Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 1, 1560-95. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.
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802. Lowther to Burghley. [March 1. 1592–93.]
In respect of my former letter from Mr Bowes, which I sent to your lordship, touching a meeting with Lord Maxwell, and the inclosed from the latter, I met him yesterday with 50 men at Tordowath, and found him well disposed to put down disorder among his own people, and do his best to keep down the "mysrewlie" persons under the other lairds, as the king had allowed his former commission of wardenry to stand in force, "soe as he used the lardes and theire dependurs not with any harde dealinges."
At the meeting he made no "speache or call for the bill of Fawklande." Carlisle. Signed: R. Lowther.
1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.
Inclosed in the same:—
(Maxwell to Lowther.)
Having heard from his Majesty willing me to take order with the attemptates committed in your office, "I have thocht meit (if sa it pleis your lordschyp) that your lordschyp and I meit secreitlie our selfis with fouretie hors on ilk syid allanerlie on Wednisday nixt, being the the last of February instant, befoir none at Tordowath as the tyid sall serve . . . From Drumfries the xxij day of February 1892." Signed: J. Mortoun.
½ p. Addressed: "Sir Richard Lowther of Lowther," &c. Indorsed.
803. The Mayor of Berwick to Burghley. [March 2.]
"We are bould in behalfe of the burgesses of Berwyck to move your good lordship in the matter conteyned in our peticion enclosed concerninge the office of vyctualler there, assuringe our endeavours therein aswell for her Majestes profitt and ease of disburcementes, as for the better vyctualling of the said towne, and preventinge of many pleintes and inconvenientes for divers wronges donne to the said burgesses by the nowe vyctualler." We pray for your lordships furtherance, and that our desire may be "pryvate" till opportunity serve. "This second of Marche 1592." Signed: Wyll'm Morton, mayr, John Browne.
½ p. Addressed. Indorsed.
804. Lowther to Burghley. [March 10.]
For 100 days this march has been very quiet, and Lord Maxwell "doth what as in him lyeth to keep order." He and Lord Herries had a great contention about 100 acres of land near Castlemylk, but have agreed and divided it. It is very likely Maxwell and the principal barons in his office will agree and intermarry togither. I also think he "will rune the Lord Hamilton's course, and followe him very mutche."
For this march, I think it were good to allow 50 horsemen for a year, of the best borderers here. Also that the principall officers of the Howme, Bourghe, Gillesland, Bewcastle, the Forrest, Quenes Hames, the steward of the Bishop's lands, and the Dean and Chapter lands, were either themselves or their deputies, sufficient men of action and resident on their charges and such men as the warders "shall lyke of," otherwise the most especial service of this march will fail in execution. The watches devised first by Lord Wharton, seconded by Lord Sussex, and lastly augmented by Lord Scrope with advice of the principal men of the wardenry, "is a thinge most necessarye to be contynewed and mainteaned, aswell for the staye of thyfte, as for the crossinge of Papystes, and their advertishments."
Special consideration should be taken of the Graymes, "beinge princypall fruntorers, havinge had heartofore leases, longe since expyered, and being without any specyall officer, and no courtes kept for manye yeares, and beinge at greate devytion, factions and feades emongest themselves, that they might be reduced to some good course of governement, as the rest of the Quenes landes and officers are upon the fruntor.
There are manye others very bad men, which greatly spoyle her Majesties subjectes, that inhabit upon the waters of Leaven and Heddoir [Eden (?)] that ar not the Quenes tenantes, which must be brought in to the warden by their landslord, for that the sheryf hath not, nor well cannot execute his office in those places . . . Yf it shall stand with your good pleasure that I impart to your honor, or to the lord warden, any particularytyes, I rest at your comaundement and direction." I humbly thank your honour for the allowance of my fee for service here, and other favours.
"The Lord Bodwell is at this present openly at Edenhall, with Sir Symond Musgrave, very pleasant and merye, wherof I knowe that the Kinge wilbe shortly advertished by the Lord Maxwell."
My son and servants while on the watch for Scottish thieves, took four, one named John Irwin, for whom I had before been written to both by Lord Hamilton and Mr Carmichael, and of whom the Lord Herries complained while at London. I have sent Irwin to Lord Hamilton and Carmichael whom I wish to "pleasure" rather than Herries, and hope you will approve.
Lord Maxwell sent a trusty servant to me yesterday, with a message wishing to be received to her Majesty's favour by your means—promising to do all he can to keep the peace in future and punish what is past, and wholly run Lord Hamilton's course in Scotland,—of which I wish your lordship to "take tryall." Carlisle. Signed: R. Lowther.
2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafer signet as before—clear impression.
805. The Deputy Mayor and Aldermen of Berwick to Burghley. [March 13.]
"Here is a litle crayer in this porte, whiche broughte provision for Mr Vernon from him. He hathe entred in his cockett, 200 firkins of butter, and brought but five skore; 16 weyes of chease, brought eighte weye; six skore quarters of wheat, broughte 70 quarters; 1000 linges and 1500 codefishe, and broughte 1000 codefische, and no linges; intendinge a great showe of provision to the vew of this guarison,—but they receave soe small releafe from that store howse, that it is grevous to hear ther dalye complainte amongste themselves. They have ben so wonderfully threatned and sondrye of them put from there payes for complayninge of Mr Vernon, that the poor soldior will and muste indure, fearinge upon complainte to receave worse as before saide,—further intendinge if eithr by storme of sea, or by the Dunkirkes it had ben taken, he mighte pleaded by sute for duble his losses—a faulte worthye nottinge! He hathe wrytten laitlye to his wif, that Mr Maiour of our town, now burges in parlament, hathe spitt his vennom againste him to your lordship but hathe don him no hurte. Mr Maiour and our corporacion hathe receaved sondrye his wronges to our generall hurte, and yet God hathe soe wroughte with him that it hathe don him litle good!"
What Mr Mayor hath informed your lordship, our whole corporation shall plainly prove if Mr Vernon deny it. Berwick. "Your lordships humblye to comaunde, the deputye mayour and aldermen of Barwick. Signed: Edwarde Mery, Thomas More, Thomas Parkinson, George Moortoun, John Ourd, Peter Fairlye.
1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.
806. The Mayor of Berwick to the Queen. [March 14.]
"Cravinge pardon for this my bolde atttempte, in presentinge unto your Majestie this booke, manyfestinge the severall abuses commytted and done in your highnes towne of Barwicke, in and by the absence and sufferaunce of the Lorde Governour, his deputie marshall, and other inferior officers,—moved therunto both by othe and conscyence, for that I am in dutie bound therunto, beinge sworne maiour of the same towne (and haith ben fyve severall tymes) as alsoe bred and broughte up therin and all my auncestours synce the conqueste."
Craving the Queens commission and letters in accordance with the prayer of the "complainte." "Your humble and obedyent subject. Signed: Wyllm Morton.
½ p. Addressed: "To the Queenes moste excellente majestie." Indorsed: "14 Martij 1592."
Inclosed in same:—
(The Book of Complaints.)
"It may seeme impertinent at first sight (right excellent and gracious Quene) that we being burgesses, shold intermedle with, much more infoorme, the abuses of the militarie goverment of this towne of Barwicke, but when yt shalbe considered that Barwick is our England, that our selves, our wyves and children, are bred and brought up in yt, that all the possessions we have are included within her walles, that we have noe cuntrie nor hope without her gates: the wyse will judge that our interest for the saffetie therof, is greater then the soldyers, who yf it were loste (as God forbyd) cold serve and lyve in anie other place: Yea when the notable abuses in the generall miletarie goverment, and in some the principall officers of the same, to the noe lytle hazard of this place (yf it shold be sodenlie assailled by anie puisante enemye) shalbe laid open and manyfest: the discreter sorte will thinke that we have ben to unmyndefull of our duties to your Majestie, carelesse of our owne estates, and to longe scylent. Which scylence in deed we had contynewed, but that the reveallinge of a Spannysh practyce in Scotland and the feare of sodden invasyon (yf that cruell nation in this tyme, when our provysion boeth of victuells ys scant, and our munytion weake) styrred up our spyrites, dulled and almoste dead with twenty yeares contynual calamyties."
"The Table of Abuses" consists of 23 articles.
1. The absence of the chief officers, and Sir Henry Woddrington left in sole charge, who is unable both in "bodie and wytt" to rule, and his "corrupte demeanour" known, we believe, to your Majesty and Council.
2. The governor, though allowed 40 household servants, to be viewed every muster, duly observed in the Earl of Bedford's time, "keepeth not one" either when present or absent. They are all with him at Court, and with his sons and daughters, all in pay. Through his means this garrison is short by 100 men.
3. Besides this shortness in numbers, the companies are stuffed with "bankeroutes and runagates" from all parts of the realm, who never saw service, and defy their creditors, being in the Queen's service. "They spend wastefullie that they have gotten lewdlie, and this practyse chieflie haith chaunged this place (which was accostomed to be the seate of justice and valuer) into a cadge of all uncleane byrdes."
4. This corruption is caused by the Governor and some other officers. The governor gives the pensions here to his own men, who sell them to others who never served. The marshall sells the horsemen and old foot garrison's pay. The captains, the soldier's pay. Pensions differ in prices. Horsemen's pays sell for 14l., the old foot pay for 20 nobles, soldiers' for 12l. or 20 marks. Few captains sell less than 7 or 8 pays a year,—so in 6 or 7 years they sell their whole companies. A sick or hurt soldier from Ireland, France or the Low Countries, when recovered, may "as easelie purchace a thousand pound land as a paye, without redy money. Fynally all things are to be had here for money, and without yt, nothinge." Before my lord Chamberlain and Mr Bowes' time, selling pay was unknown. "Nowe yt is become an open professyon, soe myserable are our tymes."
5. The captains make their sons and sons-in-law "lyvetennantes and auncyentes," men that never served, and some "scarce xxtie yeres of adge, taken out of the grammer scholls to lead old beaten soldyers," which discourages honest men who have done your Majesty good service, but have no money to buy offices.
6. "It is worth the noteinge to see, how God curseth these wicked gaines. The old captens these mens predycessours, knowinge not what the sellinge of a paye ment, lyved rycchlie and lefte their wyves and children in good case. These sell their wholl companies in proces of tyme, dye in povertie and leave their wyves and children beggers." Some now living are so poor, that if sold up, it would not pay what they owe their men. "Of this sorte ys Capten Carye who oweth greate summes to his soldyers of the twoe yeres paye, and his victueller bankerout." Though each year he has received his own and their pay, he pretends he still has it in the unpaid balance of the two years' pay—but this is a mere shift to defraud his men. Also Captain Walker is behind a great sum with his men, but he makes no excuse except inability to pay. "In the meane tyme the poore men lyve in great myserie, and this vyle dealing unreformed." They lately sent up one of their company to complain. My lord governor sent him to "the Marshallcie" where he still is.
7. "How shameleslie and unfaithfullie the threasourer and vyctueller demeane them selves in their offices, haith of late ben layed down at length to the Lorde Threasourer . . . And because our state or deformed bodye shold have not one member sound, yt is a hatefull thinge to see, howe notablie your Majestie haith ben deceyved by the deputie comptroller, surveighour, and other officers of that sorte, when anie workes were to be done about the fortifycaciones, walles, gates or peer, in such sorte that your highnes haith payed 400li. for that which a pryvate man wold do for 100l."
8. Scottish gentlemen and others of that nation banished for murders are suffered to go about here armed with sword, dagger and pistol both day and night, by the marshal. Some lately, with one of the garrison "an infamous person," did murder a townsman, and within an hour, all rode into Scotland through the Mary gate. And the marshal intruding on the mayor's office, seized the murderer's house and gave it to his secretary, who yet has it; in breach of the ancient privileges of the town, though the mayor and burgesses complained to the Lord Governor without effect. Also though no "Scotes borne person" ought to dwell here, there are very many both women and men.
9. The articles of the establishment are daily broken in spite of the Governor's oath to keep them.
10. This state of things so long endured by the people in secret, not daring to complain openly, causes them to cast abroad every month, sometimes every week, "vile and infamous lybells" against the governor, marshal, other officers and captains, bringing government into contempt, to the danger of the place—in case of sudden invasion. "Leaste we shold resemble unwyse phisycions, whoe are diligent in cureinge others, and have no care of their owne health," we must now lay down the oppressions and wrongs done to us by the governor and others under him.
11. Whereas the one half of "the Sondaies fyshinge salmon" on the south side of Tweed belongs to Norham castle, and the like on the north side of the river, to the captain of Berwick—both now in the Lord Governor's hands, and the Sunday has always been reputed to be from the sun rising to the sun setting on same day, ever since these rights began, and the captains not to begin fishing till "Lawe Sondaie eight daies after Easter—" his lord ship within these few years, "expounded" the Sunday fishing to be from sun rise on Sunday till sun rise on Monday following—as also "not to staye unto Law Sondaye, but to begynn at St Andrewe daie"—thus trebling his profit to our great hurt, though found to be a wrong by the jurors' verdict in the fishers' courts yearly held by him or his deputy. And if we resist, his son Captain Carye or other officers, take our boats and nets, our servants, or ourselves, as pleases them, to Norham castle, and keep them till we yield.
12. Though the common fields and bounds of the town by prescription and Act of Parliament, should be open to the freemen, old garrison and stallingers, both winter and summer after the hay is cut and carried, the governor though he has certain meadows called the "Castell hills" appointed to himself, yet has "made severall" to himself the winter pasture of the fields, letting them at high rents to farmers, who put on far more cattle than they will bear—which "doe pesture and overley" the adjoining grounds against all law and order. Which our complaint being laid before your Council, who consulted your "highnes sollyciter" who gave his opinion in our favour, their honours ordered the governor to redress the grievances complained of, which however he disobeys and contemns. Also Mr Vernon victualler here, when ordered by the said council to restore to common use a piece of ground called "Gainslawe," which he had appropriated to himself, encouraged by the governor's example, refuses to obey.
13. The "staffe of aucthorytie" has been taken by the Governor out of the Mayor's hand.
14. He witholds the watchword from the Mayor—a custom ever since Berwick was English—for no reason but that the mayor, in pursuance of his duty, hearing that the walls were "left naked," no watch kept, and the money which should have hired watchmen, "put into the marshalls pursse (a capitall cryme to the noe lytle daunger of the peece)," searched divers times in his own person, and finding the report true, signified it to his lordship, requiring reformation "(which he thought deserved thankes)" instead whereof, "he receyved bytter lettres, rebuke, and that note of infamye, to have the watchword taken from him, as a man unworthie of any credyt or truste."
15. When Mr John Carye became chamberlain of Berwick after the death of Lord Russell, he called a chamberlain court, forced all to show their titles to lands there, and made divers take new "chamberlen sealls" for his own gain, though many had former seals, and others had rights from your Majesty and your noble progenitors, which had been lost by fire and other casualties. Also he compelled divers that held land of your highness by seal from Exchequer of ancient date, to take new seals from his office—and when some would not yield he gave away their houses, forcing the poor men to be at "doble chardges" in taking new leases from him—then went off and is never yet returned to office!
16. He granted a "chamberlen seall" to one Launclet Ashe, an old chamber servant of the governor, of an other man's house held by lease from Exchequer—"under pretence of which chamberlen seall, without forme of law, the lorde governor then being here, for pleasureinge his said servant, compelled the maiour with sharp and bytter threates, . . . by force to pull out the persones beinge possessed of the said house, and to gyve possessyon to the said Ash, and the owner constrayned with mony to redeem his owne house."
17. Captain Carye another son of the Lord Governor is his deputy captain of Norham, and prevents the mayor or his officers from arresting or doing the law in Berwick on any that dwell in Norhamshire. "What vyle, uncomelye, base and raylinge speeches he dalie uttereth against the maiour and corporacion in unfytt places, endevoringe therbye to make the burgesses contemptyble in the soldyers eyes, I forbeare to declare, as unseemely for your Majesties sacred eares! Yet this I maie not omyt, that he said he hopeth to see the daie when there shall not be a burges in this towne." The extortions and injustice he and Cuthbert Armorer commit daily in "Norham and Eland shiers," I refer to the people, who for fear of worse if they complain to his father, bear them with secret curses.
18. Besides the abuses mentioned, the coming of the treasure for pay of the garrison yearly, is a principal cause of our undoing—for "we taking up ware of Londoners on credyt, to the paye daies, those daies faylinge, and consequentlie our credyt (beinge the marchantes onelie staye) crackt, our estate ys almoste quyte quaylled, and all for want of good goverment in this place."
19. Finally, while formerly there were (1) a lord governor keeping hospitality in the town (2) a lord warden doing like in the country and (3) a captain of Norham entertaining gentlemen's sons, and keeping house there, now these offices are joined in one man's person, an absentee, who spends not one penny of his "interteignment and proffytes," above 1500l., in this place, either by himself or others—the Marshal serving the first place—Sir John Selbye the second—and Captain Carye the third. He also employs the garrison about his tythes in the country worth 200l. a year—thus weakening this place. Commits people to prison, on information only, till his pleasure known, where they remain sometimes a quarter, sometimes a half year and longer, for slight matters, to their utter undoing. If a captain's place or a pension "fall voyde," they who want it must post to London, and even if they get it, are so impoverished by the journey and otherwise, that they never recover it—unless they "help them selves by retaylinge payes to get in their money soe layde out."
20. The toleration of all these abuses causes some of the "wyser sorte" to think this place is no longer of that importance with your Majesty and council that it was in times past, and therefore these things are purposely "wynckte at, as not greatly materiall." Whereby many sufficient men are daily withdrawing from the town, "yea even such as are in paye or offyce, who can anie waie or by any colour get their absence borne withall." The chief gentlemen in the country "play the kings," every one oppressing the meaner sort in his own bounds, quarrelling with his neighbours. All for want of an honourable man that would do justice to all and defend the poor against the mighty.
21. Here is shown the impossibility of any officer or soldier standing up and accusing the Governor of permitting these abuses, and caring for nothing but drawing his salaries and fees of office undiminished, the chief officer never opposing his will "as the worthie Sir Willyam Drewrie (a right marshall man) often dyd to the greate good of this peece."
Who dare accuse "Mr Marshall" of selling "a typestafes paye for 24l., then dischardginge him for a matter of noe ymportaunce, without restoreinge his money, and then sell the same to another, all within the yeare"? Also thrusting his gardener and bailiff at Wodderington into a captain's company, against his will, who dare not object, being guilty of like "marchaundiz." Or of his committing men to prison on mere accusation, and when his "radge" is appeased, and the defence heard, then committing the accuser—"thrustinge honest men, and olde soldyers into Haddockes Hole, a vyle fylthie pryson, appoynted for theves and murderers."
Or the treasurer, for his keeping up great part of the two years' pay, seeing the governor suffers it?
Or the surveyor for his various delinquencies before recited, being that he is favoured by the governor, to whom he has lent great sums, or is otherwise in his debt.
Or of the chamberlain Mr John Carye, for only coming once since appointed, extorting money, and going off.
Or of Captain Carye for defrauding his company as before recited, which company, one of the best in the time of "the honest Capten Brickwell," is now the poorest in the town since his death.
Or the captains for selling pays, who but follow their governor's example.
22. It may please your Majesty "to conceall me," and reform the government by such means as your highness thinks best, "for the indignacion of this lorde governor is lytle lesse then death, at least will be my utter undoinge and of my poore wyfe and children, yet rather then your Majestie shold thinke that my informacion ys false, because I am loath to avowe it, and thereby noe amendement of this state shold followe, I had rather take upon me, openlye to justyfye all that ys here inserted, thoughe my blood shold paye the pryce of this mye enterpryse, and wold thinke yt well bestowed, to doe good to my dystressed contrye."
23. The way to proceed, would be to appoint such as I could name, by commission to examine on oath all in the town both military and civil, on articles drawn by the commissioners, which would touch men's consciences so that the truth could not be hid—especially if your Majesty would protect "men that can enfoorme" from the displeasure of the governor.
12 pp. Closely written in same hand as the Mayor's letter to the Queen. Indorsed: "14 Martij 1592. Militarie abuses at Barwick."
807. Vernon to Burghley. [March 17.]
"I have thought beste to seet downe my answer to thos poyntes which the Maior of Barwick hath exhibited against me (and I most humbly thanke your lordship, you made me acquanted withall) the which your lordship shall receve herein closed,—and yf ther be any further matter that your lordship would be satisfied in, yf yt please your honor to let me understande yt, I doubt not but to answer yt in such sort as your lordship shall fynde more mallis in the man then cause of complainte against me." Signed: Robert Vernon.
½ p. Addressed. Indorsed. Vernon's wafer signet as before.
Inclosed in same:—
He does not provide victuals out of Northumberland, except in a time of great plenty, when they are selling it to Scots and others, as they have been doing for three or four years past. There was shipped this last year 1592, from thence, six or seven ships and craers with wheat and oats, by Scots, as Sir William Read and the controller of customs can declare. Therefore he hopes your honour will approve of his buying these for Berwick as well as Scots or others. When the Earl of "Wosester" went ambassador to Scotland, he desired to have "bear," &c. at Berwick, but it could only de done by a Scottish vessel that had brought "tymber and raff to Barwicke, the which, Parkenson beinge maior, had promised my lord to paie hym presently for his tymber, but in the end I was intreated by the maior to laie out the monny—the which he promised to paie within four daies—but William Moreton the maior that nowe ys, gat the monny into his hands and did ernestly intreat me to take corne for yt—but sethenc I can nether get monny nor corne of him; and having ben ernist with him for yt, he doth thus thankfully use me for my forbearance!"
For Gaynslawe, he has it of her Majestys grant under the broad seal, and does not let it, but keeps it in his hand for the provision of Berwick—"part whereof he doth moo for hea, and the reste kepeth oxen and wethers uppon, as the Scotes can tell, who have stole from thence within this tow yeres as many oxen and wethers as cost cc li., for which as yet he can get no redrese; and in consideration of this the towne of Barwicke had graunted to them the Quenes fyshinges, the profites whereof tow or thre of them taketh and the rest have nothinge!"
As for the petty victuallers of his appointing, if they do not pay their tickets, he always pays them "his self," so there is no man in Berwick, freeman or others, that can say he lost "tow pence" by any victualler appointed by him.
For the garrison, there is never a man in pay there, that can say "he lacketh one penie of his paie for this thre yeres" past, while he has been paymaster.
As for provision—if there was any want, the garrison would be the first to complain. But if they would spend so fast as he would have them, it would be more to his profit than it is.
"And althoughe my good lorde I have sustained divers and sundrie great losses in the tyme of my service, as well by the late tow dere yeres, as otherwaies what tyme I servid the garrison with xlviij oz. of good bread for tow pence, which they solde for vjd., and yet ther was no man in paie that could saie justly but he had more bread than was allowed for hym. And although I lost thos tow dere yeres almost thre thousand poundes, yet I did prove yt then (as I doubt not to doo nowe) that everie man had that the ought to have with the moste, and ther is not that man in Barwicke that can justly saie I have don hym wronge the valew of one penye by the space of theis xvj yeres that I have servid there."
1½ pp. Indorsed: "The answer of Robert Vernon victueller of Barwicke, to sertaine articles." Seems defective at the beginning.
808. Forster to Burghley. [March 17.]
I kept a meeting with the Laird of Cesford at Kirkyettam and Kirknewton the 8th and 9th days of this instant March, where full justice was administered on both sides, all complaints called, and proclamation made that if any man was "plantis, to have his bill callide, and to receave the strocke of justice." Also delivery was made for the Burnes' bill and the bill of Tytlington, which have so long been the stay of justice. I also kept a day of truce with the Laird of Pharnehirste at Kemelspethe on the 15th instant for all in his bounds "exempted" from Cesford's office, and for Liddesdale, since the Duke's entry as keeper. So in my judgment there was never better quietness in the Middle Marches, in my remembrance, "nor I thincke in noe mans tyme."
For Scottish news, I doubt not your lordship hath better advertisement from her Majestys "ambassadors" than I can write. At my house nigh Alnwick. Signed: John Forster.
1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.
809. Spoils on the West March. [March 17.]
Glasenby parish.—From John Stable on Thursday 17 January last, 47 sheep. Edmund Thompson, Litle Salkeld, 30 sheep. Rowland Thompson there, 80 sheep. They were rescued. John Salkeld and Lancelot Archer, 37 sheep; 26 "came againe," the rest lost. Nicholas Watson of Gamelsby, harried and left bound in his house, lost 8 cattle and his insight. Thomas Cowper there, 9 oxen and kyne. John Saunder of Unthank, 60 sheep.
Langonby.—At one time 6 oxen, at another 14 cattle and a horse.
Lasenby.—Since the death of Lord Scrope, 300 sheep, 3 kyne, 1 horse.
Blenkarne.—From Nicholas Longhe there, 40 sheep.
Benwick parish.—John Salkeld's house broken, 10 catle, 3 mares, 30 sheep, and 30 lambs taken.
Salkeld magna.—From Richard Hogg and others, 30 sheep.
Kirkoswold parish.—From Henry Salkeld 6 kyne and 2 stottes. And the wife of Christofer Salkeld 6 young cattle. Richard Browne 100 sheep. Hugh Browne, 3 cattle, John Bird 3 cattle and a horse, Mr Williamson, a mare, Clement Byrd a mare,—"all upon one night."
Penrith parish.—From John Rumpney, 17 sheep. William Robinson 29 ewes. William Hutton, 27 "wether shepe." Richard Sheppard and John Stevenson 30 sheep. John Aitkenson, 15 sheep. William Hutton and Gilbert Gibbon, 8 sheep. Robert Wood's house broken, and 2 horses stolen. John Gray of Bramery [blank]. Thomas Cannon and William Harris, 6 sheep. Gilbert Blisse, 2 horses. William Hutton, 3 horses. Leonerd Martyn, 2 horses. William Hutton, 11 sheep. Gilbert Blisse, Richard Macrell and Richard More, 7l. in money.
Edenhall.—The vicar there 16 sheep. John Gibson, 14 sheep.
Horses stolen 16. Cattle 88. Sheep, 952. All which were stolen from those poor men this year 1592, and given in to me Symon Musgrave, by their own certificates 12 February 1592. These towns are distant 20 miles from the Scottish borders.
2 pp. Contemporary official hand. Indorsed: "17 Martij 1592. Spoiles committed by the Scottes. Delivered by Mr Curwin."
2. Another copy in a different handwriting.
810. Petition the Mayor of Berwick to the Queen. [March 17.]
The mayor bailiffs and burgesses "most humblie shewe and complains to your most excellent Majestie," that whereas they have always had by royal charters, statutes and agreements between the garrison and the corporation, "free comon of pasture for their cattell in the Snooke, Mawdelyne feilds, and the other cominable feilds aboute the same towne, also the sole benefitt of merchandizinge, keepynge of innes and hosteries, wyth thonlie buyinge and retailinge of salmon in the ryver of Tweed"—that no merchant stranger should sell by retail there, but only "in grosse": that their mayor was "ever reputed and reverenced, as the second person in the councells for thestablishment of the said towne," corrected breakers of the peace, and "bloodwightes, souldiers or others," and was "also cognisant of plea for dett and transgression (except betwene souldier and souldier) and the forfeytures of felons,"—all as the said charters, &c. show. Whereby the burgesses have been now of good state, able to do your highness service "with shippinge men of warlike condicion, and of habilitie to provide for and releive the said towne at all needs, with merchandize victualls armor" and other necessaries. Now of late years, by the support or toleration of the governor of the garrison, they are partly "surcharged," and partly "altogether withheld" from their common, part being "severed" on pretence to feed your Majestys cattle, and part let to farm. "Soldiors are become marchantes, artizantes, victuallers, fermors, and sellers of salmon and fyshinges." The captain of Norham "encrocheth" the benefit of the fishings in Tweed, contrary to right and ancient custom. The victualler of the garrison uses trade. Scottish merchants and pedlars are licensed to sell by retail in open market, "eatinge the proffitt of youre poore burgesses, acquaintinge themselves more fullie with the state and strength of the same towne, and carryinge your Majesties sterlinge coyne into Skotland"—and merchants and pedlars are maintained in Tweedmouth "at the bridge foote of Berwicke," to the loss of the poor inhabitants. The mayor is openly resisted and discountenanced in the exercise of his office, by unruly soldiers, and in every way thwarted in justice. The town is filled with beggars and baser sort of people, who destroy victuals and disturb the peace. And the marshal has infringed the mayor's rights in forfeitures of felons. Whereby the petitioners "are now in great decaie, and extreame wants, most lykelie in short tyme to endure beggerie," if your gracious Majesty do not relieve them. They have long forborne complaint in hope of remedy, being loth to offend the lord governor. But they are now forced to pray your Majestys gracious letters to the Lord Warden of your Middle Marches, the Dean of Durham, Sir John Selbye knight, Raffe Graye esqr, James Ogle esqr, and John Browne gentleman, or any "v, iiijor or iije" of them, to take some good order therein if they can, or otherwise enquire and advertise your highness in the premisses for speedy reformation and redress.
1 p. On a broad sheet. Addressed at beginning: "To the moste highe and mightie our dread Soveraigne Ladye, the Quenes most excellent Majestie." Indorsed by Burghley: "17 Martij 1592. Maior, ball. and burgess. of Barwyk to hir Majesty."
2. Another copy, in different writing.
1 p. Broad sheet. Indorsed.
811. Petition John Saterfrett [to Burghley]. [March 17.]
"Shewithe unto your honorable lordship your poor orator John Saterfrett one of the burgesses of Barwick," that he has nothing to live on and maintain his "six or sevin small children lefte motherles, but onelye his poor trade in sellinge a litle Yorkeshier clothe, whiche he takethe upon credytt and sellethe upon truste to sondry in paye," and is fallen into great debt, as he cannot get payment from his debtors—"in so moche that he is at that pointe evin now to sell his howse much better cheape then it coste him, for payment of his debtes, and to give upp his trade and house keepinge, so lamentable is his decayed estate, if remeadye be not spedilye given by your honnorable lordship; for soe yt is (righte honnorable) that Mr Robert Vernon is owinge to your orator fifetye powndes to have ben paide at Mydsomer laste, and brake that daye—and then gave his warrante to paye yt at Hallentyd laste—and alsoe brake that daye—and lastelye gave his further warrantt and promise before Mr Marshall, to paye yt in Januarye laste, and willed William Vernon to pay the same. But your poor oratour cannot gett anye pennye of yt, and getteth evell wordes for askinge yt." Captain Walker owes him 12l. 4s. 11d. on his bill. William Glover late victualler under captain Carye owes him 33l. 3s. 4d. Edward Connyers late one of Mr Vernon's victuallers, owes him 10l. Hugh Gregson, another of these, owes him 53l. 10s. 3d. Henry Rotherrupp, "lyvetenaunte" to captain Carye owes him 7l. The late captain Case is owing him 39s. Mr Robert Vernon is due farther, 7l. in tickets which should have ben paid at Christmas last. (fn. 1) Sum total is 174l. 17s. 6d. besides 40l. more, owing in smaller sums by sundry "in paye." Humbly beseeching his lordship to take pity on him, and take order and direction to make his debtors pay. Signed: John Saterfrett.
1 p. All in one handwriting. Indorsed: "17 Martij 1592. John Catterfrett a burges of Barwicke."
812. Reply by Robert Vernon. [March 18.]
The debt which Satterfrett demands of me was due by Mr Bowes the treasurer under tickets for the two years' pay, which at the earnest suit of Satterfrett's friends, to help the poor man, I took into my hand, giving him my bill to pay, on condition of his getting Mr Bowes' letter to repay me the tickets by Midsummer last. Midsummer came, but he did not get the Treasurer's letter "confessinge the debt," wherefore I gave him another day to bring it. At Christmas last, Satterfrett procured Mr Treasurer's letter, yet not binding himself to repay me the tickets. But at Sir Henry Woddrington's request, I promised to pay him the 50l. in eight days—by which time I expected my man's return, whom I had sent to Mr Treasurer in Scotland on that and other matters—ordering my man William Vernon to pay it "whom I have syldom fonde to disobaye my commandement"—as I only remained one day in Berwick. I marvel that if my man did not pay him, that he did not from Christmas till now write to me, but I will presently order my man to pay him under my promise. I do not think my man would give him evil speeches, though the debt was for another man, not myself. As for Conyers and Gregson, the one was, and the other is, my man, able to satisfy him. I will write to both, but I think the debt is of the two years' pay, and they cannot pay him till it is paid—when "I dare undertake they will pay him." This complaint seems to me to be procured by Mr Morton the mayor of Berwick, "to agravate his complentes withall," for what I have done has been to help the poor man to his money which was rather desperate, then otherwise, not to benefit myself—for I so pitied him that I would have given him 100s. out of my own purse rather than have taken "his desperat tickettes" which he would have hardly got but by my means. No signature.
2 pp. Written by Vernon's clerk. Indorsed: "18 Marcij 1592. Robt Vernon his answer to Jo. Satterfret his complent."
813. Munition required at Berwick and Newcastle. [March 21.]
"Barwicke and Newcastell.—The greatest and most needfull wantes in thoffice of thordenaunce, wherof few or none at all are remayninge in the store, the quantytie and proporcyone of which wantes to be supplyed, we referr to your lordshippes pleasure, and instructions of the master of thordenaunce, viz."
[Detailed list of munitions required, powder, shot, bows, arrows, &c., &c.]
"Thear is but xxix barrelles of powder in the storehowes—howe littell quantety that is for this towen, if the great ordenans shold ned, I refer to youer lordshipe. Beseydes thear is scares on good carreyege for ordenans uppon aney of the mountes, wiche myghte be verey well helped if the master of the ordenans wear hear to sette the artiffecers a worke, and that theye had timber enofe." Signed: Jhon Carey, Jhon Selbye, Wm Larkyn, John Crane.
2 pp. Official hand. The last part written by Carey. Indorsed: "A supplie of municion to be hade for this her majestes towne of Barwicke, formerlie certifyed and nowe againe renewed."
2. Another copy or duplicate. Same writing and signatures.
2 pp. Indorsed.
3. Another copy of the munitions only. The quantities of each filled in or disallowed by Burghley.
1½ pp. In a different hand. Indorsed: "Certifyed up xxj Marcij 1592."
814. Instructions to JƉn Carey. [March 27. 1593.]
Certain articles wherein her Majesty's pleasure is that "Mr John Carye esquire hir Majesties servant," now sent to Berwick, to remain during the absence of the Lord Chamberlain lord governor of the town, shall cause inquiry to be made, and advertise her Majesty, and make reformation of the defaults found.
1. You are to enquire if any known outlaws or bankrupts are in her Majesty's pay, seeking to defraud their creditors under the privilege of the town, and if any such are found, you shall order the captains or officers in command to discharge them and expel them the town.
2. You shall enquire what soldiers have given money to the captains for their "roomes," and certify the names of such captains—and command the captains neither to displace any soldier, or receive any new one into their bands, without consent of the lord governor, or in his absence the chief officer of the town, also notefying such transactions to the comptroller and musterer, who shall check the same.
3. You shall enquire what soldiers are unpaid by the captains who have received their pay—sending up the names of such captains, and meantime order them to pay their men what they have received.
4. You shall make known that on the "avoidance" of the "roome of any pentioner," her Majesty commands that none be filled up, till she grant the place to some "ancient soldier," for whom such relief was intended originally. And you shall find out if any pensioners have bought their "roomes" of any former pensioner.
5. You shall find out what number of men in pay are absent, and by what warrant, above the 20th part of the garrison, contrary to statute.
6. You shall enquire whether the captains "enterteine" their sons or kinsfolk, young and inexperienced men, in their bands, and if so found, order their removal for better men.
7. You shall enquire if Scotsmen repair to the town, or walk about armed contrary to the ordinances.
8. If any soldier has a Scottish wife, you shall discharge him from pay and out of the town, according to "ancient orders."
9. You shall enquire what horsemen's "roomes," or tipstaves', or other officers', have been sold by the late Marshal, for how much, and to whom.
10. You shall enquire if the victual in the store houses is sufficient by the ordinances, and what is lacking.
Finally.—If you shall hear of any other "disorders or lackes" contrary to the ordinances you shall both inform her Majesty, and give charge to reform the same.
3¼ pp. Official draft revised by Burghley. Indorsed: "27 Martij 1593. Instruccions sent to Mr John Carye."
815. Note of provision for Berwick. Lady day.
The grain already bought in Norfolk shall be shipped to Berwick as wind and weather serve, to be there betwixt this and Midsummer at furthest.
Stock now at Berwick—340 qrs. wheat; 100 qrs. meal; 400 qrs. malt.
Shipped thither since, 250 qrs. wheat.
In Norfolk ready to be shipped, 1130 qrs. wheat; 1360 qrs. malt.
½ p. Indorsed: "1593. A note of graine remaining at Barwick at Our Ladye daie, and provided in Norfolke to be presently sent thither."
816. The Berwick garrison to Burghley. [March. 1593.]
The captains there and their companies, the pensioners, constables, horsemen, gunners of the "greate ordenance" and the rest of the garrison, while thanking his lordship for procuring payment of one half of their two years' arrear of pay, and for taking order to pay them their ordinary half year's pay, beg him to continue his good offices, by furthering payment of the unpaid half of the two years, for want of which they and the town are greatly impoverished. Signed: Willm Selby, Robert Carvill, Antonye Tompson, John Twyforde, William Boyer, John Fenick, Leonard Morton, Robeart Hannam, Wm Larkyn, Jhon Collope.
1 p. Broad sheet. Addressed. Indorsed: "Your lordshipes humble petycioners and daylie orators, the capteynes and others of her majesties poore garrisone of Barwicke."
817. Pay of Berwick Garrison. [March].
1 p. Written by Bowes' clerk. Indorsed.