Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 1, 1560-95. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.
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742. Forster to Burghley. [March 18.]
"I have receaved certaine intelligence owte of Scotlande this daie, that the Kinge and the Queen are resyante in Lythcoe, and that his Majestie and nobylitie agreethe verie well—which is contrarie the expectationes of many. For yt was openlie bruytede that there was greate dissentions liklie to happen and especiallie betwixt the Kinge and his lordes. And I understande nowe that they are many of them commede in, and there is greate appearaunce of peace and quyetnes to ensewe amongste theme. And that the Kinge hath commytted the Erle of Huntlie to warde in the Blackneste, whos truncke was laytlie taken by somme who are not yet knowen, and certaine golde and silver taken owte of the same." At my house nigh Alnwick. Signed: John Forster.
1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.
743. Edward Aglionby to Burghley. [March. 1592.]
"The devision of the severall charge of the West Borders of England and Scotland.—
Carlisle.—Theire lyeth the Lord Warden, his deputie, and constable. The warden hath charge as generall, in all affaires under her Majestie for the lawes of Marches, accordinge to the auncient Border lawe, and severall newe treatisse.—His deputie is one of the wardens owne appointinge, who hath in charge all particuler service, either for defence of England, or offence of Scotland. In defence of England, as when any sodden rode or secreat thift is made by any Scottes or Englishe borderers, to be readie upon the first showt or fray, with a score att the least of the wardens men, to followe to where the fray is, or to ride betwixt them and home, as the service requires. In offence of Scotland—when the warden doth make any rode, to go with a compotent number and take a boutie in Scotland; and that is called a warden rode.
Socage.—His constable hath in charge certeu tenantes in and about Carlill, belonginge to the demeasnes or mannour of the castle, which are the Quenes tenantes in socage, who are att all tymes readie att the constables call, either for service in the castle or in the feild, as the warden shall direct. This constable rideth most by the wardens direccion att all assayes, with his souldiers, and wardeus servantes.
Bourgh.—Next unto Carlisle westward, is Bourgh barronrie under the governance of a steward, who ought to ly at Rockliff castle, a castle buylded by the Lord Dacre for the readines and defence of all service, either generall or particuler. This steward hath in charge all Bourgh barronrie and Rockliff, who att a showt are in readines to mete the steward to followe the fray, when any fray ryseth within his charge. He hath in charge also that no Scottishe man passe thorough his charge without licence, and that none under his charge passe into Scotland without like licence. In this steward lyeth all the safetie of the west parte of the wardenrie.
Holme.—West of yt lieth the Holme lordshipp, under the governement of a steward, who ought to be resident within the Holme for defence of the lordshipp. His service is not so readie as Bourgh to followe frayes, except the fray be amonges them selves; but his service is to bringe the men under his charge to do som pece of service as the warden shall appoynt, att all tymes requisite.
Allerdale.—Behinde the Holme southward lyeth Allerdale ward, which consisteth of the gentlemen and yomen of the countrie, every man under severall governement, when the warden doth send for them, either to a day of marche, or for any other service. This ward is out of daunger, if the steward of Bourgh be carefull.
Wigdon and Westward.—Behind Bourgh is the barronnye of Wigton and forrest of Westward, under the government of a steward for the Earle of Northumberland. His service is to kepe the countrie, and to guide and rule the tenantes in the feild when theire is any occasion of service.
Cauldbeck.—Behinde it westward lyeth Cauldbeck lordshipp, who are for the most parte the Lord Whartons tenantes, guyded by a bailiff when the warden doth send for them.
Graistock.—Betwixt it and Peareth southward lyeth the barronrie of Graistock, late the Lord Dacres, under the charge of a steward, whose service is often used, either to day of marches, or for watche and searche.
Sebbram.—Betwixt Westward and Inglewood forrest, is Sebbram the Queens tenantes, under the governement of a bayliff. His service consisteth in leadinge to the feild so many of those tenantes as the warden doth send to him for, when he hath occasion to use them.
Dalston.—Betwixt and Carlisle is Dalston lordship under the governement of a bailiff. The tenantes within the lordshipp are the Bushoppes and other gentlemens. Theire service is at Sebbram but more in readynes to followe frayes and ayde Bourgh.
Forrest of Englewood.—From Carlisle to Peareth betwixt the rivers Eaden and Caudye, is conteyned the forrest of Inglewood, but devided into severall charges as every gentleman his owne tenantes. The foundacion or prior lordshipp under the steward for the Deane and Chapter of Carlisle, and the hart of the forrest south of the prior lordshipp unto Peareth, are under the governement of a steward for the Queens Majestie. Theire service is as the rest of the wardenrye att all tymes when the warden doth send for them either for or generall particuler service.
Penreth.—Theire is a steward who hath in charge the Quenes Hammes, which are certen disparsed townes called hamlettes, as Peareth, Leasenbye, Scotbie and sucbe. This steward doth bringe togeather all those towneshippes or some of them, att any tyme when the warden doth send for them, either for generall or particuler service.
Gylsland.— Upon the east side of Eaden lyeth the barronrie of Gilsland under the governement of a steward, who ought to ly att Askerton castle. In his charge is all the safetie of that barronrie, without either help of warden or other, for that yt lyeth some what farre off, or as by it self (except the litle lordshipp of Corbye under the governement of George Salkeld, esquier). This countrie since the rebellion is sore spoyled, and ever since worse governed. In him is the like safetie of the countrie for Comberland ward, as the steward of Bourgh for Allerdale ward.
Bewcastle.—Betwixt Gilsland and Liddesdale lyeth Bewcastle, under the governance of a captayne. His charge is onlie the safetie within him self, neither is he troubled to follow fraye with others, except the fraye come to him—nor to defend any, but that none enter thorough his charge out of Liddesdale.
Crosbie.—Betwixt Carlisle and the Borders lieth Crosbie barronrie, under a steward for the Busshopp of Carlisle. His servis is to be att all tymes readie when any fray ryseth either within him self, or within Eaden, to ryde to the fordes of Eaden where of necessitie the theeves must passe.
Leven or Kirklyntton.—Next it towardes the Borders runneth the ryver of Leven, upon which river dwelleth Grames, Etheringtons and Forsters and others, under the governance of a bayliff for a gentleman, one Mr Musgrave of Haton, lord of that mannour called Kirklynton. But the castle where he should lye is Scaleby. Nowe in theis tenantes who are hable border men, if they were well governed, is a great quietnes for stanchinge of thift, for they are the onlie men that ride both into England and Scotland; who cannott be letted without theire maisters residence, or carefull watche of the countrie within them.
Eske.—Betwixt them and Scotland runneth the river Eske, upon both sides of which water dwelleth the best Grames, under no governement except the warden; whose service might be acceptable if they were restrayned in some sorte. And for that they never had officer over them to bringe in and aunswere any man for any offence comytted, the warden toke this course, to take bond of foure or more of the cheiff of them to aunswere and bring in any one of them who had don any fault under theire proteccion; and this did make them alwaies fearfull to ryde in England. Nowe theis Grames are not so daungerous to England as others are, but they ride still into Scotland. Theire is manye of them.
Theire is more then here is recited belonginge to the wardenrie—all Westmerland and Coupland, who are never called to service but by fyer and beacon, or for generall service.
Your lordshipp shall understand that the service of the West Border consisteth in generall and particuler service. In the generall service the country is stronge enough to defend them selves against Scotland and to offend them if nede require. The particuler or sodden service consisteth in the warden by his deputie or constable and officers of Bourgh, Gilsland and others, with the readines of the inhabitantes where the fray or stilth is don. And in this kynde of service consisteth the safetie of the countrie, and it is a service that the gentlemen nor strength of the countrie cannott helpe, the most parte beinge farre of, and those nere dare not put theire handes into it for feede or displeasure, except the officers be theire them selves to beare the burthen.—
The governance of Scotland most offensive to England, lyeth in two wardes, in Annerdale and Liddisdale.—
Annerdale.—In Dumfrize, theire lyeth the warden his deputie and sheriff. The warden hath in charge all service within the wardenrye for the lawes of marches as the warden of England. His deputie hath the lik charge to be readie att all assaies, to kepe the countrie, to withstand or offend England.
Sheriff,—his sheriff hath the like charge as the constable of Carlisle, of certen tenantes of the Kinge of Scottes, to ride as he shalbe appoynted by the warden. But he is litle imployed, but all is don by the deputie and captaine of Langam.
Langam.—This captaine lyeth with a charge att the castle of Langam, yf theire be any breache or great rydinge in Scotland by Englishe borderers. And he is called the keeper of Annerdale; his service is opposite against Bewcastle, Eske and Leven, or Bourgh at some tymes. There is no other devision of charge that I knowe in Annerdale as maie be compared to England. For the countrie of Annerdale is stronge by theire great and many surnames, as Maxwelles, Johnstons, Armestronges, Irwaines, Belles, and Carlelles. Every which severall surname defende theire owne, as shall apeare by devision of theire dwellinges here under written.
Liddesdale.—Lyddesdale is the most offensive countrie against both the West and Middle Marches. It is governed by a keeper who lyeth att Armytage the cheif strength of Liddesdale. The Lord Bodwell hath most land theire. The strength of this countrie consisteth in two surnames of Armestranges and Elwoodes. Theis people ride most into Gilsland, Aston more, and Northumberland.
Tyvdale.—Behinde Liddesdale lyeth Tyvidale, which doth never offend the West Border.
Ewsdall.—Behinde Annerdale lyeth Ewsdall, who are a civill people, and never ride in England.
Water Bayliffes.—Theire is belonginge to either warden a water bayliff, have libertie att all tymes to enter the marches without licence and to carry messages or lettres betwixt the wardens. Theire office is to kepe the entrance of all men without lycence out of either marche.
The severall surnames of the Englishe borderers and theire dwellinges.—
Esk.—Upon both sides of the river dwell the Grames which is the greatest surname att this daie upon the West Border. For the Grames of Eske and Leveu are hable to make vc serviceable men. Theire dwelleth also a surname of Storyes, but they are sore decaied.
Leven.—Upon this river dwelleth also many Grames, and above Kirklinton in Soupert, dwelleth a great surname of Fosters, and about Hethersgill is a surname of Hetheringtons.
Bewcastle.—Theire dwelleth Fosters, Crosers, and Nixsons, but sore decaied.
Gilsland.—In Gilsland is no great surnames; the Belles is the most. Theire is a surname of Milbournes and Hardens, but they are not many.
Bourgh.—Theire is foure surnames theire, Liddalles, Glasters, Huntingtons, and Hodgesons, but theire is not many of none of them.
Musgrave and Salkeld.—The greatest surname of the gentlemen within the wardenrie is Musgraves and Salkeldes.
The severall surnames of the borderers of Scotland and theire dwellinges.
Sark.—Betwixt Eske and Sark. dwelleth the surname of Johnsons, called the Johnsons of Greatney.
Kinmont.—Above them dwelleth Kinmont an Armstronge, and about him dwelleth an hundred able men all Armestronges.
Boneshowe.—About Kirtle is a surname of Irwyns, a surname of proper men.
Bridekirk.—Above them is a great surname of Belles and Carlilles, who hath bene longe in fede with the Irwins.
Annan, Lougwood.—Towardes the meetinge of Annan and the water of Milk, and of both sides thereof att Loughwood, dwelleth the Lard Johnson and ccc sufficient men of his name.
Dumfrize and Hoddam.—Betwixt the river of Annan and the river of Neth, towardes and above Dumfrize is the Lord Maxwell and Lord Harrys, and a thousand Mauxwelles under them. They have bene in fede with the Johnsons theis many yeres, which is a weakeninge of Scotland and a strength to England. Here is all the surnames in Annerdale that is stronge att this daie.
Liddesdale.—The cheif surnames in Liddesdale standes upon Armestronges and Elwoodes. The cheif Armestronge is of Mangerton, and the cheif Elwood at Cariston. Theis are two great surnames and most offensive to England att this daie. For the Armestronges both of Annerdale and Liddesdale are ever rydinge.
The names of the officers of the West Wardeurye of England.
Lord Warden.—Lord Scrope warden of the West Marches.—His deputie [ ]. Constable,—Thomas Carleton esquier. Steward of Bourgh.—Henry Leigh esquier. Steward of Holme.—John Seanus, esquier. Steward of Wigden.—Richard Barwys esquier. Steward of Grastock.—William Hutton, gentleman. Bayliff of Sebbram.—John Simpson gentleman. Steward of the forrest of Englewood.—John Southwick esquier, for the Lord Scrope. Steward of the prior lordshipp.—John Morrisbie gentleman, for the Lord Scrope. Steward of Penreth and the Quenes Hams.—John Atkinson gentleman, for Thomas Kuevett. Land serjeant of Gilsland.—Thomas Carleton esquier. Captaine of Bewcastle.—Sir Symon Musgrave knight and his sonue Thomas. Bayliff of Crosbie.—Ambrose Carleton gentleman. Baylif of West Linton or Leven.—John Grame alias John of Westlynton, for William Musgrave. Waterkeeper for England.—Richard Grame alias Gares Riche.
The names of the officers of the West Wardenry of Scotland.—
Lord Warden.—Lord Mauxwell warden of the West Marches. His brother Robert Mauxwell is his deputie. Sheriff.—[ ]. Captaiue of Laugam.—Robert Mauxwell brother to the Lord Mauxwell. Keeper of Liddesdale.—The Lard of Farnehirst under the younge Duke of Lynox. The bayliff of Aunau.—Davie Morrowe, gentleman. The water keeper for Scotland.—George Bell of Annan, yoman.
Here is all the knowne officers of England and Scotland upon the West Borders in this yere 1592. Your lordshippes in all dutie." Signed: Edw. Aglionby.
7 pp. Addressed. Indorsed: "Mar. 1592. The division of the West Borders of England and Scotland."