The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: Volume 2, Chester Ward. Originally published by Nichols and Son, London, 1820.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
PARISH OF RYTON
The Parish of Ryton is bounded on three sides by the rivers Tyne and Darwent. The Tyne, flowing betwixt Durham and Northumberland, forms the Northern and North-Eastern boundary till its junction with the Darwent, which divides Ryton from Whickham, and from the Chapelries of Tanfield and Medomsley on the South-East and South, till the junction of the Milkwell burn and Darwent on the South-West. The Milkwell burn, a short imaginary line (drawn betwixt Durham and Northumberland), and the Stanley burn, flowing Northwards and falling into the Tyne near Bradley mill, complete the Western boundary (fn. 1).
The Parish of Ryton is subdivided into six Constableries : 1. Ryton; 2. Ryton Woodside; 3. Crawcrook (including Bradley); 4. Stella; 5. Winlaton, including Bladon, Thornley, the Spen, Whitehouse, and other tenements, parcels of the lordship of Winlaton; 6. Chopwell, which includes Black hall, Milkwell burn, Ravenside, Armondside, Hukergate. and other tenements.
A handsome village, seated in a fair fertile widened vale, where the Tyne flows broad and clear, free from the impurities of trade and manufacture which darken his downward course.
Ryton lying near the military line by Carlisle and Hexham, has frequently suffered from the visitation of the Scottish armies. In 1297 the village is said to have been burned by Wallace, who at that time certainly occupied Hexham (fn. 2), and here, in 1346, St. Cuthbert admonished King David in vision, and meeting him as it were at his boundary fence, warned off the trespasser from his sacred patrimony: “Rex David, more aspidis ad vocem incantantis obturantis aures suas, &c.” (fn. 3)
The manor of Ryton belongs to the See of Durham, under which the greater part of the lands there are held by lease or copy of court roll. Under Boldon Book, “The men of Ryton hold the vill on lease, with the demesne, the assize rent (fn. 4), the mill and the service due (from the villans), with a stock of one draught and two harrows, and twenty chalder of oats of the Bishop's measure, and the fisheries; they pay fourteen pounds rent, make ladings like the men of Whickham, and, jointly with Crawcrok, provide the carriage of one tun of wine.
The Punder has five acres and the thraves like other Punders, and renders thirty hens and two hundred eggs. The villans pay twenty-four hens and two hundred eggs.
Hatfield's Survey mentions three free tenements; the Rector of Ryton holds thirteen acres called the Petrson's medowe, as the glebe of his Church, and pays no rent, as is alleged.
William fil. Thom. Gategang holds a messuage and sixty acres, sometime of William Ughtred, under 13s. 4d. rent; and John Stepyng has a messuage and twenty-one acres, once Gilbert Forster's, 13s. 4d. Bondlands with parcels of the demesne: John Knout holds a messuage and six acres, of which one acre and a half are of the demesne, and the rest bond, 2s. 4d.; John Taillour and twenty-six others hold twenty-five messuages, with divers parcels of bond land and of demesne; John Newcome holds three acres in Wappesley, 18d.; the Rector, a messuage and thirteen acres, 10s. 8d.; William Robynson one acre called Netylsydmed, 4d.; Richard Skyll half an acre at Crombwell bank, 6d.; the Chaplain of St. Mary's altar, one tenement, 6d.; John Bell an acre and a half called Datnesfeld, 18d.; William Robinson five roods under Hunstrok called Lampeland, 5d.; thirty-three others, ten messuages, and divers parcels; the tenants hold amongst them the common forge, of which the dimensions are forty feet by twenty, 4d. rent, and the water mill with ten shillings for toll of ale, 106s. 8d. rent; the same tenants provide carnage of a tun of wine, and are liable to the accustomed repairs of the lord's mill and mill-dam; Robert Newcomen holds Punderland containing five acres, and-receives from the tenants the usual dues of office, and pays at Christmas and Easter thirty hens; John Haynyng holds the fishery in Tyne, and pays 40s.”
As to the said fishery, an Inquest taken at Gateshead in 1344 (fn. 5), states, that from time beyond the memory of man there existed a fishery near Ryton called the Blaklough, to the Westward of Tyne Bridge, belonging to the Bishop of Durham; and another, fishery called Cromwell, of which the third part belongs to the See; and another fishery called Quikham Drawwater, belonging to the Bishop; and a yare called the Rutyare, with three heads, which also belonged to the See, and used to extend to the mid-water of Tyne; another yare of like extent called Maleyare near the Redheugh, all West of Tyne Bridge; and on the East of the bridge was the Kirkyare, beneath the Bishop's manor of Gates-head, extending to one third part of the water of Tyne; a fishery called Toulershell, and a yare under Gateshead Park called Helperyare, to a third of Tyne water; and, lastly, a fishery called Turnwater under Freregose, belonging to the Bishop.
The common belonging to the manor of Ryton was extremely extensive, and its boundaries towards Chopwell were the subject of litigation as early as 1562 (fn. 6). A division of Ryton moor bears date 16 Sept. 1638 (fn. 7); the whole of the allotments are stated to be held of the See by copy of court roll, under 4d. an acre rent; the mines are, of course, reserved to the See,. with the usual clauses of compensation for damages to the tenant of the soil in working; and twenty acres were allotted to the manor mill, to provide horses for fetching in corn.
Ryton, Broomfield, and High Hedgefield, were divided in 1669 (fn. 8). The persons receiving allotments were : Sander, Jolley, Walker, Helcoat, Greenay, Johnson, Best, Humble (fn. 9), Newton, Cooke, French, Linslay, Hauxley, and Surtees. The Westfield, Westcrofts, Eastfield, and Low Hedgefield, were divided in 1690 (fn. 10); the claimants were, Sir Thomas Tempest, Bart, a hundred and seven acres, the Rector of Ryton, seven acres, Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. thirty-four acres; Hilcoate, Walker, Sander, Jolley, Surtees of Milkwell burn, Newton, Cooke, Hauxley, Stokoe, French, Sawyers, Dodds, and Greenay.
Lands in Ryton called Greenside, were included in the forfeiture of John Swinburn of Chopwell, Esq. in 1570, and were granted by Bishop Barnes to Cuthbert Carnaby, Esq. by copy of court roll 4 Oct. 1580 (fn. 11). The Bishop granted other lands betwixt Rickleyforde and Abbotforde, near Rickley-hill (lately enclosed from the lands waste, by John Swynburne), to Robert Dodd (fn. 11).
Ryton Woodside, a separate Constablery, containing several distinct tenements and some portion of free land, lies to the South of the village of Ryton.
Robert Hedworth settled his messuage of Ryton Woodside before 1592 on the marriage of his son John Hedworth with Isabel Harrison of Byermoor (fn. 12), and 14 May, 8 Car. 1632, John Hedworth died seized of the chief messuage of Riton Woodside held of the Bishop in chief, worth 40s. per annum, leaving John his son and heir under age (fn. 13). (See Pedigree of Hedworth.) By Ind. 3 March 1691, Paul Hedworth, of Ryton Woodside, Gent, and Margaret Hedworth, widow, granted their capital messuage of Ryton Woodside to Henry Jenison, of Newcastle, Esq. (fn. 14) who, in 1692, conveyed to Alexander Lambton, of Lambton, Gent. (fn. 14) and 6 March, 1697, William Lambton, of Lambton, Esq. (brother and heir of Alexander) granted the same messuage of Ryton Woodside to Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. (fn. 14) whose descendant, Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. still holds property in Ryton Woodside.
Pedigree of Hedworth, of Ryton Woodside.
Mr. Michael Hedworth, of Woodside, buried 18 April 1676.
Mrs. Barbara Hedworth, of the Woodside, buried 12 June 1681. Ryton Register.
* Ryton Register.
† St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.
The Church stands just without the village towards the river, in a spacious cemetery shaded by lofty elms. The building is handsome and regular, consisting of a nave with uniform ailes, a chancel, and a West tower; the ailes are each formed by two pillars supporting pointed arches; the Western pillars are plain cylinders, those to the East are octagonal; the arches spring from corbeils of human heads. A gallery crosses the West end of the nave; on the front, “This Gallery was erected at the cost of Mr. Ambrose Crowley, and the Company of Smiths, at Winlaton.” Arms of the Smiths' Company. The West tower is square, springing from arches supported by heavy clustered pillars; it is surmounted by an octangular spire; the whole height rises a hundred and eight feet. The chancel is divided from the nave by a blunt pointed arch, springing from corbeils, and closed by a screen of old oak, carved in open tracery, roses, quaterfoils, and foliage. The chancel is stalled on both sides with oak, on which the arms of James, a dolphin embowed inter three crosses, are repeated (fn. 15). The East window under a square label, has six lights divided by a stone transom; there are five narrow lights under pointed arches on the South of the chancel, and one of two lights nearest to the East; the lights in the ailes, and three which open Westward under the tower, are all modernized, single or double, under pointed arches of uniform architecture. The chief entrance is by a South porch; the vestry projects from, the North side of the chancel; a small pointed door is closed up in the North aile. There are some remains of figures and tracery above a small South door into the chancel, and some corbeils and ornaments, about the arches of the windows on the exterior of the South chancel wall. The highest ledge of the tower has also been adorned with grotesque heads, roses, lilies, and quaterfoils; on the East side of the tower, St. George appears in has relief trampling on the Dragon.
There was a Chantry within the Church of Ryton dedicated to the Virgin; the foundation is unknown. In 1425, the account of Ralph Eure, the Bishop's Eschaetor, mentions “five shillings the rent of a messuage and eighteen acres called St. Mary's lands, given by the Lord of Crawcrook to St. Mary's altar in Ryton Church, in mortmain without licence. 1498, Sept. 13, John Saunder, of Ryton, granted a cottage, three acres and a plot of ground, to William Clark, and his successors, Chaplains of St. Mary's altar, for the perpetual maintenance of a light before the image of the Virgin (fn. 16).
Under the East window, on the South side of the chancel (within the altar-rails) lies the recumbent effigy of a Benedictine Monk, carved in Stanhope marble. The hands, elevated on the breast, clasp a book, on the cover of which is the Dove; the feet rest on a Lion:
On a brass-plate, on the North wall of the chancel:
Francis Bunny, borne May the 8th A° 1543, began to preach God's word Novembr. the first, An° 1567, inducted into a p'bend at Durham, the 9th of May, Anno 1572, made Archdeacon of Northumberland, A° 1573, Octre ye 20th; and the llth of Sep. A° 1578, made Rector of Ryton. Having buried here his four sones, and his daughter at Yorke, hasteneth to heaven after them, and, triumphing for hope of immortalitie, saith thus:
My barke now having wonne ye haven,
I feare no stormy seas;
God is my hope, my home is heaven,
My life is happy ease
This hope, this home, this life most sweet,
Whosoe will seeke to winne,
Must bid adiewe to all delights,
The sower roots of sinne.
Obijt 16 die Aprilis 1617.
Arms: 1. Argent, a chevron inter three goats' heads erased Sable, Bunny. 2. Gules, a cross flory Or, on a chief Azure three buckles of the second. 3. Per Saltire Ermine and Gules. 4. Argent, three bendlets Sable. 5. Gules, three lions rampant Argent, crowned Or. 6. Sable, three lions rampant Argent. 7. Gules, a fesse Or inter three saltiers Argent. 8. Argent, four bendlets Gules. 9. Argent, three boars' heads couped, in bend, between two cottises embattled Sable.
Crest: A goat's head erased Sable, the horns Or.
On a similar brass-plate near the former:
Franc', the third sonne of Richard Bunny of Newland, nere Wakefield, Esquier, and of Bridget Restwould, of ye Vache in Buckinghãshire, of very worll parentage, wife to ye saide Richard Bunny, was inducted into this peonage of Ryton A° 1578, Sept. 13, and had 5 children, Elizth the eldest, being mard to Willm Fenay, of Fenay, neere Almonbury in Yorkshire, died wthout issue, and lyeth buried in York in ye quyer of Allhallows Church. John ye eldest sonne, Henry ye third sonne, Matthw ye fourth sonne, died very young, and were all buried in this quier of Ryton Church, wher also lyeth Francis ye second sone of Frãcis aforesaid, whose monument this is; he maried Mary, daughter and sole heir of John Wortley, second brother of Sir Richard Wortley, of Wortley, Knight; he died wthout issue Feb. 26, A° 1610, being more then 26 yeares old; he was borne A° 1584, Novemb. 9.
I was sometime, but now I am,
And shall live thus for aye,
I am, I say, in joy that lasts,
And never shall decay.
I was, but then I did but dreame;
My pleasures were but paine;
My joyes were short and mixt with griefe,
Adew then life so vaine.
Arms: Bunny, with eight quarterings, as before, impaling, Argent, a bend Gules charged with three bezants inter six martlets of the second, Wortley.
On a brass plate on the floor of the chancel:
Arms as before. Crest: A goat's head erased, marked with a mullet. Motto: Monte dessus.
On wooden tablets in the chancel:
John Anderson, Esquire, son to Sir Francis Anderson, of Bradley, departed this life the 3d day of October, Anno 1679.
Arms: Gules, three oak trees Argent. Crest: An oak Argent.
Near this place lyeth Roger Anderson, Esquire, the seventh and youngest son of Sir Francis Anderson, of Bradley, Knight, died the 24th of June 1723, aged 66. Arms as above.
On a marble tablet against the North wall of the chancel:
Mr. John Simpson, of Bradley, and Jane his wife. John died Dec. 31, 1732, aged 52. Jane, daughter of Henry Anderson, Esquire, died Nov. 23, 1748, aged 66. They left issue two sons, John and Francis.
Arms: Gules, a fesse inter two lions passant Or, Simpson, impaling, Gules, three oaktrees Argent, Anderson.
On a marble tablet:
John Simpson, Esq. of Bradley Hall,
who departed this life April 24, 1786;
and Anne his wife,
who departed this life August 4, 1783 ;
she was the only child of Richard Clutterbuck, Esq.
of Warkworth, in Northumberland.
By his second wife, Eleanor Collier,
they had issue twelve children.
Erected by their two surviving daughters,
Eleanor, wife of John Ord, Esq. and Anne Simpson.
On a tablet of white marble against the North chancel wall, within the altar-rails:
Frances Wilkie Thorp,
wife of Charles Thorp, A. M.
Rector of this Parish,
the only child of
Henry Collingwood Selby, Esquire;
died a few months after marriage,
the XXI day of April MDCCCXI,
aged twenty years.
On an adjoining tablet:
In the vault underneath
are placed the remains of
Robert Thorp, D.D.
Archdeacon of Northumberland,
and sometime Rector of this Parish,
who departed this life,
in the blessed hope of immortality
through Jesus Christ,
the xxth day of April MDCCCXII,
in his seventy-sixth year.
Grace Thorp, widow of Robert Thorp,
died III Aug. MDCCCXIII, aged seventy (fn. 17).
On a monument of white marble, also against the North wall of the chancel:
Near this place lieth interred the body of the Rev. John Lloyd, A. M. late Rector of this Parish. He departed this life on the 13th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1765, in the 56th year of his age, most justly lamented by his family and friends, nor less by his parishioners, whom he had endeared himself to by every act of affection and duty, by his unlimited benevolence and chanty, and by a constant attention to the duties of his sacred function, through a course of twenty-seven years, during which he was their minister. He was the eldest son of the Rev. William Lloyd, D. D. sometime since Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester, and grandson of William Lloyd, the Bishop of that Diocese : distinguished in the age he lived for his extensive learning, but more for his fervent zeal for the Protestant religion, and for the rights and liberties of his country, which he supported with unshaken fidelity. The deceased married Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Robert Lightfoot, A. M. Rector of Deal, in the county of Kent, by whom he left issue three daughters, Elizabeth, Katherine, and Mary.
Arms: Argent, a chevron Sable, between three cornish choughs proper, each holding in its beak an Ermine spot of the second, Lloyd—impaling, Barry of six, Or and Gules, on a bend Sable, three escallops Argent, Lightfoot.
At the West end of the North aile, on a mural monument of marble :
Frances the wife of John Humble, ob. 3 Oct. 1754, aged 58 (fn. 18).
Arms : A Stag trippant, a chief indented . . . . . . Crest: a stag's head erased.
In the church-yard, on a slab near the foot-path:
Here lieth ye body of Barbara Surteys, daughter was to Robert and Catherine Surreys of Ryton; the departed this life January the 25th, 1682.
As also of the said Robert and Catharine Surtees, and of Margaret and Mary, two other daughters of theirs. Robert died October the 4th, 1710, in the 86th year of his age.
Here lyeth interred ye body of Isabel Bowry, who departed this life the 16th day of June 1723.
An old stone coffin of the usual form lies in the church-yard.
“On the North side of the church-yard, is a large barrow twenty feet high and covered with trees; it has never been opened: but a similar one near Bradley Hall was, about twenty years since, found to contain a kistvaen, or square cavity composed of rude stones set on edge, enclosing some remains of a human skeleton (fn. 19).”
List of Rectors of Ryton.
Ryton Rectory—Patron, the Bishop of Durham. King's Books, 42l. 10s.. 10d.; Tenths, 4l. 5s. 1d.; Episc. Proc. 18s.; Archid. Proc. 3s.—Dedication of the Church to Holy Cross.
- Magister William de Marghe, 1254.
- Alan de Esyngwald, 1300.
- John de Botheby, 1312.
- Nicholas Gategang (fn. 20), 5 Sept. 1334.
- William de Olby, 12 Jan. 1342, p.m. Gategang.
- John de Wyndlynburgh, 1378.
- Thomas de Gretham (fn. 21), 1382.
- John de Burgh, 1402.
- Richard Moore, 1407.
- John de Nepotiis.
- John Wynname, Bac. Decret. (fn. 22) 9 Dec. 1497.
- Robert Davell, LL. D. (fn. 23)
- Anthony Salvayne, S.T.B. (fn. 24) 28 April 1555, p. m. Davell.
- William Garnet, A.B. 27 Dec. 1558, p. res. Salvayn.
- John Bold, S.T.P. (fn. 25) 14 Feb. 1577, p.m. Garnet.
- Francis Bunny, A.M. (fn. 26) 11 Sept. 1578, p. res. Bold.
- William James, A.M. (fn. 27) 1617, p.m. Bunny.
- John Weld (fn. 28), an intruder.
- Ralph Blakiston, A. M. (fn. 29) 10 Dec. 1660, p.m. James.
- William Cave, S.T.P. 1676, p.m. Blakiston.
- Malin Sorsby (fn. 30), 1679, p. res. Cave.
- James Finney, S.T.P. (fn. 31) 1706, p.m. Sorsby.
- Thomas Secker, A.M. (fn. 32) 17 Jan. 1727, p.m. Finney.
- Robert Stillingfleet, A. M. (fn. 33) 1733, p. res. Seeker.
- John Lloyd, A. M. (fn. 34) 1738, p. res. Stillingfleet.
- John Rotheram, A. M. (fn. 35) 25 Feb. 1766, p.m. Lloyd.
- Hon. Richard Byron, A. M. (fn. 36) 4 Nov. 1769, p. res. Rotheram.
- Robert Thorp, D. D. (fn. 37) p. res. Byron.
- Charles Thorp, A. M. (fn. 38) Univ. Coll. Oxon, p. res. Thorp, 1807.
The Parsonage is an excellent spacious house chiefly built by Dr. Fenney, with comfortable old sheltered gardens (fn. 39); not only the house, but the whole ground plot has been extremely improved by the present Rector (fn. 40).
Several Roman antiquities brought from the Wall, are preserved at the Parsonage of Ryton; some account of the most interesting of these will be given in the sequel.
Francis Bunney, (third son of Richard Bunney, Esq. of Newland Hall, near Wakefield, and of Bridget his wife, daughter and coheir of Edward Restwould, Esq.) was born 8 May 1543, in the mansion of his maternal ancestors, “an antient house, called the Vache, in the Parish of Chalfont St. Giles in Bucks;” he became a student of the University in the latter end of the reign of Queen Mary, and fellow of Magdalen College 1562; his other successive preferments arc recorded on his epitaph (of which Wood seems to have had good information). He was Chaplain to the Earl of Bedford, then “antesignanus” amongst the noble favourers of Puritanism; and, as Wood adds, Francis Bunney himself was “very zealous in the way he professed, a great admirer of Jo. Calvin, a constant preacher (fn. 41), charitable, and a stiff enemy to Popery (fn. 42).” “He departed this mortal life at Ryton, 16 April 1617, and was buried in the chancel, near to the graves of 4 of his sons; over his grave was soon after set up in a wall adjoyning, a table or plate of brass, whereon are engraven certain trite verses,” (see p. 262) (fn. 43). Honest Anthony gives a still more picturesque account of Edmund Bunney (elder brother of Francis), also a stout preacher and stern Calvinist, “with his bulky body and broad face, and his two henchmen on horseback in black liveries;” but the full portrait must be veiled till we arrive at Newsham in the Parish of Winston, where the Rector of Bolton-Percy's descendants acquired some temporal property, and where, be it added, their lineal representative exercises the humble occupation of a village carpenter.
In 1314 Bishop Kellow pronounced a decree betwixt the Hospital of Kepyer and the Rector of Ryton, viz. that Hugh de Montalt, Master of Kepyer, and his successors, should continue to enjoy an annual composition of two marks, payable by the Rector, in lieu of the one moiety of tithe of corn of the Bishop's demesne lands within the whole Parish of Ryton, and should, in consideration of such annual payment and perception, celebrate solemn mass with Placebo and Dirige for the soul of Bishop Anthony (fn. 44).
Bishop Fordham granted licence to Thomas de Gretham, Rector of Ryton, to carry an aqueduct from Southwell through the Bishop's ground to the Rectory; “aqueductum subterraneum a fonte qui oritur in solo Ecclesiæ ex parte australi ejusdem Ecclesiæ vocat. Southwell usque ad Rectoriam (fn. 45).” Bishop Skirlaw confirmed the grant to John Burgh, Gretham's successor, in 1405 (fn. 46).
At the general array of the Clergy on Gilesgate Moor in 1400, the Rector of Ryton was charged with one lance and three archers, being rated at the same proportion with his neighbours of Whickham and Gateshead.
The Parochial Register begins 17 Dec. 1581.
A child of Sir William Davie, Knt. buried 7 April 1640.
Sir William Selby, Knt. buried 3 April 1649.
Mr. Bartram Bulmer, Mrs. Jane Tempest, married 30 July 1600; Anthony son of Bartram Bulmer, Esq. baptized 2 Dec. 1602; Mary, daughter of Sir Bartram Bulmer, 26 Aug. 1606 (see vol. I. p. 79.); Mr. William Buhner of Stella, buried 23 January 1681–2.
William Silvertop of Bladon, and 17 more, buried 28 May 1682. These 18 were drowned 28 May 1682.
The following extracts are from the Parish Books:
1603, Payed to the infected of Gateside. xviis. viiid. 1606, for my dinner and the Ministers vid. (at the Archdeacon's visitation 25 April). 1623, for ringeing at the return of our nobill Prince from Spaine, 1s. 1635, Pd Mr. William Selby, for six foxes' heads, six shillings.”
A village about one mile to the West of Ryton.
Boldon Book.—Crawcrook is on lease with the villan service and the demesne, with a farm stock of one draught and two harrows, and pays, besides the assized rent (præter assisum redditum ), eleven marks and a half, and for the assized rent four marks and a half, and the vill provides one milch cow, furnishes four chalder of barley, as much of meal, as much of oats, maintains one man for Castleward, and joins with Riton in carting one ton of wine.
Before the date of Hatfield's Survey, Crawcrook had become a free manor, of which one moiety was vested in the family of Horsley, of Horsley in Northumberland. “Robert Horsley holds half the vill of Crawcrok, by knight's service and ten shillings (and a toft and forty acres called Bradley, by one penny rent, on St. Cuthbert's day in September).”
The descent of the family stands thus:
Crawcrook was sold out by the Carnaby's in small parcels,;and the property is at present divided amongst numerous proprietors.
Little Kepyer, in Crawcrook.—A moiety of the vill of Crawcrook; was the property of the Hospital of St. Giles of Kepyer, and this portion seems to have been distinguished after the dissolution, by the name of Little Kepyer.
13 March, 1552, Edward VI. granted to John Cockburne, Lord of Black Ormiston, (inter alia ) all the possessions of the dissolved house of Kepyer in Gateshead, Whickham, and Ryton (fn. 47). Cockburne transferred the whole possessions of the Hospital to Heath; and in 1587 John Watson, of Newcastle, Merchant, acquired by fine of John Heath, Esq. “four messuages, a water mill, four gardens, two hundred acres of arable, as many of pasture, a hundred and forty of meadow, forty acres of woodland, two hundred of furze and heath, three hundred of moor, thirty of marsh, a free fishery in the Tyne, and 27s. rent in Little Kepyeare near Crawcroke (fn. 48).
In 1612 the same John Watson died seized of the capital messuage called Little Kepyeare in Crawcrook, leaving Thomas Watson his son and heir (fn. 49), who granted the estate by fine and recovery in 1615, to Thomas Liddell the younger, Esq. Timothy Comyn, Gent, and Thomas Humble (fn. 50). The conveyance was probably only a family settlement, for in 1618 another alienation occurs from Thomas Watson, Anne his wife, and Ralph Watson, to Robert Delaval, Esq. (fn. 51)
Previous to this, in 1609, John Watson had granted part of his lands in Little Kepyer; 4 messuages and tofts, 90 acres of arable, six of meadow, and common in Ryton and Crawcrook, to Robert Sander the elder, William Jollie, John Hauxley, and William French (fn. 52); all of whose descendants (fn. 53) held lands here in various proportions.
In 1621 Robert Sander died seized of lands in Crawcrook, parcel of Little Kepyer, which he had settled by indenture of trust, 17 Oct. 1617, on John Hauxlie and Robert Sander on the hill (fn. 54).
In 1618 William French died seized of another parcel, leaving a son of his own name under age (fn. 55).
In 1638 John Hauxley died seized of a messuage, mines, and quarries, in Crawcrook, parcel of the dissolved hospital of Kepyer, held of the Crown by knight's service, leaving Thomas his son and heir (fn. 56). In 165. Catharine, daughter and coheir of John Hauxley, of Crawcrook, intermarried with Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent (fn. 57). whose representative, Robert Surtees, of Redworth, Esq. is possessed of considerable property in Crawcrook. In 1794 Crawcrook Tounfields, consisting of 700 acres, were divided by Act of Parliament. The coal-mines were reserved to such persons as were entitled before the division, and the other royalties to John Wharton, Esq. and Crosier Surtees, Esq.
Bradley Hall, a handsome modern house, stands nearly a mile to the West of Crawcrook, surrounded by soft wooded grounds extending to the Tyne.
Under Hatfield's Survey, Robert Horsley held a toft and forty acres in Bradley, under 1d. rent, at the Feast of St. Cuthbert in September. In 1372 the same Richard de Horsley died seized of the toft called Bradley, held by the same rent, leaving Robert his son and heir (fn. 58), who, in 1393, is stated to die seized of Bradlay feld with le Beye, held in common socage by 1d. rent (fn. 59); their descendants have been stated under Crawcrook. Lancelot Carnaby, of Halton, Esq. brother and heir of Lionel (and grandson of Roger Horsley), took lands by copy of court roll in Bradley, Crookes, and Dryburne 1594 (fn. 60); and three years later, a pardon occurs to Richard Awgood for purchasing the messuage called Bradley Hall, a free fishery in the Tyne, and a meadow close of forty acres in Ryton called the Stanners (fn. 61). Before 1610 Awgood had alienated Bradley to John Lyons (fn. 62), of Newcastle, a receiver for the Crown under Elizabeth and James. The family are said to have been ruined by a Crown extent; however, John Lyons (who married Margaret, daughter of Lancelot Carnaby, of Halton), son of the elder John, died seized of Bradley Hall, and lands in Crawcrook in 1626 (fn. 63), leaving William his brother and heir under age (fn. 64). The name occurs no more. The Andersons, a wealthy mercantile family in Newcastle, had already acquired some portion of Bradley, which Robert Anderson, of Newcastle (fn. 65) settled about 1631 on Francis Anderson, of Jesmond, and the rest of the property was, I presume, acquired from Lyons.
Sir Francis Anderson (of Jesmond and Bradley already named) was a devoted loyalist, and on the ruin of the royal cause, became an object of peculiar persecution to the successful party. He was fined (fn. 66), sequestered, imprisoned, and stripped of his title of knighthood, which fell within the list of proscribed honours conferred after the 4th of January, 1641, when Charles separated himself from his Parliament (fn. 67).
Sir Francis long survived the Restoration; and Bradley still continues vested in his descendants (fn. 68). (See Pedigree of Anderson annexed.)
Pedigree of Anderson and Simpson, of Bradley.
Arms of Anderson: Gules, three oak trees Argent.
Crest: on a chapeau Gules, turned up Ermine, a griffin's head erased Argent, marked on the neck with a link or fetterlock Sable.
*** Besides the Andersons of Bradley, and those of Haswell (vol. I. p. 122), there were many other branches of the same family whom it is difficult to connect. The various Parochial Registers in Newcastle abound with scattered notices, which I have not ventured to apply to either Pedigree.
Mr. Francis Anderson, Anne Shafto, married 5 Feb. 1679.
Francis, son to Francis, bapt. 21 Dec. 1680.
Mr. Robert Anderson, Mrs, Anne Maddison, widow, married 29 Dec. 1670. St. Nicholas.
Francis Anderson, Newcastle, Merchant, Judith Lyons, married 9 Jan. 1620–1. Ryton.
* St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.
† Ryton Parish Register.
‡ All Saints.
Boldon Book.—The son of William the Moneyer holds Stellingleye, by the correct boundaries (rectas divisas ), which the Bishop caused to he perambulated for him, and pays one mark.
There can be little doubt that this Monetarius, whose fame was so permanent that his son needed no other description than “to be of such a sire the child,” was the master worker of Bishop Pudsey's mint, and that Stella was the landed pension of his services.
The recorded rights of William the Moneyer must reconcile themselves as they may with the charter of Bishop William de St. Barbara (fn. 69) (in the Augmentation-office), which grants Stellinglei, with all its appurtenances in woodland, champian, roads, ways, metes, boundaries, mills, and meadows, waters, fishdams, and fisheries, free of forest-right and pasturage of the Bishop's hogs, to St. Bartholomew, and the Nuns of Newcastle, fortified by a triple row of benedictions from St. Cuthbert, St. Giles, and the Bishop, with “a division of curses moving under them (the benedictions) like a running bass all the way (fn. 70).” Bishop Hugh himself, indeed, confirmed the charter (fn. 71); but the Bishop was “no scrupulous personage,” and if he wished to carve out of the Nuns' estate a life-interest for his master-worker, perfectly understood the maxim—that he who binds can loose; he who hides can find; and he who gives can resume. The Nuns, however, with the slight interruption of William the Moneyer and his nameless son, kept full possession of Stellinglei, which was again amply confirmed to them by Bishop Philip (fn. 72). At the dissolution, amongst the estates of the Nunnery within the Bishopric of Duresme, occurs “Stellingley by yer,3l. 13s. 4d.”
The estate of Stella became soon after the property and residence of the Tempests of Newcastle, a mercantile branch of the ancient house of Holmeside (fn. 73), who acquired the title of Baronet in 1622, and resided here in catholic splendour and loyalty, during the reigns of the four Stuart Kings. Their heiress married the attainted Lord Widdrington, who forfeited his title in 1715. Their son Henry, deprived of his paternal estate and of his parliamentary honours, led a long life of peace and obscurity, in unmolested possession of his mother's estates; and, dying in 1774, left his property and his claims to his nephew Thomas Eyre, of Hassop, with remainder to his cousin Edward Standish, Esq. Under this entail Stella is now the property of Peregrine Edward Townley, of Townley, in Lancashire, Esq. (fn. 74)
Stella Hall, a magnificent old gavel-ended house, reared by the Tempests, stands almost close on the river, overlooking low watery grounds, washed and intersected by arms of the Tyne.
Stellahaugh witnessed the panic and defeat of a numerous and well-appointed English army, who fled before the face of the solemn League and Covenant, the 28th of August, 1640, and next day abandoned Newcastle. The Scotch planted there cannon in Newburn church, and forded the river breast high, under cover of their artillery, nearly opposite Stella Hall. (See vol. I. p. 95).
On a mural monument in the North Aile of Ryton Church (now removed):
Sepulturæ consecratum Nicholai Tempest de Stella, militis & baronetti (qui obijt An° D'n MDCXXV. ætatis suæ LXXIII.) et Isabellæ uxoris suæ charissimæ, filiæ Gulielmi Lambton de Lambton armigeri : Quæ quatuor filios, et totidem filias, illipeperit, et obiit An° D'n. MDCXXIII. ætatis suæ LXXI. Illa per tot annos præmoriens, quot illi prænatus erat. E liberis eorum sunt superstites Thomas, Henricus, Isabella, uxor Bertrami Bulmer de Tyrlesden, militis.—Jana relicta Thomæ Chaitor de Butrobee, armigeri.—Et Margareta, uxor Gilberti Errington de Ponteland, armiger.—Parentibus optimis et suavissimis Thomas Tempest baronettus, corum filius, observantiæ et amoris ergo, sibique et suis mortalitatis memor, hoc posuit.
Filius extruxit tumulum, pia sacra parentum.
Lambton erat matris, Stella domusque patris.
Miles erat Ni'olas Tempest, pater et baronettus
Isabella fuit mater; amore pares.
Octo illis liberi sexu sequo: Septuaginta
Ultro vixerunt, et cecidere pares.
Pedigree of Tempest, of Stella and Stanley.
Arms: Argent, a bend engrailed between six martlets Sable.
Crest: on a wreath, a martlet, Sable.
* Ryton Register.
† St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.
‡ See Thoroton's Notts, 228.
§ Brancepath Register.
A manufacturing village on the heights betwixt the Tyne and Darwent.
Boldon Book.—Wynlakton and Berley (fn. 75) are on lease with the demesne and the villan service, and with the farm stock under 15l. rent. Besides, the tenants in villenage mow the Lord's meadows (each two day's work with one man), and then receive their corrody, and win and lead the hay one day's work.
The marsh, the meadow, and the wood (nemus ), are reserved to the Lord. The mill pays five marks and a half.
Under Bishop Bury Winlaton had become the property of the Nevills, for an indenture of retainer betwixt the same Bishop and John Lord Nevill, of Raby, covenants, that Nevill shall hold his manor of Winlaton discharged of twenty marks rent due to the See. In 1368 Ralph Nevill, Chivaler, died seised of the manor, held by twenty marks Exchequer rent (fn. 76).
Hatfield's Survey states only, “that Lord Nevill holds the vill of Wynlacton by knight's service and 20l. rent;” and in Lord Nevill's family the manor continued (through a seriesof inquisitions which it is needless to repeat or anticipate) till the reign of Elizabeth, when, just before the forfeiture, Charles Earl of Westmoreland (by indenture 19 July, 1569), conveyed his manor of East and West Winlaton (fn. 77) for 2000l. to Richard Hodgson, Humfrey Scrivener, William Selby, and Robert Anderson, merchants, of Newcastle. The purchasers immediately after granted to trustees (Ralph and George Lawson), for the use of Selby and Hodgson, in equal moieties (fn. 78).
In 1613 William Selby died seised of half the manor, leaving George Selby his son and heir (fn. 79); which Sir George Selby died in 1625, and left six daughters his coheirs, married to Belasyse, Delaval, Curwen, Conyers, Fenwick, and Delaval. Yet the estate of Winlaton seems to have descended to Sir William Selby (brother and heir male of Sir George), sometime styled of Shortflatt, co. Northumberland; and in 1633 John Hodshon, Esq. and William Fenwick, Gent, had pardon for purchasing without licence the same moiety from Sir William Selbie, Knt. and William Selbie, Esq. (fn. 80) The alienation was probably on trust, for Sir George Selby, of Whitehouse (created a Baronet 1664), is sometimes stiled of Winlaton. (See Pedigree of Selby.) As to Hodgson's share, 8 Aug. 7. Car. 1631, George Hodgson, Gent, acquired three eighths of the manor of Sir Robert Hodgson, Knt. (fn. 81). William Hodgson, Esq. (brother and heir male of Sir Robert) is described of Winlaton 1661 (fn. 82); his daughter and coheir Alice became the wife of Sir Thomas Tempest, of Stella, whose representatives held a portion of the manor. Yet the Andersons also retained some share of the purchase; for, 14 April, 41 Eliz. 1600 (fn. 83), Robert Anderson, merchant, acquired one fourth of the manor from his father, Robert Anderson, Alderman, of Newcastle.
In 1644 an entry occurs in the Sequestrators' Books, “Letten to George Beadnell, all that eighth part of Winlaton Lordshipp, late belonging to Sir John Mints (fn. 84), 75l. per ann. 13 Mart.”
A plan of the lordship of Winlaton, A. D. 1632, states—Sir William Hodgson's share, one thousand six hundred and one acres, two roods, and thirty-six perches; Sir William Selby, two thousand one hundred and twenty-one acres, three roods, and twenty-eight perches; and Robert Anderson, Esq. five hundred and nineteen acres and thirty-six perches.
The present proprietors of the manor and royalties are Peregrine Edward Townley, Esq. (as representative of Widdrington and Tempest) 36/96 ths; Miss Anne Simpson, 27/96ths; Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, Esq. M. P. 24/96ths; the Representatives of the Earl of Strathmore, 7/96ths; the Marquisses of Bute and Hertford, 1/96th; and William Morton Pitt, Esq. M. P. 1/96th.
Winlaton, however, is better known from the manufactory established here by Sir Ambrose Crowley, than by the history of any of its ancient proprietors. About 1690 Sir Ambrose fixed on this situation to establish the extensive iron works which still bear his name. He had first sat down at Sunderland, but was induced to remove his colony to Winlaton, from the advantages of the situation betwixt the Tyne and Darwent, a cheaper country, and plenty of coal. The establishment extends to Swalwell. “The chief branches carried on at Winlaton and Winlaton Mill (on the Darwent) are the making and grinding of edge-tools, manufacturing files, and slitting bars of iron into nail-rods. The works at Swalwell are on a greater scale: anchors of the largest size, mooring-chains, pumps and cylinders for steam-engines, all kinds of cast metal utensils, agricultural implements, hoes, spades, shovels, &c. and in short, almost every form of which iron or steel is susceptible, is produced in these works. There is a warehouse of articles for country consumption at Swalwell. The company have also warehouses at Greenwich, and in Thames Street, London (fn. 85). Two vessels of three hundred tons burthen are constantly employed in the carrying trade.” (fn. 86)
Sir Ambrose (notwithstanding the ridicule cast on Sir John Anvil (fn. 87) ) was a worthy, honest, persevering man, with a sound head and good intentions, and he seems to have paid a very laudable degree of attention to the bonos mores, as well as to the “creature comforts” of his colony. “After the works were brought to answer the proprietor's view, a code of laws was instituted for the preservation of good order, and a court of arbitrators was held every ten weeks, to determine disputes and appeals. Schools were established at Winlaton, Winlaton-Mill, and Swalwell, where the workmen's children were taught reading, writing, and accounts. A surgeon also was appointed to attend the whole body. When any workman was ill he had money advanced; when superannuated or disabled he had a weekly maintenance; and at his death his family were provided for.” (fn. 88) These charities all ceased in 1816, and the workmen are now on the usual footing of other manufacturers.
A Chapel (fn. 89) was built at Winlaton in 1705 (said to be on the foundation of St. Anne's Chapel, destroyed in the rebellion of the Earls 1569), capable of containing three hundred persons, and a stipend was provided for the Minister (fn. 90). The Chapel (which had been previously abandoned by the Company) fell into decay in 1816, and upon the same scite a large School-room was immediately erected by subscription, aided by gifts from the National and Diocesan School Societies, and from Lord Crewes' trustees. The church service is voluntarily performed in this school-room (under the Bishop's sanction) by the Rector of Ryton or his Curate whenever other duties leave them disengaged; but there is no settled stipend or establishment at Winlaton.
Sir Ambrose's descendants sold all their interest about 17 .. to .... Millington, whose son, Crawley Millington, is now at the head of the firm.
Pedigree of Selby, of Winlaton.
Arms : Barry of eight Or and Sable, a crescent difference, Selly;
Quartering, Party per fesse Gules and Argent, six martlets counterchanged, an annulet difference, Fenwick.
Crest: a Saracen's head couped at the shoulders proper, with a wreath round the temples, tied in a knot behind Or and Sable.
* St. Nicholas Register.
† See vol. I. p. 89.
‡ This Sir George Selby (knighted 160.) had the honour of entertaining King James on his various progresses Northwards, insomuch that he was generally distinguished by the title of “the King's host.” Indeed, Sir George's splendid hospitality seems to have been a very leading feature in his character, and “not forgotten in his epitaph: “Serenissimi Regis Jacobi hospitio et servitio nobilitatus. Ob lautum certe et affluentem perpetuo apparatum, et liberalissimæ mensæ communicationem merito passim celebratissimus:” and again, “per totum vitæ cursum lautissima usus fortuna.”
Sir George's splendid monument (of which see a full account in Bourne, p. 62–72, or in Brand) was removed several years ago, and only underwent the fate of a still more illustrious memorial, the cenotaph of the fourth Percy, Earl of Northumberland (murdered at Cockledge in 1489), which was removed to make way for the Selby's—Sunt ipsis etiam, &c.
Five individuals of the Selby family obtained the honour of knighthood from King James. Sir William Selby of Biddieston, knighted at Berwick, 1603; Sir George, the King's host ; Sir William of Winlaton, 1613; Another Sir William of the Mote near Ightham, Kent; and Sir John Selby, of Twisel.
§ Qu. wife of Thomas Selby?
A single tenement to the West of Winlaton, nearly opposite to Gibside. In 1361 Agnes, widow of John Menevyll, of Horden, held the manor of Thorneley, in Wynlawton, of Ralph Nevill, by 40s. rent. She also held of the same Ralph Nevill, the hamlet of Huntlaysheugh in Wynlawton, by 2s. rent (fn. 91). In 1368 Thornley is mentioned in the inquest on the death of Ralph de Nevill, Chivaler (fn. 92), and it probably rested in the family till the sale of Winlaton, in 1569. Thornley was the seat of a branch of the family of Tempest from 1565 to 1709. By fine 8 Aug. 12 Car. 1636, William Tempest, Gent. acquired from Sir William Selby, Knt. and Elizabeth, and their son William Selby, half of a messuage, toft, and garden, two hundred acres of meadow, as many of pasture, a hundred acres of arable land, and as much of moor and whin, in Thorneley, in the parish of Ryton. The annexed pedigree explains all that I know of the subsequent descent of the estate (fn. 93), which now belongs to the Marquisses of Bute and Hertford.
Pedigree of Tempest, of Thornley.
Arms as Tempest of Holmeside, a mullet difference.
1671 Nuncup. will of Richard Tempest, of Newcastle, merchant.
William Carr, son of William Carr, late Maior of Newcastle, sole legatee.
Mr. Richard Tempest, merchant, buried 17 August 1671.
Mrs. Mary Tempest, widow, buried 26 August 1674. St. Nicholas.
Jane, daughter of Luke Tempest, of Winlaton, bapt. 4 January, 1657. George, son, &c. bapt. 4 March 1660–1.
Lewis Tempest and Ann Surtis married 24 August, 1686. (Ann Tempest, of Winlaton, widow, administered to her husband, Lewis Tempest, 13 January, 1695.)
Jane Tempest, of Bladon, buried August 1667. Ann Tempest, of Bladon, buried 12 March, 1698–9. Ryton.
* William Tempest and Margaret Heley married 4 May, 1585. Jarrow.
† Ryton Register.
‡ St. Nicholas Register.
§ Mary Tempest, buried 24 March, 1667–8. Ryton.
The Spen. In 1370 Katherine, widow of Hugh de Fery, held four messuages and a hundred acres in Berley and Spen, of John de Nevill, Knt. by 3s. rent, and suit at the Manor Court of Winlaton. The Spen is included in the general alienation from Nevill, in 1569, and seems to have been afterwards held by different families, and in various proportions (fn. 94). The Upper Spen is now the property of; the Nether Spen belongs to the Earl of Strathmore.
Berley is now, I presume, Barlow, a village to the North of Thornley and the Spen.
Bladon, a village to the East of Stella, on the Tyne, occupied chiefly by persons connected with the business of the collieries: it is included in the sale of 1569, and now belongs to P. G. Townley, the Earl of Strathmore, and Thomas Beaumont, Esq.
Axwell Park—White House. It has been already stated that the modern seat of Axwell is built on the grounds of White House, in the parish of Ryton, and that the name is transferred from the old seat of Axwell Houses, across the Derwent. White House was probably a modern name given to the residence of the Selby's, built on their portion of tne manor of Winlaton.
In its ancient extent Chopwell, bounded by the Derwent on the South, and by the Milkburn on the West, filled the South-western angle of the parish of Ryton, and reached to the extreme verge of the county of Durham. But several free tenements—the Milkburn House, the Black Hall, Ravenside, Amondside, have been long ago shivered from the original mass; and lately the heart of the estate itself has been divided into several distinct portions.
Bishop Hugh gave Chopwell to Newminster Abbey in exchange for Wolsingham. The following charter was produced in a tythe cause betwixt the estate of Chopwell and the Rector of Ryton, in 1674 :
Absalon Prior et Capitulum S. Cuthberti omnibus fidelibus suis de Halywarfolc Francis et Anglis Salutem. Sciatis Dom. Hugonem Episcopum nostrum dedisse Abbati et Monachis Novi Monasterii, Chopwell cum omnibus pertinenciis suis in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam et adquietanciam decirnarum omnium suarum, concedente ecclesia in cujus parochia eadem villa sita est: insuper dedit eis salinas super Blyam in Bedlingtonscira, et aquam et piscationem quas habuerunt tempore Ricardi de Bedlington. Quam donac'onem nos quantum, &c. concedimus et confirmamus secundum tenorem literarum ejusdem D. Episcopi Hugonis. Si quis vero successor ejus eandem terram eis auferre voluerit, concessit eis Wolsingham quam in excambium accepit pro Chopwell, cum omni integritate, sicut predecessor ejusdem bonæ memoriæ Willielmus Episcopus eis dederat interventu Sacræ recordac'onis Eugenii Papæ. Etjus suum quod ibi primum habebat et primum jus in eadem terra eis confirmavit authoritate episcopali. Cartas vero quas de eadem terra habuerunt fidei ecclesiæ nostrae recommendaverunt, tali convenc'one ut eas ulterius non repetant nisi eis forte de predicta concessione, &c. violencia errogetur. Tune enim eis repetentibus cartæ quas habuerunt de Wolsingham, integre restituantur. Testes sunt, Willielmus films Thosti, Alanus Presbyter de Walesende, Magr Thomas de Sexebals, Johannes de Rana, Radulphus Nobilis. Reg. I. Eccles. Dun. Pars. 2. fo. 1.
I can only conjecture that on the dissolution the Swinburns, who were already tenants of Chopwell under the Abbey, obtained mediately or immediately the fee simple from the crown or its grantees. In 1545 John Swinburn (fn. 95) (a bastard of the house of Edlingham) devises his farm (fn. 96) of Chopwell to his second son John Swinburn. In 1553 the younger John executes a settlement of the manor (fn. 97); the fee was therefore acquired betwixt the two dates. In 1562 John Swinburne, Esq. was litigating his boundaries betwixt the manors of Ryton and Chopwell, with Pilkington, Bishop of Durham (fn. 98). In 1569 he was deeply engaged in the great Northern rebellion, fled under attainder to Farniherst in Scotland, escaped from thence into Flanders, was afterwards a pensioner at Madrid, and probably died in exile (fn. 99). The manor of Chopwell, thus vested in the Crown, was granted by the Queen (fn. 100) to Sir Robert Constable of Flamborough, in recompence of his most base service as a spy and informer (fn. 101). Sir William Constable, son and heir of Sir Robert, sold the manor of Chopwell to Anthony Aucher (fn. 102), and he immediately conveyed to Ambrose Dudley, Alderman of Newcastle, whose son and heir, Toby Dudley, Esq. left an only daughter Jane Dudley, wife of Robert Clavering (fn. 103), a younger brother of the first Sir James Clavering, of Axwell. The male issue of Clavering failed in his grandchildren, and Sarah, the sister and eventual heir of John and Dudley Clavering, became the wife of the Lord Chancellor, William Earl Cowper (fn. 103).
In 1689 the owners of the manor of Chopwell are stated to be John Clavering, Esq.; Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent.; Robert Surtees, of Milkburne-house, Gent.; Charles Hedley, of Almond Garths; Ambrose Stevenson, of Bierside, Gent.; Edward Surtees, of Crawcrook, Gent.; Anthony Surtees, of the Hollins; and Cuthbert Prockter, of Darwencoate Hagg, yeoman (fn. 104).
Some years ago the Chopwell estate was alienated in parcels by Earl Cowper. Chopwell-hall, Horsgate, and Broomfield-house, were purchased by Dr. Thorpe, Rector of Ryton, and by his son Robert Thorpe, of Alnwick, Esq.; West Chopwell and Greenhead by Mr. John Taylor, of Swalwell; Leadgate and Ravenside, by Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterley, Esq.; another portion by William Surtees, Esq.; the Spen-farm, by Mr. Miller, of Gateshead, and another portion by Mr. Robert Waugh. The mines of coal were reserved by Earl Cowper.
Crown Lands.—When the Crown granted the manor of Chopwell to Constable, the woods were reserved; and in 14 Nov. 6 Jac. a confirmatory grant to Sir William Constable excepts “all wood and woody grounds called the East Wood, the Moore Close, Deane, and the Carres :” (fn. 105) and this portion, of very considerable extent, still remains in the Crown, and much of it has been lately planted.
Almonside or Almond Garths (fn. 106), formerly parcel of Chopwell, but alienated at an earlier date. In 16/6 John Duck (Alderman of Durham and afterwards Baronet) and John Heslop sold Armondside and Sillyhaugh to Robert Surtees and George Surtees, Gents. This estate is now the property of Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterly-hall, Esq. by devise from his relative Anthony Surtees, of Ackworth, co. York, Esq.
Hukergate was possibly that portion of Chopwell which Ambrose Dudley, Esq. “assured to John Stephenson, of Bierside, who married his daughter;” (fn. 107) at least Hukergate remained in the heirs of Stephenson till it was sold by J. H. Wharton, Esq. M. P. to Mr. James Hutchinson, of Ryton.
Pedigree of Swinburn, of Chopwell.
Arms: Swinburne of Edliugham, Party per fesse Gules and Argent, three cinquefoils countercharged. Crest : out of a ducal coronet Or, a demi boar issuant Argent, wined and armed of the first.
Swinburn of Chopwell. The paternal Arms, within a bordure compone Argent and Azure, and Crest out of a ducal coronet Gules, a demi boar as before, by grant from William Harvey, Norroy, to John Swynburn, of Chopwell, Esq. 6 September 1551.
* The younger Gilbert may possibly be identified with Gilbert Swinburne, of Prodo Castle. Will dated 4 Feb. 1590, leaves his demayne of Muggleswick to his wife Dorothy and son Anthony; names his brother-in-law Arthur Lee, his daughter Elizabeth Stocole, and his two yonge daughters Jane and Anne.
Margaret, wife of Mr. Rowland Swinburne, bur. 15 January 1628, St. Nicholas.
Mrs. Frances Swinburn, widow, Papist, buried Dec. 23, 1703, St. Oswald's.
Thomas Swynburne, of Butterby, Gent. buried 24 May 1633.
Tobias Swinburne, Esq. Mrs. Mary Richardson, mar. 23 Sept. 1638, Ryton.
* See the strange story from Dr. Basire, p. 582.
† St. Oswald's Register.
‡ St. Nicholas, Durham.
*** William Swinburn, who married the heiress of Edlingham, was son of Thomas, of Capheatoh, by Margaret, daughter of Wilfrid Lawson, of Usworth, co. Pal. His brother John Swinburn, of Black Heddon, married Mary, daughter of Thomas Collingwood, of Eslington, and had issue four daughters and coheirs: Mary, married to Henry Widdrington, of Cheeseburn Grange; Dorothy, to Thomas Selby, of Winlalon, (4th son of Sir William Selby, see page 274); Elizabeth, to Ralph Widdrington; and Frances, living unmarried 1638.
Pedigree of Dudley* and Clavering, of Chopwell.
* I believe the Heralds do not allow to these Customers of Newcastle and Lords of Chopwell the Dudley lion of Warwick and Northumberland, double queue Vert. Arms of Clavering see Axwell.
† St. Nicholas Register.
The awarde and determinac'on of the old boundaries between the manors of Ryton and Chopwell, by Sir Thomas Gargrave, Knight, and Henry Savell, Esq. both of the county of York, arbitrators chosen by the Bishop of Duresme and John Swynborne,
First they awarde, on deposition of sundrie witnesses, as also by the old bookes and wrytyngs showed by the Bushoppe, “that the field called Kyefeld is the proper inheritaunce of the said Bishopricke, and within the manor of Ryton. ” And whereas divers places named in the old bounders, shewed by Swynborn are not well knowen, but remaynes in doubt and bredith dissencion, the places hereafter named shall henssefourth be the bounders of Chopwell, and be so hadde, used, and taken for ever.
First, according to the old bounder the same begynneth at a place or fountayne called Mylkwell, as it runnyth into Darwent, and so by the head of the way called Chappellwell, and by the river or becke runynge along the Woodside called Falcalside, and so along by the said water, still runynge betwixt the head mores and groundes, and a passage or waye leadynge over the said water com'only called Roderforde or Rudyforde, and from thence turnynge upward toward the East by a little greene platte or waye to the South-syde of a greate rounde hill like a wynde mylne hill, and then streght from the said hill up to a grene way or grene pece of ground leadyne eastward derectlye to the Northe syde of a pece of grounde caste aboute with a greate olde diche, by some called the Arbour, and from thence eastwarde dyreclye over the old holowe waye eynde up to the toppe or highte of the more or hill there, and from thence dyrectlye to the diches of Kyefielde, and so dyrectlye to folow the dyche of Kyefielde southwardes, and by the South eynde thereof unto the head of a rivell or sike about a hundreth yeardes from the south-east corner of Kyefeld, and from thence to turne downwarde by the said sike or rivell, as the same runyth or goyth downewards unto a gayt called Ruelay-gait.
Great stones shall be laid from Roderford untill the head of the siche that descendeth to Ruleygayt, not above twelve score one from another; and upon every stone on crosse of a speciall marke to be hewen.
If John Swinburn durynge his lyffe shall maike colepytts upon his mores or grounds of Chopwell, and, shall require passage or way-leve over the waystes of the Bishoppe in Ryton, the sayd Rt. Revd in considerac'on of ye faithfull friendshipp of ye said John hereafter to him to be hadde, sha'l grant the same way-leave, Swinburn paying twenty shillings per ann. so long as his yearly gain does not exceed twenty pounds; and if above 20l. then he shall pay 40s. and no more. And the Bishop grants to Swinburn a parcel of ground (belonging to Ryton, adjoining the syke leading to Ruelay-gate) already enclosed by Swinburn or his servants, to be taken by fine or coppie, paying 10s. yearly at the most. And whereas Robert Sanders and Robert Hedworth were sore bett and hurt, John Swinburn shall cause to be payed to Saunder xls. sterlynge, to Hedworth xxs. in recompence of their hurts. 10 Oct. 1563. Rot. Pilkington, B. B. N° 11.
Inventory of Thomas Swinburne, of Haughton, 16 May 1566.—xx oxen, xiiil. vis. viiid.; xxiii kye, xiiil. vis. viiid.; iii yong nolt, xxs.; fowerscore and thrateen yowes with their lambes, xviiil. xvis.; viii swine, xvis.; xii yowes wout lambes, xxxiis.; vi geld yowes, xvis.; one gray nagge, xiiis. iiiid.; one mare, xiiis. iiiid.; one yong mare, xxvis. viiid.; xvii boules of bigge, vl.; iii boules of bigg mault, vis.
Three dublets of taffata, one Spanish jerken, one black cote, one paire of black hose lined wth sarcenett, one black cape, one black gowne furred wth cony, iiil. vis. viiid.
ij swordes, one stele cappe, xs.
ij fatherbeds wth bolsters and coverletts, and one over sea-coverlett, xls.; ii fatherbeds, xiis.; xi quishinges, iiiis.; ii par of shets, ii pillobers, sixe table napkins, one borde clothe, vi corse towells, viiis.
viii stone of wool, xls.; vi potts and posnetts, xls.; one kaudron, one ketle, ii panes, xiiis. iiiid.; ii waynes and plowes, xls.; ii sylver spones, xxs. Then follows a list of nearly similar articles at the Stellyng (probably a led farm): ii oxen, xxvis. viiid.; v kye, iiil. vis. viiid.; vii quies, lvis.; xlii wethers, viiil. xiiis.; v tuppes and a gimer, vis.; xl hogges, iiiil. xiiis. iiiid.; x hogges, xxiiia. ivd. vi boules of whet, xliis.; vii of rye, lvis.; x boule of otts, xls.; vi platters, vi dishes, vi saucers, i bason, xs.; in ye wife's hand in gold, vl. vs.
x acres of growing rye, ls.; iii bushel of rye sawen, viis. vid. &c. Suma cxxxil. os. xviiid.
Dettes wh the testator doyth owe.—To my brother Gawen, when he rod to London, in lent money, xxs. Item, in lent mony of my brother Gawan, when he paid his ransom, vil. vis. viiid.; to my said brother lent money in Newcastell, vis. viiid. Item, lent money to pay for an house to Mr. Brend, in Yorkshire, iiil. xiis. Item, when I paid my rent of Haughton, iiil. vis. viiid.
Item, borrowd of my brother Gawan, when the good man of Chopwell rode to London, ixs. Item, I am indebted to my brother Gawan, wh he paid to my ant Rames, of Newcastle, for the half of Ihon Swinburn's bond, viis. Item, xxs. wh he Pd to David Wilkinson, of London.
Item, awing to Richard Conyers, of Durham, for certen clothe, xxxviiis.
Item, the rent of Haughton, due at Whitsonday, vil. xiiis. iiiid.; the rent of Stelling, xxvis. viiid.; the rent of the collepitts, vs.; to I hone Billingham for a horse, xliiii. xiid.
26 Apr. 1576. Gawyn Swinburne, of Chesborough Grange, parish of Stamformham, Gent. to William Swinburn a silver goblet and my tenement in Hawkwell; my right of the Stellinge to one of my nephew John Hearons sons, of Chipches, to Dorothy Raymes, to Isabel Fenwick, of Wauker, to Thomasin Thirlewaye, to my niece Elizabeth Billingham, to Agnes Charlton, to John S. my base son. Wife Margaret executrix. Witness Arthur Shafto, Vicar, John Raymes, Rowland Shaftoo. Inv. 2 Oct. 1576.
7 April 1561. Thomas Swynburne, &c. brothers Gawayn and Gylbert, executors. To Gawayne my fermhold of Stellyng; to cosyn Sir Olyver Selbe, my best horse; to John Bellyngame, my nece's sone, iiij kye; and iiij yonge nowlt to Robert Thyrleway, my nece's sone; to Esabell Lyle, my nece; to Annes Heron, my nece.
21 July, 1572. Thomas Swinburne, of Edlingham, Esq. to be buried in the Church of Edlingham. My castle and demaines of Edlingham, the towne, and milne, and Newton, and Ruthly, and the woods, to my uncle Gawayn S. for seven years, paying my heirs 20l. per ann; to son William, Abberwyke and lands in Mykle Bavington for life; to daur Janet four yeares profitt of Hamsterlie; my brother George, to my son John my lease of the tithe-corne of Edlm, Newton, Lear-child, and Woodhall; to Gilbert S. the tithe-corn of Black Heddon; to son John my sylver salt, sylver spoones, and all heirelumes in Edlingham and Nafferton; and my velvet cote, satten gowne, satten doublett, and velvett hose; to son William my black horse; to my two sisters either of them two kye and two calves. Sons John and William and daughter Jane executors. Uncles Gawan and Gilbert supervisors, with William Carr and John Shafto. Witness, William Carr, John Shaftoo, Robert Bednell, Roger Collingwood, William Shafto, Lance. Errington. Pr. 2 Aug. 1572.
From a note-book of Dr. Basire, Archdeacon of Northumberland.
1667, Mund. 26 Aug. From Stanh[ope] to Durh[am], upon a reference from the Judge Baron Turner to Mr. Deane Sudbury and myselfe, betwixt Thomas Swinb[urn], Esq. and Thomas his youngre son, and John his elder brother.
Raine and wind all the way, wet to the mid-leg for 8 m[iles], after 4 h[ours] 9fer [conference]. O the insolence of Thomas, junr. Jo suppax. Prov. xviii. 19 (fn. 108). The fa[ther] qf. just judgment for doting so much on Thomas jun. who arrested his father in his bed by bayleys brought in. Adjourned, refer till Tuesd. Sept. 3.
Father agreed to give Thomas 15l. per ann. to make up 40l.
Catharine, daughter of Mr. Thomas Swinburne, of St. Nicholas parish, bur. 26 Jan. 1664, at St. Oswald's.
At the time of Dudley's purchase, the Blackhall was held by subinfeudation under the Crown grantees, by the family of Rutherforth, a circumstance which was productive of some awkward consequences. A feud, of which the cause is not explained, but which probably originated in some contention concerning rents or boundaries, took place betwixt the Rutherforths and Dudley, and in 1615 “John Rotherforth, otherwise Rudderford, Gent. of Wrensnest, Charles Rotherforth (fn. 109), of the Black Hall, Hugh and Gawen Rotherforth, and William Shafto, were outlawed for forcibly entering into the manor of Chop-well, with intention to kill and slay Ambrose Dudley, Esq. George Gifford, and others, at a place called Westwood; in which affray William Shafto struck the said George Gifford a mortal wound in the thigh (of which he soon died) with an iron lance.” The Rutherfords fled from the face of the law. The Bishop, to whom the forfeiture accrued, granted their interest in the Black Hall to Sir Philip Constable, of Everingham, Knt. (15 Apr. 1615) (fn. 110), who in the same year conveyed to William Carr (fn. 111) of Cocken.
The Black Hall was half a century later the seat, perhaps not the property, of a branch of the family of Blakiston (fn. 112).
It afterwards passed by purchase to the family of Surtees, of Crony well, and is now the property of Anne Surtees, only daughter of the late Robert Surtees, of Durham.
By indenture 5 May, 2 Car. 1626, Ambrose Dudley, of Chopwell, Esq. and Tobye Dudley, his son and heir, granted to Anthony Surtees, of Medomsley, the tenement called Milkburn-house, in Chopwell (then in the occupation of Charles and Alexander Joblyn), under 13s. 4d. crown rent for the Milkburn, and 5s. for as many beast-gates; with all rights, &c. free and exonerated from every other claim (fn. 113).
The estate has ever since rested in the family of the purchaser (fn. 114), and is now the property of Anthony Surtees, of Hamsterley-Hall, Esq.
The Burn lies on the extreme boundary of the county, within the angle formed by the junction of the Milk well-burn and Darwent. The house stands on a warm sunny plot at the foot of a green sloping hill; and a beautiful narrow dell, full of oak and various forest-wood, tracks the upward course of the little sparkling Milkburn.
Charitable Benefactions to the Parish of Ryton.
By will proved 26 May 1687, and proved 1699, Ralph Harrison, of Bryansleap, Gent. left 100l. to the poor of the Parish of Ryton (fn. 115).
Sir John Clavering, of Axwell, Bart. who died ...., left 50l. to the poor of Ryton Parish.
By will proved 1708, Jane Grey left 20l.
By will dated 14 Dec. 1705, and proved in 1710, Robert Surtees, of Ryton, Gent. gave 20l. to the poor of Ryton Quarter, the interest to be distributed by his Executor during life, and afterwards by the Minister and Churchwardens. [The principal was paid off by Crosier Surtees, Esq. great grandson and heir of the testator.]
By will dated 31 December 1718, proved 4 May 1719, Thomas Humble, of Ryton Woodside, gave 20l. to the poor of Ryton Parish, the interest to be distributed by the twenty-four of the Parish.
By will dated 13 July 1717> Anthony Surtees, of the Holling, in Northumberland, gave 50l. to be placed at interest by the Minister and the twenty-four of the Parish of Ryton, and the interest to be disposed of at Christmas and Midsummer amongst “poor, aged, and impotent men and women, and fatherless children of the Chopwell Quarter of the parish of Ryton. ” [He also bequeathed 50l. to the poor of the Parish of Ovingham, to be placed out and the interest distributed in the same manner]: proved by Anthony Surtees, son and executor, 18 May 1725.
John Simpson, of Bradley, Esq. who died 1733, left 50l. the interest is distributed on the 23d December; the principal is in the hands of Mr. Simpson's heirs.
In 1786 John Simpson, also of Bradley, Esq. bequeathed 5l. per annum to the poor of Ryton Parish.
In 1795 Jane Forster bequeathed 100l. to the poor of the vicinity of Ryton Woodside (fn. 116).
Walker Lawson, of Ryton, Esq. left 100l. 3 per cents. to the poor of Ryton and Ryton Woodside; also 60l. for the benefit of the parochial school (fn. 117).
There are five Schools within the Parish of Ryton: one at Ryton, which has Mr. Law-son's benefaction before named, 5l. per annum from Lord Crewe's Trustees; and 5l. from the Copyholders of Ryton, out of their joint stock; 2. Greenside, founded 1812, supported by subscription; 3. Bladon (no school-house) supported by subscription; 4. 5. two Schools at Winlaton for boys and girls, founded 1816.
Lady Liddell also supports two schools (for boys and girls) at Crawcrook.
The Ryton Savings Bank was the first established in England.
The whole of the Charitable Institutions belonging to Crawley's manufacturers at Winlaton, Winlaton-Mill, and Swalwell (which had been supported by voluntary contributions of the workmen under regulations already mentioned), ceased in 1816, during a season of unparalleled distress amongst the commercial classes.