Border Papers volume 2: August 1595

Pages 43-53

Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 2, 1595-1603. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1896.

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93. Scrope to Burghley. [Aug. 2.]

Having stopped a vagrant passenger calling himself Manington, who told me that he and others landed at Leith in Scotland, and for proof showed me a passport signed by the Provost and three burgesses of Edinburgh—I suspecting it to be counterfeit, sent it to Mr Bowes' servant Nicholson lying in Edinburgh. He has this day returned it saying it is forged, "and that he learneth some evill in the man." At taking, he had another letter from one Osburne of the town of Ayr in Scotland to one Jefferey Cooke, fishmonger in West Chester,—wherein among other things, it is said that Angus Maconell lord of Kintyre in Scotland had "listed" 6000 men and "bonnen" for Ireland, which forces it seems from Nicholson's letter, are designed to spoil the isle of Man—for this lord of Kintyre and Donell and other rebels there, are at sea for that purpose. Besides certifying your lordship, I have sent notice to the deputy governor of Man to be on his guard. The passenger is impudent and arrogant and I can get nothing of worth out of him. I pray your further instructions what to do with him. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed.

94. John Carey to Burghley. [Aug. 2.]

I have your letter of the 19th July by one Richard Atkyns a servant of Mr Roger Manners, for payment to him and one Edward Trepp of 536l. due them for victuals delivered to Mr Vernon on the Council's letters. I have told him, as I formerly did your honour, that I can do him no good, for Mr Vernon always receives payment for the whole charge of his book at the audit. Yet this poor gentleman, whose estate it seems "standes uppon yt," hearing Captain Selby was coming down with the balance of the two years' pay, and thinking Vernon had some "good" in that, desired to "staye" Selby's coming. When he did come, I made Sheperston make up Vernon's reckonings, and show me if he had anything due, when I would if I could, have satisfied this gentleman somewhat. But there is on the reckoning little or nothing due Vernon; so I thought it better to return the gentleman to you again, than keep him here at charges. I find his estate so ill that I am fain to lend him 5l., little as I can spare it, to help his journey, referring his hard estate to your consideration. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed. Swan wafer signet.

95. Richard Swifte's requests. [Aug. 3.]

Demands for the victualling of Berwick.

1. The garrison to be tied to take all their provision from the victualler, who has it ready, so the soldier can only "vent" it elsewhere, which "I think will avail him nothing."

2. All the workmen under the victualler to be in the Queen's pay, for if he is charged with them, he will make no profit.

3. The Queen to bear all losses at sea by the enemy or tempest.

4. Also the repairs of the palace, storehouses and windmills.

5. If the officer keep "cartes and horses," to be allowed for them as others in Berwick are.

6. That consideration be had of the present dearth, till easier rates return.

7. That as much money shall be imprested to the officer at his entry, as the value of the whole provisions always to be in store shall come to. Not signed.

1 p. Swift's writing. Indorsed: "3 Aug. 1595. Requests of Mr Swifte."

96. John Carey to Burghley. [Aug. 6.]

Having received the letter or rather a warrant under your and my father's hand of 16th July, I and the controller have set the works in hand as speedily as may be. Though it is rather late in coming, we shall do what we can: desiring your honour that Mr Vernon will cause his officers to supply a little allowance of bread to the labourers.

We were in hard state for victuals till last Monday the 4th, "two little pretty bottes" came in, laden they say from London by Mr Vernon with 150 qrs. rye, and 150 qrs. wheat, and malt is shortly expected, of which we live in hope, or shall soon lack our drink. On Tuesday the 5th there came another little boat from Lynn of Mr Sydnames with "seaven score" qrs. peas and rye for the market, so we are pretty well stored till after Michaelmas.

Captain Selby is come with the balance of the two years' pay, but Mr Ashton having gone to his own country, it is yet unpaid. But I have written twice by post for him and he is daily expected.

The "steires and broylles" in Scotland are smothered for a time, but troubles are daily looked for by the "best sorte" there. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Small armorial wafer signet.

97. The Bishop of Durham, &c., to Huntingdon. [Aug. 7.]

Finding, on conference among ourselves, and with the best gentlemen here and in Northumberland, also by the multitude of offenders presented before us at the Assizes and gaol delivery, that the outlaws of both Borders, and other notorious thieves, are determined to make this bishopric an open spoil and prey, to the impoverishing of the poorer sort, and endangering such of the better sort as are able and willing to repress them: we presume to advertise you thereof, craving also your assistance for speedy redress according to your long experience and high authority, presuming also to give our opinions for timely reformation "before the sore shall becom incurable." I. That it would please you to direct letters to the wardens, especially of the Middle and West Marches, for extraordinary care in taking order with their officers of Bewcastle, Gilsland, Redesdale, Tynedale, &c., for better readiness to resist and pursue inroaders or suspicious passers by. 2. To move the Privy Council for some extra forces to be laid where usual, or at least command the wardens to observe more duly the days of truce, and execution of justice—the neglect whereof has bred wonderful boldness in the Scots, and in our illdisposed neighbours of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland "and this county," to join with them in alliance in their worst confederacies. "Whereof a great prezumpcion at the bar this presente Assizes, was publiqely shewen by one David Armstrong alias Bangtaill, a Scot, and a notorious owtlaw, who being apprehended and brought in by Mr William Fenwick of Wallington upon your lordshipes commaundement, arrained and found guiltie of eight severall felonies, feared not to threaten Mr Fenwick, that though he were the best beloved gentleman of his clan, yet his heeles should be lifted and turned up to the sky for bringing him, being a Scot, to be tried here before us! Also that he the said Armstrong would kis the bar when he went from yt, and vow that never any Scot should be so brought in and dealt with againe." 3. To order the justices strictly to revive the good orders for watches of all kinds, "slough houndes," following hue and cry, and putting themselves and servants in better order for service under their tenures and leases, "in these remote partes." We had intended to lay these particulars before their lordships, but resolved first to "bemoan" the wretched condition of this country to your lordship, not doubting that we shall shortly hear of some good course taken by you for reformation of these evils. At the Assizes at Duresm. Signed: Tobie Duresm., Ra. Eure, Fr. Beaumont, Edw. Drewe.

2 pp. Corrected by the bishop. Addressed: "To the right honorable our very good lorde, the Earle of Huntingdon, lorde lieutenant and lord president in the northe." Indorsed: B. of Durham, L. Eure, Justice Beaumond, Serjeant Drewe. . . ." Wafer signet: a shield—Durham, impaling a quartered coat (Mathew?). 1595 at top.

98. Estimate for Berwick. [Aug. 8.]

Estimate how long the victuals at Berwick, with what is sent, and needful to be sent, will last from 24 July to "Hallontide."


A note of the provisions there, and the loss on each article, e.g., 104 oxen, weight, 400 lbs. a piece, bought at 4l. 10s., loss on each 20s.; 168 "muttons," 40 lbs. a piece, at 10s. and 12s., loss on each 6s., &c.

2 pp. Broad sheet. Written by Vernon's clerk, annotated by Burghley, who adds on flyleaf, calculations of Vernon's losses at sea, &c. Indorsed: "8 Aug. 1595. An estimate for xiiij weekes endinge primo Novembris.' By Burghley: "for vitellyng at Barwyk, Vernon."

99. Scrope to Burghley. [Aug. 9.]

Your lordship knows the trouble intended by Buccleuch to this office, though his complaints against me are unfounded as will appear on trial. The inclosed letter from Lord Herries shows his difficulty in doing justice, and I therefore beg your lordship and the Council to move her Majesty for some companies, either of horsemen or of the foot of Berwick, as in like times of necessity, with an early reply, as the nights are waxing long. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

"I have onely written to my lord Chamberlen herein, who I trust at your takinge notice of so muche, will repaire to your lordship and yeild the travell and favour I requier his lordship to do."

1 p. Postscript holograph. Addressed Indorsed.

Inclosed in the above:—

(Herries to Scrope.)

Acknowledging his letter of complaint, and would gladly make redress, but for great hindrances—e.g., many offenders in the rolls presented by Richard Bell, depend on the Laird Johnston and are "exemit" from his jurisdiction—others are stirred up by evil inclined people in Scrope's own wardenry, to be worse against their quiet neighbours than they would be. He has written to the King, and expects speedy answer.

Having received a number of complaints from Scrope's servant, he will shortly send some counter complaints, when they may appoint to meet and settle some of these, "to encurage trew men and abate the pryde of the insolent corrupt bordour men. . . . Drumfreis the ferde day off August 1595." Signed: Herys.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

100. Vernon to Burghley. [Aug. 9.]

I have bought malt to serve till "Hallontid" to be shipped at Welles in Norfolk "before the later ende of the next weeke"—and also ordered butter and cheese. Only "biffe and mutton" is now needful, and I doubt not my man Allen Barker will furnish it till Michaelmas. I look to hear from him or some other daily.

Beseeching your honour to consider my great losses, for which I will not be ungrateful. Signed: Robert Vernon.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

101. Richard Swifte to Burghley. [Aug. 9.]

I am "fearefull" to enter into this service, except on conditions whereby I may discharge it sufficiently. I have long had little to do, and would be glad to be employed to do myself some good, "or elles no hurt."

But at present rates, I see little chance of doing any good. For it will be 9 months after the officer's entry, before he gets paid for his deliveries, and then to provide "a staple" of provision for 1000 men for a year, while the covenant is for 1500, will take 7000l. or 8000l. at old prices, &c. I think you will find "few able, and none willing," to bear the burden.

Wherefore I pray your lordship, if the new officer is not to be set up "with as good a stock as Mr Vernon"—and without it I dare not venture—I may with your favour cease to proceed farther therin. Signed: Rich. Swifte.

¾ p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley.

102. The Bishop of Durham to Sir R. Cecil. [Aug. 11.]

"Right honorable, my dutie acknowledged with speciall thankes for all the contentes and circumstances of your letter, which I receaved the third of this present: wherunto I could not soner retourne answere, partly because the justices of Assise and my selfe with the rest had our handes full to deliver the gaole of manie famous infamous malefactors both Scottes and Englisshe: and partely because he to whome I had geven the notes of my sermon preached on Palmes Sondaie last before her Majestie, was not in these partes untill the ixth of this instant. Nowe at the last, thoughe somewhat longe, first, to thexcepcion taken against my speaches by Mr Fowles the King of Scottes his messenger, as if in my saide sermon I had used some bitter invective against Scottes and Scotland: I saie, that under your honorable reformacion, by his leave it is a mere imputacion; neither the nation being once named by me, nor anie man of that countrey, saving that I reported Mr James Lowson sometyme the superintendent of Edenbrough, manie yeares agoe to have shewed me an olde booke written in parchment, wherein was conteined this odd prophecie as he termed it—Angli quia proditioni, ebrietati, luxuriæ, et negligentiæ domus Dei dediti sunt, primo per Danos, secundo per Normannos, tertio per Scotos (qui vilissimi reputantur) erunt conterendi. In the citing and expounding of which sentence, I protest unto your honor, because I would avoyde offence, I did leave out Scotos and supplied it by the word Alios. I added, that albeit my selfe were no prophet, ne the sonne of a prophet, nor gave anie credit to suche olde said sawes: yet if the former sinnes of our ancestors did procure diverse invasions and conquestes of this kingdome, I did not see, but that the same transgressions remaning amonge us, that provoked Gods vengeance against them, the like eventes mought light upon us or our posteritie as Gregorie saith, Quos una culpa claudit, una pæna tenet. To the which effecte I alleaged this reproof of our owne nation out of Gildas our contryman—Britones propter avaritiam et rapinam procerum, propter iniquitatem et injustitiam judicum, propter desidiam predicationis episcoporum, propter luxuriam et malos mores populi, patriam perdidisse. Wheruppon I most earnestly besought all estates to repent and amend their lives, according to my text, Phil. i. 27 (Let your conversation be worthie of the gospell of Christ). Using that comminacion of our Saviour in the 13 of Luke—Nisi pænitentiam egeritis, omnes similiter peribitis; and that exhortacion of Samuel, Lib. i. c. 12. 'Feare ye the Lord and serve him in synceritie of heart, and consider howe great things he hath done for you; but if you shall still doe wickedly, both you and your prince shall perisshe;' and here woe worthe (quoth I) those wicked subjectes, who by their graceless and godlesse conversacion drawe such dangers, not upon them selves only, but upon their princes withall, especially suche a prince as God hath blessed us with, amonge and above all other nations, a most gratious instrument of his glorie, a most glorious ornament of the Christian worlde: whome Almightie God longe preserve and prosper to rule and raigne over us.

"In all this what falte can myne accuser fynde? either in the mater or the forme of doctrine? Shall it not be lawfull for Gods minister to tell Israel of his sinnes and the house of Jacob of his offences? Shall not the watchman when he seeth the sworde hanging, the shepherd when he perceaveth the wolphe comming, have libertie to open his mouthe for them that be dumbe in the cause of all the children of destruccion? Shall we not dare to saie with Job, Deus facit hypocritam regnare propter peccata populi; or to affirme with Ecclesiasticus, that Regnum de gente in gentem transfertur propter injurias, injustitias, contumelias et diversos dolos? If it beseme not a preacher and chefely a bishop (albeit then but elect), to reprove and rebuke with all auctoritie, wherto then serveth St Paules commission commanding them so to doe? To growe to an issue, Sir,—If Mr Fowles or any contryman of his or any other will presume to justifie against me any one worde of disgrace by me then uttered or at any other tyme against the Prince or people of Scotland, myne humble desyre is it maie be articled in writing, and in wryting I will answere it, upon myne oathe to be taken by commission, in case my solemne protestacion under this my hand will not content them. Marie! therein I will loke to enjoye the privilege of my calling allowed by the Apostle (1 Tim. 5), 'Against an elder or preist receave none accusacion, but under two or three witnesses': and then if their suggestion can be proved, let me endure the demerit of myne indiscretion—Sed nihil tale. Againe what a simplicitie had this been for me, that both was then and still am by Gods providence and her Majesties benignitie to live all my daies within a good daies journey of Scotland, publickly to irritate a nation so sone offended and geven to suche revenge: knowing besydes the princelie care her Majestie hath ever had and commaunded for the conservacion of the amitie and unitie betwene the two realmes: having had longe experience withall howe her highnes from the beginning to this present hath most bountifully relieved, and most mightily supported the Kinge, both in his estate and lyfe, more lyke a naturall mother then a neighbour prince. Which kyndnes to continew I beseche God her Majestie maie still have better and better cause.

"This being thus, I would by your honor most humbly beseche her Majestie not soone to apprehend everie jelous report that everie Scottisshe factionarie shall conveighe to the Kinge, or the Kinges messenger to her highnes, against her loiall subject and sworne servant: but rather to testifie against the surmisers by the vertue of her owne eare and judgement; who would never have suffered me to have past uncensured, had I in her presence committed such an unadvised error. So trusting I shalbe no farther questioned in this behalfe, least I be forced to alleage other causes why some Scottes disfavor me, yea and traduce me, both to her Majestie and to the Kinge (which I both can and will doe, if I be therto pressed herafter)—I renewe my humble thankes to your honor, and offer myne innocencie herein, and my poore service and selfe prostrate at her Majesties most sacred feete. At Duresm Castell 11 Augusti 1595. Your honors most bounden." Signed: Tobie Duresm.

2 pp. Holograph. Addressed: "To . . . Sir Robert Cecyll knight," &c. Indorsed: "Bp. of Duresme to my master. His aunswere to Mr Da. Fowles exceptions: received the xvjth of the same at Grenewich." Wax signet: Durham, impaling Mathew's arms.

103. Lord Eure to Burghley. [Aug. 12.]

As one devoted to your lordship who accepts my well meaning, "in censuringe me (not accordinge the ordynary manner of the worlde) to geve fayer showes, and with smale intendment of performance, but with honorable conceipt to judge as fathefullie and honorablie, I vow to your lordship which imbouldncth me the rather to acquainte your lordship principally whome (as one principall subjecte in this land yt concerneth) what distresse, calamytys, pyttifull complaintes, with the cryes of wyddowes and fatherles childeren, even to the skyes, is inforced in this bushoppricke of Durham, by the greate theifte, intollerable sufferance of Northumberland, and the weakenes or rather dastardie (yif I may so tearme yt) of the inhabitantes there." Goods are taken in the day, men robbed on the highway, taken out of their houses and ransomed by Scottish outlaws "(or Scottishe imitatinge)," and on the smallest theft from a Scot, he threatens blood revenge by his clan. At this Durham assise, when many of "the greatest and strongest ryders or rather reavers" Scots and English were in gaol, great threats were sent to their apprehenders and prosecutors, and at the bar a notable Scots thief threatened blood against the gentleman who took him. Yet in my own hearing that gentleman not only intreated for his life very earnestly, but more than once urged on the judges that he ought not to have been tried before them—"a rayer speche to all whoe favored the trewe executione of justice"! I refer the remedy for these miseries to your honorable judgment. "But sewerlie with greefe of soule I speake yt, the cuntrye people is in a manner amaysed, and moste doe forbeare to be actors in so honarable a tragedye, both for saiffetie of the subjecte (and if with favoure my wordes be interpreted), and suffer whatt they maye indignitye to her royall goverment by suche bayse personns, her subjectes lefte as a pray to the wylde boore that gredelie seeketh there subversyon."

Humbly praying that your lordship will consider these complaints, and present them to her Majesty for some speedy redress. "The waterr of Tyne southe and moste of Darwent are open enymies to Bushoppricke." Ingelbie. Signed: Ra. Eure.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

104. Grain for Berwick. [Aug. 8–12.]

In the Anne of Lynn, Thomas Pearson master—150 qrs. wheat, 50 qrs. rye. In the Amberos of Wells, Robert Bell master, 120 qrs. rye. From Robert Jaxcon 10 qrs. rye. From Allen Barker 10–29 July 1595, 25 oxen and 13 "kyne."

½ p. Indorsed: "Grayne sent to Barwick by Mr Vernon and delivered there since the last certificate."

105. Workmen, &c., at Berwick. [Aug. 15.]

Note of the decayed places, and the numbers of workmen now at work there.

Bridge over Tweed: carpenters, 10; sawyers, 2; smiths, 2; lightermen, 4. Breaches in the old town walls: masons, layers, and quarrymen, 20. The Cowgate: smiths for enlarging of the old iron gate, &c., 6. Labourers at the long bridge, the quarries, &c., 60. Carters or drivers of 2 carriages, 2. Boys to carry mortar to the breaches, 10. Sum total 116, whereof 76 have no pay, and require a small allowance of victuals. Signed: John Crane, Willm. Acrigge.

1 p. Indorsed.

106. Asheton and Selby to Burghley. [Aug. 16.]

We are busy here about the reckonings of the two years' pay. At it is now seven years since it was due, we find the reckonings very intricate and difficult, and many controversies still undecided between Mr Treasurer and others, before we can perfect them. We have written to Mr Bowes, on whose answer we shall proceed as directed under the privy seal. Sheperdson his man tells us that his master's promise to you for payment of 1000l. in money, and tickets "defalkeable," shall be performed in convenient time. But we have received no more money than the 700l. out of Exchequer, and 800l. at York—1500l., now remaining with me, William Selby. Berwick. Signed: Ra. Asheton, Willm. Selby.

1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.

107. Burghley to Vernon. [c. Aug. 16. 1595.]

"Questions to be answered."

1. How much money is due to him for victuals delivered to the garrison for the 35th and 36th years of the Queen's reign?

2. The number victualled, and do officers get more than common soldiers?

3. Do the men of the old bands with less pay, get as much as those of the new?

4. Show the profits they make in selling their allowances?

5. Are absentees, or "checked" at pay, allowed victuals?

6. How many petty victuallers?

7. What is a horse's allowance?

1 p. Holograph. No flyleaf or indorsement.

108. Victualling at Berwick. [Aug. 16.]

Replies by Vernon, under 7 heads, as to the mode of issuing victuals, number of the petty victuallers (6), and the companies to which they are attached, the officers who draw victuals, &c. The "benevolence" given weekly to the poor, by the governor, officers, captains, and soldiers, is usually paid to them in bread at the soldiers' rate.

2 pp. Indorsed: "16 Aug. 1595. Vernon his awnswer to the questions."

109. John Carey to Burghley. [Aug. 17.]

In answer to your letter of the 9th—before Captain Selby came here with part of the 2 years' pay, Mr Asheton had gone home, but being sent for, came here on Sunday the 10th, and since they have been engaged on the reckonings, but these are so intricate and difficult that they found they could make no pay "without leaving great claymor behynde of the soldiers, who had there good, which might hereafter come to the Queens Majesties eares againe." Besides if all reckonings had fallen out right, I think they could not get Mr Treasurer's 1000l., but in such reckonings as would not be allowed. So Mr Asheton having' spent a full "senight" here, and seeing he could do no good, the 1000l. being unsatisfied, went home on Saturday the 16th, and means to be with your honour at London in the end of this month to report. Mr Treasurer's man has taken a very ill course betwixt his master and the garrison.

I have sent a note of the workmen inclosed under the controller and surveyor's hands, and hope they will be at work till Michaelmas—but your warrant came so late that the bridge at the Cowgate cannot be finished till next spring.

Mr Vernon's man sent the inclosed note of what corn has come, and much has come to market since—but we hear of no malt from Vernon, though long looked for, and his man tells me but 62 qrs. remain.

The controversy between the King and Queen for possession of the young prince is come to nothing. In show they are lovingly together at Falkland. He means to go to Stirling "a hunting" and back to the Queen, who meets him at St Johnstons, where it is said they mean to receive the communion together. He has proclaimed his journey to set the Borders in good order on 20th October, so there is appearance of quietness, if it holds. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Swan wafer signet.

110. The Council to Scrope. [Aug. 20.]

Signifying that the Queen on his complaints, has required the King of Scots to make Buccleuch do justice, or remove him and place another in office—also that the Bishop of Durham, Lord Eure, &c., have moved her Majesty to cause the wardens of the Middle and West Marches to see that their under officers keep stricter order—farther that she has had sundry informations against Musgrave of Bewcastle, for familiarity and friendly intelligence with the Scots his neighbours, permitting them to pass through his rule without resistance, and has commanded him to be brought before them, charged with his faults, and if cause requires, to discharge him from his office. Commanding Scrope to make examination of these charges and order Musgrave in the Queen's name, to repair to Court—against which time Scrope shall inform them of the same, and appoint a keeper in his absence, with his opinion of a fit successor, if Musgrave be removed—also to charge the other officers under him to keep stricter watch in their offices against passage of outlaws, Scots and English. And that similar orders have been given to Sir John Forster for Redesdale and Tynedale.

2 pp. Draft corrected by Burghley. Indorsed: "20 Aug. 1595. M. of the lordes lettres to the Lorde Scroope."

111. The Council to Forster. [Aug. 20.]

We doubt not but it is too well known to you that pitiful complaints of the outrages in the Bishopric of Durham have been laid before her Majesty, and that if better order be not speedily taken by you as her warden there, her Majesty must of very necessity make choice of some other to have that place which you of so long time have held. And though it may be presumed that by reason of your great years and infirmity, you are not able in person to follow and prosecute the recovery of justice by frequent keeping of the truce days, or by personal prosecution of the offenders: yet as you have sundry officers under you and gentlemen of good value for service, who might under your direction preserve the Queen's subjects from outrage, we require your speedy answer what may be done by you herein: for this misgovernment can no longer be suffered, and her Majesty will continue you as her officer no longer than you can repress these disorders by Border law.

1 p. Draft corrected by Burghley. Indorsed: "20 Aug. 1595. M. of he lords' lettres to Sir John Forster."

112. Passport for R. Richeson. [Aug. 21.]

Licensing Robert Richeson Scotsman going to London on his lawful affairs, with a "sower" ambling nag 15 hands high. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.

1 p. Addressed as before. Official seal as before.

Similar for Thomas Lydderdale Scotsman, with a white ambling horse 16 hands high; and James Richeson Scotsman, with a bay ambling nag of 15 hands, and a led gray ambling gelding of 18 hands.

113. Scrope to [Sir Robert Cecil]. [Aug. 22.]

Acknowledging himself deeply beholden for his courtesy in sending him the Queen's address to the King of Scots for putting order to Border outrages. That on the return of his man from Scotland, he will inform "my verie good lorde and your selfe" of all that he hears. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

1 p. Holograph. Address leaf lost.

114. Scrope to Burghley. [Aug. 28. 1595.]

In answer to your inquiry: this wardenry is too weak for offence or defence, especially Bewcastle, through the long continued incursions without redress. Thus Liddesdale passes easily through it to attack Gilsland, which place is also greatly weakened from the same cause. "So that your lordship maye salflie assaye to deduce her Majesties opinion from accomptinge this office to be stronger than th'oposite or more able then the reste for its owne defence." And as the King of Scots gives no more than fair words in reply to her Majesty's letter, without performance, and the people in my rule are likely to sustain farther damage, I would most humbly beseech her to send hither speedily some hundred of the Berwick foot, for the last fortnight I had to call down and keep in nightly watch on the frontier 100 countrymen, to their great charge and oppression.

The "verie brute" of the soldiers' coming did at first strike terror, till it was found a false alarm, and raids began afresh. A violent course of redress may draw on great dangers, if we are not fortified before taking revenge, and my service here would do no honour to myself or content her Majesty if extra support is not granted in this time of extremity.

I would move your honour for some relief to Henry Leigh, that he may serve his office more effectually, as he merits.

As I can find no more through Mr Bowes' man, about Mannington the prisoner and his errands out of Scotland, worth troubling your lordship, I intend very shortly to enlarge him. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.

"Such as I have received oute of Scotland your lordship will have herewith inclosed. There is no justice betwixte me and Buckclugh nor Heris nor noe apparance of any to content. Therfore as for the reasons above, I pray your lordship worke my lord Chamberlens good will to let 100 of the foote garisons at Barwick to come to lye heare for some tyme."

2 pp. Postscript holograph. Addressed. Indorsed.

115. Sir Robert Carey to Burghley. [Aug. 29.]

"I most humbly crave pardon that I have not sins my firste cuminge doune, writen to your lordship before nowe. The chefist caues was, becaues I was a stranger in the cuntrey, altogether ignorant of ther customs and maners, and to wright before I knewe what to wright, I thought it not fit, and therfore have stayd till nowe that by exsperiens I see what we are to looke for at the hands of our oposit warden, which is determinid to dooe us no justis, as by the copey of his letter which my lord has sent you, you may perseve." We are not able to withstand them by our own forces, as the country was so spoiled the last winter. And it has been usual on this March even when not so out of order, to have 100 soldiers from Berwick or otherwise, as the Queen and your lordship appoint, which will keep us in quiet. "We are macht with a poeple without laues, and we are bound to keepe laues, only force must bridell them; therfore good my lord, have sum care of this poore cuntrey, and let ther be suche order taken as we may have help in teyme, for thay are alleredey verey bise, and the longer the nightes growe, the worse thay will be." As occasions fall out I will advise you. Carlisle. Signed: Robt. Carey.

1 p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed (as corrected by Burghley): "Mr Robt. Caree . . . Little hope of redress and justice to be expected at the Lord Maxwells (sic) haudes," &c.

116. Vernon's Debts at Lynn, &c. [Aug. 1595.]

Lynn.—To Thomas Clayborne (and three others) and John Knipe of Ipswich—in all 371l. 11s. 8d.
At Hull—to Richard Atkinson and Edward Trip 536l.

½p. Indorsed: "Aug. 1595. Note of the money owing to certein men of Lynn and Hull, for provisions delivered by them for Barwick."