) In the later 13th century and early 14th members of the Hullavington, Royle, French, Stur, Clatford formerly Preshute, and Peckinghill families were freeholders. (fn. 124) In 1370 Henry Eyre may have owned one of the freeholds, (fn. 125) and in 1402 Agnes, daughter of Henry Sodbury, conveyed what may have been a second to Eyre's son Nicholas. (fn. 126) Henry Eyre, presumably another, died holding 4 yardlands in 1424 and was succeeded by his son Nicholas, (fn. 127) who in 1461 settled land on his daughter Elizabeth Smith and her son John. (fn. 128) Elizabeth, then called Elizabeth Eyre, held the 4 yardlands at her death in 1466 when she was succeeded by her son John Eyre or Smith. (fn. 129) In 1521 John, then called John Eyre, sold an estate in Hullavington to Thomas Horton of Iford in Westwood. (fn. 130) A holding still belonged to the Royles in the 15th century: in 1423 Isold Royle died holding 2 yardlands and was succeeded by Agnes Royle, (fn. 131) and before c. 1442 John Royle died holding 2 yardlands. John's land was held by his relict Agnes and her husband Walter Brinkworth and passed to his son Thomas, (fn. 132) whose daughters Edith, wife of John Prior, and Lettice, wife of Thomas Squire, sold it to Thomas Horton in 1508. (fn. 133) In 1524 Horton (d. 1530) founded a chantry in Bradford church and endowed it with a tenement and 55 a. in Hullavington. (fn. 134) The rest of his Hullavington estate was held by his relict Mary (fn. 135) (will proved 1544) and passed to his nephew Thomas Horton (d. 1549) (fn. 136) who in 1549 bought the chantry's lands from the Crown. (fn. 137) That Thomas's relict Margery (d. 1564) held his lands: they passed to his son Edward (d. 1603), who held 5½ yardlands in Hullavington in 1578, but from 1588 to 1599 or longer they belonged to Edward's nephew William Horton. (fn. 138) Between 1599 and 1611 they were bought by Thomas Ivy, (fn. 139) and thereafter, later with other freeholds, they descended with the lease of Hullavington manor until 1885 when Sir John Neeld owned them. (fn. 140)
A yardland held in 1578 by William Chadderton (fn. 141) passed with Bradfield manor to Simon James. (fn. 142) It passed to Simon's son Giles (d. 1640), who left a wife Mary and as heir an infant son Woodland, (fn. 143) to Giles's daughter Mary and her husband Richard Lewis (fn. 144) (fl. 1702), (fn. 145) and to Richard's son Thomas who sold it to Thomas Jacob, the lessee of Hullavington manor, in 1707. (fn. 146)
Richard Gore (d. 1583), lord of Surrendell manor, (fn. 147) held 3 yardlands in Hullavington. In 1575 he sold 1 yardland to Robert Punter (fn. 148) who held it in 1599: (fn. 149) the land was held by James Punter in 1611, (fn. 150) Robert Punter in 1652, (fn. 151) and James Punter in 1660 and 1674. (fn. 152) Before 1696 James sold it to Joseph Beames whose son Roger sold it to Thomas Jacob in 1723. (fn. 153) Gore's other land in Hullavington was sold in 1593 by his son Edward to Thomas Lyte, (fn. 154) and James Lyte held it in 1611. (fn. 155) It was acquired by Henry, son of Simon James, was bought from him by his brother Giles, (fn. 156) and was part of the 83 a. sold by Thomas Lewis to Thomas Jacob in 1707. (fn. 157)
In 1766 the freeholds which passed with the lease of Hullavington manor were said to total 260 a., but they may have been no more than c. 150 a.: they included nearly all the land granted by the Mortimers or the abbey of St. Victor. (fn. 158) Sir John Neeld, Bt. (d. 1891), was succeeded in turn by his sons Sir Algernon (d. 1900) and Sir Audley (d. 1941). (fn. 159) By exchange and purchase in 1928 Sir Audley acquired another c. 250 a. from Eton College and concentrated his freehold, c. 400 a., south and south-east of the Street. (fn. 160) In the period 1937–40 he sold 94 a. to the state for Hullavington airfield. (fn. 161) His heir was his second cousin L. W. Inigo-Jones (d. 1956) who assumed the surname Neeld in 1942 (fn. 162) and between 1941 and 1948 sold May's farm, 167 a., to C. E. Banwell. (fn. 163) In 1951 Banwell sold 64 a. to the state. (fn. 164) May's farm, c. 110 a. east of its buildings, was later bought by Mr. V. J. Rawlins, and sold by him, without its buildings, to Mr. J. Eavis, the owner in 1989, who added it to Manor farm based in Corston. (fn. 165) The Neelds' remaining land, south of Hullavington village and including Stock wood, was also sold, and 70 a. south-west of Stock wood belonged in 1989 to Bishop Bros. as part of Wood Barn farm based in Stanton St. Quintin. (fn. 166)
BRADFIELD belonged to Bristwi and Elwi in 1066. Like Hullavington it may have been given to Roger Mortimer and in 1086 Edward held it of Ralph Mortimer. (fn. 167) The overlordship descended with Hullavington manor to Hugh Mortimer (d. 1180–1). Hugh was succeeded by his son Roger (d. c. 1214), and by Roger's sons Hugh (d. 1227) and Ralph (d. 1246), who was overlord in 1242–3. (fn. 168) The overlordship passed in the direct male line to Roger Mortimer (d. 1282), Edmund, Lord Mortimer (d. 1304), Roger, earl of March (d. 1330), Edmund, Lord Mortimer (d. c. 1332), and Roger, earl of March (d. 1360), and with the earldom of March until it was merged in the Crown in 1461. (fn. 169) In 1547 Richard Scrope claimed the overlordship as part of his manor of Castle Combe, (fn. 170) possibly because the lord of Bradfield manor held other land of which Scrope was overlord, (fn. 171) and in 1616 the overlordship of John Scrope was acknowledged. (fn. 172) In 1622, when the lord of the manor was a minor, however, the Crown disputed Scrope's claim and itself claimed the overlordship as part of the earldom of March. (fn. 173)
In 1194 Philip of Knabwell may have held an estate at Bradfield, (fn. 174) and in 1236, when 2½ yardlands at Bradfield were conveyed to him, Walter of Raddington may have held another. (fn. 175) In 1242–3 William of Raddington held ¾ knight's fee and Amice, relict of William of Knabwell, and her partners held ½ knight's fee. (fn. 176) William of Raddington held his land in 1248. (fn. 177) In 1304 Robert Russell held land in Bradfield, possibly the whole manor, (fn. 178) and John Russell (fl. 1318–32) (fn. 179) may have held it. It belonged to Robert Russell in 1348, (fn. 180) John Russell in 1370, (fn. 181) Robert Russell in 1398–9. (fn. 182) In 1428 Walter Everard held the manor. (fn. 183) In the period 1445–66 it belonged to John Russell (d. c. 1472) (fn. 184) whose heir is said to have been John Collingbourne. (fn. 185) In 1476 it was settled on William Collingbourne (fn. 186) (executed 1484), (fn. 187) and in 1485 Richard III granted Bradfield and other lands to Edmund Chadderton for William's heirs, his daughters Margaret, wife of George Chadderton, and Joan, wife of James Lowther. Bradfield was assigned to the Chaddertons (fn. 188) and passed to their son Edmund (d. 1545) and to Edmund's son William, (fn. 189) who had daughters Margaret, wife of Simon James, Anne, wife of John Wright (d. 1585), and Edith, wife of George Best. William Chadderton (d. 1599) apparently settled the manor, after the death of him and his wife Bridget (d. 1597), on his daughters in portions. (fn. 190) In 1586 Simon James bought the Chadderton life interest in two thirds of the manor, (fn. 191) in 1594 apparently bought Anne Wright's portion, (fn. 192) and before 1596 may have bought Edith Best's. (fn. 193) On Simon's death in 1616 the whole manor passed to his son Edmund (fn. 194) (d. 1620) whose heir was his son Richman, a minor. It was held by Edmund's relict Margaret (fn. 195) (fl. 1664) and his son Edmund (d. by 1675) whose relict Anne held it. Edmund and Anne had a daughter Margaret, an idiot. About 1677 Anne (d. 1701) married the naturalist William Cole (d. 1701) on whom the manor was settled. Cole's heir was his daughter Anne, wife of Gilbert Cale, and that Anne's was her daughter Anne (d. 1753), wife of the Revd. Anthony Whistler (d. 1719), of Whitchurch (Oxon.), and of Samuel Walker, rector of Whitchurch and possibly of North Stoke (Som.), who held the manor until his death in 1768. Bradfield manor may have been sold c. 1771 by Anne's son John Whistler, like land in Corston in Malmesbury. It was apparently bought by John Hooper, lord of North Stoke manor, and it passed in the Hooper family. (fn. 196) In 1910 it belonged to representatives of William Hooper, (fn. 197) and, then 423 a., was offered for sale thrice in the period 1915–17. (fn. 198) In 1928 it belonged to C. H. Brown. (fn. 199) In 1932 it was bought from H. L. Storey by J. Branston who was succeeded by his son J. E. J. Branston and by his grandson Mr. J. E. Branston, the owner in 1989. (fn. 200)
With few interruptions Bradfield manor house was apparently lived in by its owners from the early 14th century or earlier to the early 18th. (fn. 201) The house has a main east-west range of six bays, formerly with a two-storeyed porch near the centre of the south side (fn. 202) giving access to a cross passage. East of the passage is a two-bayed hall with traceried two-light windows of the 15th century. In the early 17th century a chimney stack was built behind the hall and a ceiling was inserted. About then, probably for Simon James, a large fourstoreyed parlour block was built at the north-east corner. A two-storeyed north kitchen wing was built at the west end of the main range in the 18th century.
SURRENDELL belonged to Alwi in 1066. Like Hullavington and Bradfield it may have been given to Roger Mortimer, and in 1086 Ralph Mortimer was overlord. (fn. 203) From then until 1461 the overlordship descended like that of Bradfield. (fn. 204)
In 1086 Richard held Surrendell of Ralph. (fn. 205) From the earlier 13th century to the late 14th Surrendell manor descended in the Middlehope family: Richard Middlehope held it as 1 knight's fee in 1242–3, (fn. 206) William Middlehope held it in 1281, (fn. 207) and William Middlehope, possibly another, in the period 1304–25. (fn. 208) Alice, relict of William Middlchope, claimed dower in Surrendell in 1327. (fn. 209) Thomas Middlehope held the manor in 1342, (fn. 210) William Middlehope in 1398–9. (fn. 211) In 1428 John Skey and William Pedworth held the lands formerly Thomas Middlehope's, (fn. 212) and in 1448 John, son and heir of Thomas Skey of North Nibley (Glos.), settled a moiety of Surrendell manor on himself and his wife Joan. (fn. 213) From the later 15th century to the later 16th the manor descended in the Hamlin family: Thomas Hamlin held it in 1463, (fn. 214) Alexander Hamlin in 1502–3. (fn. 215) John Hamlin (d. by 1576) held the manor in 1545, (fn. 216) and in 1567 settled it, after his own death, on his sons William, John, and Nicholas in thirds. (fn. 217) In the period 1576–8 Richard Gore (d. 1583) bought land from all three, and in 1594 Richard's son Edward bought the manor house and other land from John. Edward Gore (d. 1622) settled the whole manor of Surrendell on the marriage of his son Charles in 1621. From Charles (d. 1649) and his wife Lydia (d. 1655) it passed to their son, the antiquarian Thomas Gore (d. 1684). Charles bought additional land in Surrendell from Roger Kilbury's son Roger in 1648 and Thomas from the younger Roger and the elder Roger's relict Anne, wife of Edward Webb, in 1654. (fn. 218) Thomas devised Surrendell manor to his son Thomas (d. 1697) (fn. 219) but his relict Mary (d. 1718) apparently held it for life. (fn. 220) It passed to Thomas's and Mary's granddaughter Elizabeth Gore (d. 1743), wife of William Hedges (d. 1757), and to Elizabeth's son Thomas Hedges (d. 1782), who devised it to James Montagu (d. 1790), the husband of his sister Eleanor (d. 1786). James was succeeded by his son James (d. 1797) who devised Surrendell to his nephew G. C. Montagu. By order of Chancery, Surrendell farm, 397 a. in 1840, was sold to Thomas Burne in 1804; the rest of the estate, Farleaze farm and Dunley farm, respectively 157 a. and 200 a. in 1840, was sold by Montagu and his son F. C. Montagu in 1827–8 to Joseph Neeld (fn. 221) (d. 1856). In 1810 Burne settled Surrendell farm on his son the Revd. W. W. Burne (d. 1858) who devised it to his nephew the Revd. T. B. Lancaster: in 1863 Lancaster sold it to Neeld's trustees. (fn. 222) Surrendell, Farleaze, and Dunley, later East Dunley, farms descended with other freehold and leasehold land in the parish as part of the Grittleton estate, which passed from L. W. Neeld to his nephew Mr. R. W. Inigo-Jones (later Mr. R. W. Neeld). East Dunley farm, 250 a. including land in other parishes, and c. 110 a. adjoining it, formerly part of Surrendell farm, belonged to Mr. Neeld's son Mr. M. R. Neeld in 1989. (fn. 223)
Farleaze farm was sold c. 1930 to Mrs. E. C. Millais (fn. 224) and in 1934 belonged to H. R. Millais. (fn. 225) In 1946 or earlier it belonged to C. E. D. Cooper, (fn. 226) from whom it was bought in the mid 1950s by Col. W. H. Whitbread, (fn. 227) the owner of the farmhouse and c. 50 a. in 1989. In 1974 Col. Whitbread sold 100 a. to Mr. J. H. Richards, the owner in 1989, who added it to Lord's Wood farm based in Sherston. (fn. 228) In the 1970s Mr. R. W. Neeld sold c. 211 a. of Surrendell farm to Mr. V. J. Rawlins who in 1984 sold that land to Sir Mark Weinberg, the owner in 1989. (fn. 229)
Hullavington church and the RECTORY estate passed with Hullavington manor from the abbey of St. Victor to the Crown, and in 1443 to Eton College. (fn. 230) The land of the church and the land of the manor were not distinguished, and sometimes the demesne land of the manor was described as the rector's glebe. (fn. 231) In 1320 the rectory estate included all tithes of the parish, except those arising from the vicar's glebe, (fn. 232) but later only those of corn and hay. (fn. 233) In 1841 the demesne, estimated at 467 a., was tithe free. The tithes of corn and hay from the remainder of the parish were then valued at £455 and commuted. (fn. 234)
Hullavington. In 1086 Ralph's 20-hide estate had 14 demesne hides, with 4 ploughteams and 8 servi, and 19 villani and 8 coscets with 6 teams. There were 12 a. of meadow and 10 a. of pasture. The estate had land for 14 teams, and apparently the uncultivated land was then demesne. (fn. 235) It may later have been assigned to freeholders or customary tenants for cultivation and in the 13th century, when Hullavington was fully cultivated, freehold and customary land greatly exceeded demesne. (fn. 236)
It is likely that the demesne of Hullavington manor, if not already several, was inclosed in the 12th century when the manor was given to the abbey of St. Victor, and in the 16th century virtually all the demesne lay inclosed and virtually all the free and customary land was open. (fn. 237) The demesne was devoted to sheep-and-corn husbandry in 1292 when 200 sheep and 24 oxen were on it. (fn. 238) It may have remained in hand until the alien priories were suppressed in 1414, and in 1416 the farm buildings were reported to have been much neglected. (fn. 239) In 1336–7 c. no a. were sown, (fn. 240) probably more in 1386–7 when 69 qr. of wheat, 45 qr. of barley, 2 qr. of dredge, and 41 qr. of malt were sold. In the later 14th century much of the livestock was brought from Clatford. (fn. 241) From 1442 or earlier the demesne was leased: (fn. 242) in 1538 it measured 320 a., (fn. 243) 340 a., excluding woodland, in 1588. (fn. 244)
In the 13th and 14th centuries the open fields of Hullavington were extensive: East and West were apparently the largest, North field was smaller. The meadow land was used in common and some of it, including 6 a. of demesne, was in the open fields. (fn. 245) In 1292 the vicar held 2 yardlands, seven freeholders a total of c. 10 yardlands, and bondmen c. 45 yardlands. Later evidence shows each yardland to have included 20–30 a. of arable. Of the bondmen 10 held 2 yardlands each, 24 held 1 yardland each, the smith held ½ yardland, and 9 were cottagers. Labour services were numerous: each cottager, for example, was required to bring his whole family to autumn bedrips. (fn. 246) Sheep-and-corn husbandry continued on the open lands throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1588 East field was 540 a., West field 632 a.: in them the strips averaged c. ½ a., and 1,313 sheep, at the rate of 25 to 1 yardland, could be pastured. (fn. 247) The only inclosure was in the 1440s when hedges were planted around Stock wood and at east and west Townsend. (fn. 248) In the early 15th century men of Hullavington and Corston may have fed sheep on parts of each other's fallow, (fn. 249) an arrangement which had ended by the early 16th, (fn. 250) and a similar arrangement between Hullavington and Surrendell may have ended c. 1463. (fn. 251) In 1588 there were 58 a. of common meadows of which the largest was Broad mead beside Gauze brook north-east of the village: in them the copyholders and freeholders held lots, which were sometimes staked. Town leaze, 163 a. north-west of the village, and the Down, 92 a. north-east of the village, were common pastures for a total of 224 cattle, 2 beasts in each to 1 yardland. Closes in and around the village totalled 50 a. All those lands, c. 54 yardlands, were shared in 1588 by 24 copyholders, 6 freeholders, and the vicar: the largest holdings were William Horton's freehold, 5½ yardlands including 118 a. of arable, and a copyhold of 4 yardlands including 97 a. of arable. (fn. 252)
In 1558 Eton College licensed the copyholders to exchange among themselves strips of arable and lots of meadow, (fn. 253) and in the early 17th century was petitioned to permit inclosure of the common pastures and the worst parts of the open fields and further consolidation of holdings in the fields and meadows. The inconvenience of working scattered lands (fn. 254) may have been greater than elsewhere because the fields of Hullavington were so large. Under an agreement of 1611 Town leaze, the Down, and the outsides of East field and West field, presumably those parts furthest from the village, were divided, allotted, and inclosed, and holdings in the meadows were consolidated: (fn. 255) 196 a. of East field and 260 a. of West field were inclosed, and 356 a. of open arable were left in each. Most allotments of pasture were of 5–10 a. (fn. 256) Between the mid 17th century and the mid 18th most of the remaining arable was inclosed by agreement. Between 1652 and 1674, possibly c. 1670, 176 a. were inclosed, mostly in East field; (fn. 257) a further 143 a. had been inclosed by 1696 when the remaining 393 a. of open arable were in four fields; (fn. 258) and 221 a. were inclosed as tynings between 1696 and 1753 to leave only 71 a. of open field. (fn. 259) In the early 18th century clover was sown in the open fields and those sowing it could fold three sheep for each acre sown instead of one; (fn. 260) by c. 1770 many inclosures had been laid to grass. (fn. 261) In 1764 and 1840 there were 5 a. of open field north-east, 28 a. south-west, and 12 a. west of the village. (fn. 262) All may not have been inclosed until the early 20th century when the college bought some remaining strips. (fn. 263) Broad mead was still common in 1840 when it was apparently 31 a., and there may have been 10 a. more of common meadow north of the village. (fn. 264)
Until the later 20th century nearly all Hullavington's land was worked from buildings in the Street. The largest farm, 364 a. including 182 a. of arable in 1652, was the demesne, (fn. 265) later called Court farm: between 1652 and 1764 other land was added to Court farm and, presumably to avoid paying tithes to the vicar, was called demesne. (fn. 266) Other farms became fewer and larger. In 1840 the Hullavington part of the parish was about half arable and half grassland, and was in c. 10 farms of which six were of less than 100 a. The pattern of earlier inclosure still showed: the closes of Surrendell in the west, Bradfield in the north, and Court farm west and south-east of the village, all made before 1600, were larger than those made after 1611 from Town leaze, the Down, East field, and West field. (fn. 267) That distinction was scarcely visible in 1989.
Between 1840 and 1887 more arable was converted to grassland (fn. 268) and between c. 1910 and c. 1939 sheep farming was replaced by dairying. (fn. 269) After 1939 arable farming, especially for cereals, increased, (fn. 270) and in 1989 Hullavington's land was apparently more arable than grassland. In 1928 seven farms were based in the Street: Court, 508 a., May's, 417 a., Gardener's, 221 a., Newman's, 152 a., Beanfield, 92 a., Green's, 69 a., and Blick's, 40 a. (fn. 271) May's farm lost land used for the airfield and was otherwise made smaller. (fn. 272) The other farms were reorganized in 1954. In 1958 Court was a dairy and stock farm of 509 a., Newman's and Gardener's a dairy farm of 437 a., Green's a dairy and mixed farm of 178 a., Blick's a similar farm of 71 a., and the Green a dairy farm of 56 a. (fn. 273) Court and Gardener's were the main farms in 1989 when large new buildings were erected for them in, respectively, Down Lane and Vlow Lane. Court was largely an arable farm of c. 450 a., and Newman's an arable and dairy farm of c. 350 a. (fn. 274) Little land was then worked from farm buildings in or near the Street: May's farm was worked from Corston and other land from Sherston, Norton, and Stanton St. Quintin. In the north-west Town Leaze farm was a small stock farm. (fn. 275)
Apparently in the later 13th century the abbot of St. Victor, with the assent of his Hullavington freeholders, built a new water mill in a common pasture, (fn. 276) presumably on Gauze brook, and in 1292 Hullavington manor included two water mills. (fn. 277) In 1337 both were feeble, (fn. 278) and there is no later evidence of them. In 1448 a toft was called Old Mill, (fn. 279) and Old mills, a field bounded by Gauze brook north of the village, (fn. 280) may mark the site of the mills.
In the early 1970s a market garden with large greenhouses was set up in the north-east corner of the parish beside the Malmesbury—Chippenham road. (fn. 281) There was a malthouse in the late 18th century and early 19th, (fn. 282) a coal merchant was based at the station from 1903, (fn. 283) and a garage was in the Street in the later 20th century, but no trade has ever been prominent in the village.
Bradfield. More than half Edward's 2½-hide estate at Bradfield was demesne in 1086. The estate had 2 ploughteams, 3 villani, 2 coscets, and 12 a. of meadow. (fn. 284) References to land at Bradfield assessed as yardlands suggest that there may have been open fields in the Middle Ages, (fn. 285) and in the 16th century the names of the two large arable closes, East field and West field, may echo those of earlier open fields. (fn. 286) Also in the Middle Ages Bradfield manor may have included land held by customary tenants. (fn. 287) In the late 16th century, however, the whole manor was in hand and lay inclosed, and the transition is most likely to have been made in the late 15th century. In 1583 the land was a single farm, then estimated as 448 a. including a total of 180 a. in East field and West field, 59 a. of meadow, and 177 a. of pasture. (fn. 288) Those acreages may have been overestimates: later Bradfield Manor farm was 425 a., and it remained a single farm in 1989. In 1840, when 281 a. were arable, it was more arable than pasture; (fn. 289) in 1916, when 326 a. were grassland, it was more pasture than arable; (fn. 290) and in 1989 half was for dairying and half for growing cereals. (fn. 291)
Surrendell. In 1086 Richard's 5-hide estate at Surrendell had 2½ hides in demesne with 2 ploughteams and 4 servi, 12 villani and 3 bordars had 4 teams, and there were 7 a. of meadow. The land was fully cultivated. (fn. 292) In the Middle Ages Surrendell had open field, (fn. 293) and presumably common pasture for cattle: Far leaze to the north may have been such a pasture. In 1327–8 four holding 1 yardland each were apparently customary tenants of Surrendell manor (fn. 294) and, since the manor comprised over 700 a., (fn. 295) there may have been more tenants. In 1463 Thomas Hamlin, lord of Surrendell manor, was accused of sowing 60 a. of barley in an open field of Surrendell when, with an open field of Hullavington, the field should have been fallow and used together by men of Surrendell and Hullavington. (fn. 296) Common husbandry and customary tenure may not have survived at Surrendell long after that: there is no later evidence of either.
In the later 16th century the lease of a sheephouse and 60 a., staked out of Broad leaze, suggests that a new farm was created, (fn. 297) in the early 17th century a new farmhouse at Surrendell and Farleaze Farm were built, (fn. 298) and Dunley House was probably a farmhouse in the later 17th century. (fn. 299) The closes of Surrendell manor in 1665 included 17 over 20 a. and their names suggest that then or formerly many were used for cattle rearing. (fn. 300) About 1670, however, much pasture was ploughed up. (fn. 301) By 1736 the land of Surrendell had been divided among three farms, Surrendell in the centre worked from the early 17th-century farmhouse and a barn west of it, Kingsthorns or Farleaze to the north worked from two groups of farm buildings, and Dunley to the south worked from the farmstead in the south-east corner of the parish. (fn. 302) The buildings called Kingsthorns were removed in the early 19th century. (fn. 303) In 1840 Surrendell farm was 397 a. including 240 a. of pasture, Farleaze farm was 157 a. including 112 a. of pasture, and Dunley farm was 200 a. including 105 a. of arable. (fn. 304) Farleaze was held with 29 a. in Alderton. (fn. 305) From 1842 Dunley was worked from the new farmstead north-east of the old one. (fn. 306) In 1928 Surrendell farm was 393 a., Dunley, then East Dunley, 134 a., and Farleaze 156 a. (fn. 307) In 1989 nearly all the land was arable and none of the farmsteads was used for farming. About 211 a. of Surrendell farm were worked from Malmesbury; the rest of Surrendell farm, with East Dunley farm which was mainly used for dairying until the 1980s, a total of c. 360 a., was worked for its owner by contractors; (fn. 308) and part of Farleaze farm was used to keep horses, and the rest was worked from Sherston as part of an arable and dairy farm. (fn. 309)
The parish was sparsely wooded although Hullavington, Bradfield, and Surrendell each had a wood. Hullavington's, 8 a., was mentioned in Domesday Book. (fn. 310) Later it was Stock wood, south of the village; in 1443 and 1588 it was said to be 20 a., (fn. 311) but in the mid 18th century, when 3 a. were cut yearly, it was 39 a. (fn. 312) In 1840 and 1989 it was 40 a. (fn. 313) Bradfield wood, in the north corner of the parish, was called the Heath in 1583. (fn. 314) In 1840 and 1989 it was 23 a. (fn. 315) Surrendell wood was 29 a. in 1665 and 1840, (fn. 316) 30 a. in 1989. Between 1840 and 1885 trees were planted on 54 a. along the south and west boundaries in the south-west corner of the parish: (fn. 317) that woodland stood in 1989.
The tithingman of Hullavington attended the tourns or views of frankpledge for Startley and Malmesbury hundreds; the Surrendell tithingman did so for Chippenham hundred. (fn. 318) Hullavington tithing seems to have included Bradfield. In the courts held for Hullavington manor in the early 15th century Queen Joan did not exercise leet jurisdiction, although the assize of ale was enforced and some courts were called view of frankpledge. The courts dealt mainly with admittances to copyholds, dilapidated buildings, the maintenance of the lord's rights over the bondmen and tenants, and problems arising from husbandry in common. (fn. 319) In 1443 the king granted to Eton College the fixed payments made for Hullavington at hundred courts (fn. 320) and, under a general grant of liberties, (fn. 321) the college began to hold view of frankpledge for Hullavington manor and to deny the bailiff of Malmesbury hundred entry on the manor. (fn. 322) The abbot of Malmesbury sent two men to a view of frankpledge at Hullavington in 1457 to demand, presumably in vain, that Hullavington should attend the Martinmas and Hocktide views of frankpledge for Startley hundred. (fn. 323) From 1443 to 1568 and after 1885 the college held courts for Hullavington; from 1568 to 1885 the lord farmer held them. (fn. 324)
In the period 1443–77 a view was held with a manor court twice yearly. The view proceeded on presentments of the tithingman affirmed and added to by a jury, and sometimes an aletaster presented. Those perpetrating assaults, a scold, a gossip, and unsworn boys over 12 were presented, and stray animals and nuisances such as the diversion of a watercourse or flooding of a road were reported. At the courts surrenders of and admittances to copyholds were performed, dilapidations were recorded, orders were made to affect common husbandry, and tenants sometimes impleaded each other. Occasionally manor courts were held at other times. (fn. 325) In the period 1531–94 the view with the manor court was still held twice a year. (fn. 326) It sometimes proceeded as earlier, but at other times only the jurors presented. In the later 16th century the courts were at their busiest. Additional leet business included the presentment of butchers, bakers, tapsters, and millers, the players of unlawful games, and those breaking a statute of 1571 (fn. 327) by failing to wear woollen caps on Sundays and holy days. In 1558 the court ordered all males between 7 and 60 to practise archery on Sundays. (fn. 328) Constables, tithingmen, and aletasters were chosen. The court's orders to alter and enforce the rules of common husbandry and to maintain gates, hedges, and ditches were also more numerous, and men were appointed expressly to prevent pigs being kept unringed and pastures being overstocked with sheep. In the period 1650–1902 the view and manor court was usually held yearly in October, and it proceeded on presentments of men acting as both jurors and homage. Less leet business was done but throughout the period, more frequently in the 18th century, the courts ordered public nuisances and nuisances affecting agriculture to be amended. The use of land still commonable was regulated and orders to hedge and ditch inclosed land were frequently made. Repairs to houses, farm buildings, bridges, and gates were ordered, and in the 19th century inclosure of waste land, opening a quarry without licence, and removing a wall were all presented. A constable, a tithingman, and a hayward were chosen each year by rotation. Although its importance may have declined such business was done by the courts until 1902. Copyhold business was done in the annual court and at other times until the tenure was abolished, and as late as 1882 a court, after adjourning to consider, deprived a widow of a copyhold for unchastity. (fn. 329)
From the 1680s or earlier the parish had two overseers of the poor. Between 1689 and 1744 they usually spent between £15 and £20 a year, only occasionally over £20. In most years more than half was spent on monthly doles to between two and six paupers; other payments were for clothes, fuel, rent, and occasionally a funeral. (fn. 330) Expenditure rose in the mid and later 18th century, to £145 in 1775–6 and £242 in 1802–3: 28 adults were relieved continuously and 18 occasionally in 1802–3. (fn. 331) In the early 19th century the vestry resolved to provide a parish workhouse (fn. 332) but apparently did not do so. In 1812–13, at a cost of £357, 27 were relieved continuously and 14 occasionally. (fn. 333) Between then and 1835 Hullavington's expenditure on the poor remained between £200 and £400, about normal for a parish of its size. (fn. 334) In 1835 the parish joined Malmesbury poor-law union, (fn. 335) and in 1974 became part of North Wiltshire district. (fn. 336)
Either Ralph Mortimer (fl. 1086) or, more likely, his son Hugh (d. 1148 X 1150) gave Hullavington church to the abbey of St. Victor. (fn. 337) In the late 12th century the church had a chapel at Surrendell (fn. 338) and then or later possibly another at Bradfield. (fn. 339) It is possible that monks living at Hullavington served the church in the 12th century (fn. 340) but by 1240 a vicarage had been ordained. (fn. 341) The vicarage was united with the benefice of Stanton St. Quintin and Grittleton with Leigh Delamere and with the vicarage of Norton in 1976. (fn. 342)
The abbey of St. Victor was patron in 1240 (fn. 343) and the advowson passed with Hullavington manor to the Crown and to Eton College. (fn. 344) In 1344, when the priory was in his hands, the king successfully claimed the advowson against the prior of Hullavington, who had presented in 1343, and the prior's nominee was expelled. (fn. 345) In the period 1297–1440 the prior presented 4 times, the king 21 times, and, in 1411, 1417, and 1430, Queen Joan thrice. Some of those presented by the king may not have been instituted. After 1443 Eton College made all presentations except that of 1465 by St. George's chapel, Windsor, with which the college was temporarily united. (fn. 346) The advowson was reserved from leases of Hullavington manor and rectory estate. (fn. 347) From 1976 the college was entitled to present for the united benefice at one turn in three. (fn. 348)
The vicar complained in 1240 that his portion was inadequate: (fn. 349) it was small in 1291 when the vicarage was valued at £4 6s. 8d. (fn. 350) Between 1320 and 1588 the vicarage was augmented with tithes, (fn. 351) and between 1443 and 1491 Eton College augmented it with a yearly income of 53s. 4d., the total value of royal revenues granted to the college in 1443. (fn. 352) The living, valued at £6 13s. in 1535, remained poor. (fn. 353) In 1599 it was valued at £26 13s. 4d., (fn. 354) in 1650 at £45: (fn. 355) parliament gave the incumbent £25 in 1649. (fn. 356) In 1719 the vicarage was augmented by £400, of which £200 was given by Queen Anne's Bounty, and c. 30 a. in Kington St. Michael were bought, (fn. 357) but its net income of £194 c. 1830 shows it to have remained of below average wealth for a living in Malmesbury deanery. (fn. 358)
Between 1320 and 1588 all tithes from the whole parish apart from Eton College's demesne, and except those of corn and hay, were transferred from the rectory estate to the vicarage. (fn. 359) In the early 19th century the vicar was accepting moduses totalling £7 16s. for the tithes from Surrendell. In 1841 the vicar's tithes were valued at £165 and commuted. (fn. 360)
The vicar held 2 yardlands in 1292–3. (fn. 361) In 1320 his endowment was a house, those yardlands, 4 a. of arable which parishioners had given for processional candles, and ½ yardland in each of Bradfield and Surrendell which inhabitants of those places had given for services. (fn. 362) Because it was discovered that, apparently much earlier, they had been granted without the licence of the lord of the manor, 2 a. were withdrawn from the church in 1448. (fn. 363) There is no evidence that the vicar long retained the ½ yardland at Bradfield, and by 1565 the lord of Surrendell manor had taken back the ½ yardland at Surrendell. (fn. 364) In 1588 the vicar held the house and 2 yardlands in Hullavington, 49 a. with pasture rights; although he claimed them he held neither of the ½ yardlands. (fn. 365) In 1652, after some land was inclosed, the glebe was 58 a.; (fn. 366) in 1783, when only 3½ a. remained open, it was 55 a. in Hullavington, (fn. 367) and in 1840 it was 53 a. (fn. 368) The c. 30 a. in Kington St. Michael were sold in 1921. (fn. 369) Eton College bought small parts of the glebe in Hullavington in the 1920s, (fn. 370) and the diocesan board of finance owned c. 33 a. in 1989. (fn. 371) In 1783 the Vicarage was a large house of stone with adjacent farm buildings on the south side of the churchyard. (fn. 372) It was apparently built in the 17th century, and in the early 19th was L-shaped. In 1828 the east range including the front was greatly altered and a new block was built on the south side. (fn. 373)
Surrendell church was mentioned in 1179. (fn. 374) The vicar held the ½ yardland at Surrendell to meet the cost of serving it, and from 1320 was required to provide a chaplain. (fn. 375) Eton College paid for two windows in the chancel to be made and glazed in 1444. (fn. 376) The lord of Surrendell manor's resumption of the ½ yardland was because, he claimed in 1565, the sacraments were not being administered in the chapel, (fn. 377) but, perhaps to support his claim to the land, the vicar christened children at Surrendell in 1563 and 1566. (fn. 378) The church was dilapidated in the later 17th century, and in the later 19th nothing of it survived. (fn. 379)
There may have been a chapel at Bradfield in the later 13th century, (fn. 380) and the vicar was given the ½ yardland at Bradfield to serve what in 1320 was called Bradfield chantry. (fn. 381) In the later 17th century John Aubrey mentioned a chapel within the curtilage of Bradfield manor house: he presumably referred to a separate building but did not mark one as a chapel on his drawing of the manor house, and no remains of one survived in the later 19th century. (fn. 382) Another report infers that the chapel was the lower part of a tower of the manor house, (fn. 383) but that has not been verified.
A mass in the parish church to celebrate St. Mary had been endowed by 1268, possibly by Nicholas of Preshute; (fn. 384) by 1272 a light on St. Peter's altar had been endowed for the souls of Nicholas's relatives Mabel Wynsum and William of Clatford; (fn. 385) a light on St. Mary's altar had been endowed by c. 1300, and a chaplain served the altar in 1298; (fn. 386) and in 1320 the vicar was made responsible for services at the altar of a chantry in the church. (fn. 387) Nothing more is known of such endowments and services. In 1448 the vicar, John Mandeville, resigned after being presented in the manor court for assault and housebreaking. (fn. 388) In the later 14th century and earlier 15th, when the king was usually patron, most incumbencies were short and began and ended by exchange. (fn. 389) Later incumbencies were longer: Laurence Banks was vicar from 1512 to 1550 or later. His successor, Robert Ward, was deprived in 1553, when there was no copy of the Articles in the church, or 1554, (fn. 390) but he again or a namesake was vicar from 1565 (fn. 391) or earlier to 1599. John Stanley, instituted in 1636, (fn. 392) was replaced before 1649 by William Latimer (d. 1657), vicar of Malmesbury from 1633. (fn. 393) In 1744 the vicar, Giles Emly, held a service every Sunday, two every other Sunday. (fn. 394) Walter Adlam, vicar 1753–91, (fn. 395) was assisted by a curate in the 1750s. (fn. 396) In 1783 he was himself curate of Foxley: at Hullavington he held a service every Sunday, celebrated communion thrice a year, and catechized after Whitsun. (fn. 397) Curates served the church in the period 1790–1820 when the vicar was Alexander Radcliffe, also vicar of Titchfield (Hants) and of St. Clement's, Sandwich (Kent). (fn. 398) William Carter, vicar 1827–64, held morning and afternoon services on Sundays in 1851: (fn. 399) he too was curate of Foxley. (fn. 400) By will proved 1690 Ayliffe Green gave the vicar £1 a year for a sermon on St. Thomas's day (21 December): the £1 continued to be paid until the later 20th century when the income of the charity was allowed to accumulate. (fn. 401)
The church was called St. Mary Magdalene's in 1408 (fn. 402) but by 1763 had been dedicated to ST. MARY the Virgin. (fn. 403) It is built of stone rubble with ashlar dressings and has a chancel with north chapel, an aisled nave with south porch and north organ chamber, and a west tower. The nave was presumably unaisled until the later 12th century when both aisles were built, the north before the south. The chancel, which is not structurally separate from the nave, is also of 12th-century origin. The chapel, to which it is joined by a two-bay arcade, was built early in the 13th century, and the north aisle was rebuilt then to the same, greater, width as the chapel. The old north doorway of the aisle was reset. The porch was built in the 13th century and the tower in the 14th. Some windows were renewed in the 15th century, and in the 17th dormers were made on the south side of the nave and the two south aisle windows were carried up into hipped gables. (fn. 404) A gallery was built in 1834. (fn. 405) In 1871–2 the church was extensively restored to designs by A. W. Blomfield: the tower was taken down and the chancel, the south side of the nave, and the south aisle were restored. A new tower was built to Blomfield's designs in 1880, (fn. 406) and in 1907 the north part of the church was restored, and the organ chamber built, to designs by C. E. Ponting. (fn. 407) In 1917 a 14th- and 15th-century wooden screen between the chapel and the north aisle was taken down. (fn. 408) The church retains late medieval bench ends, part of a medieval chasuble, (fn. 409) and, in the chapel, a tablet to Simon James (d. 1616). At the entrance to the churchyard from the village street a lych gate was erected in 1897. (fn. 410)
The parish has a silver cup hallmarked for 1735 which Thomas Jacob (d. 1730) gave by will. There is also a paten hallmarked for 1732. (fn. 411)
In 1553 there were three bells and a sanctus bell, later only two bells. A new bell, cast by Abraham Rudhall in 1705, was hung in 1707. When the new tower was built in 1880 the other bell was replaced by one cast then by John Warner & Sons. (fn. 412) Those two bells hung in the church in 1989. (fn. 413)
The registers begin in 1557: entries to 1599 were copied by the vicar, John Moore, instituted in 1599. (fn. 414) Burials are not recorded for 1636–54 and 1662–95, baptisms for 1641–57 and 1662–94, and marriages for 1644–95. (fn. 415)
Quaker families lived at Hullavington from 1660 to 1832 or later, members of the Bullock family throughout the period. (fn. 416) Those of Hullavington excommunicated 1663–5, and still excommunicate in 1674, were almost certainly Quakers. (fn. 417) The society had opened a burial ground in the parish by 1747, and in 1753 also had a meeting house (fn. 418) which was later said to have been built in the 17th century. (fn. 419) The Quaker society at Hullavington was one of only seven active in Wiltshire in 1800, and had ceased to meet by 1820. (fn. 420)
Five meeting houses for Independents were certified between 1796 and 1803, (fn. 421) and a small stone chapel in Gothic style was built at Newtown in 1821. (fn. 422) Registers of baptisms survive for the period 1825–36. (fn. 423) Three services were held on Census Sunday in 1851 with an average congregation of 56: the church was then said to be for a union of Independents and Baptists, (fn. 424) and in 1910 was for General Baptists. (fn. 425) It had been closed by 1928. (fn. 426)
A Baptist chapel was founded in 1839, (fn. 427) and the small Mount Zion chapel was built of stone rubble in Gibbs Lane for Particular Baptists in 1843. (fn. 428) On Census Sunday in 1851 the three services were attended by an average of 35. (fn. 429) John Greenman (d. 1866) gave by will £110 to endow the chapel: a cottage was bought and, in 1897, sold. (fn. 430) Two meetings each Sunday were held c. 1968, (fn. 431) and meetings were held in the chapel until 1989. (fn. 432)
A chapel in Watts Lane for Primitive Methodists may have been the second chapel certified in 1843. Three services were held in it on Census Sunday in 1851 with an average congregation of 60. (fn. 433) The small chapel, of stone rubble with red-brick dressings, was improved in 1858. (fn. 434) It was closed in the mid 1980s. (fn. 435)
By will proved 1690 Ayliffe Green endowed an eleemosynary, sermon, and education charity for Hullavington. (fn. 436) In the earlier 18th century children attended a school at Hullavington which received £3 a year from the charity, a gift said to induce other contributions to the school. (fn. 437) The £3 was paid to a mistress to teach six children to read: in 1818 the parish wanted greater means to educate its children. (fn. 438) In 1832 a day school for 6 boys and 6 girls was started, and in 1833 another school, for 20 boys and 19 girls, was built on the east side of the Street. The £3 was given for the free teaching of 10 children in the larger school: (fn. 439) both were National schools. In 1846–7 a total of 71 children attended. (fn. 440) The larger school was enlarged in 1870. (fn. 441) In 1871, when the smaller was for the children of dissenters, a total of 100 attended. (fn. 442)
In 1887, when the National school may have been the only one in the parish and was undersubscribed, a school board was formed. (fn. 443) Between then and the mid 20th century the income from Green's charity, usually a little less than £3, was spent on prizes. (fn. 444) Average attendance was 114 in 1902. (fn. 445) It had risen to 131 by 1908–9 but thereafter declined until in 1937–8 it was 47. (fn. 446) New housing in the village after the Second World War brought about a rise, to 159 in 1970 when a new school was built on the west side of the Street. (fn. 447) The old school building remained in use until 1987. (fn. 448) In 1988 the new school had 96 pupils. (fn. 449)
Charity for the Poor.
By will proved 1690 Ayliffe Green gave £1 a year to the second poor of Hullavington. In the early 20th century doles of 2s. or 4s. were given on St. Thomas's day (21 December); later the gifts were of 10s. In the 1960s and 1970s the charity's income was allowed to accumulate. (fn. 450)