A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
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Rodebi (xi cent.).
This parish, covering more than 7,000 acres in the valley of the Leven, contains the townships of Hutton, Rudby-in-Cleveland, Skutterskelfe and Sexhow, and the chapelries of Middleton-upon-Leven and East Rounton. The soil is fertile, consisting of loam on a subsoil of Keuper marls, and about half the total area is under cultivation. (fn. 1) Wheat, beans and oats are the chief crops raised. For the most part the land is low and level with only slight undulations.
Hutton is a large village on the southern bank of the Leven. It was the most important vill in the neighbourhood at the time of the Domesday Survey, (fn. 2) but the name Hutton-next-Rudby, or Hutton Rudby, which it has borne since the 13th century, may indicate that the village across the river superseded it in importance. At the beginning of the 19th century, however, the weaving industry was well established at Hutton and the population had accordingly increased. (fn. 3) There were still many hand-loom weavers in the village in 1846, and a flax-spinning mill had replaced the old paper-mill. (fn. 4) The linen industry was superseded in the middle of the 19th century by the manufacture of sail-cloth, which flourished till the beginning of the present century.
The village is built round a large green and has Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels. The part of it lying to the south-west is known as Enterpen, a name which has no place in the records of the village, and is commemorated only in the couplet, 'Hutton Rudby, Entrepen, Far more rogues than honest men.' (fn. 5)
The partition of the common lands of Hutton took place before 1652, when William Chipchase granted his son Robert 4 oxgangs 'divided and laid out by the late partition,' and 4 other oxgangs between 'Yarme Street and the Outleyes.' (fn. 6) The charters of Healaugh Priory give some of the old names of the Hutton fields. John Wiles of Hutton gave 4½ acres, 'one acre lying at Northbrockes towards the field of Crathorn . . . one at Brokes in Midelfield . . . 1½ at Helierhuse towards Pothou . . . and one at Thunnerkerback and Stanbrek.' (fn. 7)
Rudby lies next to Hutton on the other side of the river, and is reached by a stone bridge of two arches, probably the 'Rudebe brigg,' for the repair of which Cuthbert Place left 26s. 8d. in 1513. (fn. 8) Here, on the banks of the stream, is the church of All Saints, the mother church of a wide district. Near the churchyard is the free school of Hutton Rudby, founded by Charles Bathurst in 1740. (fn. 9)
It was to a house in this parish that Mary Ward, foundress of the Institute of Mary, came in 1642 with 'three coachfulls' of her nuns. The community stayed here for some time, and mass was regularly celebrated in a room fitted up as a chapel. (fn. 10)
A road to Stokesley runs along the north bank of the river past Skutterskelfe, where is the mansion once occupied by the Viscounts Falkland, and known as Leven Grove. It is now called Skutterskelfe Hall, and is the seat of Sir Robert Ropner, bart. The house was rebuilt about 1831 in the Renaissance style, but was not finished till after 1837. The old stables remained till the 'sixties of the last century, and there have been many additions to the house, which is a dignified two-story building with cornice and balustraded parapets. Further on the road passes the two farms of Thoralby and Braworth.
South of the Leven, and separated from Hutton by the Coul Beck, is the village of Sexhow, the seat of the Layton family during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Sexhow station on the Cleveland railway is a short distance to the south.
The little village of East Rounton lies south-west of Hutton on the banks of the Wiske, where there was probably a mill in the early 14th century. (fn. 11) It has a chapel of ease to Rudby Church. East Rounton Grange, built in 1876, (fn. 12) is the seat of Sir Hugh Bell, bart.
The remaining chapelry of Middleton is reached by a lane running north from Hutton. There is no village here.
RUDBY was in 1086 soke of Hutton. (fn. 13) At the beginning of the 13th century the rector of the church of Rudby had land here, (fn. 14) and in 1284 the vill was said to be demesne land of the church. (fn. 15) It developed into a RECTORY MANOR of considerable value, (fn. 16) with appurtenances in Carlton and Whorlton. (fn. 17) In 1228 the rector received the profits and appointed a vicar with a pension of 15 marks, (fn. 18) but two centuries later the rectors seem to have performed the duties of their office. (fn. 19)
In 1527 Christopher Lord Conyers, the patron of the living, sold the advowson and rectory to Cardinal Wolsey, (fn. 20) who granted it to his new college at Oxford. (fn. 21) The rectory was appropriated to the college in 1528 and a vicarage ordained. (fn. 22) On the fall of Wolsey the endowments of the college were forfeited, (fn. 23) but the king refounded it under the name of 'Henry the Eighth's College' in 1532, and a fresh grant of Rudby was made. (fn. 24) Meanwhile Christopher Lord Conyers had laid claim to the rectory on the ground that it had never been lawfully appropriated; 'notwithstanding any grant made by him, he considered himself patron of the living.' (fn. 25) He secured its revenues for himself for a year or two, but in 1534 paid £40 for a half-year's farm to Cromwell for the dean of Henry the Eighth's College. (fn. 26)
The college was once more surrendered to the Crown in 1545. (fn. 27) Most of its revenues were used to endow the cathedral of Christ Church, Oxford, (fn. 28) but Rudby Church and rectory seem to have remained in the possession of the Crown. They were granted by Elizabeth in 1591 to Edward Downing and Roger Rant in fee. (fn. 29) These grantees must have sold the manor and rectory to John Ingleby of Lawkland, who died in possession in 1610. (fn. 30) His son Thomas, who succeeded him, is said to have sold the manor, (fn. 31) but it appears among his lands at his death in 1622. (fn. 32) It was, however, sold before 1634 to Sir Arthur Ingram of Temple Newsam, (fn. 33) who settled it upon his younger son John. (fn. 34) On the death of John the manor reverted to his elder brother Arthur, (fn. 35) who was succeeded by his younger son Arthur Ingram of Barrowby. (fn. 36) The latter in 1700 made a marriage settlement of the rectory manor on his son Thomas and his heirs male. Thomas had two sons, but both died without issue, and he was succeeded by his brother Arthur. (fn. 37) Arthur made a settlement of the estate on his marriage in 1718. He had no male issue, and by his will in 1738 left his manors in trust to his daughter Isabella wife of the Hon. George Cary and her children. (fn. 38) George Cary became lord of the manor of Skutterskelfe (q.v.), and Rudby has since followed continuously the descent of that manor. (fn. 39) Sir Robert Ropner, bart., is now lord of the manor.
A grant of free warren was made to Walter de Kirkham and his successors, rectors of Rudby, in 1227. (fn. 40)
In the Domesday Survey BRAWORTH (Braithewath, xiii cent.; Brawathe, xvi cent.) was not mentioned. It formed part of the Meynell fee, (fn. 41) and was held in 1299 by Robert de Braworth. (fn. 42) It seems to have come subsequently into the possession of the Meynells of Castle Leavington, for Nicholas Gower of Sexhow acquired it in 1350 (fn. 43) by an agreement with Alice wife of Robert de Bolton and heir of John de Meynell. (fn. 44)
Braworth descended with Sexhow (q.v.) to the Layton family, (fn. 45) and was sold in 1568 by Robert Layton to Thomas Layton of Skutterskelfe (fn. 46) (q.v.), which it followed in descent, passing with that manor to the Cary family. It is represented at the present day by a single farm.
At HUTTON (Hoton, xi cent.; Hoton juxta Ruddeby, xiv cent.; Hutton Rudby, xix cent.) Gospatric held before the Conquest a 'manor' worth £24, with soke in Rudby, Skutterskelfe, 'Blatun,' Whorlton, Goulton and Crathorne. In 1086 the value had fallen to 26s. 8d., and the 'manor' and 6 carucates of land were in the hands of the Count of Mortain. (fn. 47)
Hutton became part of the 'Canterbury fee,' (fn. 48) and was held by the family of Meynell of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop was still overlord in 1616. (fn. 49) Part of the Meynell fee was granted in the 13th century to the priory of Healaugh Park. (fn. 50)
The manor followed the descent of Whorlton (q.v.) in the families of Meynell, Darcy and Strangways. (fn. 51) On the division of the Strangways estates it was granted to Robert Roos, (fn. 52) who in 1544 conveyed it to George Darcy. (fn. 53) Two years later George Darcy sold it to Sir Arthur Darcy, (fn. 54) who died in possession in 1561. (fn. 55) He was succeeded by his son and heir Henry, (fn. 56) who in 1567 alienated the manor to Robert Layton of Sexhow. (fn. 57) He sold it almost immediately to Thomas Layton of Skutterskelfe, (fn. 58) who died seised in 1584. (fn. 59) The manor then followed the descent of Sexhow (q.v.) in the Layton family (fn. 60) till 1678, when it was sold to Sir William Turner of Kirkleatham. (fn. 61)
Sir William Turner had apparently bought the estate as endowment for his hospital at Kirkleatham, for in the same year the 'manor of Hutton juxta Rudby' was conveyed to trustees for the benefit of the hospital, (fn. 62) to which it still belongs. Some property here was retained by the Turner family, for William Turner appointed a gamekeeper for his manor in 1736. (fn. 63) It was in the hands of John Turner in 1738, (fn. 64) and passed with part of Sigston (fn. 65) (q.v.) to the Slingsbys of Scriven. (fn. 66) In 1808 it was the property of Thomas Wayne of Anngrove Hall. (fn. 67) Mark Barker, who was lord of the manor in 1846, (fn. 68) left this manor to his adopted son, Mark Barker Passman. He died in 1885, and was succeeded by his brother, Mr. Henry Passman. (fn. 69) At the present day manorial rights are held by Mr. Allan Bowes Wilson of Hutton House.
In the early 13th century the Prior of Healaugh Park obtained from Alan de Wilton 3 carucates in Hutton, for which he rendered 3 marks to the Meynells. (fn. 70) The last Stephen de Meynell released this rent to the prior in exchange for 6 oxgangs of land in Middleton. (fn. 71) At the Dissolution the property of the priory here was worth £2 7s. 8d. per annum. (fn. 72)
Eight carucates in MIDDLETON-ON-LEVEN (Middelton super Levene, Middelton in Cleveland, xiii cent.) were in 1086 soke of the manor of Seamer. (fn. 73) Middleton subsequently became part of the Meynell fee, (fn. 74) and the family of Meynell had a manor here which passed from them through the Darcys of Knaith (fn. 75) to the Strangways. (fn. 76) It was alienated to William Lord Dacre in 1541, (fn. 77) and was apparently retained by his family on the division of the Strangways estates, as it was claimed as the right of the two Dacre heirs in 1635. (fn. 78) If they succeeded in securing it the manor must have come by their marriages into the possession of the family of Howard, Earls of Carlisle. (fn. 79) There is, however, no record of their possession, and the history of the manor during the 17th and 18th centuries is very obscure. In 1808 it was, together with Seamer, the property of Lord Egremont, (fn. 80) on whose death it was inherited by his son Colonel Wyndham, afterwards Lord Leconfield. (fn. 81) The present Lord Leconfield is lord of the manor.
Several smaller estates in Middleton can be traced for a few generations. In 1293 John Dyve died in possession of a capital messuage and 15 oxgangs of land here, which he held of Nicholas de Meynell. (fn. 82) His heirs were Joan wife of Sir Ralph de Trehampton and Elizabeth wife of Sir John Daubeny. (fn. 83) The latter died a few months later, leaving a son and heir Hugh de Buscy. (fn. 84) In 1379 Sir William Buscy, probably the grandson of Hugh, quitclaimed a quarter of this manor of 'Midilton on Leven' to Sir Roger Fulthorpe. (fn. 85) Nothing more is known of it.
Members of a family bearing the name of the place held land in Middleton down to the 18th century. (fn. 88)
Before the Conquest Tor and Carle had 8 carucates of land at EAST ROUNTON (Rantune, xi cent.; Rungeton, xiii cent.; Estrongton, xv cent.), which was Crown land in 1086. (fn. 89) The vill subsequently became part of the Meynell fee. (fn. 90)
The succession of the tenants of this manor is very difficult to trace. In the middle of the 13th century it had been granted to a younger branch of the Meynell family, represented in 1268 by Robert de Meynell of East Rounton. His successor John was holding 4 carucates here in 1299. (fn. 91) He was still in possession in 1301–2. (fn. 92) By 1309 he had been succeeded by Simon de Meynell, on whom the manor was settled in that year. (fn. 93) He was returned as lord in 1316. (fn. 94) The family is not again mentioned in connexion with the place, and in 1327 East Rounton was among the possessions of William de Ayermin, Bishop of Norwich. (fn. 95) He paid 2s. subsidy here in 1327, (fn. 96) but nothing in 1333. In both these years John de Seamer (fn. 97) was the chief landowner, in 1361 John son of John Lazenby of Rounton, and in 1372 John Lazenby of East Rounton is mentioned. (fn. 98) He was succeeded in possession by William Lazenby, who forfeited his estates for rebellion in 1405, (fn. 99) when East Rounton was granted to Wenceslawe Dorsteynore and Joan his wife. (fn. 100) William Lazenby was subsequently pardoned, (fn. 101) but does not appear again in connexion with the manor. From this date there are only scattered hints as to the ownership of East Rounton, and probably the statement of local historians that it was divided out into parcels must be accepted. (fn. 102)
Sir Hugh Paweson of Rounton was admitted to the Gild of Corpus Christi, York, in 1471. (fn. 103) Nothing more is known of him. In 1548–9 Francis Killinghall conveyed the 'manor of Eastrungton' to Richard Smythe. (fn. 104) Shortly afterwards it appears for about fifty years between 1554 and 1611 in the possession of the family of Roddam (fn. 105) of Little Houghton, Northumberland.
Charles Viscount Howard had 'a manor of East Rounton,' apparently inherited from the Dacre family, among his lands in 1657 (fn. 106) and 1663. (fn. 107) In 1723 Thomas Hayes conveyed an estate called the manor to Thomas Cresfield. (fn. 108) It appeared among the lands of Richard Peirse of Hutton Bonville in 1774, (fn. 109) while George Edward Dinsdale and Alice Dawson had a manor here in 1814. (fn. 110)
The principal landowners in East Rounton, however, from the beginning of the 19th century, were the family of Wailes, (fn. 111) who lived at the Grange. John Wailes died in 1825 and left his estates to his son John Wailes, a minor; he came of age in 1833, and in 1866 sold this property to Sir I. Lowthian Bell, bart., (fn. 112) whose son Sir Hugh Bell, bart., is now the lord of the manor.
No mention of SEXHOW (Sexhou, xiv cent.) occurs in the Domesday Survey, but it must have been granted with Faceby (q.v.) to Robert de Brus before the end of the 11th century. The two places are always closely associated. The fee of Peter de Brus here was assigned to Margaret de Roos, who was holding it in 1284, (fn. 113) and subsequently passed by her gift to Marmaduke de Thweng. (fn. 114) It afterwards came into the possession of the Lumley family. (fn. 115)
The tenants of the manor in the 13th century were the Gowers. The Stephen Gower who was party to a fine concerning land in Faceby in 1208 (fn. 116) was probably the lord of Sexhow. In 1284 Robert Gower was the representative of his family. (fn. 117) He was succeeded by his son John, (fn. 118) who in 1320 had licence to have divine service celebrated in his oratory at Sexhow. (fn. 119) Nicholas Gower, son of John, (fn. 120) was the next lord of the manor, and obtained a grant of free warren here in 1356. (fn. 121) His son and heir John succeeded him shortly afterwards, (fn. 122) and was dead in 1377, when the wardship of his three daughters and co-heirs Elizabeth, Maud and Isabel was granted to Sir Roger Fulthorpe. (fn. 123)
Elizabeth widow of John Gower claimed dower in 1390 against Elizabeth, then wife of Thomas Layton, Maud, who had married John de Killerby, and Isabel Gower in Sexhow and other places. (fn. 124) The lands were at that time held in common by the heirs, (fn. 125) but a division was subsequently made, and Elizabeth and her husband Thomas Layton became possessed of Sexhow. (fn. 126) The manor was settled on them and their heirs in 1418, with a remainder to Elizabeth's sister Maud and a further remainder to John de Helmsley. (fn. 127)
The son and heir of Thomas and Elizabeth was John Layton, who made his will in March 1466–7. (fn. 128) Robert son of John (fn. 129) died in 1480 (fn. 130) and his widow Eleanor in 1503; their son Thomas died seised of the manor of Sexhow in 1524. (fn. 131) His son Lancelot succeeded him, and died in 1559, leaving a son Robert. (fn. 132)
In 1568 Robert Layton sold the manor of Sexhow to Thomas Layton, then part lord of Skutterskelfe. (fn. 133) It was inherited by Charles son of Thomas in 1584. (fn. 134) Charles Layton died in 1617, (fn. 135) leaving a son and heir Thomas, who was already a knight. (fn. 136) Sir Thomas, who died in 1650, (fn. 137) had three sons, Thomas, Robert and Brian. (fn. 138) The eldest had a son Charles, who was succeeded by his sister and heir Bridget. Sexhow seems, however, to have been inherited by Robert, (fn. 139) brother of Thomas. The son of the latter, another Robert, (fn. 140) sold the manor before 1721 to the family of Foulis of Ingleby (fn. 141) (q.v.), which it followed in descent to the end of the 19th century, when it was in the hands of the Lords De Lisle and Dudley. In 1907 it was sold with other land in the parish to Sir Robert Ropner, bart., the present owner. (fn. 142)
Two carucates and 2 oxgangs in SKUTTERSKELFE (Codreschef, Codreschelf, Codeschelf, xi cent.; Scokerskelfe, xiv cent.; Scotherskelf, xvi cent.) were in the 11th century soke of Stokesley (fn. 143) (q.v.), while other land here was soke of Hutton (fn. 144) (q.v.); in both cases the overlordships followed the descent of the manor to which they were attached. (fn. 145) The 2 oxgangs held in 1086 by the king (fn. 146) must have been granted to Robert de Brus, for land in Skutterskelfe is said to have been held with Faceby and Sexhow (q.v.) of the Thwengs and Lumleys. (fn. 147)
In the 13th and 14th centuries the under-tenants were the families of Skutterskelfe and Gower. The Skutterskelfes held of the Meynell (fn. 148) fee, and the Gowers presumably of the barony of Stokesley. It seems probable that the Gowers finally acquired the whole vill; it was certainly their holding that developed into the manor of Skutterskelfe. It followed the descent of Sexhow (fn. 149) (q.v.) till the division of the estates of John Gower. Skutterskelfe then fell to the share of his second daughter Maud, who married as her second husband Nicholas Lindley. (fn. 150) Their heir was Richard Lindley, who in 1466 (fn. 151) complained that John Richmond, late chaplain of Rudby, with two other chaplains had broken into his house here, carried off his goods and assaulted Alice Hastings his servant. He died in 1481, leaving a son Thomas. (fn. 152) Thomas Lindley died in possession of the estate in 1530. (fn. 153) Of his three daughters and co-heirs, Elizabeth married first Joseph Milner and afterwards Oliver Manning, Muriel married Thomas Layton of Thornton-le-Street, and Anne married Lawrence Kyghley. (fn. 154) All three shares finally came into the hands of the Laytons. Thomas Milner, son of Elizabeth, died in 1594, leaving a daughter and heir Mary. (fn. 155) She married Charles Layton, son of Thomas Layton and grandson of Muriel. (fn. 156) The third share was inherited by Thomas Kyghley, son and heir of Anne, (fn. 157) and on his death in 1551 passed to his son Lawrence. (fn. 158) The reversion of half this share was the property of the Milner family in 1594, (fn. 159) and passed with theirs to the Laytons. The rest must have been acquired by purchase. (fn. 160)
Charles Layton was lord of the manor of Sexhow (q.v.), which had been sold to his father. Skutterskelfe passed with that manor to his son Sir Thomas and grandson Thomas. (fn. 161) It was sold before 1659 (fn. 162) to the family of Bathurst of Clints and Arkengarthdale (fn. 163) (q.v.). Charles Bathurst was in possession in 1718, (fn. 164) and the manor was inherited by his three daughters, Mary wife of William Sleigh, Jane wife of William Turner, and Frances wife of Francis Forster. (fn. 165) In 1754 the three shares were sold by the co-heirs to the Hon. George Cary, (fn. 166) who took up his residence at Skutterskelfe. (fn. 167) His daughter Elizabeth married Sir Jeffery Amherst, K.B., in 1767 (fn. 168) and was lady of the manor in 1822. (fn. 169) On her death without issue in 1830 the estate passed to her distant cousin Viscount Falkland, who was created Baron Hunsdon of Skutterskelfe in 1832. (fn. 170) He was succeeded in the manor by his brother and nephew, eleventh and twelfth Viscounts Falkland respectively. (fn. 171) In 1898 it was sold by Lord Falkland to Sir Robert Ropner, bart., the present lord of the manor. (fn. 172)
Rent in Skutterskelfe was granted to Healaugh Park by William de Tanton. (fn. 173) In 1530 Thomas Lindley held 1 carucate of that house. (fn. 174) Land here late of Healaugh Park was granted in March 1553–4 to Thomas Crawley, who conveyed it to Robert Layton. (fn. 175) It was sold by Robert Layton's son Robert to Reginald Conyers, whose widow Elizabeth with her husband Edward Griffin held it under his will in 1568. (fn. 176)
In 1086 a carucate in THORALBY (Turoldesbi, xi cent.), formerly held by Archil, was Crown land (fn. 177); it subsequently became part of the fee of the Meynells. (fn. 178) Two carucates which were soke of Stokesley (fn. 179) afterwards became part of the Balliol fee. (fn. 180)
In 1356 the vill was held by Nicholas Gower (fn. 181); henceforth it followed the descent of the manor of Skutterskelfe (q.v.).
The church of ALL SAINTS is picturesquely situated in a deep wooded glen on the north bank of the River Leven, and consists of chancel 39 ft. 6 in. by 19 ft. 6 in. with north vestry and organ chamber, nave of four bays 61 ft. 9 in. by 20 ft., south aisle 12 ft. wide, and tower on the south side forming a porch 9 ft. 6 in. square, all these measurements being internal. The site is an ancient one, but no part of the existing structure appears to be older than the early part of the 14th century, to which period the chancel and the three eastern bays of the nave together with the south aisle belong, though altered and rebuilt in parts at a later time. The nave and aisle were extended westward and the tower added in the 15th century.
Of the earlier church on the site nothing can now be said, but in all probability the present structure is a rebuilding of a 12th-century church consisting of chancel and aisleless nave, the latter being about 45 ft. in length. In the 14th-century rebuilding, which may have been soon after 1300, the size of the nave was not altered, and some of the old masonry of the north wall and at the angles may have been retained, but the building was enlarged by the addition of a south aisle and a new and larger chancel was built probably round the old one. After the erection of the tower nothing seems to have been done to the fabric for about three hundred years, when some time in the 18th century new leaded roofs of flat pitch were erected to both chancel and nave entirely different in character from those previously existing. The north wall of the chancel appears to have been entirely rebuilt and the south wall heightened, and the nave and aisle were put under one wide roof of even span, their external distinction being thus lost. A great deal of reconstruction appears to have been done at this time, the whole of the aisle wall being either rebuilt or refaced, and a high wide gable with its apex no longer centrally placed in relation to the nave erected at the west end. The west window was thus thrown out of the centre of the elevation, producing a very lop-sided and unfortunate effect. External appearance, however, seems to have been of secondary importance to internal 'comfort,' a flat plaster ceiling being erected in the nave at the wallplate level cutting across the tops of both the west window and the chancel arch. In 1847 the roofs were renewed, slates being substituted for the lead covering, and in 1860 the ceiling was taken down and the roof opened out. About the same time the walls were scraped of the many coats of limewash with which they had long been covered, exposing fragments of wall paintings in the spandrels of the nave arcades. (fn. 182) The church was restored in 1892, when the old box pews were removed and new seating inserted, the chancel furnished in oak, and the organ chamber added.
The chancel has a modern window of five cinquefoiled lights, a copy of one of early 14th-century date, and three two-light pointed windows with forked mullions on the south side. The north and east walls have been rebuilt, and the east gable is of flat pitch with plain coping. There are no buttresses to the walls, and the old masonry on the south side consists of squared blocks in courses with a high chamfered plinth. Externally the chancel preserves little or nothing of its original appearance, the height of the south wall above the windows together with the flat-pitched blue-slated roof and iron gutter making it entirely commonplace. There is a single modern lancet at the east end of the north wall, to the west of which are the vestry and organ chamber, the former with a gable and the latter with a lean-to roof. Internally the walls are plastered, and no ancient ritual arrangements remain. The tall pointed chancel arch is of two chamfered orders, 16 ft. 4 in. wide, without hood mould. The outer order is continued to the ground on either side below an impost, and the inner springs from moulded corbels at a height of 11 ft. from the ground. The roof is of four bays plastered between the rafters, and all the fittings are modern.
The 14th-century nave arcade consists of three pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from clustered piers and similar responds, all with moulded capitals and bases. The piers are 27 in. in diameter with four circular shafts having fillets on the face. They are 7 ft. 11 in. in height to the top of the capitals, which are simply moulded and without carving or other ornament. The detail is all very good and is c. 1300–10. Between the original arcade and the later western arch is a masonry pier marking the extent of the original nave, and the arch itself is of two chamfered orders, the inner (which is narrower than those of the older arches) springing from moulded corbels and the outer going down to the ground. The pointed west window is original and of four lights with double chamfered jambs, embattled transom over the two middle lights, and perpendicular tracery, but without hood mould. In the north wall is a built-up doorway with shouldered arch, and a pointed window of two trefoiled lights and quatrefoil in the head near the east end. The wall, which is otherwise blank, and is almost entirely covered with ivy outside, has a moulded plinth, which seems to point to a rebuilding on this side when the nave was extended westward. At the west end there is a chamfered set back, or high plinth, below the window, and a diagonal buttress of three stages at the north-west angle. The aisle is lit by three modern three-light windows on the south side, all probably copies of older ones. Two of these, to the east of the tower, are square-headed with the mullions crossing in the head, the one to the west of the tower being of similar type but pointed. There is an old window of three trefoiled lights at the east end of the aisle with rounded head, but the west wall is blank. All the external masonry of the aisle is new, and the south wall finishes with a straight parapet. On the north side of the nave the roof overhangs. Internally the walls are plastered.
At the east end of the aisle in the usual position are the remains of a square-headed piscina with floreated bowl, the front part of which has been cut away, and between the first and second windows from the east a wide 14th-century recess under a richly moulded trefoiled arch set within a straight gable with foliated finial. The stonework is a good deal mutilated and is still covered with limewash. In the recess is a low altar tomb on which lies the effigy of an ecclesiastic in low relief, the hands holding a chalice; behind the head is conventional foliage in the form of a cross with oak leaves and acorns. The slab on which the figure lies has a line of flowing leaf ornament on the edge. In the north wall of the nave nearly opposite is a smaller trefoiled recess with simply moulded arch, but containing no figure.
The tower is of three stages with moulded plinth, embattled parapet, and diagonal buttresses of six stages at each angle going up the full height and terminating in angle pinnacles. The two lower stages facing east and west are blank, and there is a vice in the north-west corner. The south doorway has a low pointed arch of two chamfered orders the full width of the porch, the inner order dying into the wall and the outer continued down the jambs. In the wall above is a small square-headed barred opening. The middle stage on the south side has a small ogee-headed trefoiled window, and the belfry windows are square-headed and of two trefoiled lights with transom at mid-height. The porch has a pointed stone barrel vault carried by four chamfered ribs and a wall rib at each end. There is a stone seat on either side. The inner doorway has a pointed arch with hood mould terminating in heads.
The font is ancient and consists of a plain circular basin with short shaft and moulded base. Around the bottom of the plinth are four shields, two blank or indecipherable, one with the arms of Conyers, and the other charged with the cross of St. George.
On the north wall of the nave at the east end above the pulpit is a good 16th-century mural tablet with architectural framework and an inscription to Thomas Milner (d. 8 November 1594) setting out that Thomas Lindley married Margery second daughter of Sir Thomas Newport, and had issue Elizabeth wife of Joseph Sorthwaites, alias Milner, who had issue Thomas Milner, who married Frances daughter of William Baytes, who had issue Mary wife of Charles Layton, who had issue Sir Thomas Layton.
The pulpit, which is square on plan and stands on four legs, is of oak with inlaid marquetry panels and bears the name of Thomas Milner in the top panel together with a shield of arms below. It was formerly covered with several coats of paint, its architectural merit not being suspected till the paint was removed in 1860. It was apparently a gift or in memory of the Thomas Milner commemorated in the tablet.
Some of the oak seating of the nave is of 17thcentury date, perhaps cut down, with turned knobs to the pew ends, and the modern seating has been made to correspond. In the east window of the south aisle is a roundel of old heraldic glass with the arms of Conyers quartering Darcy and Meynell encircled by the garter.
The chancel contains several mural monuments to members of the Cary family. (fn. 183)
There is a ring of three bells, originally rung from the porch. The oldest is inscribed 'Ave gratia plña Dominus, 3 Sep. 1664. Miserere mei . J.S.,' and another 'Gloria in altissimis Deo 1767.'
The plate consists of a silver cup of 1744 made by Richard Bayley of London, inscribed 'The gift of Elizabeth Brown late of Stockton to the Parish Church of Hutton Rudby 1745'; two plated cups; a plated salver; and a plated font-basin inscribed 'Presented to Rudby Church by J. M. Lennard Church Warden 1885'; a silver paten presented in 1890 by the Rev. John Johnson, vicar; a silver flagon presented in 1897 by Allan Bowes Wilson, lord of the manor of Hutton; a silver almsdish presented in 1897 by the Rev. James Alder Wilson, rector of Crathorne, the said Allan Bowes Wilson and Miss Annie Hutton Wilson. There are also a pewter font-basin and a brass plate. (fn. 184)
The registers begin in 1584.
The church of ST. CUTHBERT at Middleton upon Leven was rebuilt on the old site and largely of the old material in 1789. It consists of a chancel, nave and western bell-turret containing one bell.
The communion vessels consist of a pewter cup with bell-shaped bowl and thick stem and a block tin paten made, it is suggested, of the lower part of a common candlestick soldered to a shallow baking tin. (fn. 185)
The registers date from 1611.
The church of ST. LAWRENCE, East Rounton, was restored and almost entirely rebuilt in 1884 by 'I. Lowthian Bell and Margaret his wife.' (fn. 186) It is a small rectangular building measuring internally 49 ft. by 15 ft. 9 in. and was apparently of 15th-century date. Some of the ancient masonry is preserved in the north wall, where there are a built-up doorway and an old window. The church has a south porch and west gallery, and a bellcote over the west gable contains one bell. The pointed east window is of three lights, but the side windows are square-headed. At the east end are diagonal buttresses and the roof is of oak covered with red tiles overhanging at the eaves. The font consists of an ancient bowl, roughly squared, with the angles rounded off and tapering below on a modern stem and base. All the fittings are modern.
The plate consists of a paten of 1717, presented by Lady Stanley of Alderley, a plated cup and two pewter plates. (fn. 187)
The registers begin in 1584.
The church was with the manor of Hutton (q.v.) in the fee of the Meynell family. In the late 12th century Hugh de Rudby, then rector, had power from Stephen de Meynell to grant it to the Prior of Guisborough for the purpose of establishing a cell. (fn. 190) This plan was never carried into effect, and the patronage remained in the possession of the Meynells. (fn. 191) It passed with Hutton (q.v.) to the Darcys of Knaith, (fn. 192) but on the division of the estates of Philip Lord Darcy became the property of Margery wife of John Conyers. (fn. 193) It then followed the descent of Hornby in the Conyers family (fn. 194) till it was sold by Christopher Lord Conyers to Cardinal Wolsey (fn. 195) and appropriated to Cardinal's College, Oxford. (fn. 196) From this date the advowson followed the descent of the rectory manor (fn. 197) (q.v.).
The altar of St. Christopher in this church is mentioned in 1483 and the porch of St. Nicholas in 1488. (fn. 198) Land given to maintain a light in Rudby Church was granted in 1585 to Anthony Collins and Laurence Woodnett. (fn. 199)
The chapels dependent on Rudby Church included Whorlton, Seamer, Hilton (q.v.), Middleton and East Rounton. (fn. 200) Some at least of these were in existence in 1275, when the size of the parish made it difficult for the rector to collect the tithes of the adjoining chapels, (fn. 201) but it is uncertain whether those at Middleton and East Rounton were included. They were certainly in existence in 1483. (fn. 202) Both are still chapels to Rudby and in the same patronage.
The 'oratory' which John Gower had in his manor at Sexhow in 1320 (fn. 203) is not afterwards mentioned.
In 1827 Lady Amherst left £10 a year for the poor. By an order of the county court of Yorkshire holden at Stokesley, dated 20 November 1857, the dividends on £333 6s. 8d. consols were directed to be applied on 1 January in every year in the distribution of money, bread, clothing or fuel. In 1906 the sum of 5s. was given to each recipient.
Township of Hutton Rudby.—The Bathurst school charity, founded by Charles Bathurst by deed dated 13 March 1740, is endowed with an annual payment of £5 made by the owner of the Bathurst estates in respect of a gift of £100, a leasehold messuage, formerly used as a school, let at £5 a year, and a sum of £36 2s. 8d. consols with the official trustees. The charity is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 29 March 1895, whereby the income is directed to be applied in exhibitions for higher education and advancement of children attending public elementary schools.
An annual sum of £1 10s. is paid out of the Linden Grove estate by Mr. P. A. F. Blair in respect of David Simpson's charity, will 1783, and distributed among the poor, of which 10s. is applicable in the township of Potto. (fn. 204)
In 1904 Benjamin Robert Sidgwick, by will proved at Durham, left £100 to the parish council to be invested and the income applied in the relief of poor persons without distinction of sex, age, or creed in the township of Hutton Rudby. The legacy was invested in £113 1s. 3d. consols in the corporate name of the parish council of Hutton Rudby. There are usually about twenty recipients or more.