Border Papers volume 2: November 1596

Pages 210-226

Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 2, 1595-1603. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1896.

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426. Scrope to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 1.]

I have sent to the Council the proceedings between me and the Grames on Saturday last and yesterday, with my letter to their lordships therein, hereinclosed, praying you to deliver both to them, and afford me such furtherance therein as you think expedient. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

½ p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed.

427. Scrope to the Privy Council. [Nov. 1.]

According to my last to your lordships, 5 of those 6 Grames which were before you, have been with me on Saturday night and yesterday. Knowing the readiness of some to certify "over largelie" without regard of truth, I thought good to set down in writing under my hand, and those of Mr Lowther and the rest subscribing with us, my willingness to receive the Grames' submission for all things past, &c., according to her Majesty's pleasure and your directions to me, as may appear by the inclosed note under all our hands. But they refused, as at first, to submit, unless cleared of the roade of Buccleuch to this castle "before myselfe," since it pleased your lordships "so to conceive of them, as" they have put down in their submission inclosed under all their hands, presented to me by one of them in the presence of the subscribing witnesses.

This manner of submission, "which I rather holde as a justificacion, " I could not accept, for it would have made me appear as a false accuser, and published myself as rather submitting to them! This I am sure is neither her Majesty's pleasure nor any of your lordships' meaning, so far as I can gather by your letter of 9th September, sent with them when they came down—which contains, "That your lordships have not in your judgementes declared them free from th'offences wherwith I had charged them: or lykewise by your lordshippes of the xvth of the last monethe, declaringe that her Majestie was so respective of me her officer, that she did not dismiss the Grames, but with plaine condicion to submit them selves to me: shewinge her pleasure also therwith, that I shoulde (uppon their submission) put in oblivion former misdemeanoures and accusacions: and so to shew to them my owne disposicion to perdon any former errour. By both which letters, I collect that her Majesties meaninge and your lordshippes is, that they shoulde submitt them selves unto me for offences past, and for their services to come." This I am ready to receive, as enjoined by her Majesty, and to use them hereafter as I find they deserve. I will not trouble you with their "lewde speeches" since their return, what they will do in despite of me, and that "they care not a fig for me;" knowing these and the like are unpleasant to your ears, and dishonorable to myself, "yf her Majestie woulde not have me to sylence the same." Humbly recommending this to her Majesty's princely consideration, and your wisdoms to dispose of as fitting.

Yesterday I received your letter of 12th September either to release their 5 friends for whom the Grames were suitors when before you, as in the note inclosed in your letter and now returned—or to certify their offences. The truth is, that Alexander Grame alias Geordies Sandie, is outlawed by March law for contempt, and neither is nor was in prison therefor—but is a fugitive and refuses to enter, though I offered to remit his outlawry, if he would abide trial for his offence with Buccleuch at this castle at Kinmont's release. But he keeps out, and ever since is a common rider with Buccleuch, Mangerton and Whithaugh in their roads here. Fargus Grame is in prison, as he is known to be a chief instrument between Buccleuch, the Grames and Kinmont for the latter's loosing. His wife is one of Kinmont's daughters. John Grame alias Jockes John, is in prison indicted for murder of a subject of the Queen's. He was also at the murder of Lord Herries' brother, a Scotman; and has done many felonies, sometimes taken with" fowle hande" and remitted, and again an offender. He and Leonard his brother were long fugitives (till John was caught by chance) and Leonard still is fugitive.

John Hetherington of Bletteron was let out of prison long before your letters were written. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed: ". . . The submission which his lordship requires at the handes of the Graymes:" (by Cecil): "To be shewed to the lordes. R. C."

Inclosed in the same:—

(1) Note of the manner of submission which Lord Scrope will receive from the Grames, set down in writing under his own hand and the witnesses subscribing. Carlisle, last of October 1596.

"Memorandum.—That where her Majesties pleasure and her counsells direccions is, that the Grames accused before their lordshippes shoulde make their humble submission unto me the Lord Scroope her Majesties cheife officer in this place: accordinge wherunto, this presente writinge and the persones subscribinge ar to witnes, that I the sayed Lord Scroope lord warden am willinge and readie to receive the submission of the said Grames for their offences paste againste the Quene and her lawes, and to remitt the same if they will tender the same: and in hope of their good services heareafter, am contented to receive them to favour, and use there services for her highnes from hencefourth as I shall have occasion, agreable with her Majesties pleasure therin." Signed: Th. Scroope.

Witnesses—Signed; Richard Lowther, John Middelton, He Leighe.

½ p. Written by Scrope's clerk. Indorsed.

(2) (The Grames' offer to Scrope.)

"May it please your good lordship to accepte our offered service to your lordship in moste dewtyfull manner, as shall beste become her Majestie good subjectes committed to your honours charge and goverment under her Majestie. And althoughe it hath pleased your lordship, uppon sinyster informacion, and by us undeserved, as we hope your lordship will reste satisfyed synce it hath pleased her heighnes privye counsayle so to conceave of us: yett for your lordships further assuraunce hereof, we proteste by the dewtye we owe unto God, and by our allegeaunce dew to her heighnes, that we are altogether innocente of that detestable treasone of breakinge of Carlisle castell: and no waye consentinge to the takinge of Kinmonte out of the same— for the which your lordship conceived a harder opynnyon of us and our poore frendes, then we deserved, and therby drave us to a course more extreame then either we deserved or expected from your lordship. Yet in dischardge of our bownden dewtyes for the moste honorable conscyderacion it hath pleased her excellente Majestie and her most honorable privye counsayle use towardes us, and especyallye for the moste gratious favour we have fownde from her heighnes moste sacred mouthe and persone: We humblye submitt ourselves, frendes, and livinges to your lordships commaundmente in her Majestie service, which in all humblenes we entreate your lordship to accepte, and to be ordered and governed accordinge to the lawes of the Borders, as all other subjects inhabytinge within the wardenrye are bownde to doe." Signed: Walter Grame, Will Grayme (fn. 1), Richard Grayme (fn. 1), J. Grame, Wyllyme Grayme, Hutchone Grayme.

Witnesses—Signed: Richard Lowther, John Middelton, He. Leighe.

1 p. Addressed at head. Indorsed: "The offered service of the Graymes to the Lord Scroope lord warden," &c.

428. Scrope to Burghley. [Nov. 3.]

The captains here having been refused pay for themselves and companies, by Mr Clopton, who says he must have new warrant from your lordship, I humbly beseech the same, if they continue: if not, an imprest of a month's wages, as usual, to defray their victuals here and for conduct money, &c., to Berwick. Praying early answer hereon, and for her Majesty's resolution, as these captains earnestly press me. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafer signed as before.

429. Sir R. Carey to Burghley. [Nov. 4.]

There is nothing but ordinary stealing to report since receipt of your last. Cesford is in Edinburgh, where I am "made beleave" by Mr Bowes he shall be sharply reproved by the King for his insolent attempts.

I understand from Mr Lock late my father's secretary, who delivered a letter from me to your lordship touching the fee of the wardenry, that your answer was there could be no allowance for the place, except the patent was first given, or by a special order from her Majesty herself. Though he reported you had written to me to this effect, it has not reached me. Consider my estate, and get me leave to come to London something before Christmas, as I am greatly hindered in my affairs by my stay here. After the commissioners have met and settled things, my brother can as well govern the country as the town, and he will do it to pleasure me. After Christmas, if it pleased her Majesty to appoint me officer, I may return with the "pattent"—or at least know what to trust to. Berwick. Signed: Rob. Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Swan wafer signet.

430. Sir R. Carey to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 4.]

Referring to his request for leave to come up, and begging his furtherance. Hopes to hear from him that his leave is granted. Berwick. Signed: Rob. Carey.

¾ p. Addressed. Indorsed.

431. William Selby elder to William Selby junior. [Nov. 4.]

These are the spoils, &c., fallen out in this East March since your brother Raphe left this. On 12 October about 8 o'clock at night, the Scots attacked Weetewood (fn. 2) tower till after midnight, and when they could not win it, spoiled the town of cattle, sheep, and household stuff," lefte not a coate to put on any person in it; and turned a woman newly broughte to bed out of the clothes she laye in."

On the 20th they came to Downam (fn. 3) about 9 o'clock at night, hewed up the gates of the barnkyn with axes, "which helde them tyll cockcrowe in the morninge," but was so defended, that they got nothing; whereon they went on to Branxton (fn. 4) and spoiled one of your tenants of 16 cattle and 4 score sheep. Within a week after your brother went to London, they took 43 kyne and oxen of his at Wetewood. On Friday night last they took 50 cattle and killed a man at South Charleton. About 10 days since they took 20 cattle from Fleetham and 20 from Neweham. Last night before writing this, they took 30 from Ellingeam. (fn. 5) In short, there is no night without some spoil, and without some remedy they will lay the country waste. I am certainly informed if they cannot get any of your friends' lives, they will "steale fyre" in one night into your mother's, your own, your brother's, and the rest of your friends' stackyards.

"Sesford and his crewe pursueth the lives of no men but our name," and pretends it is because some of your friends, garrison men, were at the killing of Dawglese. But I think he is more angry in heart for the death of "Raphe Shortnecke, whome Richard Selbye slewe drivinge Englishmens goods which he had stolen, and for the hanginge of his man George Burne whome at the same tyme my man Gleudowning tooke."

There was 100 footmen 16 days in the country, but now called home. None of your friends dare lie in their beds at night, but hide themselves in the fields, except such as lie in towers.

I offered to Mr John Carey and Sir Robert, if they sent them, to go out with the horse garrison to watch, "but it would not bee." Cesford would be afraid of us if he saw the garrison out. I then desired Sir Robert to make the country keep "plumpe watche," but nothing was done. "Sellinge of payes continewe in this towne as hott as ever it did." The people here and in the country, are much discontented, as appears by their "throwinge abroade of libells." Cesford says he has notice of all my letters sent by post—"which I take to be true, you may gesse by whose meanes"—and that they have done him more harm than any others. Whatever he does in this March, none will resist, some for love, others for fear. They of Mindram pay him black mail, which grows too general—the people had better pay 6 subsidies in a year. I hear Sir Robert Carey has commission from her Majesty to take revenge—I do not think he will proceed. He came to my house on the 28th October, and "discoursing of the miseryes of the wardenrye, he protested before God, that if the office were offered him, he would refuse it, and sayde he had written in such sorte to my Lord of Essex. I thinke he spake as he thoughte, for a quieter place would fitt his humour better."

Some about the King, to serve their own turn, make him believe Bothwell is in England, thus moving the King to labour a firm friendship between Lord Hume, Sir George Hume and Cesford, to resist Bothwell. Sir George "is all the upholder of Cesford in courte." The King thinks Cesford will be a good "barr" against Bothwell, and thus tolerates him.

The convention in Scotland began yesterday, it is thought chiefly to order the Borders, as the officers of the Marches are summoned. If Cesford be not committed for these murders, &c., "surely then the Kinge winketh at him." A Scottish gentleman assures me this commission will end in "tryfles"—the meeting is put off for a little, and if the Scots hold on as they have done this week, there will be nothing left in the wardenry when the commission meets.

To daunt the Scots—Cesford must either be dismissed, or kept in ward, or else her Majesty must send a lord governor. If meantime I had command of the 80 garrison horse (now led by 4 constables) and 40 or 50 foot, I would take in hand to stop these Tyvidale thefts here, let Cesford do what he durst: for I would pay well for intelligence. I am told by a Scottish gentleman who favours Cesford, and is in lawful kindness with myself, that Cesford would speak with me—"which to tell you my opinion," might help to pacify these troubles, but as I take him for as great an enemy to her Majesty as any in Spain, I will not do it, unless her Majesty like of it, and give me sufficient authority—"you remember Sir John Forsters case." Commend me to your wife. Berwick. "Your very loving unckle." Signed: William Selbye.

Postscript:—I have even now heard from Mr Bowes. He thinks Cesford will either be discharged from his wardenry or committed, within 6 or 8 days—" I pray God it fall out so."

3 pp. Addressed: "To the worshipfull my lovinge nephewe Mr William Selbye, these—at London." Indorsed by Burghley's secretary. Notes by Burghley on the Selbys of Branxton, Twisell and Weetwood, Collingwoods, &c.

432. Eure to Burghley. [Nov. 4.]

I have received your letters, "weakelie signed by your lordship." I pray God send you health, that your friends may, with, and by you, "reape comforth."

Humbly thanking you for continuing the 80 men, now more needed here than before,—for some of the gentlemen of my March rather labour to disturb the peace, than join me in the Queen's service.

"The oulde factione of Sir John Forster is renewed and stronglie erected by the Woodringtons and Fenwickes, whereof I will more largelie pertecipate to your lordship by my sonne at his cominge upp." I will write to my lord of Durham as to the state of this country.

I bescech you to grant me the sequestration of the profits of Symmonburne personage, that the next incumbent be not defrauded,—and your furtherance in passing the personage to Mr Warwick, since I have satisfied my Lady Warwick and Mr Ewbancke who laboured for it, as I formerly wrote to your lordship. Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

¾ p. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafer signet as before.

433. Outrages by the Scots on the East March. [Nov. 5. 1596.]

"Outrages murthers and theftes committed by the Scottes in the East Marche since the death of Sir John Selby who dyed the xxth of November 1595, untill the vth of November 1596—as it is informed."

[Chiefly a repetition of the complaints drawn up by Sir Robert Carey ante, No. 326, and in the preceding letter of Mr William Selby senior, No. 431, with a few additions.]


April—From Lady Selby, 20 "bowles" of malt out of Twisell.

Out of Shoreswood town, the Dean and chapter of Durham's, 2 kine: the gentleman porter of Berwick is tenant.

September—Out of Barmoore wood, 9 "fatt" oxen. It belongs to Mr George Muschamp. From my Lady Forster, 9 oxen and 3 horses.

Sum total—Men slain, 5; men and women hurt, 20; horses stolen, 65; oxen and kine (besides those not set down), 600; sheep (besides those not set down), 1020. Also robberies of money, household stuff and corn not estimated. Many spoils since 5 November last, "not advertised perticulerly."

The Middle and West Marches of England in number of people and villages, far exceed their opposite Marches of Scotland—yet the Queen allows the warden of the Middle March 80 horsemen, and two companies of Berwick foot lie in the West March for defence.

The English East March is smaller and weaker than either of the others by two-thirds at least, and is bordered by the Scottish East and Middle Marches: "the least wherof farre surmounteth" it in people and villages; for the English East March contains but 120 villages and "steades" or thereabouts; while the Middle and East Marches of Scotland contain almost 400 villages and steads, "wherof divers ar markett townes and very popolous, and in all the East Marche of England not one markett towne."

Besides this, the other two English Marches are naturally defended from Scotland "all along the border by high mountaynes and waste groundes, wheras the Scottes doe invade the East Marche thorowe a plaine champian countrey very nere adjoyninge, and sometimes by the river of Twede, which is full of foordes." Notwithstanding this, and that it has been more spoiled within this twelvemonth, than "within the memory of any man lyving," yet the East March has no aid, and unless order be taken, will be utterly wasted.

The means to save it from spoil.

Mr William Selby by his experience and intelligence, is best able to defend it, and is willing, if he may have command of the horse of Berwick, and such of their officers as he may appoint in his absence—and this without pay or further charge to her Majesty. He also desires 30 or 40 "shott" of the Berwick foot—"suche as can mounte themselves, for a present service; none of theise to be from their place of garrison above 14 houres at a tyme." He offers his service to be only defensive within England, giving the adversary no just cause of complaint, or breach of March law or article of the treaties. Not signed.

3 pp. Contemporary writing. Indorsed.

(1) Two other copies, without Selby's offer at the end.

434. John Ferne to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 8.]

Intimating that the inclosed letters to the Privy Council contain an answer by the Archbishop and Council of the North, of the levy of 376 soldiers for Ireland under the Queen's special letters, &c., with the muster roll of the names and arms of the men. York. Signed: Jo. Ferne.

¼ p. Addressed. Indorsed: ". . . Mr Ferne secretarie of Yorke to my master." Wafer signet: a garb (?) between 2 wings.

435. John Carey to Burghley. [Nov. 9.]

Through Mr Vernon's negligence, I am sorry to trouble you again—I cannot now say how many days the store in the palace for the horse garrison will last, for "there is not any at all, neither otes, pease or beanes." As the men have but 8d. a day, they cannot keep themselves or their horses at present prices—the store failing them.

I pray your consideration, the rather that some of them while on watch in the country by Sir Robert Carey's order, took some Scots thieves who were justly hanged, and have thus incurred the deadly feud of Cesford the warden, who practises all ways to get hold of them, and they need to be better horsed and furnished than ever.

On receipt of your letter of 12th October, I sent it off with one from myself, to Lord Scrope, and marvel greatly that the 100 men are not yet returned. I pray your honor, if you have stayed them, to direct your letter for their return, as we have great need of them in town and country—"for it is said, and I thinck it be trewe, that Sesford is makinge of ladders of roopes in fashion as the tackle of a shipp, with iron hookes at the one ende, and plomettes of lead at the other: and for that they shalbe secrettlie kept close, he doth make them in the head of his owne tower, where verie fewe of his owne servantes do knowe of them, fearinge they should be discovered. He hath likewise geven it owte, that he wilbe revenged of Barwicke, though he leave his head upon the wales." All these make me fear some surprise or disgrace to this town, which by God's grace I will prevent, to his shame if he dare come. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

436. The Commissioners to Burghley. [Nov. 9.]

Being ready, according to her Majesty's commission and instructions therewith, to meet the Scots commissioners on the frontiers, we have written to the ambassador in Scotland to learn what day the Scots will hold with us, and shall then certify your lordship. Bishop Awckland. Signed: Tobie Duresm., Will'm Bowes, F. Slyngisbe, Clement Colmore.

½ p. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafer signet: arms of the see impaling Mathew's: "1595" above.

437. Scrope to the Privy Council. [Nov. 9.]

Captain William Selby has been here to view the munition and muster the gunners. But as the course is extraordinary, and I take not to proceed merely from your lordships' selves (with the intention of informing yourselves of my care or negligence of the Queen's store, or my regard to have the "canuoneirs" here, on service or for practice as occasion should be: but rather moved thereto by Mr Selby, who in my opinion will be found rather to seek his own profit, than to benefit her Majesty's service thereby), I was bold enough to respite his survey and muster, partly till the absent gunners are here, but chiefly till I might certify to you my desire to continue this store in the warden's power as the need of the place requires, and has ever been the custom in my father's time and all wardens before him, without control "of any inferior person." I beg your lordships not to interpret this to mislike or opposition of your expressed pleasure, or the long custom implying more power in the warden, or that I am loth to have my actions looked into—but rather to show my willingness to obey whatever your lordships prescribe as fittest for her Majesty's service—and as of late the bishop and others were commissioned to survey and report on the munition here, so from time to time (by like letters) the Queen's stores might be viewed and your lordships certified of the new supplies and how issued or expended. For the gunners, if your pleasure be to have them all resident here, and allow "half a barrell of powder" for their yearly practice, I doubt not they will be found "as fitt and skilfull in their profession, as the checkinge of their payes by Mr Selbie (for his profitt) will make them." Besceching your pleasures herein and how many of those absent I shall forbear to recall, as some of them have your letters to me for their leave. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

438. Scrope to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 9.]

I doubt not you have heard from Scotland that Buccleuch is let home again to the Border, and the cause. As I am credibly informed he has brought more "muskettes, calivours, horsemens staves, and shorte Jedburgh staves for footemen," than betokens quietness, I suspect the worst, and therefore in duty advertise you. And if her Majesty's pleasure be to remove these soldiers here, I beg that others may be sent in their room, till the issue be seen; as I have of late often entreated my lord your father, without reply as yet. Craving you to deliver this other letter to my lords of the Council, and procure me answer to both. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scrope.

¾ p. Flyleaf with address, &c., lost.

439. Richard Musgrave to Burghley. [Nov. 10.]

On information to your lordship of the unskilfulness of some of the master gunners and cannoniers of this castle, "cittadell," and town, your lordship by letter, directed Lord Scrope and myself as master of the ordnance, to call them before us, staying the pay of such as were found "unmette" by us. Whereon we called as many as were in these parts before us, and found that all held their places by grant under her Majesty's great seal, though many of them were "altogether uncapable," with power in their patents for deputies. Whereon we urged them to put in the ablest men we could find, and stayed the absentees' pay, reporting to your lordship that no more patents should be granted. Notwithstanding our care and pain, and report long since made to you, Captain William Selby, it appears, by some private information, under colour of controlment of the ordnance, by virtue of instructions from yourself and the rest of the Council, has "insinuated" himself not only into the lord warden's charge, but also intruded on my office, contrary to her Majesty's express words in my patent, without any cause or offence by me. Humbly praying, that as I was advanced to the place only by you, I may not be disabled, or the office dismembered in my time without cause. Carlisle. Signed: Rychard Musgrave.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

440. Stay of the Scottish Commission. [Nov. 11.]

At Holyroodhouse 11th Nov. 1596.

The King, with advice of his Secret Council, appoints the lord president and lord secretary to show to the lord ambassador of England, that the occasion of not resolving at this last convention upon the persons, time and place of meeting of commissioners for Border affairs, "proceadit upoun the "notorious seiknes and infirmitie of the Lord of Newbottle, quha wes appointit to be first in commissioun, as alsua that the warden of the West Merche and keipar of Liddisdaill for certane reasonable causs excusit thame selffis for thair not keiping of the said conventioun; sua that necessarlie ane new conventioun of thame and all the rest of the wardanis and borderaris is appointit to be the xvij day of this instant moneth. Befoir the quhilk tyme alwayes his Majestie sall resolve and appoint ane uther lord of parliament in place of the lord of Newbottle with the tyme and place of meating and uther thingis necessar." In the mean time his Majesty desiring to write to his dearest sister the Queen of England on sundry other affairs, desires the ambassador to supersede writing till his highness's own letter is ready. Extracted from the Book of Acts of the King's Secret Council by John Andro depute clerk thereof, under my sign and subscription manual. Signed: Joannes Andro.

¾ p. Indorsed.

441. Eure to Burghley. [Nov. 12.]

Give me leave, as I always have done, to rely on your sole favour, and vouchsafe secretly to relieve me as the case shall require, deigning to hear the inconveniences, &c., daily rising against me, "which I bouldly by my soun (my secret self) do unfowld."

I have now been her Majesty's warden here 11 months, and find all my labours to bring the gentlemen into civil and orderly agreement, "meere in vaine," and therefore fear the neglect of service shall be hereafter imputed to my weakness, though their wilfulness is the cause, as I shall relate.

At my first entry, on conference with them, we concluded that Lord Wharton's order for watches as in his book, should be observed, and warrants and publication in churches were ordered; but nothing is done by them, the March furthest off me spoiled through their default, and they neither govern where they lie, nor follow as they ought, notwithstanding any severity of law.

Secondly—the inquisition commanded by your lordship into the decay of the country, to which the best of the gentlemen in the March "not then of the commission," were appointed jurors, is imperfect, I suppose from envy to me as officer.

Thirdly—the supply of horses commanded by your lordship as "a rampire," to be furnished by every gentleman and landlord, among his tenants, is neglected; and all fairs for this year being past, no increase can be got. Want of love to me as officer causes the gentlemen's slackness; for the country and their posterity would get the benefit.

Thus is her Majesty weakened, and as an officer without their love can be of no service, I boldly yet secretly and most humbly, crave your lordship to relieve me, and find some other more fit and "agreable to their loves" to govern them.

To show their love to me, "they have erected a faction of the Woddiringtons against me, crossing my govermentt secretly, openly reviling, publishing libells against me, which your lordship knoweth in time will withdrawe harts from service, as my experience traceth it beginneth. Besids, thes gentlemen alied to the Caries procureth emulation and hartburning of ther part against me, wherof I partly do tast, the Lord Scroope jelious over me and withdrawne from me. How can I (hardly with Salomons wisdome) live so upright as love of so manie such ennimies may not tak just occasion to indanger my favour and grace with hir Majesty? Wherof I more jelious then fearfull, or respecting thir malice, do humbly besech your lordship as you may releive me, that dependeth on your lordship only, that my powre estate may continue with hir grace, and my conscienc not gauled by not performance of hir Majesty service.

"I labour not to complaine or to call anie before your lordship, having hir "Majesty authoritie (which by litle and litle I will justly exicute on malifactors) but bemoning my mishap, that in my sincere mind of service, I should prevaile so hardly amongst civill and Inglish gentlemen, and presuming your lordships favour will admit me leave, bouldly to unfold the secret of my hart, and respect the estate of my powre house, which alwaies hath bene true to the croune and serviceable: therfor amased to serve wher I cannot prevail, for in pollicie, love with some severitie is to be adjoined, and an orderly course with law agreeth not in time of peace with such unorderly people." Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

pp. Written by his son (?) Addressed in same hand. Indorsed: ". . . Lord Eure to my Lord. Browght by his sonne."

442. The Bishop of Durham to Burghley. [Nov. 15.]

I return as directed, to your lordship the six "shedules" of the late Lord Chamberlain's negociation, which would have stood us in "the better steede," if we could have them with us, in case the opposite commissioners prove more "untoward to justice" than at that time. Yet it may be, Sir John Carmichael will credit the copies of the originals taken by your licence for our instruction.

Sir William Bowes having been here this "sennight," Mr Slyngesby this "fornight," and Dr Colmore with us every second day, we marvel at hearing no news from the Scots, and beg your lordship's advice how long we shall await their pleasure—or if we shall go to Berwick by such a day, calling on them to appoint time and place—or finally discharge our servants, &c., for the journey, if by a time fixed by you, we hear not of their purpose to proceed? Not that we are "awerie" in the Queen's service, but "the wiser sorte" I speak with or hear from, greatly doubt the Scots have no intention or desire to treat with us—the Lord of Newbottell being a near kinsman to Sir Robert Car and of his name, Sir John Carmichael his greatest friend and favourer, on whom he chiefly depends, and the Laird of Wedderburne a Hume by surname, being partially affected to Buckclughe, "if myne intelligence" from Scotland fail me not. I am thus particular, as one article of our instructions restrains us "(in some of our opionions)" from proceeding further, unless the Scots commissioners first give good satisfaction for Sir Robert Car's offence—which though "an insolent attemptate," yet I cannot yet learn how it is to be proved such a special invasion and open hostility, as alleged in that article. I durst not commit this matter "being of singular importance," to the post, but to this bearer Mr Sanderson of Newcastle, of whose diligence on the Queen's secret affairs I have had good experience, and earnestly recommend him to your lordship's favour.

"The cause of religion laied chefely upon my weake showlders by the saide instruccious, cannot possibly be so promoted as it might, if the ecclesiasticall highe commission lately renewed, were as large and effectuous as the former was. But being defective in three or fower late most materiall and necessarie statutes, wherein my Lord Archbushop of Yorke only is of the quorum, and my Lord of Carliol and my selfe excluded, contrarie to the commissions in like cases formerly graunted; howe we shall doe more good with lesse authoritie, I see not! his grace also not being likelie to be hable and at leasure to take paines often in these northe partes in person, as by the saide commission as nowe it is, were necessarie." I wrote hereon to your lordship before, partly as his Grace and secretary signified to myself and the "Register" here, that the commission was altered without his privity. But I shall follow her Majesty's commands so far as I shall be warranted and assisted by the wardens and "best affected" gentlemen; and have already intimated this "to my lord of Carliol by his chancelor Mr Dethick."

These two notes of levies and rates in this county, I have "with some adoe," got from the clerk of the peace. To avoid tediousness, I have asked Mr Sanderson to impart the cause of the variance between them, not doubting your lordship will cause Mr Tailbois to name under his hand, the collectors, who "by his exhibite," have extorted more money than the rate, that they may be known and dealt with, or he receive blame for wrong information. I would remind your lordship "the whyle," that though he and his father, when a levy was to be raised, pretended it was chiefly to repair or re-edify bridges: they did so in ignorance, while "this last misdemeanour" was on wilfulness, "persuading that no money may for any other uses be collected but for bridges or by colour thereof; an absurde imaginacion and derogatorie to the wisdome and authoritie of her Majestie and most honorable previe counsell, as also to the discrecion of the lord lieutenent, lord president and justices of the peace in these partes, together with the justices of assises, whose allowance we crave in thinges doubtfull when they be here amonge us—as appearethe of recorde in Mr Tailbois his office of Custos rotulorum, and wherein (if I be not abused by credible reporte) Mr Tailboys and his father wilbe founde as faltie as any, upon further dewe examinacion of the accomptes; whiche the gentlemen of the benche and other meaner persons would humbly crave might upon this good, or bad, occasion be sifted thoroughly." I had a letter of late hinting that some of our wardens hinder the meeting, which were strange if true; but if so, no marvel that the Scots put us off. I blame myself for this length, but hope you will pardon it. Bishop Awkland. Signed: Tobie Duresm.

3 pp. Holograph; as also address. Indorsed: ". . . By Mr Sanderson." Wax signed: Mathew's arms.

Inclosed in the same:—

(1) "An abstracte or note of levyes made within the countye pallatine of Durham by ordre of the justices of the said countye, registred and mencioned in the booke of their ordres remayninge amongst the rolles of the peace there, since the yeare of our Lorde 1565 being the 7 yeare of her Majesties raigne, untill this present xijth day of November anno Domini 1596."

The clear yearly value of all the lands and tenements within the county as estimated and rated for common assessments in 1565, amounts to 7416l. 5s. 4d., making every assessment, if all levied and paid, to amount to the sums "lotted" as follows:—


Temp. Jacobi episcopi:

1565.—Levy of 12d. the pound for Tyne bridge 370l. 16s.
1567.—Of 8d. the pound for same 248l. 9s. 4d.
1568.—Of 8d. the pound for repair of divers bridges 248l. 9s. 4d.
1571.—Of 1d. the pound for Crofte bridge 31l. 14d.
1577.—Of 12d. the pound for Tyne bridge 370l. 16s.
Temp. Ricardi episcopi:—
1585.—Of 6d. the pound for "the House of correccion" 185l. 8s.
Sede vacante:—
1587.—Of 2d. the pound for Darnton bridge 62l. 2s. 8d.
Tempore Tobiæ episcopi:
37 Eliz.—Of 1d. the pound "for mayntenance of the salte peeter workes" (fn. 6) 31l. 14d.
Sum total, 3,822l. 14s. 4d.

1 p. Indorsed by the Bishop: "The higher rate of the levies in the countie of Duresme."

(2) Another copy.

The clear yearly value for 1565 is stated to be 7,168l. 18s. 8d., and the amounts are reduced accordingly.

Sum total, 3,692l. 11s. 1d.

1 p. Indorsed by the Bishop: "The lower rate of the levies in the county of Duresme."

443. The Earl of Northumberland to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 18.]

I must entreat your favour in the same matter I have already done—the losses of my poor tenants in Northumberland, who have not yet got the redress, as you and the rest of the Privy Council directed "this last sommer." If you do not remember the particulars, I have sent one to inform you, "whose as I take it, brought you my last request in the same cause." No place or date. Signed: Northumberland.

½ p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed by Cecil's clerk: "18 November 1596 . . ."

444. William Erington's Account of Munition. [Nov. 18.]

An account taken of William Erington servant to Sir Symon Musgrave, then master of ordnance, 18 Nov. 1596, by virtue of instructions from the Privy Council, "of certaine munition and other habilimentes for warr," sent down to the Earl of Huntingdon in 1588—before Mr William Selby comptroller of the ordnance in the north parts.


Receipt:—"Armors furnished," 800; pikes, 1000; bills, 1000; corn powder 2 last; "musketts with restes and bandilers," 100; corn powder out of the Roebuck, 1 last. Delivered by Lord Huntingdon's letters 26 Feb. 1588, and 18 May 1590, to Sir William Bowes 200 armours, and to Mr Raphe Bowes, 100; by his lordships letter 20 Aug. 1591, to Henry Sanderson of Newcastle, 200 armours; stolen out of the storehouse, "yt being brocken thre severall tymes," 35 armours; still in my hands, 105 armours. Total 800.

Pikes delivered to Sir William and Raphe Bowes, &c., 460; still in my hands, 540—1000.

Bills; 10 remaining in Henry Anderson elder's house in Newcastle, for payment of 14s. "selleradg;" in my hands, 990–1000.

Muskets with rests and bandilers delivered to Edward Charlton of Hesselsyd by letter dated 21st March 1591, 6; remaining in my hands, 94–100.

Powder delivered to Lord Eure, Lord Scrope (the late), Sir Symon Musgrave, Edward Charlton, Mr Fetherston of Fetherstonhall, and Captain Stephen Ellis at Carlisle, by Lord Huntingdon's letters and commands, 19 half barrels; still in my hands, 2 last 5 half barrels—in all, 3 last.

Money.—Received ready money for 160 armours and 160 pikes sent to Cumberland and Westmorland, at 33s. 4d. each armour with pike, 266l. 13s. 4d.
Paid by Lord Huntingdon's order to Mr Roger Nicollson, mayor of Newcastle on his acquittance, 190l.; to my lord himself, 30l.; for buckles, oil, leather and cleaning 160 armours, at 2s. 6d. each, 20l.; and cleaning, &c., 105 armours "ever since 1588," 13s. 4d.—in all 26l. 13s. 4d.

Signed: by me Wyll'm Eryngton.

pp. Indorsed.

445. William Selby to Burghley. [Nov. 20. 1596.]

On receiving the Council's instructions, I rode to Carlisle and acquainted Lord Scrope of the cause of my coming, showing them to him. After reading, he gave them to the master of the ordnance, and they both conferred in a chamber, after which Lord Scrope replied, "that yt pertained to the lord warden of that March without comptrolement, soe I could have noe vew of the munition." He made his clerk take a copy of my instructions.

I required to have a roll of the cannoneers, to muster them and see their skill. He said they were away, but had deputies there. I asked to see them, but he would not. There was no cannoneer to be seen there but "one Fealding," who is my lord's secretary, and has the master gunner's pay, and one William Southyck. Before I came to Carlisle, three gentlemen of good credit told me, that on occasion of a piece of ordnance to be shot to alarm the country, not a man could load "or bring hir to hir marke," but by chance a soldier of Berwick who was there performed it. The master of ordnance was greatly discontented, "as did apeare by his undiscret wordes (to me) in that place." I prayed my Lord Scrope "to conseder of a better answer," but he said he would answer to the Council.

As their honours write for my opinion, I think her Majesty is greatly overcharged with 24 cannoneers "(as I here say that ys the nomber)," not one of whom can "use a pece of ordnance, nor knoweth nothing that pertaineth therto." A skilful master gunner and 7 cannoneers is enough to manage all the serviceable ordnance I see there, and more than that "(in my simple openion)" is a needless charge to her Majesty.

As some are said to have "pattentes," it were good these were seen, and they "injoynd to lie upon their chardg." When at Carlisle I prayed the master of the ordnance to send word to his deputies at Newcastle to have things in readiness for me—but when I came I found him there, telling him I would "vew the munition after the Crownation day, and I could not come before that time, for that I did meane to attend on my Lord Eure who did solempnis that day." But he rode out of the town that morning, leaving orders with his deputies not to let me see or take notes, or receive from me any munition into store. I refused to take this answer, till Lord Eure sent for them, when they repeated it before him. I send your lordship a copy of my instructions, and also William Erington's account, who had charge of the munition sent in 1588 to Lord Huntingdon at Newcastle.

It were well your honor sent to the Tower to see how much was then sent down, and to Sir Henry Lee "his offyce" to see what armours came down then, and to Jacob Whytton who I hear was captain of the Roebuck, to see what powder he delivered out of her, that it may be seen if he has fully charged himself or not.

As I am resisted, I surcease dealing further till I know your honor's pleasure. Newcastle. Signed: Will'm Selby.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafersignet: a barryshield: leg. (indistinct)

446. Report on Workmen, &c., at Newcastle. [Nov. 24.]

"Booke" with the names of the artificers, &c., and their pay, with all charges about the buildings, &c., in the Queen's manor of at Newcastle-upon Tyne—beginning 2d August 1596, and ending 24th November next following.


Disbursed beyond the grant for last year's work, 27l. 3s. Day wages of clerk, 8 carpenters, 2 plumbers, 2 sawyers, 4 masons, at from 12d. to 10d.; and 6 labourers at 7d.; in all, 50l. 16s. 10d. 2 men felling, squaring and topping 33 trees at 22d. the tree, 3l.; 6s.; land carriage thereof done by the country, under a privy council commission to the master of the ordnance, from Chopwell wood to Blaydon stayth, 4 miles at 4d. a mile, 44s.; Edward Swinborne for water carriage thereof from Blaydon stayth to Newcastle, 16s.; 2 men "crayninge" them and laying them ashore, 13s. 4d.; 2 men carrying them from the shore to the manor, 33s.; glazing the windows in the house 70 feet at 7d. a foot, broken by the great winds and storms, 40s. 10d. Total works, 17l. 3s. 6d.

Provisions:—i.e. lead, fir deals, lime, sand, slate, &c., &c., bought within said time—(including 3 fothers lead at 8l. the fother, bought from Richmond, to cover "the great hall," and carriage at 2s. &c.), in all, 104l. 11s. Sum total, 199l. 14s. 4d. Balance in hands of the master of the ordnance towards this year's work, 5s. 8d.

[Details of the repairs—gutters between the storehouses, the great chamber, and an inward chamber next it—a tower—a house on the shore—the outwalls of the manor yard, 457 yards "in compasse"—a pair of great gates into the street for drawing ordnance, &c., in and out—a gate from the yard into the house, doors, &c.] Signed: Rychard Musgrave, H. Anderson, Anthony Felton.

8 pp. Indorsed.

447. Order by the King of Scots for the Commission. [Nov. 27.]

At Holyroodhouse 27 November 1596.

"The Kingis Majestie and lordes of his secret counsell understanding the great solempnetyes quhilk are comonly used and observed within the realme of England during the tyme of the nativity of our Saviour Chryste called Christmas, nowe shortly approching, quhairthrow" the meeting of his commissioners and those for her Majesty the Queen of England, cannot "goodlye" take effect:—therefore with advice of his said lords has resolved that his commissioners shall meet with the others at Fowldon kirk on 12th January next, which his highness ordains to be intimated to her Majesty's ambassador here, that he may advertise her commissioners. Extracted out of the book of acts of the Kings secret council by me clerk depute thereof. Signed: Joannes Andro.

½ p. Indorsed.

448. John Carey to Burghley. [Nov. 27.]

I have received your letter of 20th, with Mr Vernon's answer to me, showing that Mr Swifte and he have made some preparation for provision for us. Pardon me if I speak somewhat more plainly in discharge of my duty than you may think good.

Mr Vernon is a very honest gentleman, and I wish him well, but 4 years' experience makes me say, that while he enjoys the office, "we shalbe fedd here onlie with billes and answers," for there is not a "whitt" of all this great preparation yet come, nor do we hear a word of it! Wherefore I pray your honor that there may be some reformation. For if the Queen mean to keep a garrison here, there must be better officers and better order, or all will be nought. Wherefore seeing mischief likely enough to follow, and fearing the fault may be cast on me, I desire for my own purgation, that if we have not present relief and better course taken by Mr Vernon and his officers, I may then signify to the Queen herself or the whole body of the Council, that I may be "excusable"—which I would be loth to do. Yet "whilest Mr Vernon remaynes there in jollitie, havinge no want," and may reply to our "beggeries, with billes and such answers as he will in his wiesdom frame," we shall ever be thus, at the mercy of winter winds and storms.

I am also a "shuter" to your lordship for the half year's pay in due time—or it will be hard for the poor soldiers, already beggared by the dearth.

I hear the King and Queen are at Edinburgh, where it is said that tomorrow Sunday, the young "prynces" shall be baptized. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Swan wafer signet.

Inclosed in the same:—

(News from Scotland.)

"Even as I had packetted up your honors lettre, one brought me newes owt of Scotland, that the two papist earles, Huntley and Arrell, were upon Wednesdaie last, forfeited and proclaymed rebells againe at the Crosse in Eddenbrough, and their armes torne, and proclamacion made, for preparacion to ride upon them verie shortlie to putt them of the countre againe."

¼ p. Written by his clerk. Indorsed.

449. Sir William Bowes to Burghley. [Nov. 28.]

While here these 20 days waiting to hear from the Scottish commissioners, I have had some conference with Lords Scrope and Eure on the state of their Marches, and comparing this with my remembrances while on her Majesty's commissions in each of those four last years, I conceive our affairs in the order of our people at home, to be slowly mending—but in that part of March justice common between us and the Scots, in some points much worse; viz., that Buckclugh and Sesforth, to make themselves greater at home, combine themselves with all "the ryding surnames" under their charges, so that on any occasion of feuds, they and their followers enter into and make it their own.

Hence the late unlawful surprise of Carlisle castle, and taking out Kinmont by Buckclugh, in favour of the Armstrongs—Sesforth's surprise of Swinburne castle and taking out James of the Cove in favour of the Youngs—feuds "entred by Sir Robert Caree and the bandes of Barwicke in favour of the Bournes," and some murders it is said by Sesforth himself on Englishmen in their own houses. And now Sesforth, in favour of the Youngs, detains prisoner Mr Roger Woodrington "second brother of the best howse of that name," taken in Swinburne castle, and as I hear carries him in his train at Edinburgh "in the publique meetinges expected." This untowardness of these opposite officers, promises little success to this commission, seeing these wilful faults are not from want of good laws or ignorance, "but meerely (as I take yt) by the unapnes of border-bredd persons to beare such offices." For our own Marches, I hoar some sharp feuds with the Scots trouble the garrison of Berwick. In the Middle March some malcontent gentlemen hinder the service, and greatly discomfort Lord Eure. On the West March, displeasure between the principal Grahams, with Carletons, and Lord Scrope. There is also some offence working privily among the three wardens, promising no good, but this will more fitly appear hereafter than in this letter. By the experience I had during the Earl of Morton's regency when Archibald earl of Angus was warden general, there is no better mean for redress than some such officer on the Border, well affected to the amity. And (with pardon), if such instructions were given to a resident governor of Berwick or the president of the north, it might settle many evils that come not to her Majesty's or your knowledge till they are too great. As your lordship was sick when I touched some of these points in this month last year, in my letters, and the Earl of Huntyngdon died immediately after our certificate was given him, my occasions then and since detaining me in Derbyshire, I know not if you perused them, or if they satisfied her Majesty. I therefore send you a copy herewith, as also of another letter of the earl's making me his secretary about 3 years since, when on the commission for Border causes,—wherein he made such observations as my 7 years' service there had taught me—as it may partly inform your lordship of matters for the advancement of our service here. Awkland. Signed; Will'm Bowes.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

450. Scrope to Burghley. [Nov. 29.]

Finding myself so long " unsatisfied " of her Majesty's pleasure as to the foot companies here, or your liking thereon, and seeing Mr John Carey's "importance" urging their return, and his sharp course threatened against the captains if they delayed, I let them go as directed.

Being left unanswered in this and some other matters, is no small grief to me, fearing your lordship hath taken some hard conceit against me, though I comfort myself by thinking that your wisdom will admit no information to divert your honourable favour without greater cause than I have yet given.

I must still beg to hear the Queen's pleasure, whether she will send some horse or foot to strengthen us here, which is very necessary.

A man of mine returned from Edinburgh, tells me that the sitting of the Border commissioners will be "put over" till Candlemas. That the Earl of Huntly shall be received to favour: whereon " the ministerie have used some extraordinerie publique speeches, which have so greived the King, that he caused them to be cited before his Counsell, and hath discharged his owne ordinarie preacher Mr Patricke Galloway: and one Mr David Black a preacher also, is to answere an accusacion for some unreverent speeches uttered by him against the Kinge and the Kinges mother." Also, "that the Quenes greate rebell in Irelande hath sent a messenger with lettres and credyt to the Kinge: but had not obtayned presence at his cominge from Edenburghe. That the Erle of Arrells sister shalbe appointed keper of the yonge princess after the baptisme; but the ministers ar amynded to excommunicate her as an obstinate recusant. That Buclughe hath bin with the Kinge, and is to make his presente repaire into Liddesdale." Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

451. Sir R. Carey to Sir R. Cecil. [Nov. 29.]

The King and Council have now at last appointed a day for the commissioners' meeting. It is easy to see their drift is but delay, and I doubt when the day comes, they will find some shift or other to put it off again. They know they are too far "beforehand" with us, and till they hear something more to lay against us than they have now, will not willingly meet us. Seeing the day "is so long to" as the 12th January, I might very well have leave to come up—it "shall not be impertinent"—for I could make known to her Majesty and your honours of the Privy Council, the state of this poor country better than you are yet by writing. The King and Council would resolve on nothing till he had sent for all his Border officers, on whose allegations the day of meeting was appointed.

"Good sir, get me leave to come upp," it will do the poor country good by true information before your resolution. "I have busynesse of myne owne which importes me very muche; in good faythe as much as my undoing comes to—for that litle land which by fortune (not by inheritance) is fallen to my lott," I am like to lose by my absence. I may well get to London, and dispatch all I have to do in 8 or 10 days, and be ready on an hour's warning to return before the commissioners meet. My brother is ready to take my office if commanded. " Therfore, good sir, for my countreys good and my owne perticuler well doing, procure me leave to come upp," and I shall ever, as heretofore, acknowledge you as upholder of my poor estate, and be thankful while I live. Berwick. Signed: Rob. Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Swan wafer signet.

452. Eure to Burghley. [Nov. 30.]

"The disobedience of the race of Woddringtons," openly shown by slanders on myself as the Queen's officer, and their open "bravadoes," causes me to run a more quick course to punishment than I had determined—for on my first entry finding great spirit in Henry Woddrington, I hoped to win him by "imployments, love, and favors," which turned to harm, he thinking his desert far surpassed them, contemning what I did—as the late Earl of Huntingdon, and Sir William Bowes now living, know. Their pride is so high, that now Roger his brother has submitted himself prisoner to Sir Robert Ker, and gone to Scotland without my leave, against my command, to her Majesty's dishonour.

I therefore summoned Henry by warrant to appear before me on the 25th instant to answer as to taking James Young alias James of the Cove. He refused until "restrayned," and I called him again on the 27th, when he confessed his dealing as to Cove, and in discourse (but not to me), his privity to Roger's capture. As Roger is not yet, to my knowledge, returned, I have written to the ambassador to demand it of Sir Robert Ker, and meanwhile make the facts known to you, in case of slanderous reports.

On the 21st instant Thomas Carleton land sergeant of Gillsland apprehended one Christofer Bell, a notable burglar, murderer, march traitor, &c., on complaints from me, and delivered him to "my folkes." Wherewith Lord Scrope is offended, and threatens to complain of me.

Your lordship sees how I am "tormented by home-neighboures and partly by forreiners," and the need I have of your favor and her Majesty's support.

It were well I think in all humility, that all the wardens were commanded to "runne one and selfsame course of justice" under the Queen's law, and malefactors in any one March, on complaint of another, were apprehended and tried in the March, where the offence was committed—and that no outlaw or fugitive from one of our Marches be received in another, but given up on notice by the officer whom it concerns—otherwise I see not how justice can be done. Hexham. Signed: Ra. Eure.

2 pp. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed.


  • 1. In same hand.
  • 2. "Lady Selby" notes by Burghley.
  • 3. "Luk Ogle" notes by Burghley.
  • 4. "Wm. Selby" notes by Burghley.
  • 5. "Luk Ogles hows" notes by Burghley.
  • 6. "Mr Eaton in Dounham"—noted here by Burghley.