Border Papers volume 2: December 1596

Pages 226-232

Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 2, 1595-1603. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1896.

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453. Eure to Burghley. [Dec. 4.]

Certain merchants of "Ancerdam" have arrived at Newcastle in a ship called the Swattrother, laden with cable ropes and the like. Being leaky, she stayed, and the merchants have gone to London with an English interpreter. If you wish any of her cargo for the Queen's use, the Mayor of Newcastle can inform thereof.

"The Border groweth wylde and disorderlie since the delay of the commissione, our bills increaseth, justice decreaseth, corne fayleth, peoples hartes are gone, my discomforth in my charge followeth—these are the newes of the Borders.

"The minystrie in Scotland, by the Kinge discurraiged, the Papistes comforthted, Huntley is licklie to be receaved in favoure, the Countise graced by the Quen as a godmother in the baptiseme of the younge lady—this is the state of Scotland." Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

½ p. Addressed. Indorsed. Wax seal: a scallop shell held by 2 lions' paws.

454. Eure to Burghley. [Dec. 12. 1596.]

Notwithstanding "the crose befalling" him, declared in his last, begging him not to think him weary of serving the Queen or neglectful of duty—that his purpose in that letter was (1) to seek continuance of her Majesty's favour, (2) his lordship's honourable support, (3) to show the inconstancy of the Scots to justice, the want of support and divisions in his own March. That from secret intelligence, he fears a sudden blow from Sir Robert Kerr, that may injure the country, and blemish his service. Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

½ p. Addressed. Indorsed. Wax seal: quartered shield as before.

455. The Bishop of Durham to Burghley. [Dec. 15.]

Your lordship will "receave hereincluded the reporte of Sir John Forster touching the place of meeting of her Majesties commissioners from tyme to tyme with the commissioners for Scotland." If you return it, it will be some direction to us, if the meeting hold after Christmas. "But suche a Christmas reason did I never heare alledged in so serious a cause, especially where they kepe so colde Christmas, not observing so muche as the solemnizacion of Christmas daie!" But those that care not what they do, no marvel they care not what they say! Meanwhile the three other commissioners, unless we hear to the contrary, shall be here with me on 5th January, to set forward to Newcastle on the 8th, resting there the 9th, being the "Sabaoth," it may be seeing or hearing from Lord Eure, and reaching Berwick the 11th. Thence we shall send to confer with the Scots on the place of meeting, as I have written to the ambassador, wishing it to be at the Bound road, that we may see their commission at an "indifferent" place, before entering further on assurance, into the country.

I would that meanwhile by your lordship's earnest letters, the wardens of the West and Middle Marches sent us answer how we are to inform ourselves for the redress of "the great and grevous amisses" in their charges, as by our joint letters sent them "a good while sithence," a copy whereof I inclose. Sir Robert Carey has sent us his book of treaties, and book of complaints in very good sort. Thus beseeching your instruction how far we shall insist on Sir Robert Car's hostile invasion, mentioned in my former letter, as somewhat doubtful by the words of the instructions—and signifying that your last letter had been opened before it came to my hand. Bishop Awkland. Signed: Tobie Duresm.

1 p. Holograph; also address. Indorsed. Two wax seals: Mathew's arms.

456. Scrope to Burghley. [Dec. .]

"Fyndinge the present quietnes on the Borders to geve me leave to make a step to myne owne howse, I entred my jorney hether thes weeke." Since coming, I have received your lordship's and the rest of the council's letter inclosing "the prescribed submission for the Grames," which I am ready to do as it is her Majesty's pleasure, and I fear your lordship has taken offence at me for deferring so long,—and shall perform it at my return from Bolton, if your lordship will so have it, and notify it by letter to me here, "where I will attend your answere till nere Christmas, if the quietnes of the Borders will so suffur me." But I would humbly beg your lordship to consider that if I accept the prescribed submission as it is, it would make me appear to have had nothing against them "but conceipt" and thus to have wronged them: which would redound no less to their glory "(who would be ready to burst with pryde)," than to my dishonour. So I would beg that the submission may be amended in one word, "namelye where it is written, to remit all offences 'which I have conceived against them'; it maye be made 'which I have justly conceived against them'"—which your lordships may do with honour, considering of how many other offences they are guilty, and that I was ready to prove all my charges. If thus amended, I shall willingly "imbrace" the submission on my return. And I beg your lordships to write to Mr Richard Lowther, who has been a chief actor therein hitherto, ordering him to bring the Grames to me on my return, and sending him a copy of the "reformed" submission, with injunction to see it straitly done in duty to her Majesty and respect to myself. Your lordships and all here know I have had many sharp letters: I pray you bind me by reforming the submission. Mr Lowther confessed to me at Carlisle, before I came to Bolton, that he had wronged me much by false informations, and protested if I remitted them he would never do the like again—that he had made the offer to the Grames in form of the submission I tendered to them and certified to your lordships, "as lardgly as in honour I coulde," and they had accepted it, but Thomas Carleton "animated" them to the contrary. He asked me to keep it secret, as I do, except to your lordship.

I cannot but inform you, that about a month past after Harry Leigh had trusted them, Brakenhill and other Grames suffered his man, sent with them with my "studhound" to follow a fresh trod of stolen goods into Scotland, to be slain by two of the Kangs, though they were 10 to these 2 men—and let the murderers pass with the goods, my studhound, and Harry Leigh's horse ridden by the slain man. And I think if Leigh had been there himself, they would gladly have let as much be done to him. "For Brakenhill openly before the receivers and deputie auditour latly here, wished my mans hors in their bellies, if any of them helped any sent by me, and uttered other lewd speches, till Mr Receiver wished him to forbeare suche unreverent tearmes, and sayd he marvailed that I would take them." I write this not for aggravation, but to let you know their behaviour, and shall notwithstanding, be ready to receive their submission reformed in the manner above expressed, whereon I beseech your lordship to let me have a line before I leave this.

Raffe Atkinson told me that you inquired of Emanuell Scroope, seeming to him willing to proceed in the "mache." As I offered him, being the only "juell" I have, to be at your devotion, and your letter at that time seemed to approve, I shall now be as ready to embrace the match as soon as you think expedient, and will not dispose of him till you "have given the denyall," though I have had some honorable matches offered me of late—but shall wait your resolution, thinking myself most happy if you accept of him, and that his education be such as contents you.

I was desired to acquaint you with a "supposall" of the Lowthers' intention to defraud the Queen of Graystock parsonage, and with this view desired the material points and state of title to be set down in writing. These I inclose, praying the informer's name kept secret, and on inquiry that you dispose as best for her Majesty.

I send a letter from Harry Leigh to me showing how my actions are crossed. It would be very commodious for this country to have 200 calyvers ready, and the men made tit for them, which would silence those "clamerous" persons; and I beg your directions to charge the gentlemen to receive "this furniture" as they were once willing to do.

As for Thom of the Esh, it is not the first wrong I have received from Lord Eure and Thomas Carleton: but I will be no further troublesome at present. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

3 pp. Holograph; as also address. Indorsed. Fragment of wax seal.

457. Declaration by Richard Lowther and George Salkeld. [Dec. 30.]

Copia.—Whereas Lord Scrope, lord warden, &c., did by his servant Richard Bell send a message to Richard Lowther esquire, that he had received from the Council a submission to be made by the Grames, requesting Mr Lowther to be then present, and to notify to the said Grames to attend with him before his lordship at Carlisle on Tuesday or Thursday then next: whereon Mr Lowther presently sent Mathew Grame his servant along with Richard Bell to speak with Lord Scrope, who willed him to warn the Grames in the Queen's name to be at Carlisle on Thursday as his master had set down: whereon said Mathew went to the Grames and brought back word to his lordship, that they would all (except two that he could not meet with, viz., William of the Moitt and Riche of the Brakinhill), be at Carlisle the said Thursday to make their submission. Of which Grames however only two appeared and made and subscribed their submission, viz., "Watter" Grame of Neitherbye and William Grame of the Rosetrees, which two "affyrme that the rest will likwyse come unto his lordship." Richard Lowther, George Salkeld.

¾ p. Copy by Scrope's clerk. Indorsed: "Mr Lowther and Mr Salkeldes report of the messuage delivered to the Graimes."

458. Scrope to Burghley. [Dec. 31.]

On my return from Bolton I sent at once to Mr Lowther to let him know I had received letters from the Council with the submission "prescribed" for the Grames, and to attend with them before me as a witness on Tuesday or Thursday last. He appointed to bring them "as yesterdaye," sending his man "by me" to give them warning, whom I ordered to tell them that the day was fixed by his master—as by the inclosed under Mr Lowther and Mr Salkeld's hands will appear. But four of them, viz., Brakenhill, Will of the Mote, Wills Jock, and young Hutcheon, "verie contemptuouslie" refused to come, and rode with Thomas Carleton to the Lord Eure, as Mr Lowther tells me. Only two, viz., Walter and Will of the Rosetrees, came and subscribed the submission altered as your lordship will see by the "true coppie," which I made bold to vary in the point of which I wrote to your lordship. They found no fault with that, "but made some scruple at the seconde article" as set down by their lordships, touching intelligence with Scots, &c.; where it would seem that some word has been left out, or the sense is different from the words. And as these are not "to vulgar understandinge," I inclose the original as their lordships sent it, and the copy as altered by me, and subscribed by the said Walter and Will, that the sentence may be explained by their lordships: and if it please them, that the words in the next article, added by myself, may be entered and the submission "so reformed" returned to me with some "reprehensorie" letter to the other Grames for their contempt. You know I have received many, so "let them fynd some check for their abuse."

I have written several letters to your lordship and Sir Robert Cecil, touching it also to the Council, to move her Majesty for some horse and foot to strengthen us, but had no reply till your last. The quietness which I had hoped for when I went to Bolton to dispatch some important private business in my own house, was chiefly through my own care in laying "plump watches" of 40 horse every night, which the country cannot continue for any time—and from the weakness of Bewcastle and Gilsland and otherwise, such a reinforcement is very necessary at least till the 200 calivers are sent down, and it was always allowed in my father's time during like necessity.

Touching Emanuell Scroope, Ralph Atkinson shall wait on your lordship "at after Christmas" to satisfy you on the point mentioned in your last. Thus awaiting a speedy reply from your lordship on these matters. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Wax seal as before.

459. Eure to Burghley. [Dec. 31. 1596.]

I have received "inestimable" comfort in your last letter conveying her Majesty's royal favor for my mean service.

The "tumultious broyles" in Scotland, and their expectation of assistance from the Queen's "mighty enemyes," so discomforts me, I must press for some additional strength. Buccleuch is not so conformable to justice as he was, and Sir Robert Ker wholly withdrawn from it, this March divided, and "the private Scots, I meane headsmen," defy the warden: this comes from the weakness of our own Marches. I would therefore beg your warrant for continuance of the soldiers, whose last month will end on 30th January "instant," and if you allow an increase of their number, the country has special need of it.

I humbly continue my suit for Symondsburne for poor Mr Warwicke, if you hold him worthy: the country greatly needs such, and my Lady Warwick has surceased her suit for the "yonger man," and now favours him.

"The broyles in Scotland betwixte the Kinge and the churche of God continueth still, God strengthen the churche in the righte." Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

¾ p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed.

460. Attempts on the West Marches, &c. [Dec.]

A brief collection and estimate of the single value of the attemptates since the meeting of the Commissioners at Berwick in 1581—both of Scotland and England, for the bills given in and remaining on the roll—for the two West Marches of England and Scotland, and also for England against Liddesdale.

Estimate, "unsworne," of the spoils, &c., of the West border of Scotland on the West Marches of England, 8010l. sterling. Estimate, "unsworne," of the bills, &c., of the West Marches of Scotland against the West Marches of England, viz., for the general bills 1300l.—for the bills of Fawkland and some others with them, 13,460l.—and for the Earl of Morton's bill for Kirkanders, &c., in that roll, 87,760l.; in all, "fyve skore, two thousand fyve hundreth and twenty pounde." Estimate of the "heireshipps" done by Liddesdale on the West Marches of England, 4,822l.

Since the meeting at Berwick, the English West Marches have little offended Liddesdale; therefore the keeper or inhabitants there have sent over no bills.

1 p. A broad sheet. Marginal notes by Burghley. Indorsed (as title) also: "This brife estimate was collected 2 yeres paste, viz., in anno 1594."

461. Pledges for Teviotdale, &c. [1596.]

The Scots pledges.

Thomas Aynsley of Clythaughe; Jocke Burne junior of the Coate; the Laird Frisell of Esterton; Will Hall of Heavyside; Raphe Hall of the Sykes; Dand Pringle younger of Hownam; Jocke Robson of Osenam; Richard Yong of Feltershaw; James Yong of the Coave; Dand Davison; Raphe Mowe of Mowe; Will Tate of Cheritrees; Richard Routherforth eldest son to William of Littleheugh; Raphe Burne of the Cote.

Pledges for the East Marches.

William Selbye of Pawston; Raphe Reveley of Aykeld.

¾ p. Written by Carey's clerk. Indorsed by Burghley's secretary.

462. Bill to strengthen the Borders. [1596.]

Articles for a new bill to strengthen the Borders towards Scotland.


"Surmiseis of the bill."—(In four articles).—The inhabitants of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland and the Bishopric who were formerly freed from subsidies, &c., were bound to defend the frontier at their own charges, as also the inferior sort and tenants, who held on low rents, &c., and by "an ancient custom," called "tenant right," are now decayed and unable for this service—the landlords by laying down their lands in pasture in large farms, suppressing small holders, or letting to Scots,—the tenants by the heavy fines and greedy demands of farmers under the Queen.

"Remedies."—The Queen to have power to appoint as many commissioners as seems good, six of them to be named specially as of the Quorum, with full power to inquire and redress all causes of decay, grievances, &c., affecting her service as they shall deem requisite.

8 pp. Draft by his sceretary, revised and clauses added by Burghley. Not indorsed.

463. Note on the East March. [1596.]

For 50 years the government of Berwick and wardenry of the East March have been supplied by one nobleman, undivided, with equal care of both: and when the wardens of Scotland were "ill justicers," defended the wardenry with the forces of Berwick. "As was sene in the times of the governementes of the Lord Ewry, the Lord Gray, the Earle of Bedford, Sir William Drury, and the late Lord Chamberlaine in the first yeares of his governement."

The means to save it from spoil.

[Here follows the memorandum as to Mr William Selby the gentleman porter—his fitness and offer to serve for defence only, with the horse of Berwick and 30 or 40 "shott" as in No. 433.]

¾ p. In same writing as that memorandum. Indorsed.

464. Book of provisions at Berwick. [Dec.]

Note of provision remaining 29 Sept. 1596.

Total value, wheat, malt, beans, oats, cattle, &c., 577l. 2s. 2¼d. Last item—"wettlinges" at 7d.

Provision bought for Berwick since 29 September.

October-December.—Wheat, from divers merchants, at London—Hull—Burwell in Cambridge—Barton on Humber—Ely—Grimsby, &c., at from 30s. to 44s. per qr., 455 qrs. 4 bushels,—890l. 5s. 8d.

Rye.—Of Jo. Huetson "Skotchman," 80 qrs. at 30s., and at Barton—Burwell—York, &c., at 33s. and 34s., 185 qrs., 297l. 8s. 8d. Malt— "of divers" in Reach, Barton, Burwell, Cambridge, &c., at 20s. to 25s. per qr., 481 qrs. 1 bushel, 578l. 10s.

Beans and pease—"divers" at Hull, Barton, Grimsby, &c., at 20s. per qr. 279 qrs.—288l. 6s. "Boefes."—In Yorkshire, &c., 41 oxen 2 cows, 196l. 11s. 4d. "Muttons."—Oct.—Dec.—30 wethers from Jo. Selbie near Berwick, and 6 from Jo. Swan there, at 8s.,—14l. 8s.; of Cuthbert Richarson of [ ], in Northumberland, 25 wethers, 6l. 18s. 4d.—in all, 92, 32l. 3s. 4d. [butter—cheese, &c.]

"Hoppes.—Of George Emery of London," 2603 qrs. 2 lb. at 32s. the 100, 42l. 16s.
Sum total 3023l. 8s. 2¼d.

7 pp. Indorsed by Burghley's secretary: "Jan. 1596 Mr Vernons booke of provisions at Barwick."

465. Note of losses by Vernon. [1596, end of.]

"Roberte Vernon victueller of Barwicke his humble petitions."


Losses to be borne by her Majesty.—First, that all the bills and "spetiallties" which he received from Sir Vallentyne Browne as parcel of the Queen's stock, of which he never could get payment, may be taken into Exchequer and he satisfied, amounting to 429l. 12s. 5d. Also whereas the Lord of Hunsdon late lord governor of Berwick, was due him for victuals from the Queen's store, by reckoning "under his lordshipes hand," the same may be also taken into Exchequer being 591l. 3s. 9½d. Lost in service of the garrison in the year ended at Michelmas 1595, as appears by account, 1694l. 8s. 6d. In cattle stolen at sundry times by the Scots, for which he could never get redress, 157l. 10s. Total, 4,384l. 8s. ½d.

Other losses, wherein he desires relief 4,610l.

Also that sundry debts due him may be taken into Exchequer, and he relieved "with proffes from thence" for their recovery.

pp. Indorsed: A note of sundry losses sustained by Robert Vernon in the time of his service as victualler.