A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 1. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.
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Massan (xi cent.); Mesham, Masseham (xiii cent.); Massam (xvi cent.).
This parish lies in the valley of the Ure on the south-west border of the North Riding. The ecclesiastical parish, as constituted in 1831, (fn. 1) covered an area of 22,940 acres, and included the townships of Burton upon Ure, Ellingtons and Swinton with Warthermarske, together with the present ecclesiastical parish of Healey, formed from Masham and Kirkby Malzeard in 1849 and consisting of the townships of Ellingstring, Fearby, Healey with Sutton and Iltoncum-Pott. Omitting Burton upon Ure, the district covered by the parish has been known as Mashamshire since at least the 12th century. The whole district is hilly, with well-wooded valleys and fine moorland scenery. (fn. 2) The present parish covers 1,711 acres of arable land, 4,836 of permanent grass and 382 of woods and plantations; and Healey parish 213 acres of arable land, 5,974 of permanent grass and 589 of woods and plantations. (fn. 3) Nutwith and Roomer Common, south-west of Masham, covers about 260 acres. An award for inclosing the wastes was obtained in 1790. (fn. 4)
The soil is light mould and gravel on a subsoil of millstone grit with some alluvium in the Ure valley. Coal and lead were once worked on Masham Moor, and the Abbot of Jervaulx made a stone quarry on the waste at 'Inggoldale' in the 13th century. (fn. 5) There was a cloth-mill here in the 17th century, (fn. 6) but the population, numbering 1,955 in 1901, is now mainly agricultural, cereals, turnips and potatoes being raised.
The Ure flows southwards through the eastern part of Mashamshire, but its tributary, the Burn, flows eastward through the district and supplies water to Leeds and Harrogate. A stone bridge over a tributary to the Burn was built in the early 19th century under a scheme for the benefit of the unemployed; a 'Druid temple' in a wood at Ilton had a like origin.
The town of Masham stands on the right bank of the Ure near its junction with the Burn. Leland describes it as 'a praty quik market town and a faire chirch.' (fn. 7) The houses are mostly grouped round the market square (in the middle of which is the shaft of a cross on four tall steps, its head being replaced by a stone ball), the parish church and the vicarage lying to the south-east. A market is held every Wednesday, and sheep and cattle fairs on the 17th and 18th of September, the sheep fair being especially noted. The houses are mostly of 18th-century date or later, but at the north-east are two which have had stone mullions and are probably of the 17th century. Streets run north and south from the west end of the square, the former leading to a stone bridge over the Ure through an avenue of young lime trees. At this end of the town is a large brewery. At the northeast of the main square schools were built in 1824 and enlarged in 1901. The Roman Catholic chapel of St. Columba was opened in 1910, the Baptist chapel dates from 1815 and the Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have also chapels here.
Masham is served by a branch line of the North Eastern railway running from Ripon.
The township of Burton upon Ure lies on both sides of the river. Here on the site of the old grange is Aldburgh Hall, the property of Mr. J. T. D'A. Hutton, J.P. Near this is the site of an ancient castle. In this township are the hamlets of High and Low Burton, Nutwith Cote, once a grange, and Burton House, formerly the seat of the Wyvills and now occupied by Mr. Christopher Hammond.
About half a mile east of the bridge is Low Burton Farm, a T-shaped farm-house much altered and repaired. At the southern end of the house is a good ashlar-built octagonal chimney which blocks a small mullioned window and suggests an earlier date for the wall to which the chimney has been added. At the back is a round-headed window of three lights with a square hollow label and a door 3 ft. 10 in. wide with cambered lintel and a small roll on the angle of the jambs. To the east of the farm the land rises steadily to about 450 ft., forming the eastern side of the river valley.
The Ure is crossed by Masham Bridge, built in 1754 as the successor of the ancient bridge mentioned by Leland. (fn. 8) The Ellingtons are small groups of houses with a Wesleyan chapel at High Ellington. Ellingstring is a long, straggling village with a green at one end and a Wesleyan chapel. On the small triangular green at Fearby Cross stands the stone stump of a cross. A short distance further on the road passes through the village green, round which several houses are built. On the right is an old cottage said to have been a chapel and now used as a reading room; here too there is a Wesleyan chapel. At Healey the church of St. Paul, erected in 1848, lies to the right at the entrance of the village. Both branches into which the road divides beyond Healey pass through beautiful moorland scenery. High up here are Leighton, which consists of two farm-houses, and Pott Hall, the site of the old grange, and Moorheads. Swinton Hall, the seat of Lord Masham, stands in a fine deer park and commands a beautiful prospect. The road forms the south-east boundary and passes through Warthermarske to Ilton, a scattered moorland village with a small green, standing about 800 ft. above ordnance datum. The Wesleyan chapel of Ilton-cum-Pott dates from 1876. A watermill at Burton is mentioned in the 14th century (fn. 9); there were also mills at Ilton, Ellington (fn. 10) and at Swinton. (fn. 11) There is now a mill in Masham below the bridge, and two others on the Burn in Healey and Swinton.
Among ancient place-names in the parish are Stote Fauld, Steward Ing, Dubdale Dole, Growesflatt, and Brauckrudding Close. Bales Hill with Bales House and plantation are on the moors north-west of Healey. Not far from here is the site of an old workhouse, from which nothing but the moor can be seen.
The 'manor' of MASHAM with 12 carucates and berewicks of 7½ carucates at 'Tuislebruc,' Swinton and Sutton was held by Gospatric before the Conquest (fn. 12) and in 1086 by Count Alan, whose successors retained the overlordship. In 1086 Ernegis was the tenant. (fn. 13)
Masham seems to have been granted by Count Stephen to Niel Daubeney, lord of Thirsk, as one knight's fee; this grant was confirmed by Earl Alan (fn. 14) before 1146. (fn. 15) The mesne lordship followed the descent of the manor of Thirsk. (fn. 16)
It is said that Roger de Mowbray granted Masham to Walter de Buhere, who was succeeded by his sister and heir Emma de Buhere, and that she granted it to John de Walton. (fn. 17) Walter de Buhere certainly granted the monks of Jervaulx lands in Mashamshire, (fn. 18) and Roger de Mowbray granted the whole forest of Masham to John de Walton. (fn. 19) John made fine in £80 in 1176–7 for a dispute between himself and Walter's sister, and also for a settlement of boundaries between his land and that of Roger de Mowbray. (fn. 20) John was succeeded by his son Gilbert, (fn. 21) who had land here in 1200. (fn. 22) At his death his son Sir John de Walton succeeded; he appears to have been followed by a son John, (fn. 23) who was a minor at his father's death in or about 1230, (fn. 24) and in 1232 the king granted the custody of this manor to John son of Philip for 200 marks. (fn. 25) In 1251 John de Walton obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne here. (fn. 26)
John de Walton quitclaimed this manor to his son John, to whom the grant of free warren was renewed in 1294 (fn. 27); he died about 1304 and was succeeded by a daughter Joan, a minor, (fn. 28) who afterwards married Hugh de Hopham. (fn. 29) In 1329 she, then a widow, sold the manor to Sir Geoffrey le Scrope. (fn. 30) At his death in 1340 he was succeeded by his son Henry, first Lord Scrope of Masham, (fn. 31) who died in 1392, leaving a son and heir Stephen. (fn. 32) Stephen's son Henry, who succeeded him in January 1405–6, (fn. 33) was the 'Lord Scroop of Masham' of Shakespeare's 'Henry V.' For his part in the 'Southampton Plot' he was attainted and executed in 1415. (fn. 34) In the same year the king granted all his manors, including Masham, to Henry Lord Fitz Hugh, cousin of Lord Scrope, for life, (fn. 35) two years afterwards confirming the grant in tail-male for an annual rent of £260 and one rose. (fn. 36) In 1424 John Scrope, younger brother of Henry, claimed Masham and other manors as entailed lands, (fn. 37) and recovered them in 1425. William son and successor of Henry Fitz Hugh prosecuted his claim, and Masham in 1438 was taken into the king's hands. (fn. 38) In 1442 Sir William Fitz Hugh and Margery his wife quitclaimed this and other manors to Sir John le Scrope for £1,000. (fn. 39) William Lord Fitz Hugh was nevertheless seised of Masham at his death in 1452, (fn. 40) but in 1453 his granddaughter Elizabeth married Thomas son and heir of John Lord Scrope, (fn. 41) and on them the manor was jointly settled. (fn. 42) Thomas succeeded as fifth Lord Scrope in 1455, (fn. 43) and died in 1475. (fn. 44) The manor then descended to his son Thomas sixth Lord Scrope, after whose death in 1493 it passed to his only daughter and heir Alice, (fn. 45) who married Henry Lord Scrope of Bolton. Her children died, and the manor therefore reverted to her three uncles successively, Ralph being in possession at his death in 1515. (fn. 46) At the death of his brother Geoffrey in 1517 their three sisters or the descendants of the latter became the co-heirs. One of these, Margaret, married Sir Christopher Danby of Thorpe Perrow, (fn. 47) which this manor followed in descent until the sale of that manor by Sir Abstrupus Danby. Sir Abstrupus removed his seat to Swinton and died in 1727. He left an only son Abstrupus, who was succeeded at his death in 1750 by his son William. After his death in 1781 the estates descended to his son William Danby, Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1784 and a miscellaneous writer of some repute. He was twice married, but his only son William died young, and at his death in 1833 he left the lordship of Mashamshire to his second wife for her life. She afterwards married Admiral Vernon Harcourt, who died in 1863. (fn. 48) Under the will of Mrs. Vernon Harcourt the estate passed to George Affleck (fn. 49) at her death in 1879, and he took the name of Danby. The entail was cut two or three years later and the estate sold to Mr. Cunliffe Lister, afterwards Lord Masham, in 1883. His son the present Lord Masham is now lord of the manor.
In 1251 John de Walton obtained the grant of a Friday market here and of a yearly fair on the vigil, feast and morrow of the Assumption (fn. 50); the market day was fixed for Wednesday in 1328, when an additional fair was obtained for the vigil and feast of St. Barnabas, that on the morrow of the Assumption being dropped. (fn. 51) The fair days were again altered in 1393, when they were licensed for the feast of St. Barnabas with the two previous days and the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin and the two previous days. (fn. 52)
The grant of free warren obtained by John de Walton in 1251 was renewed in 1294 and 1328. (fn. 53)
In the 12th century Roger de Mowbray granted the grange of ALDBURGH (Aldeborough, xiii cent.), consisting of 3 carucates, to the monks of Fountains, in like manner as his father had given it to the monks of Pontiniac. (fn. 54) The manor of Aldburgh was granted to Sir Richard Gresham in 1540, (fn. 55) and appears to have been sold by his grandson (fn. 56) William Gresham, owner in 1585. (fn. 57) The estate was purchased by Roger Beckwith in 1597, and it continued with his descendants (fn. 58) until 1743, when it was sold to the family of Hutton. (fn. 59) Mr. J. T. D'A. Hutton, J.P., is the present owner.
Four carucates in BURTON UPON URE (Burtone, xi cent.; Burton super Yore, xiii cent.; Great or High Burton, xix cent.) formed in 1086 a berewick of the 'manor' of Well. (fn. 60) The mesne lordship descended with Well (q.v.), but after 1425 continued to be held of the lords of Middleham Manor (fn. 61) (q.v.).
In 1286–7, however, the 4 carucates in Great Burton (where 14 carucates made a knight's fee) were held by a Richard (fn. 62) de Magna Burton. (fn. 63) Richard seems to have been succeeded by Roger Oysell, lord in 1316, (fn. 64) whose name occurs in 1327–8. (fn. 65) Before 1388 this fee (fn. 66) in Burton came into the possession of the Scropes of Bolton (q.v.).
In 1240 Roald son of Roald and Roald son of Alan of Constable Burton (fn. 67) (q.v.) were parties to a fine as to the manor of Burton upon Ure. (fn. 68) This land appears to have been included in that sold by Roald de Richmond (fn. 69) in the reign of Edward III to Geoffrey le Scrope of Bolton, (fn. 70) which it followed in descent until 1565. Henry ninth Lord Scrope (fn. 71) then conveyed it to Christopher Wyvill (fn. 72) of Constable Burton (q.v.), with which it descended (fn. 73) till after 1817, when it was purchased by Mr. Timothy Hutton; it has since followed the manor of Clifton upon Ure (q.v.), with which it became united. (fn. 74)
The manor of LITTLE or LOW BURTON was held by the lord of Masham (fn. 75) (q.v.) in 1286–7. The undertenant (fn. 76) was Richard de Burton, (fn. 77) who in 1300–1 produced a charter by which Roger de Mowbray, mesne lord of Masham, granted to John son of Dru Burton with all its appurtenances. (fn. 78) In 1356 the manor of Little Burton upon Ure was held by Robert de Middleham, who was granted permission to have divine service there during pleasure. (fn. 79) In 1368 he and Alice his wife quitclaimed a moiety of the manor to Sir Richard le Scrope of Bolton. (fn. 80) In 1436 Thomas le Scrope mortgaged the manor of Great Burton with all his property there and in Little Burton to William de Burgh, William and Robert Ayscough, Robert Danby and Richard Weltden, to hold to them and the heirs and assigns of Robert Ayscough. (fn. 81) Great Burton evidently went back to the Scropes, but the lands in Little Burton may have remained with the mortgagees and have been afterwards described as the manor which was granted by Robert and John Ayscough to Richard Pigot and others before 1483, when Richard Pigot died seised. (fn. 82) Margaret (sometimes called Joan) Pigot, daughter and heir of John Pigot of Clotherholme, married Robert Wyvill (fn. 83) of Ripon. Their son Robert Wyvill died in 1527 and was succeeded by a son Marmaduke, who was described as of Little Burton in 1538. (fn. 84) He married Agnes daughter and co-heir of Sir Ralph Fitz Randall by his wife Elizabeth sister and co-heir of Geoffrey last Lord Scrope of Masham, and their son Christopher Wyvill became lord of Constable Burton (q.v.), which Little Burton followed in descent.
In 1086 at ELLINGTON (Ellintone, xi cent.; Elyngton, xiii cent.) 6 carucates belonged to Count Alan. Three 'manors' there had previously been held by Gospatric with 2 carucates of land, Norman with 3 carucates 2 oxgangs, and Torchil with 6 oxgangs; of these tenants Gospatric still remained, but was now under the count. (fn. 85) Ellington was a member of Masham (q.v.) until at least the end of the 14th century. (fn. 86)
In 1286–7 the Abbot and convent of Jervaulx (fn. 87) were holding land here of John de Walton, and they obtained a grant of free warren in Nether and Over Ellington in 1290. (fn. 88) In 1316 the Abbot of Jervaulx and the heirs of Richard Oysell were lords of Ellington and Ellingstring (fn. 89); the interest of Oysell did not survive, but the abbey had a manor or grange of Ellington at the Dissolution. (fn. 90) In 1544 the site of the monastery and appurtenances in Ellington and elsewhere were granted to Matthew Earl of Lennox and Margaret his wife. (fn. 91) The manor, though not expressly mentioned in this grant, followed the descent of East Witton (q.v.), and is now the property of Mr. Hector Christie.
Gilbert de Clifton received a grant of free warren here in 1291, and it seems probable that his land here followed the descent of his manor of Thirn (q.v.), for Richard Lord Fitz Hugh held four messuages and 4 carucates here at his death in 1487. (fn. 92)
Possibly this was the manor of Ellington of which a settlement was made by John fifth Lord Scrope of Bolton (q.v.) about 1491. (fn. 93) The manor of Nether Ellington was conveyed by Henry Lord Scrope to Christopher Danby in 1566. (fn. 94) The manors of Over and Nether Ellington (fn. 95) continued to descend with Masham (q.v.).
ELLINGSTRING (Elynstrynge, xiii cent.) was a member of Masham at the close of the 13th century. (fn. 96) In 1286–7 4 oxgangs of its 1 carucate were held by Walter de Latryn, Lambard or Launde, whose tenant for 1 oxgang was the Abbot of Jervaulx. (fn. 97) The remaining half carucate continued with Masham (q.v.) until it passed with Thirn (q.v.) to Thomas Fiennes Lord Dacre and Sir Thomas Parr, kt., after the death of George Lord Fitz Hugh in 1512–13. Sir Thomas Parr's moiety was forfeited to the Crown by the attainder of his son William Marquess of Northampton. (fn. 98) Lord Dacre's moiety was in the possession of Gregory Lord Dacre in 1571, and, like Thirn (q.v.), it seems to have been sold after his death in 1594 by his sister and heir Margaret Lennard. It probably passed to the Danbys, for Thomas Danby held the 'manor' here in 1667. (fn. 99) Henceforth it descended with Masham to the present owner, Lord Masham.
The Latryn holding may have been acquired by the abbey of Jervaulx, whose grange of Ellingstring descended after the Dissolution with their holding in Ellington (q.v.) to Mr. Hector Christie.
The two 'manors' and 3 carucates of FEARBY (Federbi, xi cent.; Fegherby, xiii cent.) held by Gospatric and Eldred before the Conquest were among the lands of Count Alan and his successors; Gospatric held both as tenant in 1086. (fn. 100) By 1286–7 2 carucates of the Marmion fee (fn. 101) were held by John de Walton, lord of Masham. The overlordship of the remaining carucate followed the descent of Gospatric's land in Thornton Steward (q.v.) and was held of the heirs of that manor by Gilbert de Clifton as mesne lord; the tenant of the whole vill was Ellis de Fearby, (fn. 102) but his lands probably escheated, as John Alward and Reynold de Clifton were returned as lords of Fearby in 1316. (fn. 103) In 1291 Gilbert de Clifton obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands of Fearby. (fn. 104) He was probably the father of Reynold. In 1327 John de Clifton received pardon for the death of Henry Morker of Fearby, (fn. 105) and in 1361 another Gilbert de Clifton with his wife Margery granted the manor of Fearby to Thomas de Nevill, Archdeacon of Durham, for his life, with remainder to John Butler of Leyburn. (fn. 106) In 1390 John Butler released his right in the manor to Ralph Nevill, (fn. 107) afterwards Earl of Westmorland, (fn. 108) who was seised of it at his death in 1425. (fn. 109) Later it appears to have been held by the Scropes of Masham (q.v.), and on the division of their lands in 1517 (fn. 110) Fearby formed part of the share of Elizabeth, who had married Sir Ralph Fitz Randall of Spennithorne (q.v.), for each of their five co-heirs later held a fifth of the manor. (fn. 111) The manor was acquired by the Danbys before 1667 (fn. 112) and afterwards descended with Masham.
HEALEY (Helaghe, Helhe, xiii cent.; Helay, Helley, xvi cent.) with SUTTON (Sudton, xi cent.) together form one township. Healey is not mentioned in 1086, when a 'manor' at Sutton, formerly held by Norman, was in the hands of Count Alan. (fn. 113) Towards the end of the 13th century Healey (4 carucates) and Sutton (1 carucate) were said to be members of Masham. (fn. 114) John de Hunton and Elizabeth his wife in 1284 settled the manor of Healey on themselves for life, with reversion to John de Rither and his wife Joan. (fn. 115) In 1328 John de Hunton granted the reversion to Ranulf Pigot, (fn. 116) with whose descendants it continued until the beginning of the 16th century, when it was divided between the three nieces and co-heirs of Sir Ranulf Pigot. (fn. 117) Before 1549 the whole manor had come into the possession of John Lord Scrope of Bolton. (fn. 118) It passed with Ellington (q.v.) to the Danbys in 1565, and descended with Masham (q.v.). Sutton appears to have formed part of the manor of Healey.
ILTON (Hilcheton, Ilcheton, xi cent.; Ilketon, xiii cent.) with POTT (Potte, xii cent.; Pot, xiii cent.) now constitutes a single township. At the time of the Domesday Survey the 'manor' and 2 carucates in the hands of Count Alan at Ilton had previously been held by Archil, perhaps father of Gospatric, tenant in 1086. (fn. 119) In 1286–7 3 carucates here were held under Hugh son of Henry, lord of Ravensworth, who held of the lords of Masham. (fn. 120) Towards the close of the 16th century the manor was held of William Lord Burghley for one-fortieth of a knight's fee and 2s. rent. (fn. 121)
In or before 1198 the abbey of Fountains was in possession of land in Ilton, (fn. 122) and acquired a good deal of property here before the early 14th century. (fn. 123) In 1262 Rycher de Wassand and Richard de Swinton granted the manor of Ilton to the Abbot of Coverham, who was to find a priest to celebrate mass daily in the chapel of Ilton. (fn. 124) The abbey does not appear to have retained any property in Ilton. At some unknown date Sir Richard de Wassand (Waxurd), kt., gave to the abbey of Fountains all his moiety of the mill here with its services. (fn. 125) In 1316 John Wassand, lord of Thornton-le-Street (q.v.), was one of the three lords of Ilton and his successor John de Wassand is mentioned in connexion with this place in 1342 (fn. 126); Ilton does not, however, appear to have passed with his other lands to the Wadsleys, and no further mention of this holding has been found. The Abbot of Fountains and the master of the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen at Ripon were returned as the other lords of Ilton. (fn. 127) In the time of Edward III it was said that one-third of the vill of Ilton had been given by William de Homelyn to the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen to found a chapel, (fn. 128) and both this hospital and the abbey of Fountains held property here at the Dissolution. (fn. 129) This land was granted, with the site of the abbey, to Sir Richard Gresham in 1540. (fn. 130) In 1579 William Browne died seised of the manor, having previously settled it on Leonard Browne and his heirs male, with successive remainders to Leonard's brother George and his heirs male, and to another brother William and his heirs male. (fn. 131) William Browne and Elizabeth his wife conveyed it to Cuthbert Browne in the spring of 1624–5. (fn. 132) Cuthbert Browne died seised of the manor in 1632, and left a son and heir William. (fn. 133) In 1658 William Browne and Cecily his wife sold it to Sir Thomas Danby, kt., (fn. 134) and since that time the descent has followed that of Masham Manor.
The manor or grange of Pott was granted, probably by Gilbert de Walton, in or before 1198, to the abbey of Fountains, (fn. 135) which held it at the Dissolution, (fn. 136) when it was said to be parcel of the manor of Aldburgh. (fn. 137) It was presumably granted in 1540 to Sir Richard Gresham, and appears to have been sold by him or one of his heirs to William Singleton, who sold it to Sir Thomas Danby (fn. 138) before 1589 (fn. 139); it has since followed the descent of Masham (q.v.).
NUTWITH or NUTWITH COTE (Nuttewith, xii cent.; Nutwyth Cote, xvi cent.) was acquired by the abbey of Fountains in the 12th century from Richard de Hedune, a tenant of Roger de Mowbray, John de Walton and others. (fn. 142) Like Aldburgh (q.v.), it was granted to Sir Richard Gresham after the Dissolution. It was sold by William Gresham to Christopher Beckwith in 1582. (fn. 143) Roger Beckwith bought Aldburgh shortly afterwards, and henceforth the descent of both places is identical. (fn. 144)
SWINTON (Suinton, xi cent.; Swynton, xiii cent.) and WARTHERMARSKE (Wardoumersc, xiii cent.; Wardermarske, xvi cent.) form one township. Swinton was a berewick of Masham (q.v.) in 1086, (fn. 145) and was assessed at 3½ carucates. Roger de Mowbray is said to have given the manor of Swinton to his daughter Margery. (fn. 146) In 1286–7, however, the lord of Masham held Swinton immediately under the Earl of Richmond. (fn. 147) Swinton followed the descent of Masham, but remained with the Fitz Hughs after the forfeiture of Henry Lord Scrope. (fn. 148)
A mesne lordship was held here in 1286–7 by Hugh son of Henry, (fn. 149) lord of Ravensworth (q.v.); he may have derived his right from his grandmother Alice daughter and heir of Adam de Staveley, (fn. 150) whose family had land here in 1227. (fn. 151)
The tenant in demesne of the whole vill, then assessed at 6 carucates or half a knight's fee, was in 1286–7 and 1316 Ralph de Normanvill. (fn. 152) Richard de Normanvill had been in possession of land in Swinton in 1234. (fn. 153) In 1330 Sir Ralph de Normanvill, kt., settled it on himself for life, with remainder to his son John, Joan wife of John and their issue. (fn. 154) In 1493 Thomas Normanvill died seised of three messuages and 4 carucates here. He was succeeded by his son Sir John Normanvill, kt. (fn. 155) In 1571 John and Thomas Normanvill were, with others, parties to a fine as to the manor of Swinton, (fn. 156) and a John Normanvill was party to another fine in 1610. (fn. 157) The manor, or two-thirds of the manor, was conveyed, probably in 1615, by William Normanvill to Elizabeth widow of Thomas Danby, (fn. 158) and her son Christopher was seised of it at his death in 1624. (fn. 159) The remaining third of the manor is said to have been bought by Sir Abstrupus Danby, (fn. 160) possibly in 1689. (fn. 161) Swinton then became the residence of the Danby family, and has since descended with the manor of Masham (q.v.).
The 'manor' of Warthermarske belonged in 1571 to the owners of Swinton (q.v.), and followed the same descent.
The abbey of Fountains owned at least a carucate of land here in 1227, and it also acquired the moiety of a mill in Swinton (fn. 162) from John le Harper (Cithareda). These lands, valued at £5 6s. in Swinton and 14s. in Warthermarske, (fn. 163) were granted to Sir Richard Gresham in 1540. (fn. 164)
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN consists of a chancel 39 ft. 8 in. by 20 ft. 5 in., north chapel of equal length and 15 ft. 7 in. in width, nave 61 ft. by 25 ft. 6 in., north aisle and transept, the former 13 ft. 4 in. wide, the latter 18 ft. 1 in. deep, south aisle 18 ft. wide, south porch and a west tower 18 ft. 3 in. by 16 ft. 3 in. These measurements are all internal.
The fine west tower dates from c. 1150, but seems to be built against the west wall of an older aisleless nave, perhaps of c. 1100, whose western angles remain intact, and one of its eastern angles, though this hardly seems so early in character. The chancel of this church has disappeared. The transepts were probably the first additions to be made, at some time in the 13th century or perhaps late in the 12th, but little is left to fix the date. Aisles were added to the nave in the 14th century, but the south aisle was rebuilt in the next century and made of equal width with the transept. A curious feature is that the number of bays in the arcades differs, the north having six while the south has only five, and there is no apparent reason for this, but it is not improbable that the north arcade was rebuilt at a later period, and that the bays were then increased from five to six. Another reason for suggesting that the north arcade was rebuilt is found in the fact that the old south wall, which is 2 ft. 9 in. thick, was too wide to be accommodated on the abaci of the capitals, and had therefore to be chamfered below. This probably occurred also on the north side, but when the rebuilding took place the thickening out was carried on a projecting string-course below the clearstory wall, which was already in position and adapted to the thicker wall. When the aisles were added they were both of equal width, and opened into the transepts as on the north side at present, but in the 15th century the south aisle wall was brought out flush with the transept wall. What must have been a fine tomb, probably a founder's, was destroyed when this was done, and only its eastern jamb now remains on the corner of the transept. The upper part of the tower is work of the end of the 14th century, and the clearstory is perhaps contemporary; the stone spire was rebuilt in 1856.
The chancel has been greatly modernized, but it appears to have been rebuilt when the north chapel was added in the 15th century. The church has suffered somewhat in later times, especially in the 18th century, when the west gallery was put in; the inner order of the tower arch was completely removed. Many pieces of stone enriched with a cheveron mould are to be found in the walling at the top of the tower and others below the clearstory windows, especially in the two east bays on the south side. The two corbels at the east end of the arcades both appear to have been renewed in the same century. Several restorations have taken place during the past century, and nearly all the window tracery is in modern stonework. The pitch of the 12th-century roof shows on the east face of the tower, and at the south-west angle of the old nave is the start of its coping, with corbel course, below which they are of the same character as those of the tower, and were probably put there at the time the tower was added.
The east window of the chancel is modern, and is of four cinquefoiled lights under a pointed head, with tracery of 14th-century character. The only window on the south side is in the middle of the wall; it has three cinquefoiled lights of 14th-century style, and appears to be almost entirely modern, as is the priest's doorway below it, which has moulded jambs, arch and label. The details of both these windows are taken from the blocked east window of the south transept. In the western bay are signs in the masonry of a blocked window with a low side opening below it. In the north wall of the chancel is a doorway of 15th-century date opening into the eastern part of the chapel, which is now screened off to serve as a vestry. The main part of the chapel opens to the chancel by a 15th-century arcade of two bays; the middle pier is octagonal and has a moulded capital, while the base is below the floor level. The responds are square with moulded corbels to carry the inner orders of the arches, which are of two chamfered orders. The western jamb has modern stonework, and to the west of it is a modern opening formed to give a view of the pulpit from the chapel. The chancel arch of two chamfered orders, dying on the chancel walls, is perhaps of 15th-century date, but has been retooled, like most of the internal masonry.
The north arcade of the nave is of six bays with narrow and high-pitched pointed arches of two chamfered orders. The columns are octagonal, the first, second and third with bases of two rounds, while the fifth has an angular copy of their section. The fourth has a somewhat different section, but the detail is of 14th-century character. The capitals are moulded, that of the first column differing from the next three, which are patched and scraped but in part old; their section, except in the necking, is decidedly of 15thcentury character. The capital of the fifth or westernmost column has been cut almost entirely away. The south arcade has five bays. The arches also are of two chamfered orders and pointed. The corbel supporting the inner order of the eastern arch has a decidedly 18th-century appearance in its lower moulds; the corbel at the west end is hacked away to a shapeless mass. The columns are octagonal, the bases of the first and second chamfered and modern, while those of the third and fourth are moulded and probably recut. The capitals of the two eastern pillars are of good 14th-century section, but those of the third and fourth have the very marked ogee mould of 15th-century character which appears in those of the opposite arcade. The thickening out of the walls above the north arcade has been already mentioned. The clearstory windows are each of three tall cinquefoiled lights under a pointed segmental arch, their tracery and external stonework being modern. The parapets are embattled, with modern pinnacles between the windows.
The north chapel has an east window of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a pointed head, all of modern stonework inclosed within an 18th-century half-round arch. Both north windows of the chapel are of modern stonework; the eastern has two cinquefoiled lights under a pointed segmental arch and the western three similar lights under a traceried head. Between the east wall and the first window is a small blocked light, looking like a re-used 12thcentury window. The western arch to the chapel is a plain one of a single chamfered order, with hollowchamfered and grooved abaci, the north one old, the south new. It looks like a copy of late 12th-century work, and if it represents an old arch suggests that the transept was of that date and had an eastern chapel.
The north transept is lighted from the north by a modern three-light window resembling the second north window of the chapel. The two north windows of the north aisle are also modern, and each is of two lights under a traceried and pointed segmental head. The north doorway is probably of 18th-century date, and has a two-centred head of two hollow-chamfered orders. The west window is square headed, of three cinquefoiled lights; the jambs and lintel, with the label, are old, the rest modern.
The east window of the south aisle is blocked, but the sections of the parts of the jambs which show inside and out point to its being an early 14th-century one; the head is two-centred and segmental. The piece of projecting masonry, standing about 6 ft. high, in the angle next to it is all that remains of a large arched recess of the same date which stood against the south wall; its edge is moulded with a keeled roll between two deep hollows, stopped out square near the floor. West of it is a later recess in the wall, 4 ft. 10 in. wide and 10 in. deep, with square jambs and ogee-shaped arch, and to the west of this is a vertical band of stones in the walling showing the junction of the later aisle with the earlier transept. The stonework of the three south windows is all modern, and their details are taken from the east window; each has two trefoiled lights, with a quatrefoil above, and a two-centred drop head with a label; the jambs are moulded and of two orders. The south doorway is near the west end. It appears to be of late 15th-century date (but has been retooled or renewed), and has a depressed four-centred arch with a moulded label; the jambs are moulded with a quarter-round between two hollows. The west window of the aisle is like that of the north aisle, but is all old excepting the mullions and sill.
The south porch is probably 15th-century work. It has an outer opening with moulded jambs and a two-centred drop arch with a label. Over the doorway is a small trefoiled niche for a figure, below which is a sundial of 1638.
The tower is of three stages of 12th-century date, with an octagonal top stage and spire of later work. The semicircular arch opening into the nave has lost its inner order, and has been closed up in the lower part by an 18th-century partition supporting the west gallery, in which the organ is placed. The jambs of the west doorway are of three square orders, with shafts in the angles having moulded bases and scalloped capitals of late type. The arch is semicircular, the innermost order plain, the outer two with edge rolls, and the label is double chamfered. In the north and south walls of this stage are small narrow round-headed lights. The second stage is lighted by wider round-headed windows to the north, west and south, and the third stage (the former bellchamber) is lighted in each wall by a round-headed window inclosing two round-headed lights, with central shafts and scalloped capitals without abaci much renewed. Above this is the corbel table finishing the earlier work. This, like most of the exterior, has been much repaired, but no doubt contains some of the original stones. The corbels generally are carved with mask faces; the middle one on each face has served as a water-shoot. Pinnacles with gabled and crocketed finials are set at the angles above the corbel course, behind which are buttresses supporting the diagonal faces of the octagonal fourth stage. This is lighted by four windows, each of two trefoiled lights under a segmental arched head with a small label. The parapet is embattled and has modern pinnacles at the angles. The stone spire is plain, with edge rolls on the angles. The lower parts of the tower are faced with coursed rough ashlar of various tints. The rest of the church is ashlar-faced, generally with modern stonework.
The roofs generally are modern, as are also the font, pulpit and seats, while the mahogany altar table is of the 18th century.
In the north transept is a large monument to Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, bart., son and heir of Christopher Wyvill and Margaret Scrope, who died in 1617; but the monument was erected in 1613, doubtless when his wife Magdalen died. The tomb is of Renaissance design in marble and alabaster, and has a straight canopy supported on marble columns. It has a recess with a panelled soffit, in which is the recumbent effigy of Sir Marmaduke in armour, lying on his side with his right hand supporting his head. In front, on a lower pedestal, is his wife in a similar attitude and holding a book with her left hand. Below are the kneeling figures of their children, six sons and two daughters. The Latin inscription, contained in a panel at the back, traces his pedigree back for five generations, and his maternal descent from Ralph Lord Scrope of Masham. There are three shields on the tomb. The middle shield has Wyvill quartering Pigot, Butler and Scrope of Masham with the crest of a wyvern; the shield to the right has the same quartered coat impaling Danby, and on the shield to the left it is shown impaling Scrope.
In the south aisle is an 18th-century tablet to Thomas Danby, who died in 1582. On the east wall, and next to it, is a large grey marble monument with the bust of Sir Abstrupus Danby, 1727, and on the floor in front is a blue ledger stone with an inscription to his wife Judith, 1712. In the southeast angle is the monument of their son Abstrupus, 1750, and on the south wall are other later Danby and Harcourt tablets.
At the west end of the nave is a small brass to Christopher Kay, died 1689, and Mrs. Jane Nicholson (his grandmother), died 1690. His epitaph forms an acrostic of his name, and between the two verses which form it is inserted the epitaph of Jane Nicholson.
There are a good many mediaeval gravestones preserved, and part of the head and shaft of a good cross of Anglian style, perhaps 9th-century work; but the most interesting carved stone is the round shaft standing in the churchyard by the south porch, richly carved in four stages with figures under roundheaded arcades, but the carving is now almost obliterated. In the top stage were probably represented our Lord and the Apostles; one or two of the others appear to represent baptisms.
Over the chancel arch is a portion of a large painting of the Nativity by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In it is an angel resting on clouds, holding an inscribed scroll and gazing at a radiant cross above him. The design resembles that of the well-known New College window. The picture is said to have been injured by fire at Belvoir Castle, Rutland, in 1816. How this piece of it came to this church is not known. Over the north arcade are hung hatchments of various families.
There are eight bells, the first two cast in 1862 by Warner. The other six are inscribed with a set of verses, each taking a line. They were all cast by James Harrison of Barrow in 1766, and the third recast in 1878. The inscriptions run: (3) 'Look for my brethren whilst the peal I lead'; (4) 'We to the trible's motion must take heed'; (5) 'In various courses we are taught to range'; (6) 'In singles dubbles and in tripples range'; (7) 'For every peal is rung by different scheme'; and (8) 'Of dodge and bob and round at the extreme.'
The plate includes a cup of 1650, a cup of 1789, a cup, paten and two flagons of 1790, and a modern paten.
The registers begin in 1599.
The church of ST. PAUL, Healey, is a modern building in the style of the 14th century, consisting of a chancel, central tower, north and south transepts and south porch. The tower has an octagonal spire, and the roofs are steep pitched.
The church of Masham is mentioned in 1086; it descended with the manor (q.v.) to Niel Daubeney. He granted it to Sampson Daubeney, who assented to the grant of this church, among others, by Roger de Mowbray to his foundation of Newburgh Priory. Sampson reserved to himself full possession of the church as long as he should remain in lay habit, and stipulated that in the event of his decease or taking monastic vows his son Roger should hold it in the like manner and should be provided for during his minority out of the revenues of the church. (fn. 165) Possibly owing to these reservations Masham Church appears never to have become the actual property of Newburgh Priory, in spite of confirmations obtained in 1389 and 1478, (fn. 166) and in or about 1158 (fn. 167) Roger de Mowbray granted it with others to form a prebend in the church of St. Peter, York. (fn. 168) In 1278 a vicarage was ordained in the united churches of Masham and Kirkby Malzeard, (fn. 169) in 1292 the prebend of Masham was valued at £166 13s. 4d. (fn. 170) and at the Dissolution at £136. In 1536 Thomas Bedyll, then prebendary, granted his prebend of Masham, excepting, however, the advowson, to Master John Gostwyke (fn. 171) for fifty years, at the yearly rent of £136 13s. 4d. The king in 1544 granted the advowson of the prebend of Masham to Lord Chancellor Wriothesley. (fn. 172) It was then dissolved, and on the surrender of this grant (fn. 173) Henry VIII gave the revenues of the prebend and the advowson of the church to Trinity College, Cambridge. (fn. 174) The living is still united with Kirkby Malzeard and remains in the gift of the college. The prebendal estates constituted a peculiar jurisdiction with its own ecclesiastical court and seal. (fn. 175)
The church of Healey was built in 1848, its advowson belonging to the vicar of Masham. A chapel at Ellington is said to have been built in or before 1287, and there are said to have been chapels at High and Low Burton, Fearby, Leighton and probably at Aldburgh. (fn. 176)
By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 19 June 1868 the following charities were placed under the administration of the lord or lady of the manor of Mashamshire, the vicar of Masham and the incumbent of Healey and of the ancient and select vestry of the parish known as 'The Four and Twenty of the Parish of Masham,' and the object of the several charities defined, namely—charities of Mrs. Ann Norton, will 1640, Lady York and Sir Abstrupus Danby 1712, present endowment £640 consols, with the official trustees, arising from the sale in 1872 of land acquired in 1714 by gifts of these donors; the income of £16 a year to be applied in apprenticing children of poor residents in the township or constabulary of Swinton with Warthermarske, or failing proper objects therein, beneficiaries to be selected from any other part of the parish.
The Poor's Lands in Coverdale and Tipping's Dole, deed 1731, consisting of 4 a. 3 r., producing about £10 a year, the net income, after setting aside the annual sum of 28s. in respect of Tipping's Dole, to be divided into five equal parts, one of such five equal parts together with the said sum of 28s. to be applied by the trustees to the benefit of necessitous inhabitants of the township of Masham by providing them with clothes, bedding, fuel, aid in sickness, food or other articles in kind, and the remaining four-fifths to the benefit of poor persons resident in the parish of Masham either in apprenticing the children of such persons or in such other manner as the trustees should determine.
Charity of John Hutchinson, will 1719, for poor of the townships of Masham and Swinton, rent-charge of £2; William Ripley's Dole, will 1722, for poor of township of Fearby; the Ilton-cum-Pott Dole for the poor of that township, rent-charge of 10s.; William King's gift, date unknown, for the poor of Swinton, interest on £12 10s.; Bartlett's Dole, date unknown, for the poor of the same township, rent-charge of 5s. The clear annual income of these charities to be applied for the benefit of the deserving and necessitous inhabitants of the township or places respectively entitled in such manner as the trustees should determine.
In 1842 Mrs. Marsden gave £220 consols (with the official trustees), dividends amounting to £5 10s. to be applied to the benefit of necessitous inhabitants of the parish of Masham as directed in respect of the income of the Poor's Lands above mentioned.
Miss Elizabeth Wrather, by will 1853, left £100 stock, annual income after the payment of the yearly sum of £1 to the Dorcas Society at Masham, to be applied towards the support of the free school, now the National school. The estate of this donor was the subject of legal proceedings, the results of which do not appear to have been communicated to the Charity Commissioners.
The Church Lands.—The parish has since 1544 been in possession of 4 a. or thereabouts let at £4 10s. a year, which with a fixed annual payment of 5s. 8d. is applied for church purposes.
William Danby, by deed of 1 March 1833, gave an annuity of £30, charged on Warthermarske Farm for the salary of the organist of the parish church. This is regulated by scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 6 January 1885, as varied by scheme of 7 July 1905.
The Harcourt almshouses, founded by deeds of 17 March 1856 and 2 August 1858 (enrolled), consist of ten houses, six built by Mrs. Anne Holwell Danby Vernon Harcourt and four by Admiral Octavius Henry Cyril Venables Vernon Harcourt.
The endowment funds consist of £2,650 consols given by Mrs. Harcourt, £1,775 consols by Admiral Harcourt, £29 17s. 2d. bank stock representing a legacy of £100 by will of Richard Whitelock proved 1893, and £1,149 8s. 6d. consols representing a legacy of £1,000 received in February 1907 from the executors of the first Lord Masham, will proved 15 August 1906. The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, the annual dividends of which amounted to £142 3s. 8d.
In 1832 Mary Countess Harcourt by will bequeathed a legacy represented by £564 19s. 5d. (with the official trustees), the dividends of which amounting to £14 2s. 4d. are applied for the benefit of poor widows in accordance with the trusts of the will.
In 1863 Admiral Octavius Vernon Harcourt by will left £219 3s. 7d. consols (with the official trustees), the dividends of which amounting to £5 9s. 4d. are applied in the distribution of coals and clothing in accordance with the trusts of deed, 1865.
In 1834 a society was formed known as the Female Free Gift Society, for the benefit of which the official trustees hold a sum of £119 4s. 2d. consols, representing the gifts of £100 and £10 10s. by Mrs. Jane Thirkell and Mrs. Marsden respectively. The income is distributed by the vicar among sick members.
The classical school and the free school were founded by deed of 1760 in furtherance of the wills of Oswald Coates, 1748, and others, the several legacies and gifts having been laid out in the purchase of real estate. (fn. 177) The endowments were subsequently divided. About 38 a. and rent-charge of £10 were assigned to the classical school, producing about £50 a year, and 1 a. 1 r. of land, rent-charges of £21 12s. 4d., and £232 2s. 6d. consols (arising from legacy of £100 left by will of William Danby  and sale of arms of Masham volunteers) to the free school, now the National school. The foundation was administered under a scheme of the Court of Chancery of 10 December 1856.
By the provisions of the scheme of 1868 above mentioned the free school shares in Miss Elizabeth Wrather's charity.
In 1856 Mrs. Vernon Harcourt by deed gave £666 13s. 4d. consols, the income to be applied towards the salary of the mistress of the girls' school adjoining the Harcourt almshouses and clothing twelve girls. The dividends amounting to £16 13s. 4d. are now administered under a scheme of 22 January 1901.
Township of Ellingstring.—Thomas Wright, by will dated 5 October 1715, gave to the poor of Ellingstring £50, the use of it, 50s. a year, to be paid for ever on St. Thomas's Day to honest religious poor people. The yearly sum of £2 10s. was paid by John Wright, the sole executor of the will, and afterwards by a succeeding proprietor of the real estate mentioned in the will.
In or about 1830 Henry Proctor gave £55, the income to be distributed among the poor of the township. The trust fund is now represented by £49 10s. 9d. consols with the official trustees, producing £1 4s. 8d. a year.
Township of High and Low Ellington.—Thomas Durham, by will proved in 1865, left a legacy, now represented by £228 11s. 7d. consols with the official trustees, the dividends, which amount to £5 4s., to be applied as to one moiety in money and clothing poor people residing in the township and the other moiety towards the education and schooling of poor children.
Township of Healey.—The school known as Kellbank School, founded in 1822 by William Heslington and William Danby, is endowed with 11 a. 2 r. 18 p., let at £18 a year.
By a deed of trust, 1848, a sum of £139 6s. 8d. consols was set aside for the repair of the church. The stock is held by the official trustees, producing £3 9s. 8d. a year.