A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 7, Holderness Wapentake, Middle and North Divisions. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 2002.
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THE large irregularly-shaped ancient parish of Humbleton comprised five settlements, with Humbleton village standing in its northern half. (fn. 1) The small village is c. 8 km. ENE. from the edge of Hull city and some 6 km. from the North Sea at Grimston, in Garton. Elstronwick, of much the same size as Humbleton, is situated just over 2 km. to the south and adjoining Elstronwick to the east is the hamlet of Danthorpe. The remaining settlements of Fitling and Flinton stood respectively 2 km. east and NNW. of Humbleton. The origin and meaning of the name Humbleton, recorded as Humeltone in 1086, is obscure; it may originally have been an Anglian name, indicating a settlement where bindweed grew, which was altered later by the substitution of the similar Scandinavian word for the hop plant. (fn. 2) Elstronwick is an Anglian name, meaning 'Elfstan's dairy farm'; some of the spellings, which have included Astenewic in 1086 and later Elsternwyk or Elsternwick, suggest a Scandinavian modification of the name Elfstan. (fn. 3) Also Anglian are the names Fitling, meaning 'the settlement of Fitela and his people', and Flinton, perhaps referring to a place where flints were found. (fn. 4) Danthorpe, 'village of the Danes', is believed to have been an isolated Danish settlement in a predominantly English area. (fn. 5) Parish and township boundaries were formed in part by streams, but in Elstronwick and Flinton limits were also marked by field roads, called 'pale walks', (fn. 6) and Longbrough Lane ran along part of the southern boundary in Fitling. (fn. 7)
The demesne land of Elstronwick manor was, or became, part of the demesne of the superior and adjacent manor of Burstwick, (fn. 8) and in 1813, at the inclosure of Elstronwick, 140 a. of that township, described as former demesne land of one or other of the manors, was regarded as part of Burstwick parish. (fn. 9) That division of Elstronwick township between Humbleton and Burstwick parishes was not mentioned later, however. In 1852 the ecclesiastical parish of Humbleton comprised 6,296 a. (2,548 ha.), of which 1,477 a. (597.7 ha.) lay in Humbleton township, 1,529 a. (618.8 ha.) in Fitling, 1,399 a. (566.2 ha.) in Flinton, 1,155 a. (467.4 ha.) in Elstronwick, and 736 a. (297.9 ha.) in Danthorpe. (fn. 10) The townships later became civil parishes. A detached part of Lelley, in Preston, comprising 3 a., was transferred to Elstronwick between 1881 and 1891. (fn. 11) In 1935 Humbleton and Flinton civil parishes were combined to make a new parish of Humbleton, and an enlarged parish of Elstronwick was formed from Elstronwick and Danthorpe civil parishes and the 805-a. (325.8-ha.) Lelley civil parish. Fitling civil parish was then added to that of Garton with Grimston to form East Garton civil parish. (fn. 12) In 1991 the areas of Humbleton and Elstronwick civil parishes were virtually unchanged at 1,165 ha. (2,879 a.) and 1,091 ha. (2,696 a.) respectively. (fn. 13)
Humbleton parish probably had more than 300 poll-tax payers in 1377 and about 100 houses in 1672. (fn. 14) The 42 burials recorded in 1588–9 presumably included victims of plague, and there were similarly high numbers of deaths between 1656 and 1659. (fn. 15) In 1743 the parish was said to have 79 families. (fn. 16)
In Humbleton village there were 97 poll-tax payers in 1377, and 15 houses there were assessed for hearth tax and 5 discharged in 1672. (fn. 17) Flinton and Etherdwick, in Aldbrough, together had 85 poll-tax payers in 1377 and 28 houses in 1672. (fn. 18) From 89 in 1801, the population of Humbleton township, later civil parish, rose to 160 in 1831, stood at c. 140 in the mid century, rose in the 1870s to 160 in 1881, but then fell to 124 in 1901. Numbers had risen to 145 by 1931. Flinton's population of 105 in 1801 increased to 126 in 1831, fell to 108 in 1851, recovered to 125 in 1861, and then declined to 83 in 1901. In 1931 there were 93 inhabitants. The population of the enlarged civil parish of Humbleton, which would thus have been 238 in 1931, declined to 202 in 1971 and 188 in 1991. (fn. 19)
Elstronwick and Danthorpe had 100 poll-tax payers in 1377, and 24 houses were assessed and 10 discharged at Elstronwick and 8 charged at Danthorpe in 1672. (fn. 20) Elstronwick township had 126 people in 1801, 154 in 1821 and 157 in 1851, 94 in 1891, 123 in 1901, but only 95 in 1931. From 51 in 1801, the population of Danthorpe fell in the 1820s to 37 in 1831, was usually c. 60 in the later 19th century, and stood at 52 in 1931. The enlarged civil parish of Elstronwick would have had 259 inhabitants, mostly in Lelley, in 1931; there were only 241 inhabitants there in 1971, but 280 by 1981 and 301 in 1991. (fn. 21)
At Fitling there were 74 payers in 1377, and 24 houses were recorded there in 1672. (fn. 22) In 1801 Fitling had 127 inhabitants. Numbers declined to 103 in 1831, recovered to 131 in 1841 and 143 by 1871, but then fell sharply in the 1880s to 105 in 1891 and again in the 1920s to 85 in 1931. (fn. 23)
The parish is covered with boulder clay, apart from some alluvium alongside the main drains and a few scattered deposits of sand and gravel. (fn. 24) The undulating land lies mostly between 8 and 15 m. above sea level. Slightly higher ground is found in the east and north-west of the parish, in Fitling and Flinton respectively, and there is lower land in the south, beside the main drains in Danthorpe and Elstronwick. Humbleton seems to have been inclosed in the early 17th century and c. 1700. Fitling was dealt with in 1640, Flinton in 1675 and 1752, Danthorpe in 1735, and Elstronwick in 1813. (fn. 25)
The drainage is southwards towards the river Humber, chiefly by Humbleton beck and Fitling drain. Humbleton beck is fed by a stream called Bail drain, which forms the northern boundary of Fitling, and then flows down the middle of the parish through the villages of Humbleton and Elstronwick, where it becomes Southfield drain. Fitling drain runs alongside that settlement, through Danthorpe, and then along the southern parish boundary, as Burton West drain, to join Humbleton beck's continuation, Southfield drain. Besides Humbleton beck and Fitling and Bail drains, streams later called Gallows Bridge drain, Braemere drain, Fox Covert drain, Burton Pidsea drain, and Lambwath dike were all recorded as insufficient in 1367. (fn. 26) Lambwath dike has been known variously as Coom Hill sewer and Hell, or L, dike, the last two perhaps abbreviations of Lambwath. (fn. 27) Formerly water from the parish was carried into the Humber by way of Keyingham fleet. In 1618 grounds dependent on the fleet for their drainage included 60 a. in Bramer, lying in both Elstronwick and Lelley, 30 a. in Humbleton, 20 a. in Flinton, and 16 a. in Fitling. (fn. 28) Under the Keyingham Level Drainage Acts of 1772 and later, the drains of Humbleton parish were improved and water from the parish was evidently diverted away from Keyingham fleet into Burstwick drain and an outfall in Hedon, probably at the remaking of that drain in the early 19th century. After 1845 low ground assessed to the Keyingham Level Drainage included 129 a. in Elstronwick, 38 a. in Fitling, 26 a. in Danthorpe, 21 a. in Flinton, and 15 a. in Humbleton. (fn. 29)
The only main road runs through the north of the parish, passing through Flinton village. A lane running along the boundary between Humbleton and Flinton townships westwards to Sproatley was provided with a new link to Flinton village, later called Moor Lane, at inclosure in 1752, (fn. 30) and in 1767 the boundary lane was turnpiked as part of the Wyton branch of the Hull to Hedon road; the trust was discontinued in 1878. (fn. 31) That road to Flinton and one from there leading east have since been improved as part of the Aldbrough to Hull road. The parish is otherwise served by minor roads. From Humbleton roads lead north to Flinton, Etherdwick, and Aldbrough, east to Fitling, south to Elstronwick and Danthorpe, southwest to Lelley, and west, across Humbleton moor, to Sproatley. A road between Humbleton and Etherdwick was recorded in the 1360s, when two bridges carrying it at 'Gerardebrigge' had been allowed to fall into disrepair by Humbleton, Etherdwick, and Flinton townships. (fn. 32) Another road, leading north from Church bridge at Humbleton, was then said to have been neglected by the lord of the manor; the road, which now exists only as a footpath, may then have been part of the way to Etherdwick, which now leaves the village by a different route. Parts of the present Etherdwick road were called Aldbrough Lane and Gallows Bridge Road by the mid 19th century. (fn. 33) Also recorded as defective in the mid 14th century was West bridge in Elstronwick, which perhaps carried the road between Lelley and Burton Pidsea over a lesser drain. (fn. 34)
HUMBLETON village stands mostly on the eastern side of Humbleton beck, its north-south street, built on both sides, running parallel with, and close to, that watercourse. At the northern end of the street, however, the church and a former school stand on a small hill on the other side of the beck, and c. 300 m. away to the north there is a moated site, which was probably occupied by the medieval manor house; the village street evidently once continued further north, to the moated site and then perhaps on to Etherdwick. (fn. 35) Humbleton Hall and Manor Farm stand respectively a short distance east and west of the village.
The buildings are, apart from the church, of brick. The village, described as 'small and mean' in the 1850s, (fn. 36) was largely rebuilt in the later 19th century by the Hotham family, the chief landowner. Older cottages, with pantiled roofs, dormer windows, and some string coursing, remain near the church. Apart from a school and master's house, built in 1878, the Hothams put up nine houses in the village street, three of them c. 1890. (fn. 37) Four of the houses, standing in a terrace, were remodelled as two in 1997, (fn. 38) and another two are now also one house. In the mid 20th century the district council added 20 houses and bungalows along the east side of the street, and provided a water treatment works for the village, (fn. 39) and the development of the street's western side with private houses was continuing in 1998. Apart from the houses belonging to the Hotham estate, other noteworthy buildings are Humbleton Hall, the former vicarage house, (fn. 40) and, at the south end of the village, Humbleton House, which dates from c. 1795 (fn. 41) but probably stands on the site of South End, or Gartham's, Farm, mentioned in 1622. (fn. 42)
In the later 18th century there was usually one licensed house at Humbleton. (fn. 43) A parochial lending library was run from the school at Humbleton in the 19th and early 20th century, (fn. 44) and a men's institute was being held above the stables of the vicarage house in the 1930s. (fn. 45) The village had no general meeting place until the former school, closed in 1959, was adopted for that purpose. (fn. 46) A recreation club for Humbleton was founded in 1946, and the following year a playing field, including tennis courts, was laid out on 2 a. provided by the trustees of Heron's charity. (fn. 47) The adjoining 3-a. school playing field, also belonging to the trustees, was added after the closure of the school in 1959, and in 1963 a pavilion built on the school field in the early 20th century was replaced with a new building. (fn. 48)
Outlying buildings include Humbleton Grange, which William Thompson built shortly before 1690; (fn. 49) the present house was formerly a single-storeyed building which was heightened to two storeys in the 19th century and later extended. The Thompsons had evidently also built a farmhouse on the newly-inclosed moor by 1709; later called Moor House, or Farm, it was joined after 1852 by one or two other houses. (fn. 50)
The straggling loosely-built village of Elstronwick extends across the middle of the former township. Beyond the beck, which was the eastern boundary, the band of settlement is continued by the even more scattered buildings of Danthorpe. Almost all of Elstronwick's buildings formerly stood between the southern and northern lanes, which were linked by short side lanes. Perhaps the only early exception was the medieval chapel, later church, which was sited on the south side of the southern lane, close to the beck. Part of the northern lane is called Back Lane, and stretches of the southern one have been known as Front Lane, Church Lane, and Honeypots Lane. (fn. 51) It was presumably the westernmost cross lane which was called West Lane in the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 52) The open fields flanking the village were inclosed in 1813, and by the mid 19th century a nonconformist chapel and two houses had been built beyond the lanes on former commonable land. (fn. 53) There has been no further development south of the southern lane, but c. 15 houses have since been added along the northern edge of the village and beside the westernmost side lane, most of them in the 20th century. (fn. 54)
The buildings are, apart from the church, of brick. They include several farms which, with unbuilt areas of grassland, contribute to the village's open character. The earliest building is probably the single-storeyed Rose Cottage, which has a lobby-entry plan and may date from the beginning of the 18th century. (fn. 55) Elstronwick Hall is also 18th-century in origin, but was much enlarged between 1852 and 1889 by the addition of a southern block of red brick with stone dressings. The Hall and its grounds of 12 a., together with a farm and several cottages in Elstronwick, belonged to the Dickinsons, owners of much of Roos parish, and either J. T. Dickinson (d. 1875) or his brother George would seem to have been responsible for the enlargement. (fn. 56) The remodelling of the Hall was evidently accompanied by the building of Wrights Cottages, a pair of 'estate' houses in Back Lane, and a lodge cottage at the western end of the small park. The latter is of red brick with prominent yellow-brick quoins and has a projecting middle bay under a cross gable decorated with bargeboards. (fn. 57) Elstronwick House is probably also of the 18th century. Houses built in the 20th century include six council houses in Back Lane. (fn. 58)
There were one or two beerhouses at Elstronwick in the later 18th century, and the Crown and Anchor was named in the 1820s and still traded in 1998. (fn. 59) By the early 20th century a charitable endowment of c. 10 a. lying south of Elstronwick church had been divided into allotment gardens and let. (fn. 60) A playing field for the children of Elstronwick and Danthorpe was provided off Back Lane in 1971. (fn. 61)
Outlying buildings in Elstronwick include Elstronwick Grange, put up during or soon after inclosure in 1813. (fn. 62) Evidently of the same date is the uninhabited Bridge Farm, of one storey with an attic. (fn. 63)
Danthorpe was sited on the same axis as Elstronwick and now forms a thinly-built extension of that village. From their shared boundary, the beck, Danthorpe hamlet extended eastwards to Fitling drain, another southward-flowing stream. Its early buildings probably all stood between two lanes which crossed the beck, by Chapel bridge and a ford, to join those in Elstronwick. In 1928 the district council replaced the ford with a bridge and improved the road there. (fn. 64) Chapel bridge was a wooden footbridge in 1998, and stretches of both the northern and southern lanes have been mere footpaths or field roads since the mid 19th century. One of the short cross lanes by then continued north and south, to Humbleton and Burton Pidsea respectively. One or two houses standing on the north side of the northern lane by the 1850s had probably been built following inclosure in the 18th century. (fn. 65) A few more have been built there and elsewhere since the mid 19th century, but the hamlet still has only about 15 houses. (fn. 66) The buildings are of brick, and almost all of them date from the 19th and 20th centuries. Danthorpe Hall, at the easten end of the settlement, is, however, 17th-century in origin. (fn. 67) Other early houses include Danthorpe Cottage and The Ridings on the Humbleton road; comprising two single-storeyed ranges of cottages, (fn. 68) later infilled and given dormer windows, the older part has side-sliding sashes to the ground floor. Among the recent houses is a pair built by the district council. (fn. 69)
Fitling has a north-south alignment, roughly parallel to Fitling drain, which flows to the east of the settlement. Most of the scattered buildings, which include several farms, are served by a street and a parallel back lane, known respectively as Fitling Lane and Lowfield Lane, (fn. 70) both c. 2 km. long, and by the side lanes which connect them. One of the side lanes is continued by roads to Humbleton and Garton. The village has two groups of houses, one including Fitling Hall at the southern end of the lanes and the other at the north end, close to the Humbleton-Garton road. There were formerly manors of North and South Fitling, but the location of the chief house of North Fitling manor is not close to the northern group of houses. (fn. 71) The early plan of the village was probably modified by the building of new farms on former commonable land after its inclosure in the 17th century. (fn. 72) Later additions there included the now-demolished Longbrough Lane House, built by 1829; Northfield House, of 1820, apparently built by Simon Horner, and the large Fitling Grange Farm, which the Sykes family put up c. 1850. (fn. 73)
The buildings are of brick, and practically all of them date from the 19th and 20th centuries. Crawshaw Farm is thought to be of c. 1700, (fn. 74) and other houses, including a pair of cottages in a side lane, evidently date from the Hothams' ownership of much of Fitling in the later 19th century. Fitling Hall is discussed below. (fn. 75)
The carrier to Hull also sold beer at the Golden Ball inn, on the Humbleton to Garton road, from the late 19th century; the house traded until the 1950s. (fn. 76) The Methodist church has occasionally been used as a meeting place for Fitling. (fn. 77)
The brick-built village of Flinton, comprising some 20 houses, stands on either side of an east-west street, now part of the SproatleyAldbrough road, and in side lanes leading north and south from the street. The houses include those of several farms, and the outbuildings of Manor Farm are prominent. Carr Farm and the former Fairfield Farm, both unoccupied in 1998, and Hill Farm House, formerly Hill Farm, are all believed to have been built, or rebuilt, in the mid 18th century. (fn. 78) The other houses date from the 19th century, Heron's Farm being rebuilt c. 1815, (fn. 79) or the 20th. Additions of the latter period include eight council houses (fn. 80) and the recently-rebuilt Fairfield and Hill Farms. Unusually, few houses were built out of the village following inclosure in the 17th and 18th centuries. One of the exceptions, Pasture House, in the west of the township, was put up by 1844. (fn. 81)
A beerhouse was recorded occasionally at Flinton in the later 18th century. (fn. 82)
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In 1066 the sokelands of Morkar's manor of Kilnsea included 4 carucates at Elstronwick, 3½ or 4½ carucates at Flinton, 3 carucates at Foston ('Fostun'), which may have been in Humbleton, and 1 carucate at Humbleton. He also held 6 carucates at Fitling and 2 carucates and 6 bovates at Danthorpe as soke of his manor of Withernsea. By 1086 Drew de Bevrère had both manors and their dependent lands, (fn. 83) and they were later part of the Aumale fee. The only other tenant recorded in 1086 was the archbishop of York, who held 1 carucate at Danthorpe and 6 bovates at Flinton as berewicks of his manor of Swine. (fn. 84)
Much of the Aumale fee in the parish was held by the Scures family. (fn. 85) At Humbleton William de Scures gave the village with its church to Thornton abbey (Lincs.), it is said in the 1150s or 1160s and certainly by 1190. (fn. 86) Thornton abbey was granted free warren in Humbleton in 1301, and was recorded as one of the two lords of Humbleton and its members in 1316. (fn. 87) Its manor of HUMBLETON was mentioned in 1334. (fn. 88) The house's estate there was probably enlarged by the gift of Thomas of Nuthill and others in 1392. (fn. 89)
In 1614 the Crown granted Humbleton manor, formerly belonging to Thornton abbey, to William Whitmore and Edmund Sawyer in fee farm; it then included several houses at Humbleton and land there and at Danthorpe, Elstronwick, Fitling, and Flinton. (fn. 90) Later that year Whitmore, Sawyer, and Sir Arthur Ingram sold the manor to William Thompson of Scarborough and his son Francis, who quickly re-sold some farms at Flinton to the tenants. (fn. 91) The Thompsons, four of whom sat in parliament for Scarborough in the 17th and earlier 18th century, (fn. 92) enlarged their estate in Humbleton by buying up leasehold there: a Crown lease of one farm was acquired in 1617, (fn. 93) and Francis's son Stephen bought others, including that of the manor house and farm from Robert Rawson in 1624. (fn. 94) In 1628 the manor was settled on William Thompson (d. by 1638) and Francis (d. by 1657), with reversion to Stephen (d. 1677). (fn. 95) The fee-farm rent for Humbleton, sold by Parliament in 1651, (fn. 96) reverted at the Restoration to the Crown, which in 1662 released practically all of it to the Thompsons in return for Scarborough castle. (fn. 97) Humbleton manor continued to descend in the Thompsons from father to son, being held by William Thompson (d. 1691 or 1692), (fn. 98) Francis Thomp son (d. 1693), and William Thompson (d. 1744). (fn. 99) It then passed to the last William's cousin, William Thompson (d. 1756), who was succeeded in turn by his sons William (d. 1766) and Lillingston (d. 1771). Under a settlement of 1764, Sir Charles Hotham, Bt., cousin of William Thompson (d. 1766), inherited Humbleton and substituted Thompson for his own surname. (fn. 100) After his death in 1794, the estate descended in the Hothams with the baronetcy and later also the barony. In the late 18th century the manorial estate was reckoned to comprise 556 a. in Humbleton, Danthorpe, and Flinton, (fn. 101) and Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham, had c. 700 a. at Humbleton in the 1840s. (fn. 102) The holding in Humbleton township was enlarged in 1866 by the purchase of Humbleton Hall with 337 a., and elsewhere in the parish the Hothams bought much land in the 1870s and 1880s. (fn. 103)
Frederick Hotham, Lord Hotham, sold 2,560 a. in the parish between 1908 and 1919. In Humbleton township 1,035 a. was disposed of: Ryby Wright bought Manor House farm, with 447 a. in Humbleton, C. F. H. Knapton the 246-a. Moor farm, both in 1911, and James Wood Humbleton Hall with 318 a. in Humbleton and 68 a. in Flinton in 1912. (fn. 104) Ryby Wright died in 1936, and his executors divided and sold Manor House farm that year. The farmhouse and 391 a. were bought by the trustees of Ann Watson's charity of Sutton on Hull, (fn. 105) who still owned Manor farm in 1999, besides another farm in Humbleton, of 415 a. (fn. 106)
The medieval manor house may have occupied a moated site north of the church. (fn. 107) Thornton abbey, or its tenant, had evidently allowed the road there to fall into disrepair by 1367, (fn. 108) and reference in the 16th century to the 'site or chief house of the manor of Humbleton called le Hallgarth' suggests that the medieval house may also have been allowed to fall down. (fn. 109) The manor house was recorded again as Hallgarth in the 17th and early 18th century, (fn. 110) and was later said to have stood south-west of the church. (fn. 111) Stephen Thompson's house had eleven hearths in 1672, (fn. 112) and about 1720 William Thompson exchanged land with the vicar to improve the prospect from his house and make a new approach road at the west end of the churchyard. (fn. 113) The house was demolished in the late 18th century. (fn. 114) A farmhouse standing opposite the Thompsons' house, on the west side of Aldbrough Lane, by the 1770s was later variously called Lane House, Manor House, or Manor Farm. (fn. 115)
William Thompson sold part of his estate in Humbleton in 1708 to Sir John Newton, Bt., and Thomas Hutton, acting for John Stringer (d. by 1709) and his wife Elizabeth, née Pelham. By the marriage of their daughter Anne to John FitzWilliam, viscount Milton, later Earl FitzWilliam, the estate passed to the FitzWilliams. (fn. 116) In 1811 William Wentworth-FitzWilliam, Earl FitzWilliam, sold c. 330 a. in Humbleton with land in Fitling to Thomas Moxon (d. 1813), who devised the holding to his brothers Richard, George, and John. Moxon or his brothers built a new house, later called Humbleton Hall, before 1824, when the old farmhouse on the estate, opposite the vicarage house, was occupied as two cottages. The Moxons and their assignees in bankruptcy sold the estate in 1824 to Galen Haire (d. 1834). When Haire's son John sold the property to John Smith in 1858, Humbleton Hall was let to Talbot Clifford Constable and another tenant. The estate descended from Smith (d. 1863) to his son Alfred, from whom Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham, bought it in 1866, thereby reuniting it with the manor. (fn. 117)
Humbleton Hall was built by the Moxons between 1811 and 1824. The house is of red brick with slate roofs, but colour wash has been applied to the five-bayed south front, which has a central Tuscan porch flanked by shallow twobayed bows rising through both storeys and, to either side, curved screen walls. (fn. 118)
A farm in Humbleton, formerly belonging to Kirkstall abbey (Yorks. W.R.) as an appurtenance of its manor of Aldbrough, was granted by the Crown in 1611 and again in 1614 to John Eldred and William Whitmore. (fn. 119) They sold it in 1614 to Edmund Sawyer, from whom Marmaduke Rawson bought it in 1615. (fn. 120) Called Gartham's farm, after previous tenants, or South End farm, it was devised by Rawson to his son Robert. (fn. 121) The estate was almost certainly that which descended later from Christopher Shutt to his son William (fl. 1734), grandson James (d. 1787), and great-grandson, also James. The last James Shutt (d. 1800) (fn. 122) left it to James Bell, who conveyed it to his father, Robert Bell of Roos, in 1810. Bell was apparently succeeded c. 1825 by his son Robert, who had c. 410 a. in Humbleton in the 1840s, (fn. 123) and c. 1870 the estate was held for Alwin Shutt Bell and others, as heirs of Robert Bell, M.D. (fn. 124) By 1887 the farm belonged to Ada Shutt Worthington, widow. (fn. 125) In 1924 Mrs. Worthington's heirs, Adela Worthington, Sarah Birney, and Georgina Gilliat, sold Humbleton House farm, then of 350 a. in Humbleton and 68 a. in Elstronwick, to G. T. Butterworth (d. 1931). (fn. 126) The premises were conveyed in 1941 to Herbert Butterworth, who the following year sold them to Ann Watson's charity of Sutton on Hull. The farm formed part of the trust's large estate in Humbleton in 1999. (fn. 127)
The carucate at Danthorpe belonging to the archbishop of York (fn. 128) was assigned to his church at Beverley, and was later held of its provost. (fn. 129)
Beverley minster's estate at Danthorpe and land of the Aumale fee there were held by a family named after the place. Sir Alan of Danthorpe probably held the estate before his son (Sir) John, (fn. 130) who in the mid 13th century was said to hold 2 carucates and 6 bovates there, possibly representing the entire Aumale fee in Danthorpe. (fn. 131) The John of Danthorpe recorded as the tenant of 3 carucates and 6 bovates in Danthorpe and 'Pundagh' in 1284–5 was possibly Sir John's son, John, (fn. 132) who in 1287 held 1½ carucate at Danthorpe of the count of Aumale. (fn. 133) About 1300 the Danthorpe family's estate there included just over 1 carucate of demesne held of the provost of Beverley, some land held of John of Meaux, and the manor of DANTHORPE, held as 1/48 knight's fee of the king as the count of Aumale's successor and comprising 7⅓ bovates of demesne and 5 bovates occupied by free and bond tenants. John of Danthorpe, an idiot, died in 1301, leaving as heirs his nephew William Berchaud, similarly incapacitated, and niece Joan Glede. (fn. 134) The estate was partitioned between them in 1303. (fn. 135) Joan married Robert of Hedon, who was named as one of the lords of Elstronwick and its members in 1316, presumably on account of Danthorpe. (fn. 136) She (d. by 1335) was succeeded by her son John in rents and more than 1 carucate at Danthorpe, besides half shares in Danthorpe and Pundagh manors. (fn. 137) John of Hedon was granted free warren at Danthorpe in 1348, (fn. 138) and he or another John was recorded at Danthorpe in 1367. (fn. 139) William Berchaud (d. by 1335) was succeeded in his share of the Danthorpes' lands in Danthorpe and Pundagh by his kinsman Geoffrey Redemar. (fn. 140) The immediate successors of John of Hedon and Geoffrey Redemar are unknown.
In 1391 a third share in Danthorpe manor, evidently then belonging to Joan, wife of Stephen Parkinson, was conveyed by them to John of Hutton. (fn. 141) It was presumably the same manor, then extending into Owstwick, in Roos, which was held, as part of the former Aumale fee, under Burstwick manor by knight service in the 16th century. It was conveyed by William Fleming to John and George Wright in 1534, and descended from John Wright (d. 1540) to his son Robert. (fn. 142) On Robert's death in 1594, the estate included four houses and 2 carucates. (fn. 143) His son William Wright, William's wife Anne, and son Robert sold it to Robert Thorpe in 1608. (fn. 144) Thorpe (d. 1611) was succeeded in Danthorpe manor by his brother William (d. 1620), and he by his son John (fl. 1640). (fn. 145) In the earlier 18th century the Thorpes' estate comprised c. 350 a. (fn. 146) Another John Thorpe had the manor by 1706. He (d. by 1717) was evidently succeeded by his son John, (fn. 147) who was allotted 214 a. at inclosure in 1735 and died that year or the next. John's heirs, his uncle Ingleby Thorpe (fn. 148) and cousin James, sold the manor to Roger Hall in 1744. Hall, a Hull merchant, had himself been awarded 106 a. at the inclosure of Danthorpe in 1735 and then also held the estate of St. John's college, Cambridge, as its lessee. (fn. 149) The manorial estate, comprising four farms by 1745, (fn. 150) was sold by Hall to Henry Etherington, another Hull merchant, in 1753. (fn. 151) The rest of Hall's estate at Danthorpe, comprising a 132-a. farm, was sold by him to James Shaw, from whom Etherington bought it in 1754. (fn. 152) Etherington (d. 1760) (fn. 153) was succeeded by his son Henry, later Sir Henry Etherington, Bt., (fn. 154) who bought two farms with c. 90 a. in all in 1783 and 1787, (fn. 155) and in 1788 had 627 a. in Danthorpe. (fn. 156) Under a settlement of 1813, Sir Henry's estates passed at his death without issue in 1819 to his wife's great-niece, Mary Coventry, viscountess Deerhurst, later countess of Coventry, and her heirs. Mary (d. 1845) (fn. 157) was succeeded by her son Henry Amelius Coventry, who sold Danthorpe manor with 608 a. to William Marsdin in 1870. (fn. 158) As the Danthorpe Hall estate, it was sold in 1878 to W. H. Wilson-Todd. (fn. 159) In 1910 Sir William P. Wilson-Todd, Bt., sold the estate to Henry Dixon, who also bought the 112-a. farm of St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1920. (fn. 160) Dixon died in 1935, and in 1936 his executors sold the estate in lots. (fn. 161) Herbert Johnson, who bought Danthorpe Hall with 457 a., died in 1960, and his son and successor, Herbert B. Johnson, in 1991. In 1998 the Hall was held by Mr. Johnson's trustees and the farm belonged to H. B. Johnson & Co. Ltd. (fn. 162)
The Danthorpes held their chief house at Danthorpe of the provost of Beverley. (fn. 163) In 1672 Mr. Thorpe lived in a house there with nine hearths, (fn. 164) presumably that later called Danthorpe Hall. The present building, of pebbledashed brick with grey-brick quoins and slate and pantiled roofs, comprises a late 17thcentury house enlarged about a century later with a rear wing, and again in 1840 with an eastern cross wing. (fn. 165) The 17th-century part has brick panels with pediments and dentilled coursing in the 'Artisan Mannerist' style, and inside some contemporary oak panelling. The garden is planted with shrubs and trees, and includes a small lake. The extensive farm buildings, which may date from the late 18th century, comprise three ranges around a large yard and a smaller separate block. (fn. 166)
Tibbald Hautayn (fl. c. 1225), his successor, Hamo Hautayn (fl. 1258–9), and another Tibbald (fl. c. 1300) held an estate in Danthorpe, put at 1 carucate and 3 bovates in the early 14th century, as military tenants of the Danthorpes. Most of the land was by the mid 13th century held of the Hautayns by knight service by the Marfleet family. (fn. 167)
William of Danthorpe gave 1 bovate in Danthorpe to Aumale abbey (Seine Maritime), which regranted it to William's son Adam in the earlier 13th century. (fn. 168)
An estate at Danthorpe was bought from William Thorpe by John Lambert, and then, in 1530 or 1531, conveyed to St. John's college, Cambridge. (fn. 169) The college was awarded 105 a. for its commonable lands there at inclosure in 1735, (fn. 170) and in 1875 its farm was of 112 a. (fn. 171) In 1920 Henry Dixon, who already had the manorial estate at Danthorpe, bought the college's farm. (fn. 172)
A manor of ELSTRONWICK descended with the lordship of Holderness and with Burstwick manor, (fn. 173) of which it was regarded a member. It thus passed from Drew de Bevrère to the counts of Aumale, then to the Crown (fn. 174) and its grantees, including Margaret de Gavaston, countess of Cornwall, recorded as lady in 1316. (fn. 175) After the execution of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, in 1521, it reverted to the Crown, and later passed by grant to Henry Neville, earl of Westmorland, (fn. 176) and sale to his son-in-law, Sir John Constable (d. 1579). (fn. 177) The manor thereafter descended in the Constables, later viscounts Dunbar, and their successors. (fn. 178) In the mid 15th century the manor comprised 14 houses, 1 carucate and 2 bovates, 162 a., and freeholdings. (fn. 179) Five bovates of demesne land were recorded in the 16th century, when they were regarded as part of the Burstwick demesne, (fn. 180) and 140 a. of demesne land had been sold by the early 19th century. The copyhold also became an appurtenance of Burstwick manor, 210 a. at Elstronwick being awarded as copyhold of Burstwick manor at inclosure in 1813. (fn. 181)
Nicholas de Stutville (fn. 182) and his descendents held 2½ carucates of the Aumale fee at Elstronwick; the estate was held of them as a member of their manor of Cottingham by the service of ¼ knight's fee. In 1287 Stutville's estate was said to be held by the heir of Hugh Bigod (d. 1266), (fn. 183) husband of Nicholas de Stutville's daughter Joan, but it otherwise descended in Joan's descendants from her marriage to Hugh Wake, passing from the Wakes (fn. 184) to the Plantagenets (fn. 185) and Holands, both earls of Kent. (fn. 186) For unknown reasons, the Wakes were said in 1323 to hold Elstronwick by knight service of the archbishop, who seems in turn to have been the tenant of Sir William de Ros. (fn. 187)
The estate was held under the Stutvilles and their heirs by the Pattishall family. In the mid 13th century the tenant was John of Pattishall, probably (Sir) John of Pattishall (d. 1290). (fn. 188) He was evidently succeeded by his son Simon of Pattishall (d. 1295), and in 1312 rents from Elstronwick amounting to just over £12 a year were settled on Simon's son (Sir) John and his wife Mabel. (fn. 189) In 1316 Simon of Pattishall was given as one of the lords of Elstronwick, apparently in error, (fn. 190) and c. 1350 the Pattishalls were said to share the fee with the heirs of Richard son of Maurice. (fn. 191) Sir John of Pattishall (d. 1349) was, nevertheless, succeeded in all 2½ carucates by his son (Sir) William (fn. 192) (d. 1359), and he by his sister Catherine, wife of (Sir) Robert de Tudenham. (fn. 193) Later described as ELSTRONWICK or TUDENHAM'S manor, the estate descended in turn to Sir John de Tudenham (d. 1392), his son Robert (d. 1405), and grandson, also Robert. (fn. 194) In 1448 Sir Thomas Tudenham sold the manor to Edward Grimston, (fn. 195) and in 1535 another Edward Grimston sold it to Hugh Oversall (d. 1538). He was succeeded in the manor, then sometimes called Tudenham's in Elstronwick, by his son John. (fn. 196) In 1576 it was sold by another Hugh Oversall to James Clarkson and Michael Warton, (fn. 197) who in 1590 died seized of the manor, sometimes also called OVERSALL'S. (fn. 198) It then descended in the Wartons and their heirs like Beverley Water Towns manor. In the late 17th century the demesne seems to have comprised only 2½ bovates and was then occupied by tenants. On the partition of the estates of Sir Michael Warton (d. 1725) in 1775, Elstronwick manor fell to the share of Michael Newton; besides freehold and copyhold rents, it then comprised c. 100 a. and a few garths. (fn. 199) In 1813 Newton's heirs sold Elstronwick manor to the Hull banker, Thomas Thompson. (fn. 200) Thompson (d. 1828) devised the manor to his son, J. V. Thompson (d. 1856), for life, and then to the latter's children as common tenants. (fn. 201) In 1865 Thompson's children sold their estate, William Watson buying the manor and John Stamford the land. (fn. 202) From Watson (d. 1879), the manor descended in turn to his son James (d. 1909), James's widow Margaret (d. 1920), and their son James. (fn. 203)
William de Forz (d. 1241), count of Aumale, gave 1 carucate and 3 bovates in Elstronwick, and the tenants of the land, to (Sir) Peter de Fauconberg on his marriage with the countess's sister Margaret. (fn. 204)
It seems to have been part of that Fauconberg fee, comprising a toft and 1 bovate at Elstronwick, which was given to Nunkeeling priory, together with a bondman, probably in the 13th century. (fn. 205) A farm of 1 bovate at Elstronwick, presumably the same, was held by the priory at its dissolution; it was sold by the Crown in 1558 to John and William Butler. (fn. 206) It was also proposed in 1386 to grant land at Elstronwick to Nunkeeling priory as part of the endowment of a chantry in Elstronwick chapel, (fn. 207) but there is no evidence for such a grant.
Besides its estate in Humbleton, Ann Watson's charity owned the 181-a. Yew Tree farm at Elstronwick from 1947 until 1950, (fn. 208) and the 46-a. Lilac Tree farm there from 1946 until 1958. (fn. 209)
In the mid 13th century Giles of Goxhill held 1½ carucate at Elstronwick and Walter of Etherdwick a small holding there. (fn. 210)
The 6 carucates belonging to the Aumale fee at Fitling were evidently held by the Scures family. A tenant of William de Scures (fl. mid 12th century), one Sir Roger, and his wife, gave their 3-carucate holding to the Knights Hospitaller. (fn. 211) The order was one of the two lords of Fitling in 1316, (fn. 212) and its manor of FITLING formed part of the preceptory of Holy Trinity, Beverley, until the suppression of the Hospitallers in the 16th century. (fn. 213) In 1338 the estate in Fitling included a house and more than 165 a. (fn. 214) The manor, which had no demesne by the 16th century, (fn. 215) was sold by the Crown to Edward Rotherham and Edward Bates in 1614. (fn. 216) Thomas Edmundson was lord of the manor from 1616 to 1622, and John Rawson from 1622 to 1655. (fn. 217) Rawson was allotted 359 a. for tithes and his commonable lands at the inclosure of Fitling in 1640. (fn. 218) He sold Fitling manor to Thomas Chatt in 1655. (fn. 219) John Chatt was lord in 1661, but Thomas Chatt's daughter, Frances Truslove, widow, later Frances Kemp, and her son Edward Truslove held the manor from 1662 to 1667, and Edward was then sole lord until 1686. In that year Joseph Storr bought the manor, which then extended into Burton Pidsea, Owthorne, and Tunstall, (fn. 220) and at other times was said to have dependent holdings in many other places in Holderness, including Humbleton, Danthorpe, Garton, and Owstwick, in Roos. (fn. 221) Including a chief house and c. 95 a. in Fitling held in demesne, the manor descended from Joseph Storr (d. 1728) to John Storr, recorded as lord later that year, (fn. 222) and then, with the Storrs' estate in Hilston, to G. L. Thompson, who sold it to Simon Horner in 1810. (fn. 223) The manor thereafter descended with Horner's other land in Fitling. (fn. 224) It was presumably the manor known also as SOUTH FITLING, to distinguish it from the nearby North Fitling manor, based on Moat House. (fn. 225)
The chief house of the Trusloves had only three hearths in 1672. (fn. 226) The two buildings occupying the site in the 19th century were evidently rebuilt by the Hothams as a pair of cottages c. 1900, and one was later called Hall Farm Cottage. (fn. 227)
The rest of the Scures's holding, put at 2 carucates and 7 bovates in the mid 13th century, (fn. 228) passed from Sir Robert de Scures, like Riston manor, to the Hildyards. (fn. 229) (Sir) Robert Hildyard, the tenant in the 1280s, (fn. 230) was succeeded by his son Robert and grandson Thomas (d. by 1322). (fn. 231) Amand of Fitling, recorded as the other lord of Fitling in 1316, may have been the Hildyards' tenant there. (fn. 232) Thomas Hildyard's daughter Catherine (d. by. 1385), wife of Sir Peter Nuthill, was succeeded in the estate by her son Peter (fl. c. 1405), and it later descended like Nuthill manor, in Burstwick, before evidently passing back to the Hildyards. Described as FITLING manor in the 16th century, it was held in turn by Peter Hildyard (d. 1502), his widow Joan, Peter Hildyard (fl. 1535), Martin Hildyard (d. 1544 or 1545), (fn. 233) and Sir Christopher Hildyard (d. 1602). (fn. 234) The manor then passed to Sir Christopher Hildyard (d. 1634), who shortly before his death bought other land in Fitling, formerly belonging to Thornton abbey, from the Thompsons; the whole was inherited by his son Henry, (fn. 235) who at inclosure in 1640 was allotted 352 a. (fn. 236) In 1662 Henry Hildyard and his son Henry settled part of the estate, comprising four farms and 240 a., on themselves in tail; no use was then specified for the manor and the rest of the demesne, amounting to 227 a., (fn. 237) possibly because that part was then exchanged for a manor of Routh with John Chatt. (fn. 238) John Chatt sold Fitling manor to Thomas Walker the elder in 1671. (fn. 239) It seems to have been the same manor which Sir John Hotham, Bt. (d. 1689), left to his wife Elizabeth (d. 1697), and which descended with the baronetcy, and later also with the barony, to Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham. Comprising a farm of c. 220 a., (fn. 240) the estate was sold by Lord Hotham in 1819 or 1820 to Horner Reynard, (fn. 241) and thereafter descended with Reynard's other land in Fitling. (fn. 242) The manor was also known as NORTH FITLING manor in the mid 19th century to distinguish it from the nearby manor of South Fitling. (fn. 243)
The Hildyards' manor house occupied a moated site in 1662, (fn. 244) and in 1830 the part of Horner Reynard's estate which had been bought from Lord Hotham was identified as Moat House and the 229 a. of adjoining closes. (fn. 245) Moat House, of one storey with an attic and thought to date from the 18th century or earlier, (fn. 246) was demolished in the later 20th century.
Part of the Hildyards' estate retained by them in the 17th century (fn. 247) may have passed to Sir Richard Lloyd (fl. 1702). (fn. 248) His grandson, Richard Lloyd, with the children of Arthur Barnardiston, sold several houses and more than 170 a. in Fitling to Francis Farrah, probably one of the tenants, in 1713. (fn. 249) Farrah (d. by 1726) and his widow Frances apparently bought more land there. (fn. 250) The estate descended to Farrah's grandson, also Francis Farrah, who had succeeded Francis Farrah (d. 1763), probably his father. (fn. 251) He died in or soon after 1772, leaving his brother Robert as heir. (fn. 252) In 1785 Robert Farrah sold c. 300 a. in Fitling in three farms to Simon Horner, a Hull merchant. (fn. 253) Horner's purchase was later identified as including the 146-a. Northfield House farm; the rest was presumably the 151-a. 'ancient estate' based on Fitling Hall, described in the same source. (fn. 254) Horner bought another 31 a. in Fitling in 1786, (fn. 255) and a manor of Fitling with c. 95 a. from G. L. Thompson in 1810. (fn. 256) The family's holding was evidently also enlarged with the Hothams' manor of North Fitling, which Horner Reynard, nephew of the elderly Simon Horner, bought in 1819 or 1820. (fn. 257) In 1823 Simon Horner's estate was described as comprising the manors, or reputed manors, of North Fitling and South Fitling, the latter presumably that bought from Thompson. (fn. 258) After his death in 1828, the whole estate passed to Horner Reynard (d. 1834). (fn. 259) His son, Edward Horner Reynard, had 648 a. in Fitling in the 1840s. (fn. 260) In 1853 he sold the manor, manors, or reputed manors of Fitling and the land to James Foord. (fn. 261) Foord (d. by 1859) left the manor to his nephew, the Revd. Richard Foord, (fn. 262) from whom trustees for the Hotham family bought the estate in 1871. (fn. 263) Further purchases by the trustees in Fitling added a farm of 115 a. in 1872, (fn. 264) another of 90 a. in 1873, (fn. 265) the 227-a. Fitling Grange farm in 1874, (fn. 266) and a 116-a. farm in 1881. (fn. 267) Between 1908 and 1911 the Hothams sold 1,210 a. in Fitling. In 1910 Thomas Clapison bought 302 a. in Fitling Grange and Moat House farms, and the Moore family the 210-a. Northfield House farm. Fitling Hall with 227 a. in Fitling was sold to William Thompson in 1911. (fn. 268) Thompson (d. 1943) was succeeded by his great-nephew, Thomas Harrison, who sold Fitling Hall farm to George Butcher in 1946, and in 1999 it belonged to G. A. Butcher & Sons. (fn. 269)
Simon Horner enlarged Fitling Hall in 1819, adding a grey-brick block with a three-bayed south front to the existing red-brick house. (fn. 270) In 1879 the Hothams restored the house, which stood among trees in a small park. (fn. 271)
In 1729 Christopher Kirkby (d. c. 1733) bought a farm in Fitling (fn. 272) which descended like land in Owstwick, in Roos, to the Sykes of Sledmere. (fn. 273) A small farm was bought in 1787, (fn. 274) another farm, from trustees of the Mitford family, in 1855, and more land in 1865. The enlarged estate, then of 227 a. and called Fitling Grange farm, was sold by Christopher Sykes's trustees to John Hotham, Lord Hotham, and the Hotham trustees in 1874, (fn. 275) and later descended with the rest of that family's holding in Fitling. (fn. 276)
Meaux abbey was licensed to acquire land in Fitling in 1431, (fn. 277) and at its dissolution the house had two farms there, each of 2 bovates, which were let for just over £3 a year. (fn. 278) By 1770 the overseers of the poor of Marton, in Swine, and West Newton, in Aldbrough, shared a small estate in Fitling, later reckoned to comprise c. 12 a. In 1910 the holding was recorded as that of the poor of Marton. No more is known of it, or of the respective charities. (fn. 279) An acre or so in Fitling also belonged to the poor of Sproatley, (fn. 280) and Towrie's charity, in Aldbrough, seems to have had land in Fitling. (fn. 281) That of Leonard Chamberlain, benefiting Hull, had c. 60 a. in Fitling in the 1840s and in 1910; the land was later sold. (fn. 282)
The Scures family evidently held all or most of the Aumale fee in Flinton. In the mid 13th century (Sir) Robert de Scures had 2 carucates there, (fn. 283) and his heir, (Sir) Robert Hildyard, was recorded as a tenant at Flinton in 1284–5. (fn. 284)
William de Scures's gift to Thornton abbey in the mid 12th century had included 1 carucate and 5 bovates in Flinton and 7s. rent. (fn. 285) The abbey's estate there was enlarged by Ralph of Gloucester and William le Vergaunt, whose gifts were confirmed c. 1250; (fn. 286) possibly by Walter de la Gaunge in 1314, (fn. 287) and by Robert Forman and others in 1443. (fn. 288) With the rest of Thornton's estate in the parish, that at Flinton passed to the Crown and, as part of Humbleton manor, was included in the grant to Whitmore and Sawyer in 1614; the Flinton rental was then nearly £13 a year. (fn. 289)
Part of Thornton abbey's estate at Flinton was held by Thomas of Flinton in 1283, (fn. 290) and it was perhaps on that account that Herbert or Robert of Flinton was returned as one of the two lords of Humbleton and its members in 1316. (fn. 291) The Flintons' estate passed to Herbert of Flinton's son-in-law, Walter Grimston, (fn. 292) and the Grimstons later held all or much of the abbey's land at Flinton in socage. As FLINTON manor, the estate was settled in 1440 on Thomas Grimston (d. by 1462) and his wife, with remainder to their son Walter, whose son Thomas had evidently succeeded by 1481. (fn. 293) Walter Grimston (d. 1544) held a chief house, seven others, 420 a., and a windmill there, wholly or mostly of the Crown as the abbey's heir. (fn. 294) The manor descended from father to son to Thomas Grimston (d. 1572), Thomas Grimston (d. 1586), and Sir Marmaduke Grimston (d. 1604). The last mentioned enlarged the estate, buying a 5-bovate holding in 1585 and the rectorial tithes in 1587. (fn. 295) Sir Marmaduke was succeeded by his brother Thomas (fn. 296) (d. 1618). Part of the estate was later held by Thomas's relict for life, and the rest by his nephew, Marmaduke Grimston (d. 1623). Marmaduke's son William, a minor, (fn. 297) bought a further 5 bovates in 1634, (fn. 298) and he had succeeded to Flinton by 1642. (fn. 299) In 1657 he sold the manor, then including c. 3 carucates of openfield land, and the tithes, to William Dobson, a Hull alderman. (fn. 300) By 1668 the estate had passed under Dobson's will to his daughter Esther and her husband, Christopher Hildyard. (fn. 301) Hildyard was awarded 397 a. at the inclosure of the east part of Flinton in 1675, (fn. 302) and his grandson, Sir Robert Hildyard, Bt., 512 a. for his lands and tithes when the rest of the township was dealt with in 1752. (fn. 303) With Winestead, Flinton manor passed on the death of Sir Robert D'Arcy Hildyard, Bt., in 1814 to his neice, Anne Catherine Whyte, later Hildyard. In 1802 the 1,126-a. estate lay in four farms. (fn. 304) Mrs. Hildyard sold much of it in lots in 1848. (fn. 305) Flinton manor with 653 a. in three farms was bought by Sir Thomas A. C. Constable, Bt., (fn. 306) and descended, like Burstwick, to the Chichester-Constables, (fn. 307) who had some 630 a. at Flinton in 1963. (fn. 308) By 2000 most of the land had been sold, the c. 120-a. Hill farm alone remaining part of the Burton Constable estate. (fn. 309) Another farm, of 153 a. and later named as Manor farm, was bought from Mrs. Hildyard in 1848 by Robert Wright. (fn. 310) He (d. by 1881) was succeeded by his son William (d. 1886), (fn. 311) whose trustees, William's widow Jane and sons Ryby and J. C. Wright, sold the farm in 1896 to Edwin Wiley. (fn. 312) It was sold by Mabel Wiley in 1924 to Henry Caley (d. 1946), and then passed in turn to his son John and grandson Francis Caley, the owner in 1999. (fn. 313)
The manor house contained a chapel in 1481. (fn. 314) The present Manor Farm dates from the late 18th century, and is of brick with a slate roof; it incorporates a probably earlier pedimented porch, said to have been refixed from a house in Beverly, and inside has original stairs and doors and a reused contemporary fireplace. (fn. 315)
The 307-a. Flinton Hall farm, not sold by Mrs. Hildyard in 1848, was conveyed to trustees in 1853, and may have been held later for her daughter Esther Goad. It was eventually sold in 1874 to John Hotham, Lord Hotham, and the Hotham trustees. (fn. 316) Frederick Hotham, Lord Hotham, sold the farm with 238 a. to the Richardson family in 1910, and 68 a. with Humbleton Hall to James Wood in 1912. (fn. 317)
Robert Constable had ½ carucate in Flinton c. 1210, (fn. 318) and a small estate there later descended in the Constables. (fn. 319) It comprised 46 a. held of the Crown's manor of Humbleton, and presumably formerly of Thornton abbey, in the mid 16th century; a cottage and 1½ bovate in the early 18th, and c. 35 a. in the late 18th and earlier 19th century. (fn. 320) The holding probably descended later with Flinton manor. (fn. 321)
The 6 bovates in Flinton belonging to the archbishop of York in 1086 (fn. 322) were evidently assigned to his church of Beverley. Tenants of the provost at Flinton included Thomas of Flinton in the later 13th century. (fn. 323) As part of St. John's fee, the 6 bovates with a house and other land there were held by knight service as a manor of FLINTON in the 16th century. Together with land in Fitling, held of the Hildyards, Flinton manor passed from George Flinton (d. 1536) to his widow Margaret, and then possibly to his son Edward. (fn. 324) Probably the same was an estate comprising 2 houses, 5½ bovates, and 40 a. in Flinton, held as 1/100 knight's fee by William Green and later by his brother Edward (d. 1615). (fn. 325) The tenant of Beverley Chapter manor at Flinton was Thomas Hewitt in 1655 and Sir Robert Hildyard, Bt., in the 1730s. The holding presumably later descended with the Hildyards' larger estate in the township. (fn. 326)
Bridlington priory was given ½ carucate and tofts in Flinton by Alan of Flinton c. 1165, when the gift was confirmed by Geram of Normanby, presumably Alan's lord. (fn. 327) The land was held of the priory by the Twyer family in the 14th century, (fn. 328) and by the St. Quintins in the 16th. (fn. 329)
The RECTORY belonged to Thornton abbey until its dissolution in the 16th century, and then by a Crown grant of 1542 to Thornton college for its brief existence. (fn. 330) After the suppression of the college, the rectory reverted to the Crown.
Humbleton. Corn and hay tithes in Humbleton, held under a lease to Robert Rawson for £6 16s. a year, were granted by the Crown in fee farm to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips in 1609, (fn. 331) and re-sold by them the same year to Marmaduke Rawson. (fn. 332) The wool and lamb tithes of Humbleton and other townships had been sold in fee farm by the Crown in 1604 to Sir Henry Lindley and John Starkey. (fn. 333) They re-sold them in 1607, also to Marmaduke Rawson, who was probably the tenant. (fn. 334) Rawson (d. by 1630) was succeeded by his son Robert, (fn. 335) and in 1650 Jane Rawson had tithes in Humbleton township worth £20 a year. (fn. 336) Marmaduke Rawson's grandchildren sold their tithes in Humbleton and the other townships, except for those of their farm and another in Humbleton, to Stephen Thompson, lord of Humbleton manor in 1665. (fn. 337) Thompson (d. 1677) left his tithes to his grandson, the Revd. Stephen Thompson, whose heir, also Stephen Thompson, sold them to William Thompson in 1720, thereby reuniting them with the manor. (fn. 338) William Thompson had by then 'sold' some of the tithes from his own estate, which were paid by composition, together with part of the land. (fn. 339) The Thompsons' heir, Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham, merged tithes from 685 a., and three other owners those from c. 415 a. prior to commutation by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1846; the tithes remaining unmerged, from 333 a., were then commuted for a rent charge of £75 a year payable to Galen Haire's trustee. (fn. 340)
Danthorpe. The rectorial estate at Danthorpe was worth £4 a year in the 1540s. (fn. 341) The corn tithes there, and possibly those of hay too, were granted by the Crown to George Lowe and Edmund Sawyer in 1615, and sold by them the same year to Edward Bee and Richard Cooper. Stephen Thompson bought the tithes from Bee in 1641, (fn. 342) and in 1650 he had tithes worth £15 a year in Danthorpe. (fn. 343) The wool and lamb tithes there descended like those of Humbleton township, passing from the Crown to the Rawsons and then, in 1665, to Stephen Thompson. (fn. 344) The Danthorpe tithes, then including those on hay, later descended with the tithes in Humbleton in the Thompsons and their heirs. (fn. 345) William Thompson was awarded rents amounting to £30 a year for tithes at the inclosure of Danthorpe in 1735, (fn. 346) and a rent charge of that amount was confirmed to his heir, Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham, when all the tithes of the township were commuted by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1845. (fn. 347)
Elstronwick. In the 1540s Thornton college's rectorial estate in Elstronwick was let for just over £7 a year. (fn. 348) The corn and hay tithes of Elstronwick, formerly belonging to the college, were granted in fee farm by the Crown to Edmund Downing and Roger Rante in 1591, (fn. 349) possibly for William and Anne Hildyard, whose heir, Sir William Hildyard, sold them, with land in Elstronwick, to Thomas Appleyard in 1609. (fn. 350) He was succeeded in turn by his sons, Christopher (fl. 1639), (fn. 351) Thomas (fl. 1647), (fn. 352) and Sir Matthew Appleyard, the last being recorded as one of the impropriators at Elstronwick in 1650. (fn. 353) Sir Matthew's son Matthew had the estate in 1653, (fn. 354) Matthew Appleyard, presumably another, in 1716, (fn. 355) Francis Appleyard in 1720, (fn. 356) and Christopher Appleyard, probably Sir Matthew's grandson, in 1759. (fn. 357) The Appleyards' interest evidently passed to John Bell (d. 1809), who owned the rectorial estate at Elstronwick, except for the tithes of the closes belonging to Burstwick parish. At inclosure in 1813 his trustees were awarded 23 a. for his glebe land and 40 a. for some of the tithes; Frances Bell, his widow, was then allotted 88 a. for the rest of Bell's corn and hay tithes. (fn. 358)
The tithes of the rest of Elstronwick, formerly demesne land and later regarded as part of Burstwick parish, descended with Burstwick rectory from Burstall priory to its successors, Kirkstall abbey (Yorks. W.R.), the Constables, later Lords Dunbar, and their heirs. (fn. 359)
Fitling. The wool and lamb tithes of Fitling passed, like those in Humbleton, to Marmaduke Rawson in 1607. (fn. 360) The corn tithes there, then let for nearly £5 a year, were sold in fee farm by the Crown to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips in 1609, (fn. 361) and evidently also passed to the Rawsons. A modus of 3d. a year was paid from each bovate for the hay growing in the open fields in the 1540s, and then and later the hay tithes were let for 12s. a year in all. (fn. 362) John Rawson held undefined tithes at Fitling by 1616, (fn. 363) and he or another John Rawson received 100 a. for the corn, wool, and lamb tithes at inclosure in 1640. (fn. 364) In 1650 the impropriators were William Rawson and Richard Wood, a Hull alderman, and the annual value of the tithes was put at £25. (fn. 365) The tithes were evidently reckoned to have been sold to the other proprietors in 1640, and they remained uncommuted until dealt with by awards of 1844 and 1848 and apportionment in the latter year. Most of the corn, hay, wool, and lamb tithes, from 1,459 a. in all, were merged by eleven proprietors before commutation; those remaining, from just 18 a., were then commuted for a rent charge of £2 16s. a year. (fn. 366)
FLINTON. Thornton college's rectorial estate in Flinton was let for just over £5 a year in the 1540s. (fn. 367) The corn and hay tithes of Flinton were granted by the Crown in fee farm to Roger Manners in 1578, and sold by him to (Sir) Marmaduke Grimston in 1587. (fn. 368) They later descended with Flinton manor in the Grimstons and their successors. (fn. 369) William Grimston's tithes there were worth £20 a year in 1650 and £35 in 1657. (fn. 370) At inclosure in 1752, Sir Robert Hildyard, Bt., released his right to corn and hay tithes from the lands of the other proprietors in return for an unspecified area of land. (fn. 371) The wool and lamb tithes of Flinton had been sold in 1604 by the Crown to Sir Henry Lindley and John Starkey, (fn. 372) who re-sold them in 1607 to Marmaduke Rawson. (fn. 373) They later passed, with those in Humbleton, to the Thompsons and their heirs, the Hothams. (fn. 374) The tithes of Flinton township were commuted by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1845. Beaumont Hotham, Lord Hotham, was awarded a rent charge of £24 10s. 9d. a year for the wool and lamb tithes. The corn and hay tithes had all been merged before commutation, mostly by Mrs. Hildyard. (fn. 375)
The gorse tithes of Humbleton and Flinton were included in the grant to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips in 1609. (fn. 376) Some were later bought by Marmaduke Rawson, and sold in 1637 by his son Robert to Stephen Thompson. (fn. 377)
Common lands and inclosure. Humbleton. The open fields at Humbleton lay east and west of the village, and evidently included common meadow land. (fn. 378) East field may have been divided into a northern and southern field: a list of 'closes or grounds', apparently made in the mid 17th century, includes, besides the 56-a. West field, South field and High South field, both of c. 65 a. (fn. 379) The chief common pasture was Humbleton moor. (fn. 380) Beast gates 'in both winter and summer' and the right to crop gorse there were let by the Crown, as lord of the manor, in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 381) By the 17th century Humbleton moor may have comprised two parts, Great moor, of 219 a., and 74 a. near the later Humbleton Grange Farm variously known as Gartham, Gardam, or South moor. (fn. 382)
Much of the township may have been inclosed by the early 16th century, when the manorial closes were let for over £3 a year. (fn. 383) Of the commonable lands remaining, the open fields and some of the pastures were probably inclosed after the sale of the manor in the early 17th century. By 1622 Southend farm had been 'enclosed, diked, and fenced from the townfields of Humbleton'; (fn. 384) a South moor close, of c. 40 a., was recorded in 1634, (fn. 385) and by 1654 the manorial estate included a West field close, of 80 a., and another close containing c. 70 a. (fn. 386) The rest of the pasture land was dealt with c. 1700, Great moor being described as 'newly inclosed' in 1709. (fn. 387)
Danthorpe. North and South fields were named c. 1300, and the latter was said to contain 15 bovates. The common meadow land lay in the fields; in the northern field there were pieces at Mikelmargote, Dankeldale, Wandales, Forlands, and West Langdale, and in South field at West Foss. (fn. 388) The common pasture of the township was called New close in 1640 and later. It evidently lay in the east of the township, adjoining Fitling's Infield. (fn. 389) New close was also described as a 'whinny' pasture, presumably on account of the whins, or furze, growing there, and it was perhaps because of the furze crops that entitlement in the pasture was expressed both in terms of beast gates and area, the seigneurial holding including 22 beast gates or c. 30 a. (fn. 390)
Danthorpe was inclosed in 1735 by agreement between the eight proprietors. North field then contained 247 a., South field 199 a., and New close 70 a. John Thorpe, lord of the manor, was allotted 214 a., Roger Hall 106 a., and St. John's college, Cambridge, 105 a.; there were five other allotments, ranging from 3 a. to 43 a. (fn. 391) Ridge and furrow was evident in front of Danthorpe Hall in 1998.
Elstronwick. From the 17th century there were two open fields in Elstronwick, lying north and south of the village and containing in all 32 bovates. (fn. 392) Each bovate comprised on average 24 a., evenly divided between the two fields, and 4 a. in a meadow called Ings. (fn. 393) The 'fields' evidently also included other meadow land and pieces of pasture: in the mid 17th century among the grounds on the north side of the village were a ley at Danke hill and a 'wand', probably a measured piece of meadow land, in the Maske, while to the south leys were mentioned in Manmer carr and West carr, and wands at Burton ends and in Ricgaite marre, Howle carr, and Ings. (fn. 394)
Elstronwick was inclosed in 1813 under an Act of 1806. (fn. 395) Allotments totalled 893 a., of which 400 a. came from North field, 362 a. from South field, and 119 a. from Ings; old inclosures involved in exchanges accounted for the remaining 12 a. One or more families called Bell received the largest allotments. Robert and James Bell, both of Roos, were awarded 177 a. and 74 a. respectively, the trustees of John Bell (d. 1809) 145 a., Frances Bell, his widow, 93 a., and John Bell the younger 44 a. (fn. 396) Susanna Houblon and the other heirs of Michael Newton, lords of Elstronwick manor, were allotted 99 a., and the vicar of Humbleton received 51 a. for his glebe and tithes. There were two other allotments of c. 55 a., one of 26 a., six of 5–20 a., and two of less than 5 a.
Fitling. Fitling's East field was recorded in 1367 and again, with West field, in 1611. (fn. 397) A very small area of the tillage had been inclosed for pasture by Peter Hildyard in the late 15th century, (fn. 398) and in 1640 the rest was inclosed by agreement between the 'lords of the manors and freeholders'. (fn. 399) More than 1,237 a. were allotted. (fn. 400) There were then four fields, of which West field contained 413 a., North field 398 a., East field 380 a., and Infield more than 47 a. The Infield lay in the south of the township, adjoining Danthorpe. Before inclosure the tillage included narrow, and presumably also broad, lands. (fn. 401) Allotments were made to c. 20 proprietors in 1640. (fn. 402) John Rawson and Henry Hildyard, both lords of manors, received 359 a. and 352 a. respectively, and William Kendall 195 a. There were besides one allotment of 63 a., four of 20–49 a. each, ten of 5–19 a., and one of 2 a. The remaining allotment was of more than 49 a. It had been alleged in 1600 that a farmer kept a flock of 200 sheep in Fitling, (fn. 403) and by 1662 at least 200 a. of arable land there had been 'lately' converted to pasture. (fn. 404)
The common meadows and pastures were evidently regarded as parts of the fields, and were not separately described in 1640. The 'main ings of Fitling' had been mentioned in the 1540s, but it was then denied that hay was grown anywhere in the township except on the arable strips, presumably when that ground was being fallowed. (fn. 405) That there were some common meadows is, however, suggested by later references to a 'wandale', or measured strip of meadow land, in Aldbrough Foss, and to leys and other land in the Green, or Greens, (fn. 406) and Inholmes. (fn. 407) The chief of Fitling's common pastures was probably that called Fitling moor in 1611, and, probably anachronistically, Fitling Great pasture in 1709. It seems to have lain in the north-west of the township, adjoining Flinton's pasture on Bracken hill. (fn. 408) Moorland in or near West field was only referred to incidentally at inclosure in 1640, (fn. 409) but Moor and Bracken Hill closes were recorded later in the century. In 1653 the former West field included land in a close called Bracken Hill, and between 1725 and 1729 a Bracken Hill close containing c. 100 a. was divided into smaller fields. (fn. 410)
Flinton. In 1397 Flinton's fields were named as East and West fields, and strips also then lay in 'each field of Monkplattes'. (fn. 411) A pasture said to belong to Thornton abbey seems to have provided stinted grazing for other proprietors in 1443, (fn. 412) and there were later two common pastures in Flinton, at the east and west ends of the township. East pasture, which included Bracken hill, seems to have lain against Fitling's main common pasture. (fn. 413)
By 1517 the tillage at Flinton had been reduced by the inclosure of c. 65 a., all or most of which had been converted to pasture. (fn. 414) Larger-scale inclosures were effected in the 17th and 18th centuries. The eastern half of Flinton was dealt with by agreement of 1674 and award of 1675. East field then contained 395 a., and East pasture, which was said to be 'already inclosed', 163 a. Christopher Hildyard was awarded 397 a., Robert Buck 63 a., and there were two allotments of just under 50 a. Seven 'cotcher' gates, enjoyed by cottagers in East field when it was fallowed every other year, were then extinguished. (fn. 415) The rest of the township was inclosed under an agreement of 1751 by award of 1752. There were then two open fields, Near, or Hither, and Far fields, comprising 42½ bovates and odd lands, and presumably representing the earlier West field. Besides tillage, the fields included pieces of grassland. (fn. 416) Among the old inclosures was the 4-a. Coney garth, which had evidently been taken in from West pasture. The allotments totalled 605 a., of which 243 a. came from Far field, 196 a. from Near field, and 166 a. from West pasture. Sir Robert Hildyard, Bt., lord of the manor and tithe-owner, was awarded 512 a.; there was also one allotment of 55 a., one of 25 a., one of 10 a., and two of less than 5 a. (fn. 417)
Woodland. Humbleton manor included an unknown area of woodland in the mid 16th century. (fn. 418) In Fitling a 5-a. close adjoining the manor house's moat was called the Wood in 1662, and in 1786 c. 30 a. in the south-west corner of the township lay in Great and Little Wood closes. (fn. 419) Humbleton township was described as wellwooded in the mid 19th century, (fn. 420) but the area of woodland returned was only 13 a. for the whole parish in 1905 and 6.4 ha. (16 a.) for Humbleton and Elstronwick civil parishes in 1987. (fn. 421)
Tenures and farms to c. 1800. Humbleton. Tenants on Humbleton manor owed poultry rents, and in the 16th and 17th centuries holdings were charged with harvesting works called sickle boons, presumably by then long commuted. (fn. 422)
Danthorpe. In 1086 one ploughland and a bordar were recorded on the archbishop's estate at Danthorpe. (fn. 423) Much of the land there was held in demesne c. 1300. (fn. 424)
Elstronwick. On the chief manor of Elstronwick most of the income of £8 in 1324–5 came from the rents of the free and customary tenants, and a small sum from chevage levied on the latter. (fn. 425) The demesne was concentrated in the south of the township, adjoining or close to that of Burstwick manor. (fn. 426) It was probably farmed from Burstwick, and indeed was sometimes later described as part of the superior manor's demesne. (fn. 427) Direct exploitation of much of 'Burstwick's' demesne had been given up by the end of the 13th century, and in the 1320s tenants of Elstronwick were among those leasing c. 300 a. of former demesne land; in 1341–2 their share was specified as 4–5 bovates, for which they paid £6 a year. (fn. 428) The grounds were said to have been let at first as copyhold (fn. 429) but by the 1650s they were freehold; the former demesne was then said to have been 'lately inclosed', and comprised Elstronwick Great and Little Burstwick fields, and Bramare, Bownehill, and Sandwath closes, (fn. 430) of which Bramare was used as meadow. (fn. 431) In 1813 those closes contained 140 a. (fn. 432)
In the early 19th century Elstronwick manor included c. 360 a. of copyhold. (fn. 433) Most of the land was enfranchised between 1866 and 1935. (fn. 434)
Fitling. The Hospitallers' manor included no demesne land in 1539–40, when, besides unquantified land, free tenants held 8 houses and almost 1 carucate, customary tenants 4 houses and ½ carucate, and tenants at will the chief house, 2 others, and 1 bovate. (fn. 435)
Flinton. The archbishop had ½ploughland at Flinton in 1086, and three villeins and a bordar then worked one plough on the holding. (fn. 436) Flinton lay in ten holdings in the 1650s, one farm including 1 carucate, two 4 or 5 bovates each, five 1–2 bovates each, one ½bovate, and one holding having no open-field land. (fn. 437)
Later agriculture. In 1801 the parish, including Elstronwick chapelry, was reckoned to have c. 1,880 a. under crops, (fn. 438) and the parish was later chiefly given over to arable farming. Humbleton, Danthorpe, Fitling, and Flinton townships together had 3,618 a. of arable land and 1,388 a. of grassland in the 1840s, (fn. 439) and in 1905 the whole parish was said to contain 3,715 a. of arable land and 1,840 a. of grassland. (fn. 440) The area returned for Humbleton and Elstronwick civil parishes in 1987 evidently also included land of a neighbouring parish or parishes; of the 2,326.7 ha. (5,749 a.), 2,208.6 ha. (5,458 a.) were arable land, including 40.8 ha. (101 a.) used for vegetables, and 93.2 ha. (230 a.) grassland. More than 16,000 pigs and c. 820 sheep were then kept. (fn. 441) In 1998 Heron's farm at Flinton was given over to the rearing of game birds.
In the mid 19th century there were nearly 40 farms in the parish, including seven small holdings. (fn. 442) Danthorpe had three farms, Humbleton and Flinton each had about six, but Fitling, which had been held by many proprietors since at least the 17th century, (fn. 443) and Elstronwick had eleven farms each. Fourteen of the farms were of 150 a. or more in 1851, and Hall farm at Danthorpe was then of over 600 a. and was later the only farm recorded there. In the 1920s and 1930s half of the c. 30 farms were of 150 a. or more. Houses for smallholders or cowkeepers had been built in Humbleton village by the Hothams c. 1890, (fn. 444) and two cowkeepers were recorded there in 1892 and two smallholders in the 1920s and 1930s. At Elstronwick and Fitling there were up to five cowkeepers, and a smallholder worked in Elstronwick in 1937. There had been a market gardener at Elstronwick and two 'gardeners' at Flinton in 1851, and c. 50 a. in Danthorpe was used for market gardening in the 1930s and 1940s. (fn. 445) In 1987 twenty holdings were recorded under Humbleton and Elstronwick civil parishes; of those, five were of 200–499 ha. (494–1,233 a.) each, three of 100–199 ha. (247–492 a.) each, two of 50–99 ha. (124–245 a.) each, five of 10–49 ha. (25–121 a.) each, and five of less than 10 ha. each. (fn. 446)
MARKET. A market was evidently held at Humbleton in the mid 16th century, perhaps in continuance of one established by Thornton abbey. Timber from the Crown's woods there was then said to have been offered for the building of a market hall for the fishermen and butchers frequenting it. (fn. 447)
Industry ,Trade, And Professional Activity. In 1687 a Drypool brickmaker agreed to make 200,000 bricks at Humbleton for Francis Thompson, who was to provide the kiln. (fn. 448) Brick garth and Brickyard close at Humbleton were recorded later. (fn. 449) Brick-making in Danthorpe is also suggested by the fieldnames Brick close and Brick garth. (fn. 450) Small amounts of sand and gravel have been dug from pits in Humbleton, Elstronwick, Fitling, and Flinton. (fn. 451) Commercial activity probably depended largely on the carriers to Hull, but Humbleton, Elstronwick, Fitling, and Flinton also each had a shop in the 19th century; only that in Humbleton was still listed in 1937. (fn. 452) A small shop later run at Elstronwick was given up c. 1995, (fn. 453) but the associated Post Office remained in 1999. Threshing machines were made in Humbleton and exported to Russia c. 1850. (fn. 454) A haulage contractor worked from Elstronwick in the 1930s, (fn. 455) and in 1999 there was a scrapyard there. An architectural practice was being conducted at Flinton in 1998.
Mills. Humbleton. In 1367 the dam of an existing or former water mill on Humbleton beck was mentioned. (fn. 456) The name Mill close, recorded in 1709, (fn. 457) may relate to that mill or to the windmill which, before the 16th century, stood on Mill hill south-west of the church. (fn. 458)
Danthorpe. A mill at Danthorpe which had fallen down or been demolished by 1300 (fn. 459) was evidently rebuilt on the same or another site, a windmill being recorded there in 1335 (fn. 460) and again c. 1600. (fn. 461) In 1852 Danthorpe windmill stood on the north side of the hamlet, close to the beck. (fn. 462) It was later assisted by steam. In or soon after 1892 the mill evidently ceased to operate, and was demolished. (fn. 463) The miller's house remained in 1998.
Elstronwick. There was a mill at Elstronwick c. 1300, (fn. 464) and presumably in 1502, when a millreeve was elected for the village. (fn. 465) Mill bridge, located on the north side of the village in 1720, was perhaps named from the mill just over the boundary in Lelley, in Preston. (fn. 466)
Fitling. The Hospitallers had a windmill at Fitling in 1338, (fn. 467) the same or another was recorded in 1607, (fn. 468) and c. 1670 the miller was allegedly taking excessive tolls. (fn. 469) Mill, or Mill field, close was mentioned from 1669. (fn. 470)
Flinton. There was a windmill on the Twyers' estate at Flinton in 1334, (fn. 471) and one on the manor of the Grimstons in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 472)
In the 1290s the abbot of Thornton claimed jurisdiction and freedom from royal taxation in Humbleton and Flinton under a charter of Richard 1, and the profits of the ale assize by prescription. (fn. 473) The former abbey's manor court of Humbleton was referred to in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 474)
Elstronwick. The view of frankpledge and other regulation at Elstronwick belonged to Burstwick manor court, for which rolls survive from 1368–1925. (fn. 475) Besides the transferring of copyhold, the court was concerned with debt pleas, affrays, and breaches of the ale assize in Elstronwick. (fn. 476) Officers elected in the court at Burstwick for Elstronwick, and sometimes also for neighbouring Lelley, in Preston, included 1–2 constables, 2 aletasters, 1–2 mill-reeves, and 1–2 reeves, or pennygraves. The pinder at Elstronwick was also mentioned in 1547, and 2 bylawmen were appointed in 1655. (fn. 477) The office of pennygrave was performed by the holders of bovates in rotation in the 18th century. (fn. 478)
A court was also kept on the manor belonging to the Wartons and their successors. Surviving records include court rolls for 1647–1935. (fn. 479) View of frankpledge was also claimed for the Wartons' court; its other business included the supervision of the ale assize, and the regulation of agriculture and drainage in Elstronwick. The court met twice a year in the 17th and early 18th century; by the mid 18th century there seems to have been little business apart from conveying copyhold, however, and meetings were then and later held every few years, and after 1862 not at all. In the earlier 19th century the meeting place was a house in the village. (fn. 480) Up to 4 bylawmen, 2 overseers of highways, 2 aletasters, 2 affeerors, 1–2 pennygraves, 1 pinder, and 1 constable were appointed in the court.
Fitling. The view of frankpledge in Fitling was claimed to belong both to the Hildyards' manor (fn. 481) and to that of the Hospitallers' successors. Estreats, other brief records of court proceedings, and call rolls of the latter manor survive from 1582 to 1753. (fn. 482) The court had testamentary jurisdiction over its tenants, and its records include some wills and inventories; (fn. 483) presumably on that account, the court was occasionally said to be that of the 'fee franchise'. (fn. 484) The other business of the court, which was generally held at the manor house, included breaches of the bread and ale assize, and the usual regulation of drainage and agriculture. Meetings were evidently held twice a year in the 17th and 18th centuries. Officers appointed in the court included 1 constable for Fitling, 2 affeerors, and, in 1622, 4 bylawmen. After the inclosure of Fitling in 1640, agricultural regulation in Burton Pidsea may have become the court's chief concern. (fn. 485) Stocks recorded in 1700 were perhaps in Fitling, and the township was also said to be where the sheriff's tourn in Holderness met. (fn. 486)
Flinton. A minute of proceedings in Flinton manor court in 1717 suggests that the court, which had leet jurisdiction, was then primarily concerned with local drainage. Two affeerors were sworn there. (fn. 487)
Danthorpe. A manor court was said to have been held in Danthorpe Hall every three or four years until c. 1820. (fn. 488)
Surviving parish records include churchwardens' accounts for Humbleton from 1734, (fn. 489) chapelwardens' accounts for Elstronwick from 1753, (fn. 490) accounts of the surveyors of highways from 1798, (fn. 491) and Elstronwick constables' accounts from 1767. (fn. 492) There is also a book containing assessments and accounts of the overseer of the poor and the chapelwarden from 1654 to 1707. (fn. 493)
Humbleton, Fitling, and Flinton each had a poorhouse in the mid 18th century, (fn. 494) and in the 1840s the respective overseers held seven cottages at Humbleton, four cottages and garths at Fitling, ten cottages at Flinton, and a garden at Danthorpe. (fn. 495) At Elstronwick 4 paupers were relieved in the mid 17th century, and a poorhouse was built c. 1655; (fn. 496) the house was evidently replaced later by three cottages. (fn. 497) In 1802–3 permanent out-relief was given to 4 people there and 9 were helped occasionally; between 1812 and 1815 the numbers were respectively 10–11 and 2–3. Flinton relieved 9 regularly and 1 occasionally in the earlier period, and respectively 10–11 and up to 6 between 1812 and 1815. Humbleton and Fitling townships each relieved up to 8 people, and Danthorpe 1–2 in the early 19th century. (fn. 498) In 1837 Humbleton and the other townships joined Skirlaugh poor-law union. (fn. 499) They remained in Skirlaugh rural district until 1935, when, as the enlarged civil parishes of Humbleton, Elstronwick, and East Garton, they were incorporated into the new rural district of Holderness. From 1974 they were parts of the Holderness district of Humberside. (fn. 500) In 1996 Humbleton, Elstronwick, and East Garton parishes became part of a new East Riding unitary area. (fn. 501)
In 1086 there was a church and a priest at 'Foston', which may have been in Humbleton parish, (fn. 502) and there was certainly a church at Humbleton by the 12th century. The living became a vicarage. Chapels were built at Fitling and Elstronwick in the Middle Ages. Fitling chapel seems to have had only a short existence, but Elstronwick chapel, later church, survived the religious changes of the 16th century, and was later held with Humbleton. (fn. 503) In 1961 the benefice of Humbleton with Elstronwick was united with that of Burton Pidsea, but the two parishes were left separate. (fn. 504)
Humbleton. The first certain reference to Humbleton church is found in William de Scures's gift of Humbleton village and its church to Thornton abbey (Lincs.), which was made probably in the 1150s or 1160s and certainly before 1190. (fn. 505) The church was appropriated to Thornton in or about 1222, (fn. 506) and a vicarage was ordained, apparently between 1291 and 1301, when the vicar was first mentioned. (fn. 507)
The patronage of Humbleton vicarage belonged to Thornton abbey until its dissolution in 1539, (fn. 508) and thereafter to the Crown. The archbishop of York had collated in 1483, by lapse, and did so again in 1613, and in 1538 and 1540 turns were exercised by grantees of the abbey. (fn. 509) The Crown and the dean and chapter of York, as patron of Burton Pidsea, were given alternate presentations to the united benefice in 1961. (fn. 510)
Humbleton church was valued at £16 a year in 1291. (fn. 511) In 1308 Thornton abbey was called to account by the archbishop over the insufficiency of the vicar's portion. (fn. 512) The net value of the vicarage was given as £7 a year in 1526, (fn. 513) and £10 1s. 0½d. in 1535, after payment of a pension of 13s. 4d. to Thornton abbey. (fn. 514) In 1650 the improved annual value was £13 6s. 4d. (fn. 515) The poor living was augmented in 1748, 1771, and 1802, on each occasion with £200 Bounty money by lot, (fn. 516) and was also assisted from local charities. William Tymperon, by will proved in 1729, charged his estate at Aldbrough with the payment of £4 a year to the incumbent at Humbleton; that sum was increased to £10 by Chancery decree of 1824 and to £15 by 1853, reduced to £12 10s. in 1928, but restored to £15 by the 1950s. (fn. 517) The incumbent also received £1 a year from Heron's charity for an annual sermon, and the same amount from the constable of Humbleton. (fn. 518) The net income averaged £230 a year between 1829 and 1831, (fn. 519) and was £198 c. 1920. (fn. 520)
Before the 18th century practically all of the income came from tithes and offerings. The vicarial tithes included the wool and lamb tithes at Elstronwick, and also some hay tithes there. (fn. 521) The tithe of rape was released to the vicar in the 18th century, after being claimed by one of the lay rectors. (fn. 522) At the inclosure of Elstronwick in 1813, the vicar received 45 a. for his tithes, which then apparently included all except those of corn and hay. (fn. 523) The tithes of the other townships were commuted by the Tithe Commissioners, in Humbleton by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1846 for a rent charge of £50 a year; in Danthorpe by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1845 for a rent charge of £22; in Fitling by award of 1844 and supplementary award and apportionment of 1848 for a rent charge of £29 18s., and in Flinton by award of 1844 and apportionment of 1845 for a rent charge of £50. (fn. 524)
The glebe comprised the vicarage house and a little ground at Humbleton, and c. 5 a. of openfield land at Elstronwick, for which two pasture gates were enjoyed when the land was fallow. (fn. 525) At the inclosure of Elstronwick in 1813, the vicar was awarded 6 a. for his glebe interests there, besides 45 a. for his tithes. (fn. 526) Bounty money had been used to buy 4 a. at Burton Pidsea in 1804, (fn. 527) and a farm was later made from that land and the allotments in Elstronwick; it was sold in 1911. (fn. 528) Bounty money was also used to buy c. 15 a. at Fitling in 1763 and 16 a. at Bewholme, in Nunkeeling, in 1781, (fn. 529) and in 1850 the glebe at Humbleton was further enlarged by the exchange of tithe rents there for 9 a. (fn. 530) The land at Fitling, then of 17 a., was sold in 1954, (fn. 531) but in 1978 there remained 17 a. at Bewholme and 8 a. at Humbleton. (fn. 532)
The vicarage house was recorded from 1650. (fn. 533) In 1716 it was described as a mud-built house providing, besides chambers, four ground-floor rooms. (fn. 534) Jonathan Dixon, vicar, rebuilt the house in brick and tile in 1796, and re-laid the garden, (fn. 535) and his successor, John Jadis, vicar from 1832, had partly rebuilt, and probably enlarged, the house by 1849, when it had 14 rooms. (fn. 536) The mid 19th-century work includes the south front, in cream brick with slate roofs, Gothic windows, and decorative bargeboards on the gables. (fn. 537) The house was designated the residence of the united benefice in 1961, and was so used until 1980–1, when a new house was built in Burton Pidsea. (fn. 538) The former vicarage house at Humbleton was later sold.
The poor living was served with other churches in the 16th century, William Mysyn, vicar 1516–38, also holding the rectory of Little Cowden, and George Brook, vicar 1577–80, being curate at Winestead. In the 1590s some parishioners were accused of being 'cattle charmers' and witches. (fn. 539) Changes of vicar were relatively frequent then, and after 1613 there were no institutions until 1789, Humbleton being served in the interim by curates. (fn. 540) The quarterly sermons were lacking in 1575. (fn. 541) In 1743 the resident curate, John Browne, also served Garton, Aldbrough, and Elstronwick chapel. He then provided a weekly service at Humbleton, except for every third Sunday, and quarterly celebrations of Holy Communion, at which generally c. 60 received. (fn. 542) Browne was followed in 1761 by his son and namesake (d. 1787), who also held, besides the curacy of Garton, Hilston rectory. (fn. 543) Humbleton, Elstronwick, and Garton continued to be served together for some years after institutions were resumed in 1789. (fn. 544) By 1877 communion was celebrated eight times a year at Humbleton, but the number of communicants in the later 19th century was usually less than 10. (fn. 545) Communion was weekly in 1931. (fn. 546) Humbleton with Elstronwick and Burton Pidsea were held together before their formal union in 1961. (fn. 547) In 1998 there was a service or a celebration of Holy Communion each Sunday at Humbleton. (fn. 548)
In 1568 the Crown granted Hugh Counsell and Robert Pistor 1 bovate in Elstronwick, allegedly concealed and said to have been given to support a chantry priest in Humbleton church, and in 1570 they had a similar grant of land in Humbleton or Elstronwick, supposedly given for a light in Humbleton church. (fn. 549)
The present dedication of Humbleton church, to ST. PETER, was used in 1486 and 1536, but an alternative, ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL, was recorded in the mid 16th century. (fn. 550) The church stands on a small elevation, and comprises chancel with south chapel, aisled and clerestoried nave, and three-stage west tower embraced by continuations of the aisles. Much is of boulders, but the south aisle and clerestory are built of fine ashlar, and the chancel is largely of brick. The nave, the core of the lower stages of the tower, and probably the western part of the chancel date from before the Conquest. The scar of the early building's roof and a tower buttress relating to that roof are visible on the west wall of the nave. A narrow pointed lancet window at the west end of the chancel was made in the late 12th or early 13th century. The church was renovated and enlarged in the earlier 13th century, the south aisle being added, the chancel arch rebuilt, and the chancel lengthened. The four-bayed south arcade was then constructed outside the south wall of the nave; the south-east corner of the earlier nave is visible next to the easternmost respond of the arcade. Both the arcade and the chancel arch have pointed arches of two chamfered orders and octagonal moulded capitals, shafts, and waterholding bases. The work in the chancel included the making of a window, of two trefoiled lights with rudimentary bar tracery. An order to the parishioners to repair and reroof the nave in 1301 (fn. 551) seems to have led to further remodelling and enlargement. The north aisle was built and both aisles extended westwards to flank the tower, the tower arch was enlarged, and the clerestory and the upper stages of the tower were added. The north arcade and the tower arches are similar to the 13th-century renovations but are 14th-century in style. The west window may have been inserted slightly later. The north aisle was refenestrated in the late 14th or early 15th century. Another substantial remodelling was evidently nearing completion in 1555. It involved the making or enlargement of the south chapel, and the widening of the south aisle, the walls of which were rebuilt in ashlar and provided with large windows under depressed fourcentred heads. (fn. 552) A niche, perhaps once including a piscina, in the easternmost bay of the south aisle suggests that there was formerly an altar there. The embattling of the clerestory and the tower, which formerly also had pinnacles, and the refacing of the clerestory with ashlar were probably done at the same time. It may also have been then that the unusual stone staircase to the tower was constructed; it begins in the nave, passes through the south-eastern corner of the tower, and then continues through a turret built onto the south wall.
The church was decayed in the later 16th century, (fn. 553) and in the 17th the chancel was repaired in brick and given new south and east windows, and a new south door, all with square openings. It was then decreed, after dispute, that of each pound spent in maintaining the fabric the inhabitants of Humbleton, Fitling, and Flinton should pay 14s. and those of Elstronwick and Danthorpe 6s., presumably because of the latter townships' charges in maintaining Elstronwick chapel. (fn. 554) In 1744 the south porch was renewed in rendered brick. (fn. 555) A room had been formed from the west end of the north aisle before 1767, when another was made at the west end of the south aisle, (fn. 556) and in 1791 a west gallery was built in the nave. The south chapel was also closed off to serve as a vestry, and by the mid 19th century the chancel arch had been disfigured by an earlier lowering of the chancel roof. (fn. 557) In 1888–9 much of the church was restored by J. L. Pearson, largely at the cost of John Hotham, Lord Hotham; the work included the opening up of the tower and the western ends of the aisles by the demolition of walls there, the removal of the gallery, and reseating and refitting. (fn. 558) In 1906 the chancel was restored for Lord Hotham, probably by John Bilson of Hull, who then designed a new pulpit and choir stalls. (fn. 559) The south porch, which was rebuilt in the early 20th century, (fn. 560) was removed in 1990.
During the 19th-century restoration a new font was installed; the medieval octagonal one it replaced is kept in the nave. Several windows were reglazed with stained glass, the choir stalls replaced, and other improvements made in the 1930s, and in 1956 oak vestry screens were fitted. (fn. 561) Above the east window hangs a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration by Ann Dixon, daughter of a past vicar, which was given in 1816. (fn. 562) The church formerly had stained glass depicting the arms of families associated with the parish, like the Staffords and the Constables. (fn. 563) The Thompsons, lords of the manor, are commemorated in the north aisle by an alabaster bust of William Thompson (d. by 1638), the upper part of a formerly larger figure, (fn. 564) and by an early 18th-century wall tablet detailing his descendents. Another mural memorial, in the chancel, is for James Shutt (d. 1787) and his family.
Humbleton church had three bells in 1552 and later. (fn. 565) The plate includes a cup of 1740 and a paten of 1700, both given in memory of Susannah Thompson in 1740; another paten made in 1719; a flagon of 1739, given by Arabella Thompson in 1740, and a salver of c. 1755, given by Robert Raines of Flinton in 1758. (fn. 566) The registers of baptisms, marriages, and burials begin in 1577. The record is mostly complete, but registrations of marriages are lacking for some years, notably in the earlier 17th century. (fn. 567) The parishioners were paying the clerk £5 8s. 8d. a year in 1809 and £7 6s. 8d. in 1849. (fn. 568)
ELSTRONWICK. A chapel had been built at Elstronwick, and a chantry with one priest founded there, by the 14th century. The vicar of Humbleton, who was said to be responsible for maintaining the chantry, may have neglected it before 1324, when he and the inhabitants of Elstronwick were in dispute about it. The archbishop of York then licensed the inhabitants to support their own chaplain there to say mass three days a week, baptize, and church women. (fn. 569) In 1386 Robert Franks, clerk, proposed to found another chantry there, for Richard of Ravenser, John Franks, and others; the endowment, in Elstronwick and elsewhere in Holderness, was to be given to Nunkeeling priory, which was to provide a chaplain to celebrate four days a week. (fn. 570) In 1526 two chaplains, each receiving £4 a year, were serving in the chapel. (fn. 571) The chapel's function as a chapel of ease was confirmed in 1536, when the right to bury at Elstronwick was granted and the chapel was consecrated anew, together with its yard. (fn. 572)
All or part of the chapel's landed endowment may have been recorded in 1535 as 'glebe lands in Elstronwick' belonging to Humbleton vicarage. (fn. 573) The endowment evidently passed to the Crown on the suppression of chantries. A succession of transactions in the late 16th and 17th centuries dealt with what seem to have been parts of it. In 1578 land at Elstronwick, lately belonging to the chapel there and allegedly concealed, was granted by the Crown to John Farnham, who then resold the c. 6 a. to Sir John Constable. (fn. 574) It was perhaps Elstronwick chapel and another part of its endowment which the Crown sold to John Eldred and William Whitmore in 1611; the premises comprised 'the site of the chapel of Humbleton' and c. 5 a. in Elstronwick, all then let to the vicar of Humbleton, and were erroneously said to have formerly belonged to Thornton college. (fn. 575) Later that year another grant was made, to Francis Morrice and Francis Phillips, which included 5 a. in Elstronwick, also held by the vicar and said to have been given for a priest serving Elstronwick 'church'. (fn. 576) At least part of the chapel's endowment seems to have been secured for the parish; in the 1660s the chapel's glebe comprised c. 2 a. worth £1 a year, and later the incumbent of Humbleton and Elstronwick had c. 5 a. of openfield land in Elstronwick. (fn. 577)
Whatever the fate of its lands, Elstronwick chapel continued in use. The curacy was held separately from Humbleton vicarage in 1552. (fn. 578) In 1575 the quarterly sermons were found to have been neglected at Elstronwick. (fn. 579) The chapelry was later annexed to Humbleton. (fn. 580) In 1743 the curate at Humbleton 'frequently' held a service in Elstronwick chapel every third Sunday, and he celebrated communion there three times a year, when usually about 27 people received. (fn. 581) There was a weekly service in the chapel by the mid 19th century, and eight celebrations of communion a year by 1877; usually about 12 people took communion there in the later 19th century. (fn. 582) In 1931 communion was weekly. (fn. 583) In 1998 a service or a celebration of communion was provided at Elstronwick each Sunday. (fn. 584)
Dedicated to ST. LAWRENCE by 1386, (fn. 585) the largely-rebuilt church comprises chancel and nave with western bell turret. The nave is of coursed cut cobblestones, the chancel of boulders, and the roofs and the wooden bell turret are covered with slate. The medieval chapel was built at unknown date before 1324. (fn. 586) Its chancel was probably remodelled in the earlier 14th century, the east window being of that period. The other windows, some of which have been remade or replaced, suggest by their tracery that the chapel was refenestrated later that century and in the next. Some work may have followed the promulgation in 1431 of an indulgence for those helping to repair the building. (fn. 587) It was later neglected, (fn. 588) before being extensively repaired and remodelled in 1791 by Jonathan Dixon, vicar, for the parishioners at Elstron wick. The chapel was partly rebuilt, reglazed, and reroofed; the north and south doorways were blocked up, and a new entrance made in the west end; the bell turret was added, and the north wall was given a new window. Inside, pews and a west gallery were fitted. The new entrance incorporated an Ionic pilastered doorcase, said to have been brought from the Thompsons' house at Humbleton. (fn. 589) The building was, nevertheless, described in the mid 19th century as small and mean with blocked or altered windows. (fn. 590) It was virtually rebuilt and refitted in 1874–5 at the expense of J. T. Dickinson, the tithe-owner, his wife, and brother George, of Roos. (fn. 591) The stepped floor of the sanctuary retains its Victorian tiles.
There are many memorials to members of the Bell family, impropriators in Elstronwick. The mutilated wall tablets of John Bell (d. 1809) and Henry Carr (d. 1848) are by John Earle of Hull. (fn. 592) Stained glass in the west and east windows commemorates respectively J. T. Dickinson (d. 1875) and his mother-in-law.
In 1552 and later Elstronwick chapel had one bell. (fn. 593) The plate there includes a cup of 1816 and pewter vessels. (fn. 594) Baptisms, marriages, and burials were entered in the Humbleton registers. (fn. 595)
Fitling. Fitling chapel was recorded in 1347. It was then alleged that the chapel had included a chantry for one priest until c. 1300, when the Hospitallers, whose manor of Fitling was the supposed endowment, discontinued it. The beneficiaries of the alleged chantry had been the counts of Aumale, lords of Burstwick manor. (fn. 596) Nothing more is known about Fitling chapel.
A rood screen with painted images remained in Humbleton church in 1567, but was defaced soon afterwards. (fn. 597) There is otherwise little evidence of Catholicism in the parish before the later 17th century. (fn. 598) One or two families were presented at Flinton in 1581, and Margaret Ellerker and two others at Elstronwick in 1633, and in 1676 there were said to be 27 papists in the parish. (fn. 599) Besides the Constables, lords at Elstronwick, (fn. 600) prominent Roman Catholics included the Thorpes, who lived at Danthorpe Hall: John Thorpe was regularly recorded as a recusant c. 1670, (fn. 601) and a priest was serving the neighbourhood from Danthorpe Hall in the 1720s and, despite complaint, evidently also in 1735, when another John Thorpe, his wife, a priest, and eight others were presented as papists. (fn. 602) Numbers of Roman Catholics remained small, however, three families being recorded in 1743, five in 1764, (fn. 603) and 24 individuals in 1780.
Twelve protestant dissenters were returned under Humbleton in 1676, (fn. 604) and in the mid 18th century the parish included two Quaker families. (fn. 605)
HUMBLETON. A house at Humbleton was registered for protestant worship in 1806. (fn. 606) A Primitive Methodist chapel was built there in 1860 (fn. 607) and fitted out from a closed chapel at Burton Pidsea. (fn. 608) It was closed c. 1995, (fn. 609) and had been converted to a house by 1998.
ELSTRONWICK. At Elstronwick a room was used for worship by a congregation of protestants from 1816. (fn. 610) In 1853 the Primitive Methodists built a chapel there, (fn. 611) which was still used in 1998.
FITLING. Inhabitants of Fitling have attended a Wesleyan Methodist chapel in Garton and its successor, now the Methodist church, which was built nearby, but in Fitling, in 1935. (fn. 612)
FLINTON. At Flinton houses were registered for a group of protestants in 1791 and 1795. (fn. 613) That congregation was probably Wesleyan: there were 10 Wesleyan members at Flinton in 1838, (fn. 614) and Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel there in 1855. The chapel was closed c. 1970, (fn. 615) and in 1979–80 was rebuilt as a garage. (fn. 616)
Humbleton. There may have been a school at Humbleton in the 1660s, when John Fenwick, curate, was licensed to teach. (fn. 617) Francis Heron by will (fn. 618) dated 1719 devised his estate in Flinton and Sutton on Hull to his wife for life, and thereafter mostly for education in Humbleton parish. (fn. 619) Ten pounds a year was to be spent in teaching reading and writing to poor children of the parish, and employing a schoolmaster; £1 paid to the minister at Humbleton for an annual sermon on charity, and the rest of the income invested and used to apprentice boys of Humbleton, Fitling, and Flinton townships, those of Flinton always taking precedence. The charity became effective on the death of Heron's widow in 1734, but was interrupted in the 1740s when someone claiming to be Heron's heir took possession of the property. In 1790 the endowment comprised a farm of almost 60 a. at Flinton and 1 a. at Sutton. (fn. 620) The land at Sutton was sold in 1934 and 1948. The rental was £70 a year in the 1820s, £100 in 1879, and thereafter some £80 until that sum was increased to £195 in 1959. (fn. 621) Besides rents, the charity had £100 stock in the early 20th century. (fn. 622) The trustees still held Heron's farm, then of 65 a., in 1999. (fn. 623)
In 1734, the year in which the charity began, the lord of the manor licensed the parishioners to build a school on waste ground in Humbleton, (fn. 624) but the school was being held in the church later in the century. (fn. 625) It had c. 20 pupils in 1743, and in 1764 the charity was paying for 12 children to be taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and, if appropriate for them, classics. (fn. 626) The stipend of the master had been raised to £15 before 1810, when another £5 was added in return for an increase in the number taught from 12 to 18, of whom 6 each came from Flinton, Humbleton, and Sutton. (fn. 627)
The enlargement of the school was being considered in the 1820s, (fn. 628) and in 1830 the trustees built a new school with master's house on a site adjoining the churchyard given by Beaumont Hotham, Baron Hotham. (fn. 629) The new school was attended by upwards of 30 boys and girls from all five townships in Humbleton parish, who were taught by the master in return for his accommodation and the stipend, then of c. £40 a year. (fn. 630) Infants were taken by 1865, (fn. 631) and at inspection in 1871 the Church school had 25 boys and 4 girls in attendance. (fn. 632) By the mid 1870s average attendance was 42 and the master's salary £60 a year. (fn. 633) A school district comprising Humbleton and the other townships of the parish had been formed in 1872, but the building was soon after reckoned insufficient. (fn. 634)
Another school, designed by William Harker of Beverley and also comprising a master's house, was built and opened in 1878. (fn. 635) John Hotham, Baron Hotham, provided its site beside the village street and largely paid for its construction, the old school, later Ivy, now Church, Cottage, being granted to him in partial recompense. Fees were introduced, but by Scheme of 1876 the trustees were enabled to spend £40 a year on prizes, scholarships, and exhibitions for children from Humbleton. The charity was paying the mistress £70 a year by 1896, when the school had 93 pupils and the accommodation was described as 'miserable'. (fn. 636) The building was improved in the early 20th century, chiefly by the addition of a classroom in the 1920s. (fn. 637) Heron's trustees also bought 3 a. next to the school in 1911 for a playing field, part of which was later used to teach gardening to the pupils. (fn. 638) Average attendance at Heron's endowed school was c. 80 in the early 20th century, and about 60 in the 1930s. (fn. 639) In 1954 the senior pupils were transferred to South Holderness County Secondary School. (fn. 640) The junior and infants' school was closed in 1959, when the remaining pupils were moved to Sproatley school. (fn. 641) The former school was subsequently used as a village hall. (fn. 642)
The provision of apprenticeships evidently ceased to be an object of the trust. By the early 19th century the share of the income available for apprenticeships was used, when candidates were lacking, for those going into service, 3–6 being so helped in the early 1820s, (fn. 643) and apprenticeships were not mentioned in the Scheme of 1876. (fn. 644) After the closure of the school, a new Scheme was obtained for the charity in 1964. The Heron Educational Foundation was then established to make grants towards the secondary or higher education of young people resident in the parish, or to help provide vocational training for them. About 1980 the income of £1,000 a year was usually spent in grants to secondary pupils, or in generally supporting education in the parish. (fn. 645)
The L.E.A. provided a winter evening school at Humbleton in the 1920s. (fn. 646)
Elstronwick. Land at Elstronwick assigned to the poor passed soon after inclosure in 1813 to Thomas Thompson, lord of the manor, because of the inadequacy of the overseers' title and failure of the donor's heirs. (fn. 647) In 1817 he conveyed the 9 a. and three cottages, or poorhouses, to trustees as an endowment for a school at Elstronwick. (fn. 648) In 1818 they built a cottage in Church Lane, later Ivy Cottage, (fn. 649) to house the school and schoolmistress. The charity had an income of £18 a year in the early 1820s, when the mistress was paid £11 10s. from it for teaching 18 boys and girls of 5 to 12 years old; reading and probably writing were taught, and the girls were also instructed in knitting and sewing. In 1833, when the school had 20 pupils, the schoolmistress received £20 a year, besides her accommodation. (fn. 650) By the mid 19th century the school was small, took only infants, and in 1865 was said to be 'very inefficient' because of the mistress's age. (fn. 651) The older children then went to school at Humbleton. (fn. 652) Only three boys were in attendance at Elstronwick at inspection in 1871, (fn. 653) and the school was hardly bigger at its closure in 1903. The landed endowment of the charity, then comprising c. 10 a., the former school, and the three cottages, together with c. £100 stock, produced a net income of £13 10s. in 1912. The three cottages were later demolished, but in 1999 the trustees still had Ivy Cottage, the old school, and the land. By Scheme of 1914 the Educational Foundation of Thomas Thompson was created to assist Elstronwick children, or those attending a school there or in the neighbourhood, and to aid their further education. (fn. 654) The income was later used, with help from the local education authority, to transport children from Danthorpe and Elstronwick to Humbleton school in winter. Unspent income had accumulated to c. £150 by 1922, when the making of grants in aid of further education was being considered. (fn. 655) About 1980 the income of c. £200 was used generally to promote the education and welfare of children in the parish. (fn. 656)
FITLING AND FLINTON. In 1871 those schoolchildren from Fitling and Flinton not attending Humbleton school went instead to Garton and Sproatley schools respectively. (fn. 657)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.
The poor of Elstronwick had the profits from ½ bovate by 1652. (fn. 658) Later called Town Lands, it was let for just over £2 a year in 1704. (fn. 659) Three cottages were later built on part of the land by the overseers, and let to poor labourers. At inclosure in 1813, the overseers' title was not recognized, and the 9 a. allotted was awarded instead to the heirs of the Gedneys, trustees in the 17th century, and then, by their lack, was forfeited to the lord of the manor, Thomas Thompson. He used the land to endow a school at Elstronwick. A provision that any income left after school expenses be used for Christmas doles in Elstronwick seems not to have been effective, and was removed by Scheme of 1908. (fn. 660)
William Meadley (fl. mid 17th century) was believed to have charged a garth at Flinton with the payment of 10s. a year to the poor, and in the 1820s the proprietor of the land distributed that sum among widows of Flinton each Easter. (fn. 661) The charity was evidently later lost.
There may have been an endowed almshouse in Humbleton. A list written apparently in the mid 17th century records Bead House close there, then of 26 a., and Bead House closes were mentioned again in 1866. (fn. 662)
Mrs. Arabella Thompson was said to have left £10 to the poor of Humbleton township in 1740, and Mrs. Susannah Thompson £20 to those in Humbleton parish by 1764, when the interest on the bequests, of £1 4s., was distributed by the minister and overseers. (fn. 663)